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POWER HOLDING COMPANY

OF NIGERIA PLC
ELECTRICITY HEADQUARTERS
HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
REVIEWED TECHNICAL MANUALS
FOR
DISTRIBUTION, TRANSMISSION
AND GENERATION

TABLE OF CONTENT
PAGE
1.

Protection Control And Metering, SCADA


And Communication..

2.

System Electrical Operations.

3.

System Distribution Lines Maintenance &


Cable Jointing..

POWER HOLDING COMPANY OF NIGERIA PLC


MANUAL REVIEW ON P.C.& M, SCADA & COMMUNICATION
The existing courses in the above Department were critically examined. Presently, we
have the following courses:1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

RELAYING PROTECTION P1
ADVANCE PROTECTION P2
BASIC PROTECTION FORE TECHNICIAN PT
SOLID STATE ELECTRONICS C2
DIGITAL ELECTRONICS C3
BASIC COMMUNICATION C8
METERING M1

After a thorough review, the under listed are the courses that were recommended:
1.

Basic System Protection P1

2.

Advance protection P2

3.

Protection for Technician PT

4.

Basic APPLIED Electronics AE

5.

Advance Applied Electronics - AE2

6.

System Metering

7.

Generator Protection and Control P3

8.

Power System Analysis and Planning PSAP

9.

Engineering Project Management EP

10.

Engineering Maintenance Management EM

11.

Energy Management System EMS

12.

SCADA System SCS

13.

Analysis And Protection of Power System APPS

14.

Basic Communication C8

15.

Power System Communication; Principles and Application CPA

16.

Communication Equipments SCE

17.

Protection And Digital Control System P&D

Nos. 1, 2,,3,,6 & 14 are existing courses that were reviewed. Nos 4 & 5 are the new
courses completely developed to replace the former Digital Electronics C3 course
and the Solid State Electronics C2 course. This is done so as to give required sound
knowledge to help the participants to carry out Trouble Shooting easily on both
Communication and Protection Equipments; with increasing demand in
Microprocessor and Programmable Units.

This change will also enable the participants to design or interpret logic-circuits that
are the bedrock of Modern Power Control System.
Courses Nos. 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16 and 17 Are completely new courses
developed to meet the training demand for both Protection and Communication
Engineers.

NATIONAL ELECTRIC POWER AUTHORITY


BASIC SYSTEM PROTECTION (P1)
COURSE TITLE

Basic System Protection (P1)

DESIGNED FOR:

Engineering And technologists

EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION:

HND. B.Sc

DURATION:

Three Weeks

OBJECTIVES:
At the end of the course, participants should be able:Design Protection Schemes for Power Transformer
Solve any problem relating to Protection of Power Transformer
Effectively carry out fault study analysis and calculate short circuit currents
in the system.
Correctly select appropriate circuit breakers for particular location.
Effectively set and coordinate relays.
Read control circuits and use it to solve problems.
Provide protection for Lines.
Co-ordinate fuse effectively.
Tests and calibrate relays.
COURSE CONTENT:
1.

INTRODUCTION TO RELAYING PROTECTION AND DEVICE NUMBERS:

1.1

Introduction

1.2

The Relay

1.3

Fault Conditions

1.4

Relay Types and Classification

1.5

Relay Performance

1.6

Relay Operating Time

1.7

Zones of Protection

1.8

Primary and Secondary Relays

1.9

Electrical Power System Device Numbers and Functions

1.10

Devices performing more than one function

1.11

Suffix Numbers/Letters

1.12

Representation of Device Contacts.

2.1

2. CONTROL CIRCUITS:
Introduction

2.2

Control Symbols and Alphabets

2.3

Control Circuit Supplies

2.4

Trip Circuit

2.5

Single Line Diagrams

2.6

AC & DC Schematics

2.7

Reading of Schematic Diagrams.

3.

FAULT STUDY, ANALYSIS AND SHORT CIRCUIT CALCULATION

3.1

Introduction

3.2

Fault Types and Causes

3.3

Characteristics of faults

3.4

Necessity for fault calculations

3.5

Fault calculations.

4.

RELAY CO-ORDINATION

4.1

Introduction

4.2

Methods of Relay Co-ordination

4.3

Co-ordination Procedure

4.3.1

Time Graded System

4.3.2

Current Graded System

4.3.3

Combination of Time and Current Graded System

4.3.4

Grading Margin

4.3.5

Examples on Relay Co-ordination.

5.

POWER TRANSFORMERS AND CONNECTIONS

5.1

Introduction

5.2

Theory

5.3

Single Phase Units Versus Three Phase Units

5.4

Types of Transformer

5.5

Three Phase Transformer Connection or Vector Groups

5.6

Parallel Operation of Transformer

5.6.1

Phase Shift in Delta-Star/Star-Delta Transformation

5.6.2

Parallel Operation of DY11 and DY1 Transformers

5.6.3

Procedures in Parallel Operation

5.6.4

Using Phasing Sticks

5.6.5

By the methods of External Supply Source

5.6.6

By use of Voltage Transformer

5.7

Case Studies on Paralleling of Transformers

5.8

Three Winding Power Transformers

5.9

Cooling of Transformers and Cost Comparison of the cooling methods

5.10

Requirements and Characteristics of insulating Oil

5.11

Tests on Transformers

5.12

Maintenance of Power Transformer

6.

INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS

6.1

Introduction

6.2

Classification

6.3

Current Transformers

6.4

Theory of Current Transformer

6.5

Character of Current Transformers

6.6.

Errors in Current Transformers

6.7

Common Definition of Terms Used with CTs

6.8

Selection of the Rated output or Burden

6.9

recommended Accuracy Class of Circuits for instruments and Relays


Application

6.10

Classification of Current Transformer

6.11

Tests on CTs

6.12

How to specify a Current Transformer

6.13

Maintenance of Circuits in Service

6.14

Voltage or Potential Transformer

6.15

Types of Voltage Transformer

6.16

Common Definition of Terms used with VTs

6.17

Errors in Voltage Transformer

6.18

Voltage Factor (Vf)

6.19

Application of Accuracy Class for Various Metering and Protection


Purposes.

6.20

Choice between Magnetic Type Voltage Transformer and Capacitive Type


Voltage Transformer

6.21

Problems associated with CVTs

6.22

Polarity and Connection of VTs

6.23

Tests

6.24

How to specify Voltage Transformers

6.25

Protection of VTs

6.26

Maintenance of VTs in Service

7.

BASIC DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION

7.1

Introduction

7.2

Basic Differential Relaying\

7.3

Types of Differential Protection or Relaying

7.4

Application

8.

GENERATOR PROTECTION

8.1

Introduction

8.2

Types of Generator Faults

8.3

Stator Protection

8.4

Rotor Protection

8.5

Miscellaneous Faults and Abnormal Conditions

9.

TRANSFORMERS PROTECTION

9.1

Introduction

9.2

Nature of Transformer Faults

9.3

Protection against Internal Faults

9.3.1

Gas Actuated Relays

9.3.2

Over current and Unrestricted Earth Fault Protection

9.3.3

Balanced Earth or Restricted Earth Fault Protection (REFP)

9.3.4

Frame leakage Protection

9.3.5

Differential Protection

9.3.6

Guidelines in the Selection of Current Transformers for Differential


Protection

9.3.7

Examples on providing Differential Protection for Power Transformer

9.4

Fluxing Currents

9.5

Over voltages and overfluxi

10.

BASIC LINE PROTECTION

10.1

Introduction

10.2

Types of Protection

10.2.1 Over current and earth fault protection


10.2.2 Distance protection
10.2.3 Pilot protection
10.2.4 Over current and earth fault protection for single lines
10.2.5 Selection of the inverse nes of a relay characteristic

10.3

Application of Instantaneous o.c. relays

10.4

Protection for parallel line

10.5

Adjustments for Loop and interconnected circuits.

11.

AUTORECLOSING SCHEMES

11.1

Introduction

11.2

Advantages of Reclosing

11.3

Definition of Common terms used in Autoreclose Schemes

11.4

Application of Autoreclose Schemes

11.5

Reclosing System Considerations

11.6

Auto-Reclosures

11.7

Limitation in use of Autoreclose Schemes

11.8

Examples of Autoreclosing Schemes

12.

OVERVOLTAGES AND SURGE PROTECTION

12.1

Introduction

12.2

Overvoltages

12.3

Significance of Overvoltages in Power Systems

12.4

Protection Against Overvoltages in Power Systems.

13.

FUSES AND FUSE CO-ORDINATION

13.1

Introduction

13.2

Types of Fuses

13.3

Fuse Co-ordination

13.4

Methods for Determining Co-ordinated Fusing

14.

SYSTEM STABILITY

14.1

Introduction

14.2

System Instability/frequency Control

14.3

Interconnected Power System

14.4

Load Shedding and Under frequency Relay.

15.

EAR T H I N G

15.1

Introduction

15.2

Objective of Earthing

15.3

Types of Earthing

15.4

Earthing Transformers

15.5

Choice of the method of Neutral Earthing

15.6

Selection of Grounding Materials

15.7

Earthing System

15.8

General Instructions for Laying Earthing Grid.

16.

TESTING AND MAINTENANCE OF RELAYS

16.1

Introduction

16.2

Tests on Relays

16.3

Accessories for Testing, Precautions Giving Testing and Maintenance Tests

16.4

Fault investigation/Relay Operation.

COURSE TITLE

Advance Protection P2

DESIGNED FOR:

Engineering And Technologists

EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION:

HND. B.Sc

DURATION:

Two Weeks

OBJECTIVES:
At the end of the course, participants should be able:i

Carry out Calibration Procedure on YTG, YTO, R3Z24, DIGITAL


DISTANCE

ii.

RELAYS

OHMEGA DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS

OPTIMHO DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS

SIPROTEC DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS


Analyse Unsymmetrical Faults Using Symmetrical Componet

COURSE CONTENT:
ADVANCE PROTECTION P2
1.

INTRODUCTION TO TRANSMISSION LINE PROTECTION

1.1

Classification of Electric Power Lines

1.2

Techniques of Line Protection

1.3

Terminologies

1.4

Explanatory Terms used in Protection of Transmission Lines

1.5

Nature and Effects of Transmission Line Faults

1.6.

Typical Analysis of Faults on High Voltage Power Systems

1.6

Factors affecting the Choice of Protection

2.

R-X DIAGRAMS, DISTANCE RELAYS AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS

2.1

Introduction

2.2

Principles of R-X Diagram

2.3

Convention for Superimposing Relay and System Characteristics on R-X Diagram

2.4

Distance Relays

2.5

Classification of Electromagnetic Relays based on their Characteristics

2.6

Distance Relays as Comparators

2.7

Static Relays

2.8

Types of Static Relays

2.9

Salient Features of Electromagnetic Distance Relays

2.10

Advantages of Static Relays over Electromagnetic Relays

2.11

Limitation of Distance Relays

2.12

Recent Trends in Distance Protection.

3.

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS AND FAULT ANALYSIS USING


SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

3.1

Introduction\

3.2

Basic Concepts

3.3

The Operator a

3.4

Sequence Impedances in a Three Phase Power System

3.5

Sequence Impedances of Power System Apparatus and Circuits

3.6

Representation of Voltages Generated and terminal Voltages in Respect of an


Alternator

3.7

Zero Sequence Currents in Star and Delta Circuits

3.8

Sequence Networks

3.9

Some Examples on Symmetrical Components

3.10

Unsymmetrical Faults

3.11

Examples on Fault Calculations

4.

APPLICATION OF DISTANCE RELAYS TO LINE PROTECTION

4.1

Introduction

4.2

Types of Faults

4.3

Reach of Distance Relay

4.4

Zones of Protection

4.5

Switched and Non-switched Distance Relaying Scheme

4.6

Relay Response

4.7

System Impedance

4.8

System Faults

4.9

Residual Compensation

4.10

Mutual Inductance

4.11

Desirable Characteristics for Distance Relays

4.12

Power Swings

4.13

Choice of the Characteristics

4.14

A |Complete Distance Protection Scheme

5.

PILOT WIRE PROTECTION

5.1

Introduction

5.2

A Resume of Differential Protection

5.3

General Principles of Pilot Wire Protection

5.4

Restricting Regulations on the Application of Differential Protection by Pilot


Wire

5.5

Practical Application of Pilot Wire Protection

5.6

Additional Notes on Tripping and Blocking Pilot

5.7

Signal Transmission Methods Commonly used with Pilot Wires

5.8

Choice of the signaling method in relation to Pilot Wires

5.9

Protective measures associated with signaling wires and Cables.

6.

POWER LINE CARRIER CHANNEL EQUIPMENT AND RADIO LINKS FOR


PROTECTION OF H.V. AND EHV TRANSMISSION LINES

6.1

Introduction

6.2

Operating Frequency Range

6.3

Line Coupling

6.4

Line Trap or Wave Trap

6.5

Coupling Capacitor

6.6

Drain Coil or Drainage Coil (D)

6.7

Line Tuner or Line Matching Unit (M)

6.8

Co-axial Cable

6.9

Power line Characteristics

6.10

Mode of Operation and Method of Signalling

6.11

Radio Links or Microwave Pilots.

7.

DIRECTIONAL AND PHASE COMPARISON SYSTEMS OF PROTECTION

7.1

Introduction

7.2

Phase Comparison Protection

7.3

Characteristics of Information Links

7.4

Interference and noise

7.5

Reliability

7.6

Application

7.7

Directional; Comparison Relaying

7.8

Comparison between Directional and Phase Comparison System of Protection

7.9

Protection of Multi-Ended Systems

7.10

Phase Combination of Protection Schemes Acting in Co-operation

8.

BUSBAR SCHEMES AND PROTECTION OF BUSBARS

8.1

Introduction

8.2

Busbar Schemes and Layouts

8.3

Faults in Busbars

8.4

Busbar Protection Schemes

8.5

Location of Current Transformers

9.

PROTECTION OF SHUNT REACTORS

9.1

Introduction

9.2

Location

9.3

Types of Reactors

9.4

Faults in Reactors

10.

PROTECTION OF SHUNT CAPACITORS

10.1

Introduction

10.2

Advantages of Shunt Capacitors

10.3

Types of Shunt Capacitors

10.4

Determination of the Bank Rating and Combination of Units to Form Capacitor


Bank

10.5

Location and Installation

10.6

Protection

10.7

Special Shunt Capacitor Problems and Operating Conditions

TELE-PROTECTION
10.8

Pilot Relaying

10.9

Blocking Schemes

10.10 Fundamentals
10.11 Pilot Relaying Transfer Tripping Schemes.

COURSE TITLE

Generator Protection and Control P3

DESIGNED FOR:

Engineering And Technologists

EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION:

B.Sc/B. Eng, HND

DURATION:

Two Weeks

OBJECTIVES:
At the end of the course, participants should be able:-

Effectively carry out Trouble Shooting/Maintenance in Boiler, boiler


Feed Pump

Fuel System, bearing/Shaft System, etc

Economically and efficiently operate Power Plant

Solve Problems Connection with: Field Failure, Overspeed, Motoring


and loss of Synchronism.

COURSE CONTENT:
GENERATOR PROTECTION AND CONTROL P3
1.

Stator Protection

2.

Rotor Protection

3.

Generator Excitation System

4.

Governor System/Control Action

5.

Field Failure (loss of field)

6.

Overspeed/Over Frequency protection

7.

Motoring

8.

Loss of Synchronism

9.

Bearing Overheat

10.

Boiler Logic

11.

Boiler Feed Pump Control

12.

Efficiency And Economic Operation of Generator

13.

Generator Auxiliary System

14.

Fuel System

15.

Turbine/Compressor System

16.

Bearing/Shaft System

COURSE TITLE

Power System Analysis Planning - PSAP

DESIGNED FOR:

Engineering And Technologists

EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION:

B.Sc/B. Eng, HND

DURATION:

Two Weeks

OBJECTIVES:
Participants should be able to apply a variety of modern study tools in analyzing
system behaviours under varied conditions to optimize system resource; maintain
supply quality; ensure system stability, enhance reliability and economic operation
of the grid network.
COURSE CONTENTS:
POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND PLANNING - PSAP
1.

Steady State Stability Analysis

2.

Dynamic Stability Studies

3.

Fault Studies And Analysis

4.

Transmission Circuits Reliability Assessment

5.

Active Power Dispatch

6.

Reactive Power Dispatch

7.

Network Compensating Devices

8.

System Load Forecast

9.

Economic Dispatch

10.

Application Of Study Tools As In Power Flow, Short Circuit Studies, Optima


Power Flow.

COURSE TITLE

Basic Protection For Technician (PT)

DESIGNED FOR:

Technicians

EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION:

OND, C & G Technician I & II

DURATION:

Three weeks

OBJECTIVES:
At the end of the course the participants should be able to:
I. Read both Protection and Control Circuits and use them to solve problems
II. Provide necessary Protection for Power Transformers
III. Correctly connect Instrument Transformers
IV. Complete Earthing System in a Sub-station
V. Carry out Relay Calibration Procedure
VI. Provide Basic Protection for Lines
VII. Correct Set Relays
VIII. Carry out protection Wiring and Pre-commissioning Tests in Distribution
Sub-station
IX. Work on Battery Charger and Battery Storage/Battery Bank.
COURSE CONTENTS:
PROTECTION FOR TECHNICIAN (P1)
1.

GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO PROTECTION

1.1

Introduction

1.2

Purpose of Relaying protection

1.3

Basic Elements of Protection

1.4

Relay

1.5

Application of Protection Relay

1.6

A reflection on our System

2.

INSTRUMENT CONNECTION AND USES

2.1

Introduction

2.2

Ammeter

2.3

Voltmeter

2.4

Wattmeter

2.5

Ohmmeters

2.6

Instrument Connections In Relay Calibration

2.7

Checking for Pick Up Value

2.8

Relay Performance Characteristics

2.9

Reading Instrument indications

2.10

Observations Before Connecting Instrument For Use

2.11

Accuracy Rating

2.12

Care of instrument in Usage

3.

CONTROL CIRCUITS

3.1

Introduction

3.2

Supplies of Control Circuits

3.3

Common Convention In Control Circuit

4.

INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS

4.1

Introduction

4.2

Classification

4.3

Types of Instrument Transformers

4.4.

Current Transformer

4.5

Characteristics of Current Transformer

4.6

Error in Current Transformer

4.7

Common Definition of Terms Used with Current Transformers

4.8

Pre-Commissioning Tests On C.T

4.9

Voltage or Potential Transformers (VTSU/PTS)

4.10

Common definition of Terms used with Voltage Transformer

4.11

Equivalent Circuit of a Voltage Transformer

4.12

Errors in Voltage Transformers

4.13

Application of Accuracy Class for Various Metering and Protection Purposes

4.14

Choice between Magnetic Type Voltage Transformers and Capacitor Type


Voltage Transformers

4.15

Problems Associated with C,V,T.s

4.16

Polarity and Connection of VTs

4.17

Tests

5.

INTRODUCTION TO PROTECTIVE RELAYS

5.1

Introduction\

5.2

Relay Parts

5.3

Method of Achieving Multiple Tappings

5.4

Inverse Time Over Current Relays

5.5

Other Protective Relays

5.6

Relay Circuits

5.7

The use of Relay By NEPA

5.8

Relay Contacts

5.9

Relay Calibration and Scopes of the course

6.

RELAY SETTING

6.1

Introduction

6.2

Reasons for Correct Relay Setting

6.3

Choice of Relay

6.4

Tools in Relay Setting

6.5

Setting Available

6.6

Relay performance Curve

6.7

Example on Relaying Settings

7.

DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION

7.1

Introduction

7.2

Basic Differential Relaying

7.3.

Types of Differential Protection or Relaying

7.4.

Biased Differential Protection

7.5

Application.

8.

PROTECTION OF TRANSFORMERS

8.1

Introduction

8.2

Nature of Transformer Faults

8.3

Protection Against Internal Faults

8.4

Current Transformer Characteristics

8.5

Examples on Providing Differential protection for Power Transformer

9.

GENERATOR PROTECTION

9.1

Introduction

9.2

Fuel Systems

9.3

Turbine/Compressor System

9.4

Bearing/Shaft System

9.5

Governor System

9.6

Excitation and Voltage Regulation Systems

9.7

Generator Itself (Electrical)

9.8

Summary.

10.

CIRCUIT BREAKERS OPERATIONS AND CONTROL

10.1

Introduction

10.2

Fundamentals of Operating Mechanism

10.3

Requirements of Control Circuit. As applied to Circuit Breaker

10.4

Choice of Circuit Breaker Common Trend in NEPA plc.

10.5

Testing and Maintenance of Circuit Breaker

10.6

General Trip Free Mechanism Linkage

10.7

Quick Acting Release Latches

Breaker Power Unit


Requirements of Control as applied to Circuit Breaker.
11.

SYSTEM EARTHING

11.1

Introduction

11.2

System Neutral Ground

11.3

Grounded System

11.4

Ungrounded System

11.5

Advantages of System Neutral Grounding

11.6

Characteristics of ungrounded System

11.7

Methods of Neutral Grounding

11.8

Suggested Grounding Methods For Industrial System

11.9

Ground at Each Voltage Level

11.10 Rating of Grounding Equipments


11.11 Auto-transformers
11.12 Grounding Transformers
11.13 Zigzag Grounding Transformers
11.14 Y-Delta Grounding
11.15 Selection of Grounding Materials
11.16 Operating Experience

12.

EQUIPMENT GROUNDING

12.1

Introduction

12.2

Definition

12.3

Objectives

12.4

Grounding Electrode

12.5

Power Plant And Distribution Equipment

12.6

Lightning And Lighting Arrestor Grounds

12.7

Method of Measuring Resistance to Earth

12.8

Grounds at Sub-station

12.9

General Instruction For Laying Earthing Grid

13

PHASING STICKS

13.1

Objectives

13.2

Introduction

13.3

Phasing

13.4

Grounding

13.5

Testing for Same Phase (Phasing Out)

13.6

Testing For Phase Rotation

14.

TESTING AND MAINTENANCE OF RELAYS

14.1

Introduction

14.2

Tests On Relay

14.3

Accessories For Testing, Precautions During Testing And Maintenance Test

14.4

Fault Investigation/Relay Operation

14.5

Application Of Instantaneous O.C. Relays

14.6

Protection for Parallel Lines

14.7

Adjustment for Loop and Interconnected Circuits

15.

FUSE AND FUSE CO-ORDINATION

15.1

Introduction

15.2

Definition

15.3

Fault Current Magnitude And Fuse Selection

15.4

Characteristics of Fuses

15.5

Total Clearing Time

15.6

Co-ordination of Fuses

15.7

Example of Fuse Co-ordination

16.

BASIC LINE PROTECTION

16.1

Introduction

16.2

Types of Protection

16.3

Over current And Earth Fault Protection.

COURSE TITLE:

Engineering Projects Management EPM

DESIGNED FOR:

Engineers And Technologists

EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION:
DURATION:

B.Sc/B.Eng. HND

One Week

COURSE OBJECTIVES:
At the end of the programme the participants should be able to:
-

Apply modern tools and techniques in the planning, implementation and control
of Engineering projects

COURSE CONTENTS:
ENGINEERING PROJECTS MANAGEMENT EP
1.

Project Definition

2.

The Planning Process

3.

Project Risk Management

4.

Implementation Technique

5.

Project Control

6.

Performance Assessment Criteria

7.

Human Resource Management and Leadership

COURSE TITLE:

Basic Applied Electronics AE 1

DESIGNED FOR:

Electrical/Electronics Engineers

EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION: HND, B.Eng.


DURATION:

Two Weeks

COURSE OBJECTIVES:
1.

This course will serve as a pre-requisite to Advance Applied Electronics Course

2.

Participants should be able to make use of such equipment as Oscilloscopes and


Signal Generators to measure/monitor signal levels in course of carrying out
maintenance tests or commissioning power, control and communication
equipment.

3.

A sound knowledge acquired in this course will help the participants to carry out
Trouble Shooting easily on the equipment this reducing DOWNTIME in course of
any breakdown of such equipment.

COURSE CONTENTS:
1.

Thyristors Principles of Operations

2.

Zener Diodes

3.

Operational Amplifiers

4.

Oscillator

5.

Transistors Gates and Switches

6.

Filters High pass, Band pass, Low pass, etc

7.

Boolean Algebra

8.

Logic Families

9.

Karnaugh Map

10.

Basic Gates

11.

Memory Element Principles of Operations

12.

Registers & counters Introduction

13.

Multivibrators

14.

Signal Generators Introduction

15.

Use of Oscilloscopes

16.

Comparators/Level Detectors Principles of Operation

COURSE TITLE:

Advance Applied Electronics AE 1

DESIGNED FOR:

Electrical/Electronics Engineers

EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION: HND, B.Sc


DURATION:

Two Weeks

COURSE OBJECTIVES:
1.

To equip the participants with sound knowledge of Operations of Electronic Subsystems which are the building blocks of Power System Electronics based
equipment

2.

Participants should be able to apply the acquired knowledge to maintenance of


Power, Control and Communication Equipment to ensure efficient Operations and
Control of the GRID

3.

Participants also should be able to design or interpret logic circuit designs that are
the bedrock of modern Power Control System Manufacturing. This again will
enhance his ability to maintain and sustain Operation of Power Control and
Communication Equipment

COURSE CONTENT:
1.

Thyristors - Applications

2.

Logic Circuit Designs

3.

Memory Elements Applications

4.

Registers and Counters Applications

5.

Microprocessors

6.

Signal Generators Introduction

7.

Frequency Counters

8.

Spectrum Analysers

9.

Comparators/Level Detectors Applications

10.

Timing Circuits

11.

Programmable Logic Controllers

12.

Integrated Circuits

COURSE TITLE:

Engineering Maintenance Management - EMM

DESIGNED FOR:

Engineers and Technologists

EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION: B.Sc/ B.Eng. HND


DURATION:

Two Weeks

COURSE OBJECTIVES:
At the end of the programme participants would be able to be proficient in applying
reliability Centred Maintenance Approach to minimize equipment failure rate and
outage duration.
COURSE CONTENTS:
ENGINEERING MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT EM
1.

Overview

2.

Classification of Maintenance Function

3.

Maintenance Planning

4.

Failure Characteristics

5.

Reliability Assessment

6.

Human Resource Management and Leadership

7.

Cost Benefit Analysis

COURSE TITLE:

Energy Measurement System - EMS

DESIGNED FOR:

Engineers and Technologists

EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION: B.Sc/ B.Eng. HND


DURATION:

Two Weeks

COURSE OBJECTIVES:
At the end of the programme, the participants should be able to achieve:
-

Optimal Utilization of On-line Study tools such as Network Analysis, Generation


Control and Scheduling, Resource Optimization, System Load Forecast, etc for
efficient operation of a Stable and Reliable Power System.

COURSE CONTENTS:
ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM - EMS
1.

Generation Control and Scheduling

2.

Network Analysis

3.

Resource Optimization

4.

Energy Accounting

5.

Hydro Thermal Co-ordination

6.

System load forecast

7.

Economic Dispatch

COURSE TITLE:

SCADA System - SCS

DESIGNED FOR:

Engineers and Technologists

EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION: B.Sc/ B.Eng. HND


DURATION:

Two Weeks

COURSE OBJECTIVES:
At the end of the programme, the participants should be able to:
-

Master the principle and application of SCADA Hardware and Software


Engineering.

Be able to Maintain the RTUs and the TCI.

Handle the Network Data Base Administration

COURSE CONTENT:
SCADA SYSTEM SCS:
HARDWARE:
1.

Overview of SCADA System

2.

Remote Thermal

3.

Master station/Telecontrol Interface

4.

SCADA Architecture

5.

Telemetry

6.

Information Exchance between Master Station and Remote Terminal Unit

7.

Modular Layout of the SCADA System Software

8.

Unix

9.

Local Area Network/Wide Area Network

10.

Data Modelling

11.

Data Base Administration

12.

Static and Dynamic Data Base Masters

13.

Historical and Future Data Acquisition

14.

Spectrum Basis

15.

Spectrum Administration

16.

Server Functionality and Redundancy Configuration

COURSE TITLE: POWER SYSTEM COMMUNICATIONS: PRINCIPLES AND


APPLICATION CPA
DESIGNED FOR:

Electrical/Electonics Engineers

EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION: HND; B.Sc.


DURATION:

Two Weeks

COURSE OBJECTIVES:
At the end of the Course the participants should be able to:
1.

Understand that communication is the Line wire of system operations and


control and hence its importance.

2.

Gain indepth knowledge of the various types of communication media

3.

To carry out adequate maintenance of PLC, optic fibre VSAT, and Radio
Communication equipment with a view to enhancing power system operations
and control.

4.

Carry out maintenance of system communication power supplies:

5.

Programmed PLC and optic fibre terminal equipment for new installations and
hence ready utilization in a given station.

COURSE CONTENTS:
POWER SYSTEM COMMUNICATIONS:
PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATION COURSE CODE: CPA
1.0

Telecommunication as a veritable Tool to Power System Operations and Control.

2.0

Basic Principles of Communication System

2.1

Basic Components and Operation of a Communication System

2.2

Simplex system

2.3

Semi or Half Duplex System

2.4

Full Duplex System

3.0

Communication media

3.1

Pilot wires/cables

3.2

Powerline Carrier (PLC)

3.3

Microwave Radio Links

3.4

Optic Fibre Medium

3.5

VSAT

3.6

Communication Media Classification: Bound and Unbound Medium

4.0

Power System Telecommunication Philosophy

The basic telecommunication System in a Power Industry


(a)

Powerline Carrier (PLC) System

(b)

Telephony Signal

(c)

Teleprinting Signal

(d)

Teleprotection Signal

(e)

SCADA Signals

4.1

Types of PLCE Equipment in NEPA VIZ ETB, ETC, ETL 41, 81, 540, 580 AND
ESB 20002, ESB500

4.2

Teleprotection Signalling Principle and Operations:


-

Direct Trip Scheme

Permissive Trip Scheme

Block Tripping

Different types of Protection Signalling Equipment


NSD30, NSD430, NDD50, NSD60, NSD550.
Areas of application
4.3

Telex System Network

(i)

Voice Frequency Telegraph Equipment viz


(a)

NSK 3

(b)

NSK 5

(c)

NSK 4

(ii)

Frequency Allocation Scheme

(iii)

Telex PAX: Principle and Operations

4.4

NEPA PAX Telephone Network:


Introduction and Illustration with diagrams
Types, principle and operation of PAX Switching Equipment in use in NEPA
-

Synergetic Open
Phillips Office System
(SOPHO)

Microprocessor Controlled Switching Equipment (ECS F)

2 W/4 Wire Telephone Connections

4.5

Party Line System (PLS)


Principle and Operation and Network Diagram

4.6

Radio Communication System Operations and Principle


Types of radios in use and Frequencies of Operation. Limitation.

4.7

HF Radio Connectional

HF Radio CODAN type (Multifunctional)

VHF Radios (base, mobile and walkie talkie)

Backup Telecommunication Facilities


(a)

PSTN Nitel (Telephony and Fax)

(b)

Private Operators GSM, Thuraya Set (base globe connect and handheld).

(c)

E-mails/Internet Servicves
-

through NITEL Lines

through VSAT

Using Optic Fibre

Definition of Terminologies

4.8

4.9

5.0

ISP

Internet

Ethernet, etc

Communication System Power Supplies: Importance


-

50VDC Battery banks and chargers

12VDC Heavy duty Batteries and chargers

Maintenance, Connection Schemes.

Sustenance/Availability of Communication
-

Equipment Handling

Periodic Inspections and Reports

LABORATOR/CLASS DEMONSTRATIONS
-

Alignment Procedures of PLC equipment using signal

Generators signal level monitoring equipment.

Programming: (Downloading Uploading) of ETL PLC

Equipment using customized personal computer.

Programming ECSF PAX equipment using the maintenance


Unit

6.0

PAX/PLC Wiring technique.

4 Wire Telephone installation.

Grounding: Techniques & Importance to Safety of Telecommunication

Equipment in NEPA Stations.


7.0

Optic Fibre Communication System basic Circuit Components


-

Signals borne on Optic Fibre

Types of Fibres

(i)

AD

(ii)

ADSS

(iii)

OPGW

OLTE8 and Accessories Programme of Optic Fibre Line Terminating


equipment using the Personal Computer (PC)

Splicing Technique.

8.0

VSAT Communication Circuit Components.

8.1

Configuration of VSAT System for


(a)

Local Area Networking

(b)

Wide Area Networking

(c)

Telephony: VOIP on VSAT

(d)

Requirements and implementation of maintenance on VSAT


Communication System.

COURSE TITLE: System Communications Equipment Code SCE

DESIGNED FOR:

Electrical/Electronics Engineers

EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION: B. ENG. HND


DURATION:

Two Weeks

COURSE OBJECTIVES:
At the end of each of the module or specific equipment training the participants should be
able to:
1.

Install, programme or parametise, and maintain the equipment using associated

2.

To enhance a multiplying effect the participant should be able to train other


communication staff in the system.

SYSTEM COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT COURSE CODE (SCE).


1.0

A course on installation commissioning and maintenance of new PLC ETL 5


500/NSD 550/AM x 500. (ABB)

2.0

Course on installation Commissioning and Maintenance of SOPHO PAX (ABB)

3.0

Course on Installation Commissioning and Maintenance of OPTIC Fibre Terminal


Equipment type OLTE 8. and associated equipment

4.0

SCADA RTU
Parametisation and Network Maintennace (SIEMENS)

5.0

Course on Power line Carrier Equipment


Types: ESB 20002
ESB 500
(SIEMENS)

RMARK
The design of the course content should be such that the staff trained will be able to
install commissioning (including Programming/Parametisation) and maintain all the
Above mentioned equipment using the associated Laptop in each case.
It recommended that supplier/manufacturer of each of these equipment be invited to
conduct such an in-depth training. Therefore the few people trained by them can be
organized to train other communication staff. This is a multiplier effect.

COURSE TITLE: System Metering (M1)


DESIGNED FOR:

Engineers And Technologists

EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION: HND; B.Sc./B. ENG.


DURATION:

Two Weeks

COURSE OBJECTIVES:
-

Carry out Calibrations Procedures and effectively calibrate Grid Meters:

Trouble Shoot and Rapid Energy Meters, etc.

Correctly select appropriate Instrument Transformers.

COURSE CONTENTS:
1.

Instrument Transformers

2.

Panel Metering
Panel Ammeter, Voltmeter, Watthr, Varhr

3.

Recorders
-

Frequency Recorder

Var Recorder

Watt Recorder

4. .

Telemetering

5.

Energy Meter

6.

Meters Classification, Installation and Metering Methods

7.

Calibration Procedures

8.

Universal Matching CT

COURSE TITLE: Analysis And Protection of Power System (APPS)


DESIGNED FOR:

Engineers And Technologists

EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION: B. SC/B. Eng., HND.


DURATION:

Two Weeks

COURSE OBJECTIVES:
At the end of the programme, the participants should be able to:
-

Effectively analyzed Unbalanced Faults

Calibrate Non-Directional Overcurrent Relays

Provide Earthing System

Provide Effective Protection Protection Schemes for Transformers

Busbar and Lines.

COURSE CONTENTS:
ANALYSIS AND PROTECTION OF POWER SYSTEMS (APPS):
1.

Introduction

2.

Analysis of Balance Faults

3.

Analysis of Unbalanced Faults

4.

Faults Analysis

5.

Non-directional Overcurrent and Earth Fault Protection

6.

Directional Overcurrent and Earth fault Protection

7.

System Grading

8.

Differential Protection

9.

Current Transformers

10.

Voltage Transformers

11.

System Earthing

12.

Transformer Protection

13.

Busbar Protection

14.

Network Stability.

COURSE TITLE: Protection and Digital Control System (P&D)

DESIGNED FOR:

Engineers And Technologists

EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION: B. SC/B. Eng., HND.


DURATION:

Two Weeks

COURSE OBJECTIVES:
At the end of the programme, the participants will effectively be able to:
-

Use the test sets OMICRON 156,256; alternative Test Set, etc.

Calibrate the following Digital Relays:

OHMEGA DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS

OPTIMHO DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS

SIPROTEC DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS

Use Digital Relays Testing Tools and Software, Fault Localizers, etc.

Effectively Protect MV and HV Network.

COURSE CONTENTS:
PROTECTION AND DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEMS (P&D)
1) Introduction
2) Protecting MV and HV Network
3) Digital Technology Applied In Sub-station
4) MV & HV Network Selectivity
5) Choosing A Digital Control System
6) Digital Distance Relays

OHMEGA DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS

OPTIMHO DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS

SIPROTEC DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAYS

7) Digital Relays Testing Tools and Softwares


8) Fault Localizers
9) Disturbance Recorder
10) Sequence of Events Recorder
11) Fault Analysis Softwares Win TPE
12) Use of Test Sets
-

OMICRON 156,256

Alternative Test (By Jiyoda Engineering)

NATIONAL ELECTRIC POWER AUTHORITY


COMMITTEE ON MANUAL REVIEW PROGRAMME
SYSTEM ELECTRICAL OPERATORS PROGRAMME
Electrical industry development worldwide is going through trends and
innovations probably due to the introduction of information technology and
computerisation, which had made power system operations a little bit more
complex to operate.
Again, the upgrading of the entry behaviour of system electrical operators
from WASC/GCE or their equivalents to OND/ND in electrical /Electronic
Engineering by NEPA Management hinged most likely on the above premise of
the rapid changes in the technological world.
It has become pertinent in reviewing this syllabus, to take account of
development in the subjects not only nationally but worldwide. We have
suggested a clear presentation of the syllabus materials, drop some subjects that
are no longer necessary to meet the present day needs of the system, improved
on a lot of subjects with deeper sciences and mathematics that will enhance
better understanding of the systems, but we have not attempted to soften the
blow by taking the easy way out. The trainees have to be exposed to challenges
without which we can never move forward.
Emphasis has been placed on the acquisition of computer knowledge or
its appreciation by every operator through well tailored computer training
programme at each stage of the modularised programmes that span over a
period of 2 years of five (5) modules with field or plant attachment inclusive.
With the improved entry behaviours, we have assumed that they, wouldbe operators, should have covered basic electrical engineering principles and
technology and this has greatly helped us to come out with this new syllabus. We
do not suggest finality on this proposal but a lot of mental energy has been
exerted into this programme for the very good of NEPA for the now and for the
future generations.

SYSTEM OPERATIONS
MODULE I
COURSE CONTENTS:
Course Title:

Module I

Duration:

Three (3) weeks

For whom:

Electrical operation in training

Education qualification: OND/ND electrical


Course objectives:
-

At the end of Module I, the trainees shall be able to:-

Identify major components of NEPA power system and their basic


functions.

Identify operating forms, their designations and uses.

Identify basic protection guarantees and operating tag in use in NEPA.

Use the available communication media available to them effectively.

Appreciate operations action during system disturbances.

Magnetism and Electromagnetism


1.1 -

The origin of natural magnets

1.2 -

The nature of magnets

1.3 -

The magnetic field about a magnet

1.4 -

The magnetic lines of flux

1.5 -

Magnetic field of a solenoid

1.6 -

Force on a current carrying conductor

1.6a

Force determination.

1.7 -

Electromagnetic Induction

1.8 -

Direction of induced e.m.f

1.9 -

Magnitude of the induced e.m.f.

Generation of E.M.F
2.1 -

Alternating current systems

2.2 -

Generation of an alternating e.m.f

2.3 -

Wavenform terms and definitions

2.4 -

Relationship between frequency, speed and poles

2.5 -

Average and r.m.s. values of an a.c

2.6 -

Addition and subtraction of sinusoidal alternating quantities.

Telephone and Radio Techniques


3.1 -

The basic of good telephone practice

3.2 -

The voice on the radio and telephone

3.3 -

Phonetic Alphabet and pronunciation of (numbers)

Operations Actions during disturbances


4.1 -

Likely problem clinics

4.2 -

Discussion

4.3 -

Operations actions and restoration.

4.4 -

NEPA power system and power system personnel - (New).

Conductors and insulations


5.1 -

The Electrical conditions in conductors

5.2 -

The relative merits of conductors

5.3 -

Types of conductors

5.4 -

Current carrying capacities

5.5 -

Insulation described

5.6 -

The purpose of insulators

5.7 -

The materials used for insulator

5.8 -

The types of insulators used for distribution, sub-transmission and


transmission circuits.

6.0 -

Components of Electric power system

6.1 -

A description of power generation

Hydro Generation

Nuclear

Thermal Generation

Steam

Solar etc

6.2 -

A description of transmission equipment.

6.3 -

An illustration of a typical three phase NEPA power circuit.

7.0 -

Series and parallel circuits containing R.

7.1 -

A study of the Relation of current, voltage and resistance in a series at

Gas

circuit.
7.2 -

Series circuit calculation problems

7.3 -

A definition of shorts and opens.

7.4

An explanation of series resistors in voltmeters.

7.5 -

Resistance in parallel

7.6 -

Vector representation of resistances in parallel.

7.7 -

Problems related to parallel circuits.

8.0 -

Operators duties and working conditions discussions.

9.0 -

Series parallel circuits containing resistance only.

9.1 -

Characteristics of the series parallel circuit.

9.2 -

How to calculate the value in a series parallel at circuit.

9.3 -

Kirchhoffs voltage and current laws.

10.0 - Storage battery.


10.1 - Importance of station battery
10.2 - Theory of battery
10.3 - Construction of batteries
10.4 - Battery installations.
11.0 - Components of a Control Room
11.1 - Control panels (Bench/Board)
11.2 - Relay panels
11.3 - AC & DC fuse panels
11.4

Rectifiers and battery charging equipment

11.5 - Communication or telic panels.


12.0 - Grounding
12.1 - Purposes of grounding
12.2 - System of grounding and equipment grounding
12.3 - Charged bodies and equi-potentialization.
13.0 - Inductance and inductive reactance.
13.1 -

Characteristics of inductance and inductive reactance.

13.2 -

Effects of inductance in an alternating current circuit.

13.3 -

Vector representation of voltage and current relationship.

14.0 -

Capacitance and capacitive reactance

14.1 -

Voltage and current relationship in a capacitive cct.

14.2 -

Capacitors and capacitance

14.3 -

Effects of capacitance in A.C. circuits

14.4 -

Vector representation of current and voltage in a capacitive cct.

14.5 -

Effects of capacitive reactance

14.6 -

Series resonance /resonant condition

15.0 -

A.C. parallel at circuit containing R, XL, X XC.

15.1 -

Voltage and current relationship in an a.c. with resistance and


capacitance in parallel.

15.2 -

Voltage and current relationship in an Ac at containing R, XL and


XC in parallel.

15.3 -

Parallel resonance/resonant conditions

16.0 -

Power and Energy

16.1 -

Power and Energy

16.2 -

Relation between power units.

17.0 -

Introduction to computer (New)

SYSTEM OPERATIONS
Course Title:

Module II

Duration:

Three (3) weeks

For whom:

Electrical operation in training

Education qualification:

OND/ND Electrical/Electronics and must have


passed Module I course.

Course objectives:
-

At the end of Module II, the trainee will be able to:

Identify Hyrdo Dams, classification, components and

power house

equipment.
-

Understanding simple voltage generation, Star and Delta connections and


make simple calculations.

Appreciate basic operating principles of the transformer.

Understand the use of protection guarantees O.F.I (Application for P.G).

Identify Hydraulic turbine components and their functions.

Define responsibilities of operators, applicants, master stations and


assisting stations.

To appreciate the use of computers in analysing the power systems.

COURSE CONTENTS:
MODULE II
1.0 -

Dam classification, component and associated


equipment.

1.1 -

Dams concepts

1.2 -

Headworks

1.3 -

Penstock and scroll cases

1.4 -

Discharge flow characteristics.

2.0 -

Single phase power and power factor

2.1 -

Active and reactive power in a.c. circuits

2.2

Power factor

2.3

Calculating power in a c circuit.

3.0 Three phase voltage generation.


3.1 -

Why three phase systems are used

3.2 -

How three phase is generated.

4.0 Three phase systems star and Delta connection.


4.1 -

Current and voltage relationship in the star connected


system.

4.2 -

Vector representation in star connection.

4.3 -

Current and voltage relationship in a delta.

4.4 -

Vector representation of the Delta system.

5.0 -

Hydraulic Theory

5.1 -

Explanation of the hydraulic theory

5.2 -

Liquid at rest

5.3 -

Pressure measurement

5.4 -

Liquids in motion

5.5 -

Flow measurement

6.0 -

Alternating current power measurement

6.1 -

Active, reactive and apparent power in 3 phase


systems.

6.2 -

The measurement of active and reactive power in 3 phase systems.

7.0 -

Transformer basic operating principles.

7.1 -

Basic Transformer principles

7.2 -

Current Relationships transformer capacity.

7.3 -

Polarity and terminal markings

7.4 -

Ratio and tap changing

7.5 Transformer impedance load sharing.


8.0 -

Meter reading and principles of operations.

8.1 -

Reading meter and guage

8.2 -

Principles of operation

8.3 -

Voltmeter and ammeters.

9.0 -

Ohmmeter, frequency meters.

9.1 -

Principles of operation of the ohmmeter.

9.2 -

Frequency meter and working principles.

9.3 -

Thermocouples principles and measurement.

9.4 -

Potentiometers and operating principles.

10.0 - Transformer classification and voltage regulation.


10.1 - Transformer classifications and types
10.2 - Voltage and current regulations.
10.3 - Instrument transformers voltage /current.
10.4 - Grounding transformers etc.
11.0 - Operating Forms

11.1 - Of 1, 2, 3, DNO Tag of 6, 7, 8, OF10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 56,
53, 100, 105A, 105B.
12.0 - Protection code application for P.G
12.1 -

To explain the section of the standard protection code dealing with


the application for the protection guarantee.

13.0 -

Safety rules 100 series

13.1 -

General Draft rules 100 120 for all employees.

14.0 -

Hydraulic Turbine component and performance.

14.1 -

Speed ring

14.2 -

Turbine gates

14.3 -

Turbine bearings

14.4 -

Turbine pit inspection

14.5 -

Runners

14.6 -

Turbine performance

14.7 -

Turbine venting

14.8 -

Cavitation

14.9 -

Draft tubes.

15.0 -

Protection code and responsibilities of operators.

15.1 -

To explain the section of the s.p.c. dealing with responsibility of


operators.

15.2 -

Responsibility of applicants.

15.3 -

Responsibility of master stations

15.4 -

Responsibility of assisting stations.

16.0 -

Rotating Electrical machines

16.1 -

Motor protection and controls

16.2 -

Speed Regulation.

16.3 -

AC & DC Generators and motors.

17.0 -

D.C. Generators

17.1 -

D.C. Generators Electrical components and application.

17.2 -

D.C. Generators control of voltage.

18.0 -

Director current motors and control.

18.1 -

Application of D.C. motors

18.2 -

Construction of D.C. motors

18.3 -

Theory of D.C. motor operation

18.4 -

Starting D.C. motors

18.5 -

Speed control

18.6 -

Power losses in D.C. motors

18.7 -

Checks and inspection.

19.0 -

Hydraulic Turbine Governor

19.1 -

The principles components

19.2 -

Pressure medium supply

19.3 -

Valve arrangement

19.4 -

Servo motors.

20.0 -

Safety rules 200 series

20.1 -

Operating rules for station work practice.

21.0 -

Computer appreciation

21.1 -

(New)

Lab work on D.C. Generation


Methodology
By lecture in the classroom, use of Audio Visuals Aids and by Practical work in
the lab.

SYSTEM OPERATIONS
Course Title:

Module III

Duration:

Three (3) weeks

For whom:

Electrical operation in training

Education qualification:

OND/ND Electrical /Electronics and must have


passed Module I & II course.

Course objectives:At the end of the course the Trainee will be able to:-

Appreciate the essence of water control and meteorology.

Determine duties and responsibilities of the station system operations.

Appreciate factors affecting stability.

Prepare, check and make affective protection guarantee certificates.

Determine the function, principle of operation and control of circuit


breakers.

Know the safety for all employees engaged in construction, operations


and maintenance.

Identify components and accessories of power transformers.

Determine procedure for surrender of protection guarantees and releasing


apparatus for service.

Explain the function of electrical and mechanical interlock.

Explain computer programme via packages.

Course contents:
-

Water control and metrology

Protection code 3: operators plan for protection of workmen following


receipt of formal request O.F.I.

Protection guarantee practice : O.F.1, OF2, 3, 4, 14 and 17.

Station

operation

I:

Duties

and

Responsibilities

of

NCC/

Area

controls/distribution dispatch centres.


-

Station operation of: Equipment, Routine operation and problems at


generating and transformer station.

Air switches

System operation I: Organisation and facilities.

Circuit opening Devices.

System operation 2: Factors affecting system stability.

Procedure

associated

with

major

equipment

outage

or

system

disturbance.
-

Introduction to circuit breakers.

Protection code 4: Preparation and checking effectiveness of protection


guarantees. And procedure under work and test permits.

Principles of cct. Breaker control.

Safety rules 200 series for all employees engaged in construction,


operation and maintenance.

Protection guarantee practice :OF1, 2, 3, 4, 14, 17.

Transformer 3: Components and accessories.

Fuses: Classification, types and application.

Switches General

Circuit breakers 1.

Operating forms

Discussion on any new system equipment.

COURSE CONTENT:
MODULE III
1.0 -

Water control (and meteorology)

1.1 -

Water Harvest

1.2 -

Water discharges

1.3 -

Flow measurement and losses.

2.0 -

Protection code 3:

2.1 -

Consideration following acceptance of an OF1

2.2 -

Requirement of protection guarantee

2.3 -

Objects of isolation

2.4 -

Security of isolation.

3.0 -

Protection code 4.

3.1 -

The preparation and checking of protection guarantees.

3.2 -

The making effective of protection guarantees.

3.3 -

The procedure under operating form O.F 14.

4.0 -

Air switches

4.1 -

To describe the different types of air switches

4.2 -

To explain the operation of air switches

4.3 -

To explain the method and ability of air switches to interrupt arc.

5.0 -

Circuit Breakers (Introduction)

5.1 -

Requirement for cct. Breaker

5.2 -

Types of cctr. Breakers

5.3 -

Application of various types of cct. Breakers.

6.0 -

Transformer

6.1 -

Principles of operation

6.2 -

Design

6.3 -

Insulation and cooling medium

6.4 -

Load tap changing

6.5 -

Loss evaluation and calculation.

7.0 -

Transformer II

7.1 -

Categories of transformers

7.2 -

Voltage regulation.

8.0 -

Transformer III

8.1 -

Component and accessories

8.2 -

Electrical and magnetic cct.

8.3 -

Off load tap changing

8.4 -

Insulation and cooling.

9.0 -

cct. Breaker I

9.1 -

Arc formation and control.

10.0 - cct. Breaker II


10.1 - Ratings and Terminologies
10.2 - Use of pallet switches.

11. 0 -

Computer Applications New

12.0 - Operating Diagrams


12.1 - Purpose
12.2 - Making up of operating diagrams
12.3 - Explanation of nomenclature on drawings.
12.4 - Station Blue Print.
13.0 - Transformer 4
13.1 - Types and classification
13.2 - Losses
13.3 - Regulation and efficiency.
14.0 - Safety rules 200 series
14.1 - 200 series 1- end.
15.0 - Interlocks
15.1 - Electrical
15.2 - Mechanical
15.3

Applications

16.0 - Computer training


16.1 - Introduction to Hardware/Software.
Methodology
-

By lecture in the classroom, use of Audio Visual Aids, and by practical


work in the lab.

Methodology
By lecture in the classroom, use of Audio Visual Aids, and by practical work in
the lab.

SYSTEM OPERATIONS
Course Title:

Module IV

Duration:

Three (3) weeks

For whom:

Electrical operation in training

Education qualification: OND/ND and must have passed


Module 1, 2, 3.
Course objectives:At the end of the course the Trainee will be able to:-

Read operating diagrams and determine standard symbols for control


circuits.

Determine simple basics of protective relay schemes.

Understand basic operating principles of relays.

Appreciate the operating principles of power line carrier.

Understand basics of electric motor control.

Identify and know the function of A.C. Generator components.

Determine procedure for synchronizing.

Application of general safety rules and other rules for construction,


operation and maintenance employees.

Explain computer programmes via packages.

COURSE CONTENT:
MODULE IV
1.0 -

Operating diagrams

1.1 -

Purpose and make up of operating diagrams

1.2 -

Explanation of nomenclature on drawings

2.0 -

Standard symbols for control circuits

2.1 -

One line diagram symbols.

2.2 -

Static power convectors

2.3 -

Current and voltage transformers

2.4 Other symbols.


3.0 -

Elementary control circuits

3.1 -

To introduce some fundamental concept of control.

4.0 -

Relay operating principles and philosophy.

4.1 -

Philosophy and purpose of protective Relay.

4.2 -

Components of protective Relays

4.3 -

Basic requirement of good Relay scheme

4.4 -

Zone protection

4.5 -

Device numbers and nomenclature

4.6 -

Different protection schemes.

4.7 -

Fault detectors and failures of Relays.

5.0 -

Metal Rectifiers

5.1 -

To describe copper oxide and selenium rectifiers

5.2 -

To briefly study germanium and silicon rectifiers.

5.3 -

To describe half wave and full wave rectification.

6.0 -

Safety rules 100 series

6.1 -

100 series 1 120

7.0 -

Relays - current, voltage etc.

7.1 -

To describe the principles of operation.

7.2 -

Simple applications.

8.0 -

Power line Carrier

8.1 -

Principles of operation

Coupling capacitors

Line Traps

Tuning Devices

Methods of coupling

8.2-

Carrier communications

Modulation systems

Calling systems

Single - frequency manual simplex system.

Audio Hybrid unit.

9.0 -

Telemetering

9.1 -

Methods and application systems

10.0 - Electric motor controls


10.1 - Application of D.C. motor
10.2 - Speed controls
10.3 - Construction and operating principles
10.4 - Application of A.C. motor
10.5 -

Construction and operating principles.

11.0 - Current capacities


11.1 - Factors affecting current carrying capacities.
12.0 - Safety Rules for all employees
12.1 - 200 series
13.0 - A.C. Generators
13.1 -

Synchronous A.C Generatormechanical description.

13.2 -

Synchronous A.C. Generator Excitation

13.2 -

Synchronous A.C. operations.

14.0 -

Voltage Regulations

14.1 -

Reasons for close voltage regulation

14.2 -

Types of voltage regulators.

14.3 -

Operation of voltage Regulators.

15.0 -

Synchronizing

15.1 -

Why accurate synchronizing is necessary

15.2 -

Methods of synchronizing.

15.3 -

Possible synchroscope indication.

16.0 -

Auxiliary equipment (New)

7.0 - Advanced hardware/software computer course New.


Methodology:
By classroom lecturers, using visual Aids demonstration in the laboratory.

SYSTEM OPERATIONS
Course Title:

Module V

Duration:

Three (3) weeks

For whom:

Electrical operation in training

Education qualification: ND/OND and must have passed


Module 1, 2, 3 and 4 courses.
Course objectives:At the end of the course the Trainee will be able to:-

Understand transformer and line connection.

Report outages and relay operations effectively.

Appreciate A.C./D.C. Motor controls.

Appreciate line constructions.

Plan and execute programmed outages.

Appreciate power components and their dispatch.

Identify line faults and roles of lighting arresters.

Follows correctly all the procedures from application for P.G. to restoration
of equipment to service.

Understand compressed air systems.

Understanding the workings of battery charging equipments, fuse


coordination and temperature measurements of electrical equipments.

Appreciate data base programme.

COURSE CONTENT:
1. Transformer and line connection.
-

Power system transformers

Parallel single phase transformer

Paralleling three phase transformer

Delta connected windings.

Star connected winding.

Distribution station transformer connections.

2. Relay outage reporting


-

Discussion.

3. D.C motors and control


-

Construction of D C motors

Theory of D C motor operation

Starting D C motors

Speed control.

4. A.C. motors and control


-

Induction motors

Synchronous motors

Starting A C motors.

5. Protection Code I
-

Review

6. Protection Code II
-

Review

7. Battery charging equipment


-

Introduction

Battery charger

Operator responsibility

8. Auxiliary Relays
-

Functions

Principles of operation.

9. Protection code III


10.
-

Review
Protection code - IV
Review

11.

Outages

Forced /emergency

Scheduled

Jurisdiction

Definition of system.

12.

Auto Reclosing

Line faults

Distribution system reclosing

Low tension feeder reclosing

High Tension system reclosing.

13.

Interpretation of fault location and chart reading.

Fault locator.

Chart reading.

14.

Forced outages

Operators action.

15.

Safety Rules (100 series)

Review

16.

Reactive dispatching

Production of VAR

Absorption of VAR

Uses etc.

17.

Frequency and load control

Frequency control

Load control.

18.

D.C. Ground indicators.


-

Ungrounded DC System

Effect of DC Ground on Relay and control cct.

Effect of D.C. Ground on field circuit of synchronous machine.

DC ground indicators.

Field ground relays.

19.

Temperature measurement

Heat and Heat measurement

Why measure temperature

Expansion thermometry

Resistance thermometry

Thermoelectricity

Indicating and recording instrument.

20.

Drying out and Acceptance tests

Transformer and Generators.

Drying out transformer

Transformer Acceptance tests

Drying out Generator windings

Generator Acceptance Test.

21.

Introduction to software and Hardware.

22.

Lighting arresters and rod caps

The theory of lighting

The equipment used to centre the effect of lighting sky wires, arresters.

23.

Line construction.

Commonly used insulators

Methods of giving, poles and steel tower structures.

Methodology 2
Lighting Arresters classroom, use of audio visual aids, by
practical work in the lab.

COURSE TITLE: SENIOR ELECTRICAL OPERATIONS


REVIEW SEOR
DURATION:

2 WEEKS

TARGET AUDIENCE:

NOT BELOW OFFICER 1

OBJECTIVES:

At the end of the training session, the


participants will be able to:-

ACQUAINT WITH THE SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT.

FORECAST SYSTEM LOADS

DISCUSS SYSTEM CONTROL METHODS

APPRECIATE OPERATIONAL DUTIES AT VARIOUS LEVELS.

USE COMPUTERS FOR SYSTEM INFORMATION GATHERING.


REFRESH ON SAFETY RULE PRACTICES.

REVIEW SYSTEM PROTECTION.

CONTENTS:
(1)

NEPA SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT PROPOSAL.


-

EXISTING CIRCUIT

ADDITIONAL CIRCUIT UNDER CONSTRUCTION

- ADDITIONAL CIRCUIT ON FUTURE PROPOSAL.


(2)

SYSTEM LOAD FORECASTING


-

AVAILABLE MACHINE CAPACITY

- INSTALLED
- MACHINE LIMITATION FACTORS (FUELS AND
FAILURES)
-

PRESENT DEMAND TRENDS

DEMAND/AVAILABILITY GROWTHS.

IMMEDIATE DEMAND FORECAST

SPINNING RESERVE

LONG TERM FORECAST.

(3)

HYDROLOGICAL DATA FOR GENERATION FORECAST


-

PRECIPITATION AND RAIN FORECASTS.

RAIN HARVEST AND MEASUREMENT

LOSSES AND AVAILABILITY FORECAST.

(4)

POWER SYSTEM VAR CONTROL


-

SYSTEM ELEMENTS (R.L.C)

SYSTEM VAR SOURCES AND EFFECTS

SYSTEM VAR CONTROL AND POWER FACTOR.

(5)

VOLTAGE AND FREQUENCY CONTROL


-

EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL VOLTAGE/FREQUENCY

CONTROL METRHODS.

(6)

NCC AND AREA OPERATIONS


-

ROLL OF NCC/SNCC AND CONSTRAINTS

ROLE OF AREA/STATION OPERATORS

LIMITATION OF AREA/STATION OPERATIONS.

(7)

SYSTEM PROTECTIVE RELAYING


-

RELAY COMPONENTS

BASIC OPERATING PRINCIPLES

RELAY SCHEME

TYPES AND APPLICATION

(8)

SYSTEMS TRENDS/NEW EQUIPMENT


-

(9)

GENERAL DISCUSSION.
ROLE OF COMPUTERS IN SYSTEM OPERATIONS FOR SYSTEM
OPERATION INFORMATION GATHERING FOR CONTROL PURPOSES.

(10)

TEAM BUILDING IN SYSTEM OPERATIONS WORK

WHO ARE THE TEAM MEMBERS

INTERDEPENCE AMONG TEAM MEMBERS

IMPORTANCE OF TEAM WORK.

(11)

STANDARD PROTECTION CODE AND SAFETY RULES REVIEW

RULES 100 SERIES

RULES 200 SERIES

RULES 300 SERIES

RULES 800 SERIES

SPC 2000 2045

DISTRIBUTION SUBTATION ELECTRICAL OPERATORS SULLABUS


1.

Course Title:

DSO 1/T Module I.

Duration:

Three weeks.

For whom:

District substation, electrical


Operators - training .

Educational Qualification: OND, ND (ELECT)


Course Objectives:

At the end of the training


course participants should be able to:

i.

Discuss NEPA system and how question transmission and


distribution relate.

ii.

Explain simple basic electrical circuits and perform related


circuit problems.

iii.
Films -

Use communication media available to them effectively.


How to make ccts
-

Fundamentals of A.C. and D.C. generations.

Methodology
By lecture in the classroom, use of Audio/visual Aids, and by practical work in the
laboratory.
Course Content /Syllabus DSO Module 1
1.

NEPA History & Personnel


-

How electricity industry started in Nigeria.

ECN and NDA

Merger of ECN and NDA

Members of Technical Board

Organisational Structure of NEPA

2.
-

Components of Electrical Power System


Generation

Hydro
- Thermal
- Solar etc

Transmission

- Control Room
- Switch Yard

3.

Distribution System.
Electron theory

Atoms

Protons

Neutrons

4.
-

Elements
Conductor and Insulators
Electron theory of conductor and insulators

Types of conductors and insulator

Good and bad conductors

Current carrying capacities.

5.

Storage battery

Importance of station battery

Theory of battery

Construction of batteries

Battery installation.

6.

D.C. Circuit with resistances.

Series connection

Parallel connection

Series /parallel circuits

Calculations of V.I. and R using alums law.

7.

Magnetism

The origin of natural magnet

The nature of magnet

The magnetic field about a magnet.

8.

Electromagnetism

Principles of electromagnetism

Determining the direction and magnitude of magnetic flux around


conductor and coils.

9.

Practical use of electromagnetism.

Generation of EMF

Principles of electrical generation

Principles of the A.C. generator

D.C. generators

Basic construction of a generator.

10.

A.C. Principles Part 1

The use of A.C. in power systems.

The generation of A.C. in power system.

Calculation of speed in RPM, frequency in cps and no of poles or no of


pairs using the formular
F = rps x p or rpm x p
2

11.

60

Introduction to measuring instruments.

Introduction

Moving iron meters

Moving coil meter

Types of meters.

12.

Telephone and Radio techniques.

The basis of Good telephone and radio practice.

The voice on the telephone and radio.

Receiving a call

Phonetic Alphabet

Pronunciation of numbers.

14.

Introduction of standard protection code

Definitions of terminologies

Use of various operating forms

Use of various DNO tags.

Laboratory work based on

Films

Series /parallel ccts.

A.C principles

How to make a cct.

Fundamentals of

A.C. and D.C. generation.

Methodology
By lecture in the classroom, use of audio visual aids and by practical work in the
lab.

2.

Course Title:

DSO 1/T Module II.

Duration:

Three weeks.

For whom:

District substation, electrical


Operators - in - training

Educational Qualification: OND, ND (ELECT)


Course Objectives:

At the end of the training


programme the course
participants should be able to

i.

Explain all the basic electrical theories as they relate to their work in
NEPA.

ii.

Identify specific equipment their functions and operating principles.

iii.

Identify various forms of operating tage and operating forms.

Films -

Safety with Electricity


-

Methodology

Dont take chances.

By lecture in the classroom, use of Audio/ DSO- i/t Module II syllabus.


1.

Inductance and inductive reactance

Characteristics of inductance and inductive reactance.

Effect of inductance in A.C cct.

Vector representation of V and I relationship.

2.

Capacitance and capacitive reactance

Capacitor and capacitance

Effect of capacitance in A.C. cct.

Vector representation of I and V in a capacitive cct.

Effect of capacitive reactance.

3.

A.C. Parallel cct containing R, L and C.

Voltage and current relationship in an A.C. circuit with r, and C.

Voltage and current relationship in an A.C. cct with r, L and C in parallel.

Parallel resonance.

4.

A.C. series cct with R., L and C.

Relationship between I and V in a series cct. Containing R, L and C.

Series resonance

- Calculation of Z (impedance)
5.

Single phase power and power factor

Active and Reactive power in a.c. cct.

Power factor.

Calculation of power in a.c cct.

6.

Three phases voltage generation

Why three phase systems are used

How three phase power is generated.

7.
-

Three phase systems (Star connection)


I and V relationships in Wye connection

8.

Vector representation in this connection.


Three phase system (Delta connection).

I and V relationships in delta connection.

Vector representation in this connection.

9.

A.C. power and measurement.

Active, reactive and apparent power in 3 phase system.

Measurement of active and reactive power in 3 phase systems.

Wattmeters

10.

types
-

construction

principles of operation.

Transformer - part I
-

Basic principles.

Current relationships

Capacity

Polarity and Terminal markings

Ratio and Tap changing

Transfomer impedance load sharing.

11.

Transformer part II

Categories of transformers

Voltage regulation

12.

Transformer III

Component and accessories

Electrical and magnetic cct.

Off load tap changing

Insulation and cooling

13.

Protection guarantee I

Application for P.G

14.

Protection guarantee II

Responsibilities.

15.

Circuit opening devices

Fuses

Isolators

Circuit Breakers.

16.

Switches

General types

Constructions

17.

Introduction circuit Breakers.

Requirement for circuit breaker

Types of circuit Breakers

Application of various types of C.B.

18.

Circuit Breaker I

Arc formation and control.

19.

Circuit Breaker II

Ratings

Use of pallet switches.

20.

Protection guarantee III

Consideration following acceptance of an OF 1

Requirements of protection guarantee.

Object of isolation

Security of isolation.

21.

Protection guarantee IV

Preparation and checking of P.G

Making effective of P.G

Procedure under OF 14.

22.Computer training applications.


METHODOLOGY

By Lecture in the classroom, use of audio/visual aids, and by practical work in


the laboratory.

3.

Course Title: DSO 1/T Module III.


Duration:

Three weeks.

For whom: District Substation, Electrical Operator-In-Training


Educational Qualification: OND, ND (ELECT)
Course Objectives: At the end of the training Programme course
participants

will be able to:

i.

Discuss effectively on station equipment.

ii.

Describe the importance, functions and operating principles of a


protective relays.

iii.

Explain the station operations.

DSO i/t Module III Syllabus


1.

Operating Diagrams

Purpose

Make up of operating diagram

Explanation of nomenclature on drawings

Station blue prints.

2.

Symbols for control ccts.

Control drawing

Common symbols for electrical diagrams

Typical control diagrams.

3.

Electromagnets in control ccts.

Features

Purpose and function

Principles of operation

Application.

4.

Elementary control cct.

Introduction and definition

Fundamental concept of control ccts.

5.

Relays- Basic principles

Definition of electrical relay.

Basic principles of protective relaying

Types of relays and relay scheme

Failure of protective scheme.

6.

Relays (current, voltage etc)

Principles of operation

Simple application

Current voltage, directional relays etcx

7.

Principles of cct Breaker control

Why is control of circuit breaker necessary.

cct. Breaker control circuit

cct. Breaker control circuit

Closing control cct.

Anti- pump

Trip Free.

8.

Current carrying capacities

Factors affecting current carrying capacities.

9.

Station operation

Duties and responsibilities

Distribution operation.

10.

Schedule outage

Defining the system

Jurisdiction

Outage planning

Outage request.

11.

Safety rules

800 series

12.

Interlocks

Electrical

Mechanical

13.

Protection Guarantee practice

OF 1

OF 2

OF 3

OF 4

OF 14

14.

Grounding

Ability of the earth to absorb electric charges, lighting currents, fault


current .

Chanced bodies

Purpose of grounding

grounding of equipment and structures.

Grounding of lines and apparatus.

15.

Fire safety

Fire prevention

Fire protection

Fire fighting

16.

First Aid

Definition

Treatment of wounds

Artificial respiration.

17.

Computer training

Introduction

Components/ Functions

Terminologies /language.

Methodology
By lectures in the classroom, sue of Audio/visuals aids and by practical work in
the laboratory.

4.

Course Title: DSO 1/T Module IV (FINAL)


Duration:

Four weeks.

For whom:

District substation, electrical Operators -in training.

Educational Qualification: OND, ND (ELECTRICAL)


Course Objectives: At the end of the training Programme course
participants will be able to:
i.

Discuss effectively power outages and emergencies.

ii.

Perform switching effectively in the control room and switch yard.

iii.

Carryout out all formalities relating to protection guarantees.

iv.

Monitor the Battery charging equipment.

v.

Use the on load tap changer facilities.

vi.

Perform his duties and functions as District substation electrical


operators.

Methodology
By lecture in the classroom, use of Audio visual aids, case study.
DSO 1/t Module IV (FINAL)
1.

Transformer and line connection

Power system transformers

Paralleling single phase transformer.

Paralleling 3 phase transformer

Delta connected winding.

Star connected winding.

Distribution station transformer connections.

2.

A.C. power and measurement

Active power, reactive power and apparent in 3 phase systems.

Measure of active power and reactive power 3 phase system.

Power factor.

3.

Rotating machines part I

A.C. Generators Electrical component and application.

Large Alternators

Voltage control.

D.C. Generators

Electrical Components

Control of voltage

Voltage regulation.

4.

Rotating machines part II

A.C. Motors

D.C. motors -

Induction motors

Synchronous motors

Starting

Speed control

Construction
-

Theory of DC motors

Starting

Speed control

Application.

5.

Temperature measurement

Theory of heat and heat measurement

Why measure temperature

Measuring instruments

Thermoelectricity

6.

Battery charing equipment

Introduction

Battery charges

Operator responsibility.

7.

Safety rules (800 series)

8.

Protection guarantees review.

Operating forms

DNO tags

Standard protection Code

Safety rules.

9.

Automatic Reclosing

Line faults

Distribution system reclosing

Low tension feeder reclosing

Tension system reclosing

10.

Lightening Arrester and Rod Gaps

Theory of lighting

Sky wires

Lighting arresters & Types .

Principles of operation of lighting arresters.

Purpose.

11.

Line faults.

Natural (Weather)

Manmade

12.

Protection guarantee (practice) review

OF 1

OF 2

OF 3

OF 4

13.

Problem Clinic (Discussion)

Power outages and emergencies

Relationship with the Department and customers

New equipment

General.

Methodology
By lecture in classroom use of audio-visual aids and by practical work in the lab.

TITLE:

SENIOR DSO REVIEW

DURATION: QUALIFIED DSOS NOT BELOW OFFICER IV RANK


OBJECTIVE: At the end of the training period, the participants should be able
to:-

Process and effect safe working condition for workmen;

Enforce safety rules at work place.

Practice fire fighting

Appreciate the roles of NCC/Regional system operators

Interprete protective relay operations.

Prepare dependable station reports.

Acquaint with Area Network development .

COURSE CONTENT:

(1)

(2)

(3)

Network protection relaying


-

Relay operating principles

Relay components

Relaying terms

Types and application.

Area Network development


-

Existing Network

Upcoming extension/new equipment.

Need for Network upgrading.

Standard protection code/safety rules review


-

SPC 2000 - 2045

Rules 100 series

Rules 200 series

Rules 300 series

Rules 800 series.

(4)

Computer Appreciate

(5)

Safety at work place

(6)

(7)

Good House keeping

Types of fire

Demonstration/Fire fighting

Safety inspection /tour

SUBSTATION WORK
-

Routine inspection and remedial actions

Report writing

Equipment switching precaution

Transformers - General
-

Components

Tap changing

(8)

(9)

(10)

Line/Bus connection

Buchdz Gas /Bleeding

Cooling

Circuit Breakers
-

Indoor type

Outdoor

Operational precaution

Isolators
-

Types

Operational precaution

Management training
-

(11)

Developing leadership skill

Firs Aid
-

Wounds Treatment

Artificial respiration.

SAFETY MANAGEMENT COURSE FOR DISTRIBUTION STAFF


COURSE TITLE: SMC (Safety Mgt. Course)
DURATION:

Two weeks

FOR WHOM:

Officer 4, to officer 1 in Construction, operation and


maintenance of electrical equipment.

QUALIFICATION: WASC, OND, NCE (Tech) card G final.


USER DEPT:

Distribution and marketing

COURSE OBJECTIVES: At the end of the training programme participants will


be able to:
(i)

Identify causes of minor and major accident.

(ii)

Carry out adequate operations to prevent accident.

(iii)

Use the overall safety devices and appliances provided.

(iv)

Follow strictly procedures for guidance against errors,


mistake and blunder.

(v)

Apply all rules and procedure for general human and


equipment safety.

Course Content /Syllabus


(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

Station Operation.
-

Station blue print

Station equipment and functions

Method of switching

Identification of hazards in operation.

Transformers
-

Definition

Principles of operation

Classification

Types

Efficiency and loses

Cooling.

Introduction to SPC
-

Definition

Use of various operating forms

Use of various DNO tags

Safety rules
-

100 series general rules

200 series tools, equipment care

300 series

800 series operating work practice.

Introduction to circuit Breakers


-

Types of cct. Breaker

Requirement to cct. Breaker

Application for various types of C.B.

Circuit opening devices


-

Fuses

Isolators

(7)

Protection Guarantee I
-

(8)

(10)

(11)

(12)

(13)

(4)

Application

Protection Guarantee II
-

(9)

Circuit Breakers

Responsibilities

Fire Safety
-

Fire prevention

Fire Protection

Fire fighting

Protection Guarantee III


-

Action plan following receipt of OF 1

Preparation for issuance of OF 2, OF 3, OF4.

First Aid
-

Treatment of wounds

Artificial respiration.

Causes of Accidents
-

Unsafe Act

Unsafe condition

Safety management
-

Introduction

Safety environments

Safety obligation

Battery
-

Care of battery

Important of battery

Constituencies of loss of DC supply on a station.

(15)

(16)

(17)

Outages
-

Types forced, scheduled and emergency

Definition of system

Jurisdiction

Protection Guarantee IV
-

Preparation and checking of P.G

Making effective of P.G

Protection Guarantee V
-

Surrender of protection - Guarantee

Releasing apparatus for service

Issuance and surrender of P.G. in special and


exceptional cases.

(18)

Switches
-

Types

Application

Methodology
By lecture in the classroom, and use of Audio visual aids.
MODULE ONE
SYSTEM ELECTRICAL OPERATIONS ENGINEERS IN- TRAINING .
TRAINING SYLLABUS
(1)

COURSE TITLE:

SEO (Engr) Module I

DURATION:

Three weeks

FOR WHOM: System Electrical operations Engineers in training.


QUALIFICATION:

B.Sc. B. Eng, HND

COURSE OBJECTIVES: At

the

end

of

the

training

programme

participants will be able to:


i.

Identify major components of NEPA power system and their


functions.

ii.

Explain and perform the duties of system operators.

iii.

Discuss general rules applicable to all employees of the NEPA


system.

iv.

Carry out cares and inspection of station battery.

v.

Perform simple electrical calculation.

Course Content/Syllabus
(1)

Introduction to power system components


-

Generation

- Hyrdo power

Station

- Thermal power
- Solar power

Transmission - 330/132KV lines


Station

Distribution

Station

cct. Breaker

Disconnect

Switches

33/11/KV
-

network

415 KV
Service lines

(2)

(3)

(4)

Conductors and Insulators


-

Electrical (Atomic) conditions in conductors and insulators.

Nature of conductors and insulators

Types

Current carrying capacities.

Telephone and Radio techniques


-

The basis of Good telephone practice

The voice on the radio and telephone

Phonetic Alphabet and pronunciation of number.

Safety Rules (100 series)


-

Employee knowledge of the rules

Personal conduct

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

General Precaution etc.

Station tour
-

Power House

Control Room

Switch yard

D.C. Supply
-

Battery charging equipment

Care and inspection.

Circuit Elements and calculations


-

Inductance

Resistance

Inductive Reactance

Capacitive Reactance

Impedance

Resonance.

System Disturbance
-

Definition

Operator action

Restoration.

Grounding
-

Introduction

System Grounding

Solidly grounded systems

Reactance grounded system

Lightening, protection grounding

Connection to earth.

Dams -

Introduction

(11)

(12)

(13)

(14)

(15)

(16)

Classification

Component parts

Uses/Applications.

3 phase voltage generation


-

Introduction

Why three phase systems are used

How three phase power is generated.

3 phase connection
-

Star connected system

Delta connected system

Star Delta.

A.C. power measurement


-

Introduction to measurement

Watt meter design, construction

Principles of operation and calibration.

Protection Guarantee I
-

Introduction to standard protection code

Use of various operating forms

Use of various DNO tags.

Fire and Safety


-

Fire protection

Fire prevention

Fire fighting

First Aid
-

Definition

Treatment of wounds

Artificial respiration.

(17)

(18)

(19)

Safety management
-

Introduction

Protection of life

Adequate equipment, tools and clothing.

Safety obligation.

Transformer I
-

Elementary theory

Design

Insulation

Cooling

Load tap changing

Loss evaluation and calculation

Power system communication


-

The importance of communication in power systems.

Basic principles of communication e.g simplex , half duplex and full


duplex.

Communication media e.g. Pilot wires, power line carrier,


microwave/radio, optic fibre and VSAT.

(20)

Computer Appreciation
-

Introduction to computers

Component identification and functions.

CPU, monitor, keyboard etc.

ROM, RAM etc.

Methodology
By lecture in the classroom, use of audio visual aids and practical work in the
laboratory.

MODULE TWO
(2)

COURSE TITLE:

SEO (Engr) Module II

DURATION:

Three weeks

FOR WHOM: System Electrical operations Engineers in training.


QUALIFICATION:

B.Sc. B. Eng, HND

COURSE OBJECTIVES: At

the

end

of

the

training

programme

participants will be able to:


(i)

Identify and

explain causes of system collapse and carryout

restoration processes.
(ii)

Perform the duties and responsibilities of operators in relation to


safety.

(iii)

Perform switching in the hi yard.

(iv)

Coordinate the station activities with National control centre.

(v)

Analyse the working principle of protective relays.

Course content/ syllabus


(1)

(2)

Water control and meteorology


-

Water Harvest

Water discharges.

Flow measurement and losses.

System Operations I
-

(3)

Duties and responsibilities of the operator

of the Area control

of the SNCC Shiroro

of the NCC - Oshogbo

Safety rules (200 series)


-

Rules for staff engaged in construction maintenance and operation


of electrical equipment.

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

Rotating machines
-

A.C. machines

D.C machines

Turbine
-

Hydraulic turbine

Thermal turbine

Transformer II
-

Classification

Types

Capacity of transformer

Duty of transformer

Protection Guarantee 1, 2 and 3,


-

Application for prof. guarantee

Responsibilities

Action plan following receipt of OF 1, OF 4

Preparation for issuance of OF 2, OF 3, OF4.

Circuit opening devices


-

Fuses

Isolators

Circuit breakers

(9)

(10)

(11)

(12)

Interlocks.
-

Mechanical interlock

Electrical interlocks

Applications.

Relays
-

Basic principles

Operating principles

Relay terminologies

Relay functions and requirements

Relaying protection schemes


-

Transformers protection

Generator Protection

Bus Bar

Lines etc.

Station Operation I
-

Duties and responsibilities

Routine inspection and operating problem at


generation and transformer station.

(13)

(14)

(15)

Protection Guarantee Practice


-

OF 1

OF 2

OF 3

OF 4

Introduction to circuit Breakers


-

OCB

ABB

SF6

Principles of cct. Breaker control.

System Operation II
-

Factors affecting stability

Equipment Outage

System Disturbance

(16)

(17)

(18)

(19)

Switches
-

Introduction

Disconnect switch

Circuit switchers

Auto ground switch

Ground switch

Principles of operations.

RMU
-

Operation

Components and connection.

Transformer II
-

Components

Accessories

Safety Rules (300 series)


-

(20)

Tools, and safety equipment.

Power system telecommunication philosophy


-

PLC System, Telegraphy, Telex and Tele protection signals.

Radio communication system operations and principles, HF radio,


VHF radio.

Back up telecommunication facilities PSTN NITEL, Private


operators GSM and E-mails/internet services.

(21)

Communication system power supplies

SOVDC and 12VDC and chargers.

Computer Application
-

MS -Word

Corel word perfect

Word perfect

Lotus AMI pro

Corel Draw

Auto card etc.

MODULE THREE (FINAL)


(3)

COURSE TITLE:

SEO (Engr) Module III FINAL

DURATION:

Three weeks

FOR WHOM:

System Electrical operations Engineers in training.

QUALIFICATION:

B.Sc. B. Eng, HND

COURSE OBJECTIVES: At

the

end

of

the

training

programme

participants will be able to:


(i)

Report outages and relay operations effectively.

(ii)

Explain

and

analyse

A.C.

and

D.C

motor

control

and

characteristics.
(iii)

Be familiar with frequency and system voltage control.

(iv)

Practice the full aspect of safety rules and standard protection


code.

(v)

Man the system 330 KV and 132 KV sub stations.

(vi)

Know about SCADA/EMS.

Course content/Syllabus
(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

Transformer (4)
-

Types

Loses

Efficiency

Equivalent ccts.

Synchronizing
-

Why accurate synchronizing

Methods of synchronizing

Selector scheme for synchronizing

Possible synchoscope defect.

Automatic synchronizing of Generators.

Auto - Reclosing
-

Line faults

Distribution system reclosing

Low Tension feeder Reclosing

High-tension system reclosing

Protection Guarantees IV and V


-

The preparation and checking of P.G.

The making effective of P.G.

The procedure under of 14.

Releasing apparatus for service.

The issue and surrender of P.G. in special and


exceptional cases.

(5)

(6)

Governor control
-

Hydraulic

Thermal

Outages
-

Scheduled

(7)

(8)

Forced/emergency

Jurisdiction

System definition

Electrical safety and maintenance


-

Introduction to electrical safety

Electricity and body.

Forcating

Planning and scheduling.

Lightning arresters
-

The theory of lightening

The equipment used to control the effect of


lightening e.g wires, arresters gaps etc.

(9)

(10)

Line construction
-

Method of guying

Dead ends on conductors

Corners and angles

Anchors

Steel tower and wood pole construction.

Safety rules (300 series)


-

(11)

(12)

Tools and safety materials.

Voltage regulation
-

Reasons for close voltage regulation

Types of voltage regulators.

Operation of voltage Regulators.

SCADA/EMS
-

Overview of existing SCADA and EMS facilities.

Local Area Network /Wide Area Network

DPCM and SCADA message address codes

Remote or outstation components

SCADA Software architecture

(13)

(14)

Introduction to energy management system

Introduction to system administration functions.

Transformer and line connection


-

Power system transformer

Paralleling single phase transformer

Paralleling three phase transformer

Delta connected winding.

Star connected winding

Distribution substation transformer connection.

Drying out and acceptance Tests (transformer and


generators).

(15)

Drying out transformer windings

transformer acceptance test.

Drying out generator winding

Generator acceptance tests.

D.C. Ground indicator


-

Ungrounded D.C. system

Effects of DC grounds on Relay and control circuit.

Effects of DC grounds on field ccts of synchronous


machines.

DC ground indicators.

Field ground Relays

NATIONAL ELECTRIC POWER AUTHORITY


SYSTEM DISTRIBUTION LINES MAINTENANCE PROGRAMME

This programme is divided into 3 Basic Stages


SLD

M1 System Lines Distribution Module 1

SLD

M2 - System Lines Distribution Module 2

SLD

M3 - System Lines Distribution Module 3

Each Module is of 3 Weeks Duration


There is also an Updating Course SLD-UPD. The Basic Course are designed
primarily for holders of WASC or its equivalent. We suggest that the above
category of staff should be recruited Distribution Lines Maintenance Trainees Staff

I and on successful completion of the basic courses (M1-M3) which may be for a
period of 2 years be upgraded to Officer IV.
The updating course is designed for Officer Grade III and above.
BASIC STAGE 1
LINES DISTRIBUTION MAINTENANCE
1.

Historical background of Electricity Development in Nigeria

2.

Electrical Terminology

3.

Electrical Power System

4.

Electron Theory

5.

Sighting and mapping out Positions for Structures

6.

Digging and Pole Erection Techniques

7.

Knots, Bends and Hitches

8.

Safe Working Loads of Rigging Materials

9.

Guys and Guying

10. The Weight of a Conductor on a straight line structure


11. Clamps and Connectors
12. Overhead Distribution System Medium and Low Voltage
13. Identification, care and use of linesman hand tools
14. Industrial Safety
15. Safe distance for work near live electrical equipment
16. Ground Precautions
17. Safe climbing practices
18. Components of Distribution Power Line
19. Itemization of L/T Materials/Equipments
20. Itemization of 11KV Materials/Equipments
21. Itemization of 13kv Materials/Equipments
22. Line Conductors and Insulators
23. Ladders.
COURSE OUTLINE:
DISTRIBUTION LINES MAINTENANCE:
BASIC STAGE I
1.0

TOPIC:

Electricity Development in Nigeria

OBJECTIVE:

to discuss the History of Power Generation in Nigeria

1.1

Introduction

1.2

Electricity Supply under the jurisdiction of

1.3

(i)

P.W.D.

(ii)

Native Authorities

(iii)

Municipal Authorities

Electricity Corporation of Nigeria (ECN) reference to act of Parliament of


1962

1.4

Niger Dams Authority

1.5

Merger of ECN and NDA reference to Decree 24 of 29th June, 1972

1.6

Present day management of NEPA

3.0

TERMINOLOGY (ELECTRICAL)

OBJECTIVE: To clearly explain the meaning of some terminologies that the trainee
may come across during the course of his studies.
2.1

Ampere

2.2

Volt

2.3

Coulomb

2.4

Ohm

2.5

Watt

2.6

Resistance

2.7

Current

2.8

EMF

2.9

Conductor

2.10

Stranded Conductor Cable

2.11

Strand

2.12

Stranded Wire

2.13

Cord

2.14

Concentric Lay Conductor

2.15

Duplex Cable

2.16

Twin Cables

2.17

Triplex Cables

2.18

Sector Cables

2.19

Shielded Conductor Cable

2.20

Sectional Area of Cable

2.21

Lay

2.22

Transformer

2.23

O. C. B.

2.24

RMU

2.25

Feeder

2.26

Fuse

2.27

Earth Wire

2.28

Neutral Wire

2.29

Condenser

2.30

Lightning Arresters

2.31

Pot Head

2.32

Hydro Electric Generation

2.33

Thermal Electric Generation

2.34

Grid System

2.35

Sky Wire

2.36

Current Transformer (C.T)

2.37

Isolator

2.38

Grounding Isolator

3.

TOPIC:

1.

OBJECTIVE:

2.
3.1.

3.2

ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM:

(i)

To describe Power Generation

(ii)

To describe Transmission Equipment


(iv)

To illustrate a Typical Three Phase NEPA Power Circuit

(v)

To illustrate a Typical Distribution Station

Introduction
(i)

To describe Power Generation

(ia)

Hydro generation

(ib)

Thermal Generation

(ii)

To describe transmission equipment

(i)

To illustrate a typical Distribution Station

4.

TOPIC: Electron Theory


OBJECTIVE:
(i)

To consider the nature of matter

(ii)

To explain the electron theory

(iii)

To explain the electric current according to the electron theory.

INTRODUCTION:
4.1

The nature of matter

4.2

Electron theory

4.3

Electric current

4. TOPIC: SIGHTING AND MAPPING OUT POSITION FOR STRUCTURE


OBJECTIVE:
(i)

To determine the most cost effective rout of lines

INTRODUCTION:5.1

Materials Requirement

5.2

Tools

5.3

Procedures

5.4

Symbols For:
(a)

Pole

(b)

R.M.U

(c)

Isolator

(d)

R.M.U. Extension

6.

(e)

Circuit Breaker

(f)

Line rout

(g)

Underground Cable Joint

(h)

Underground Cable Slab

(i)

Transformer

(j)

Cable rout

TOPIC: DIGGING AND POLE ERECTION TECHNIQUES


OBJECTIVE:
(i)

To explain the correct method of digging holes

(ii)

To explain how to erect pole using;


(a)

Manual Labour

(b)

Hiab Crane.

INTRODUCTION
6.1

TOOLS REQUIRED FOR:


(a)

Hole Digging

6.2

Method for Digging Holes

6.3

Depth of Holes

6.4

Pole Erection with Manual Labour


a.

Requirement

b.

Procedure

Pole Erection with Hiab Crane

7.1

Requirements

7.2

Procedure

7.3

Safety Precautions

8.

TOPIC: Knots, Bends and Hitches


OBJECTIVE:
To describe how to tie various Knots and Hitches used for Line track.
(i) To tie and explain the use of square knot
(ii) To tie and explain the use of single bowline
(iii)

To tie and explain the use of Double

(iv)To tie and explain the use of Double on a bight


(v) To tie and explain the use of Running bowline

(vi) To tie and explain the use of Bowline tie away from you
(vii) To tie and explain the use of Figure 8 Knot
(viii) To tie and explain the use of Single Sheet Bend
(ix) To tie and explain the use of Double sheet Bend
(x) To tie and explain the use of Becket Bend
(xi) To tie and explain the use of Clove Hitch with two half inches
(xii) To tie and explain the use of Snobbing Hitch
(xiii) To tie and explain the use of Timber Hitch
(xiv) To tie and explain the use of Tout Line Hitch
(xv) To tie and explain the use of Double Black Wall Hitch
(xvi)

To tie and explain the use of Stirrup Hitch squire knot

TOPIC: Safe Working Loads of Rigging materials


OBJECTIVE:
1.

To explain the Safe Working Load of


c.

Nylon Rope

d.

Poly Ropes

e.

Wire Slings

f.

Wire Chains

2.

9.

INTRODUCTION
ia)

Nylon ropes

ib)

Poly Ropes

ic)

Wire Slings

id)

Wire Chain

TOPIC: GUYS AND GUYING


OBJECTIVE:
To explain various types of Guys and Guying for Distribution Lines.
INTRODUCTION

Digging Anchor or Slug Holes


The use and preparation of Span Guy
The use and preparation of Strut Guy
The use and preparation of Single Down Guy

10.

TOPIC:

Weight of a Conductor on a Straight Line Structure

OBJECTIVE:
To explain how to find the weight of a conductor supported on a straight line
structure
INTRODUCTION
Weight formula with illustrative sketch
Special conditions where the above method does not work
Worked examples
11.

TOPIC:
OBJECTIVE
i)

To define the different between Mechanical and Electrical


Connectors

ii)

To point out the cleaning and anti-oxide protection required of


electrical connections

iii)

To illustrate and describe various kinds of mechanical purpose


clamps in use.

iv)

To illustrate and describe various kinds of electrical purpose


clamps in use

v)

To discuss the insulation for connections of covered conductors.

INTRODUCTION
Difference between mechanical and electrical connectors
Cleaning and protection of connectors
Various types of connectors and their field of applications for Distribution Lines.\
12.

TOPIC:

O/H Distribution System Medium and Low Voltage

OBJECTIVE:
i)

To explain the meaning of some terminologies used in Line Construction

ii)

To explain conductor sizes and their current carrying capacities

iii)

To describe the arrangements of Line Conductors

iv)

To specify the minimum height of distribution line conductors and their


length of spans

v)

Precautions for crossing and clearances over other objects.

INTRODUCTION:
12.1

Meaning of:

12.1.1 Span
12.1.2 The Wind Loading of Span
12.1.3 Sag
12.1.4 Intermediate poles
12.1.5 Section poles
12.1.6 Terminal poles
12.1.7 Intermediate pole (Angle position)
12.1.8 Angle/Section pole
12.1.9

Section

12.1.10
12.1.11

Factor of safety
Bunding Wire

12.1.12

Earthing Wire

12.2

Conductor sizes and their current carrying capacities

12.3

Arrangement of conductors

12.4

Minimum height of conductors/length of span

12.5

Precautions for crossing and clearances over other objects

12.5.1 Poles and Telegraph Lines


12.5.2 Joint Construction with P & T
12.5.3 Crossing over Railways
12.5.4 Crossing over Rivers
12.5.5 Crossing over Roads
12.5.6 Crossing over other Power Lines
12.5.7 Clearance to Building
13.

TOPIC:

IDENTIFICATION, CARE AND USES OF LINESMAN


HAND TOOLS

OBJECTIVES:
(i)

To list and describe the hand tools which NEPA must


provide for a linesman

(ii)

To outline the care of hand tools

INTRODUCTION:
13.1

Linesman hammer description and care

13.2

2m folding rule description and care

13.3

Measuring tape rule description and care

13.4

Side Cutting Plier - description and care

13.5

Screw Driver description and care

13.6

Adjustable Wrenches description and care

13.7

Skinning Knife description and care

13.8

Ratchet Wrench description and care

14.

TOPIC:

INDUSTRIAL SAFETY

OBJECTIVE:
(i)

To explain the meaning of Safety

(ii)

To explain the reasons for industrial safety

(iii)

To explain the meaning of safety consciousness and the need for safety policy

(iv)

To explain the importance of good house keeping

(v)

To explain the meaning of accident

(vi)

To outline some factors that may lead to accident

(vii)

To explain how accident could be prevented

(viii)

To explain the effects of accident.

INTRODUCTION
14.1

To explain the meaning of Safety

14.2

To explain the reasons for industrial safety

14.3

To explain the meaning of safety consciousness and the need for safety policy

14.3.1 Safety consciousness explained


14.3.2 Factor inimical to safety consciousness
14.3.3 Safety Policy.
14.4

Good House-keeping

14.5

The meaning of accident

14.6

Factors that may lead to accident

14.6.1 Immediate Conditions


14.6.2 Supervisory Safety Performance
14.6.3 Mental Condition of Persons
14.6.4 Physical Condition of persons
14.6.5 Type of accidents
14.6.6 Result of accident
14.7

Accident prevention

14.7.1 Safeguard the work area

14.7.2 Safeguard the work method


14.7.3 Safeguard the worker
14.8

Effects of accident

14.8.1 Cost to the firm


14.8.2 Cost to the supervisor
14.8.3 Cost to the nation
15. TOPIC:

Safe Distances For Work near Live Electrical Equipment

OBJECTIVE:
(i)

To explain the meaning of Limit and absolute limit of approach

(ii)

To outline the limit of approach and absolute limit of approach for various
voltage ranges.

15.1

INTRODUCTION:

15.2

Limit of approach explained

15.3

Table of limit of approach explained

15.4

Absolute limit of approach explained

15.5

Table of absolute limit of approach

16.

TOPIC:

Grounding Precautions

OBJECTIVE:
(i)

To explain the procedure for grounding an isolated O/H line

INTRODUCTION
16.1

Outline of grounding procedure

17.

TOPIC:

Safe Climbing Practices

OBJECTIVE:
17.1

INTRODUCTION:

17.2

Climbing precautions outlined

18.

TOPIC: Components of Distribution Power Line


OBJECTIVE:

(i)

To outline the component parts and uses

18.0

INTRODUCTION:

18.1

Conductors

18.2

Poles

18.3

Crossarms

18.4

Stays and Anchors

18.5

Insulator and Insulator Pin

18.6

Tie Straps

19.

TOPIC:

ITEMIZATION OF LT MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT

INTRODUCTION:
19.1

L/T materials and equipments itemized

20.

TOPIC:

Itemization of 11KV Materials and Equipments

OBJECTIVE:
(i)

To familiarize the tradesman with the list of 11KV material

INTRODUCTION
20.1

11KV materials and equipments itemized

21

TOPIC: Itemization of 33KV Materials and equipment


OBJECTIVES:
(i)

To familiarize the tradesman with the list of 33kv materials

INTRODUCTION:
21.1

33KV Materials and equipment itemized.

22.

TOPIC: Line Conductors And Insulators


OBJECTIVES:
To explain the common materials used for overhead distribution lines

(i)

To explain the materials used in making insulators

(ii)

To explain why pin insulators are designed with skirts

(iii)

To explain the meaning of Dry and Wet arc-over

(iv)

To compare glass insulator to porcelain insulators

INRODUCTION:
Materials used for line conductors
22.1.1 Description of Copper Conductor
22.1.2 Description of Aluminium Conductor
22.1.3 Comparison of Aluminium and Copper Conductors
22.1.4 Steel Conductors
22.1.5 Practical areas of use of Aluminium, Steel and Copper Conductors.
23

OPIC: LADDERS
OBJECTIVES:
(i)

To explain the type of ladders used in NEPA

(ii)

To explain the purpose ladders

(iii)

To explain the various types of ladders

(iv)

To illustrate the inspection of extension ladders

(v)

To illustrate the inspection of sectional

(vi)

To illustrate care and maintenance of ladders

(vii)

To illustrate how to use extension ladders

(viii)

To illustrate how to use sectional ladders

(ix)

To illustrate Fiberglass ladders

(x)

To illustrate self-check instruction.


INTRODUCTION:
23.1

Types of ladders

23.2

Purpose of ladders

23.3

Various types of ladder

23.4

Inspection of extension ladders

23.5

Inspection of sectional ladders

23.6

Care and maintenance of ladders

23.7

Practical uses of extension ladders

23.8

Practical uses of sectional ladders

23.9

Practical uses of Fiberglass ladders

23.10 Self-check instruction.

DLM BASIC STAGE II


COURSE CONTENTS:
1.

Magnetism And Electromagnet

2.

Generation of EMF

3.

Fundamentals of Mutual Induction

4.

General classification of Transformers

5.

Distribution Transformers

6.

Electrical Energy and Power

7.

Nature of Electricity

8.

Series, Parallel And Series-Parallel Circuits.

9.

Distribution Network Fuses

10.

Miniature Circuit Breaker (MCB)

11.

Earthing (Permanent And Temporary)

12.

Feeder Pillar

13.

Ring Mains Unit (RMU)

14.

Lightning Arresters And Rod Gaps

15.

Pulling Forces On A Conductor Intension

16.

The Combine Forces Exerted By An Angle

17.

The Additional Weight Developed By Raising The Conductor

18.

The Increase Weight Or tension Force Developed by Block Or Traveler Friction

19.

Application of Factor of Safety on Line Construction

20.

Simple Pulley

21.

The Recoiling of Tackle Blocks

22.

Pole Mounted Transformer Installation And Connection

23.

Lightning arresters Installation And Connections

24. J & P Fuses Installation And Connection


DISTRIBUTION LINE MAINTENANCE BASIC STAGE II:
1. TOPIC: MAGNETISM AND ELECTROMAGNETISM
OBJECTIVES:
To explain the origin of natural magnet
To study the nature of magnets
To explain the magnetic field about a magnet
To learn the basic principles of electromagnetism

To explain the rules for determining the direction and magnitude of magnetic flux
around conductors and coils
To see how electromagnetism is used in the electrical industry.

INTRODUCTION
1.1

Origin of natural magnet

1.2

The nature of magnet

1.3

The characteristic of magnetic flux

1.4

Basic principles of electromagnetism

1.5

Rules for determining the direction and magnitude of magnetic flux around
conductors and coils

1.6

Practical uses of electromagnetism in the electrical industry like NEPA

2.

TOPIC: GENERATION OF ELECTRICAL PRESSURE (EMF)


OBJECTIVE:
(i)

To explain the principles of electrical generation

(ii)

To illustrate the principles of the alternating current generator

(iii)

To illustrate how direct current is obtained

(iv)

To describe the basic construction of a generator.

INTRODUCTION:
Principles of electrical generation
2.1

Alternating current generator principles

2.2

Generation of direct current (D>C)

2.3

Basic construction of a generator.

3.

TOPIC: FUNDAMENTAL OF MUTUAL INDUCTION


OBJECTIVES:
(i)

To explain the principle of mutual induction or transformation

(ii)

To explain direct current (DC) Transformation and its application

(iii)

To illustrate Alternating current (AC) Transformation and its application

(iv)

To describe single-phase and three-phase transformation

INTRODUCTION:

4.

3.1

Principle of mutual induction or Transformation

3.2

Direct Current (DC) transformation and its application

3.3

Alternating current (AC) transformation and its application

3.4

Single-phase and three-phase Transformation.

TOPIC: GENERAL CLASSIFICATION OF TRANSFORMERS


OBJECTIVES:
1.

To name the types of Transformers common to the Power Industry

2.

To identify the importance of transformers in an electrical industry.

INTRODUCTION:
Types of Transformers
4.1

The importance of Transformer

5. TOPIC: DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER


OBJECTIVES:
(i)

To explain basic knowledge of transformation and the transformation process

(ii)

To illustrate the construction details of distribution transformers

(iii)

To discuss Protection, Taps, Polarity, Ratings and other designs of Distribution


Transformers

(iv)

To explain how to secure transformer ratio using volt-meters

(v)

To explain how to check polarity by the alternating current and the direct
current methods

(vi)

To explain the measurement at impedance.


INTRODUCTION:

Basic knowledge of transformers and the transformation process


5.1

Construction details of distribution transformers

5.2

Protection, Taps, Polarity, Ratings and other designs of distribution Transformers

5.3

Transformer ratio using volt-meters

5.4

Polarity by the alternating current and the direct current methods

5.5

Measurement of impedance.

6. TOPIC: ELECTRICAL ENERGY AND POWER


OBJECTIVE:
1.

To explain the fundamentals of power and energy

2.

To illustrate the relationship between various power units

3.

To describe the alternative expression for power

6.0

INTRODUCTION

6.1

Fundamentals of power and energy

6.2

Relationship between various power units

6.3

Alternative expression for power

7. TOPIC: NATURE OF ELECTRICITY


OBJECTIVE
(i)

To explain the nature of matter

(ii)

To discuss electron theory

(iii)

To explain electric current

(iv)

To explain the basic precautions for safety operation

7.0

INTRODUCTION:

7.1

The nature of matter

7.2

The electron theory

7.3

The electric current

7.4

Basic precautions for safety operation.

8. TOPIC: SERIES, PARALLEL AND SERIES PARALLEL CIRCUITS


OBJECTIVES:
(i)

To explain the relationship between Voltage, Current and Resistance

(ii)

To explain series circuit calculation problems

(iii)

To explain the relationship between Current, Voltage and Resistance in a


Parallel Circuit

(iv)

To explain parallel circuit calculation problems

(v)

To illustrate the effect of electrical quantities connected in series, parallel and


series parallel.
INTRODUCTION

8.1

Relationship between current, voltage and resistance in a series circuit

8.2

Series circuit calculations

8.3

Relationship between current, voltage and resistance in a parallel circuit

8.4

Parallel circuit calculations

8.5

Effect of electrical quantities connected in series, parallel and series-parallel.

9.

TOPIC: DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM FUSES

OBJECTIVES:
(i)

To explain the meaning of Fuse

(ii)

To explain the nature of fuse

(iii)

To explain the various types of fuses

(iv)

To discuss the ratings of fuses


INTRODUCTION:

9.1

Meaning of fuse

9.2

Nature of fuse

9.3

Types of fuses

9.4

Various rating of fuses.

10. TOPIC: MINIATURE CIRCUIT BREAKER (MCB)


OBJECTIVES:
(i)

To explain the working principles of a miniature circuit breaker

(ii)

To illustrate the advantage of MCB over cut out fuse

(iii)

To describe various ratings of MCB

INTRODUCTION:
Miniature circuit breaker working principles
10.1

Advantages of MCB over cut-out fuse

10.2

Miniature circuit breaker ratings.

11.

TOPIC EARTHING
OBJECTIVES:
(i)

To explain the meaning of earthing

(ii)

To explain the reasons for earthing

(iii)

To differenciate temporal earthing.

(iv)

To describe the procedure for HT and LT earthing

(v)

To describe the procedure for temporary earthing


INTRODUCTION

11.1

Earthing

11.2

Reasons for earthing

11.3

Difference between temporary earthing and permanent earthing

11.3.1 Procedure for HT Earthing

11.3.2 Procedure for LT Earthing


11.3.3 Procedure for Temporary Earthing.
12.

TOPIC: FEEDER PILLAR


OBJECTIVES:
(i)

To explain the types of feeder pillar

(ii)

To describe the construction detail of feeder pillar

(iii)

To explain the basic precautionary measures to be taken when working in the


feeder pillar
INTRODUCTION:

12.1

Types of Feeder Pillar

12.2

Construction details of Feeder Pillar

12.3

Basic Safety precautions when working in Feeder Pillar.

13.

TOPIC: R. M. U.
OBJECTIVES:
(i)

To explain the meaning of RMU

(ii)

To discuss types of RMU

(iii)

To explain the construction details

(iv)

To illustrate the switching and operation of R.M.U.


INTRODUCTION

13.1

Definition of R..M. U.

13.2

The types of R.M.U.

13.3

The construction details of R.M.U

13.4

Mode of Operation.

TOPIC:

Lightning Arresters and Rod Gaps

OBJECTIVES:
(i)

To explain the theory of Lightning

(ii)

To explain the equipment used to control the effect of lightning

(iii)

Describe the construction details of lightning arresters and rod gap

(iv)

Illustrate the connection and working principles of lightning arrester and rod gap

INTRODUCTION
14.1

The theory of lightning

14.2

Controlling the effect of lightning

14.3

Construction details of lightning arrester and rod gaps

14.4

Connection and working principles of lightning arresters and rod gaps

15.

TOPIC: Pulling Forces On A Conductor Intension


OBJECTIVES:

(i)

To discuss determination of Conductor Tension


INTRODUCTION:

15.1

Determination of Conductor Tension

16.

TOPIC:

The Combine Forces Exerted By An Angle

OBJECTIVES:
To explain the combination of the conductor weight and the bisect tension
INTRODUCTION:
16.1

Calculate the weight of a conductor supported by an angle pole

17.

TOPIC: The Additional Weight Developed By Raising The Conductor


OBJECTIVES:

(i)

To discuss additional weight developed by raising the conductor


INTRODUCTION:

17.1

Additional weight developed by raising the conductor.

18.

TOPIC: The Increased weight Or Tension Force Developed By Block Or


Traveller Friction
OBJECTIVES:

(i)

To explain the increased weight or tension force developed by Block or Traveller


Friction.
INTRODUCTION:

18.1

Practical used of rope blocks in the line trade to ease tension

19.

TOPIC: Application Of Factor Of Safety On Line Materials


OBJECTIVES:

(i)

To explain tensil stress

(ii)

To explain compressive stress

(iii)

To explain shear stress

(iv)

To explain ultimate tensil stress

(v)

To illustrate factor of safety

(vi)

To illustrate working stress of the materials

19.1

Tensil stress

19.2

Compressive Stress

19.3

Shear Stress

19.4

Ultimate Tensil Stress

19.5

Factor of Safety

19.6

Working Stress of the material

20

TOPIC:

Simple Pulley

OBJECTIVES:
(i)

To explain the principle of Pulley

(ii)

To determine the efficiency of pulley

(iii)

To state the practical application of pulley machines.


INTRODUCTION:

20.1

Principle of pulley

20.2

Determining the efficiency of pulley

20.3

Practical application of simple pulley machines in the line trade

21.

TOPIC: The Reeving of Tackle Blocks


OBJECTIVES:

(i)

To explain how to reeve tackle blocks

(ii)

To illustrate the method of reeving a set of triple blocks


INTRODUCTION:

21.1

Reeving of Tackle Block

21.2

Reeving a set of triple block.

22.

TOPIC: Pole Mounted Transformer installation and connection


OBJECTIVES:

(i)

To explain the procedures for pole mounted transformer installation.


INTRODUCTION

22.1

Itemization of standard Procedures for Pole Mounted transformer.

23.

TOPIC: Ligbtning arrester Installation and connection


OBJECTIVES:

(i)

To explain what lightining arrester is

(ii)

To explain the reason for the use of lightning arrester in electrical distribution
system

(iii)

To illustrate how it operates and the various ratings

(iv)

To explain how its installed and connected

(v)

To explain various types of lightning arrester.


INTRODUCTION:

23.1

The nature of lightning arrester

23.2

The reason for lightning arrester

23.3

How it operates and the various ratings for each voltage

23.4

Basic installation and connection

23.5

Various types of lightning arrester

24.

TOPIC:

J & P Fuses Installation And Connection

OBJECTIVES:
(i)

To explain the connection details of J&P Fuse Installation.


INTRODUCTION:

24.1

Installation details of connection of J & P Fuses

BASIC LINES MAINTENANCE STAGE III


COURSE CONTENTS:
1.

Systematic approach to fault clearing on O/H Lines

2.

Procedure for changing a broken cross-arm

3.

Precautions for the replacement of blown fuses on Feeder Pillars and RMUs

4.

Procedure to replace damaged poles

5.

Load reading and balancing

6.

Introduction to electrical meters

7.

Construction and operation of a Galvanometer

8.

DC Meters

9.

AC Meters

10.

Wattmeter Instrument

11.

Energy Meter

12.

Meters for Residential Premises

13.

Clip-on Ammeter.

BASIC LINES MAINTENANCE STAGE III


1.

TOPIC: Systematic Approach To Fault Clearing On O/H Lines


OBJECTIVE:

To describe the approaches to be followed to clear over head line faults


INTRODUCTION:
Categorization of Faults
1.1

Approaches

2.

TOPIC: Procedure for Changing A Broken Cross-Arm


OBJECTIVES

(i)

To state some causes of wooden cross-arm failure

(ii)

To list the materials required to change a broken X-arm

(iii)

To state the tools required for the job

(iv)

To describe the procedure

INTRODUCTION
2.1

Causes of Wooden X-Arm Failure

2.2

Materials

2.3

Tools

2.4

Procedure

3.

TOPIC: Precautions for the Replacement of Blown Fuses on F.Ps & RMUS
OBJECTIVES
To explain the necessary procedure to be adopted before replacing a blown fuse
INTRODUCTION

3.1

Checks and Inspections To be carried out

3.2

Precautions To Be Observed

4.

TOPIC: Procedure To Replace Damaged Poles


OBJECTIVES

(i)

To state some of the reasons for pole failure

(ii)

To list the materials and tools required for the job

(iii)

To describe the procedure


INTRODUCTION

4.1

Reasons for Pole Failure

4.2

List of Tools and Materials Required

4.3

Procedure

5.

TOPIC: Load Reading And Balancing


OBJECTIVES:

(i)

To explain the importance of load reading and balancing

(ii)

Loading reading with Clip-On Ammeter

(iii)

Voltage reading with Avometer


INTRODUCTION

5.1

Importance of Load Reading and Balancing

5.2

Load Reading with Clip-on Ammeter

5.3

Voltage reading with Avometer

6.

TOPIC: Introduction to Electrical Meters


OBJECTIVES
To explain the basic concept of electrical meters as an introduction to the series of
lessons in the meter and metering course.
INTRODUCTION

6.1

A list of various Meters and the Quantities the measure.

7.

TOPIC: Construction and Operation of A Galvanometer


OBJECTIVES:
To describe the construction and principles of operation of a Galvanometer
INTRODUCTION

7.1

Construction Details of A Galvanometer

7.2

Principles of Operation.

8.

TOPIC: D. C. Meters
OBJECTIVES
To explain the difference in construction between a Galvanometer, an Ammeter
and a Voltmeter.
INTRODUCTION

8.1

Functions of Shunts and Multipliers

8.2

Reasons for Uniform Scale

8.3

Why D. C. Meters are unsuitable for A. C

9.

TOPIC: A. C. Meters
OBJECTIVES
To explain the construction details and the principle of operation of A. C. Meters
INTRODUCTION

9.1

Moving iron instrument repulsion type

9.2

Moving iron instrument attraction type

10.

TOPIC: Wattmeter instrument


OBJECTIVES
To explain the basic construction and principles of operation of a Wattmeter.
INTRODUCTION

10.1

Construction details

10.2

Principles of Operation

11.

TOPIC: Energy Meter


OBJECTIVES
To describe the construction and principles of operation of an induction type of
energy meter.

11.1

Construction Details

11.2

Principles of Operation

12.

TOPIC: Meters for Residential Premises


OBJECTIVES:

(i)

To describe the basic connections of KWH Meters

(ii)

To describe the installation of Kwh Meters

(iii)

Basic connections of 30 4 wire Kwh meter

(iv)

To explain how to replace damaged meters

(v)

To explain how to estimate consumers load


INTRODUCTION

12.1

Connections of Kwh Meters

12.2

Practical demonstration on how to install Kwh Meters

12.3

Connections of 30 4 wire meters

12.4

Description of the procedure of replacing a damaged Kwh meter

12.5

Method of load estimation

13.

TOPIC: Clip-On Ammeter


OBJECTIVES
To describes how to use the Clip on Ammeter
INTRODUCTION

13.1

Practical demonstration of the use of Clip-on Ammeters.

DISTRIBUTION LINES MAINTENANCE TRAINING PROGRAM


COURSE TITLE: Updating course
DURATION:

Two (2) weeks

DESIGNED FOR: Officer Grade III and above


COURSE CONTENT:
1.

Generation of Single Phase Voltage

2.

Generation of Single Phase Voltage

3.

Generation of 3 Phase Voltage

4.

Resistive, Inductive and Capacitance Loads

5.

Power factor

6.

Power in a Single Phase Circuit

7.

Power in a 3 Phase Circuit

8.

Simple machines for Line Work

9.

Circuit Breakers

10.

Air Switches

1.

TOPIC: Transformer
OBJECTIVES:

(i)

To explain transformer losses

(ii)

To explain transformer cooling methods

(iii)

to show how the efficiency of a transformer can be determined


INTRODUCTION
Losses in a Transformer

1.1

Cooling Methods

1.2

Efficiency of a Transformer

2.

TOPIC: Genertion of Single Phase Voltage


OBJECTIVE
To describe the Generation of a Single Phase Voltage
INTRODUCTION

2.1

Single Phase Generation

3.

TOPIC: Generation of 3 Phase Voltage


OBJECTIVE
To describe the generation of 3 Phase Voltage
INTRODUCTION

3.1

3 Phase Generation

4.

TOPIC: Inductive, Resistive and Capacitive Loads


OBJECTIVES

(i)

To show the behaviour of Current and Voltage on:


(a) Inductive Loads
(b) Resistive Loads
(c) Capacitive Loads

(ii)

To define impedance

(iii)

To find the value of Current in:


(a) a series connected R, L, C.
(b) a parallel connected R, L, C.

(iv)

To explain and define P.F.


INTRODUCTION

4.1a

Effect of Current and Voltage in Inductive Loads

4.1b

Effect of Current and Voltage in Resistive Loads

4.1c

Effect of Current and Voltage in Capacitive Loads

4.2

Impedance

4.3a

Series Connected R. L and C.

4.3b.

Parallel Connected R.L and C

5.

Power Factor

5.1

Effects of Low P.F.

5.2

P.F. improvement

6.

TOPIC: Power in A Single Phase Circuit


OBJECTIVE
To explain how to calculate power in a 30 circuit.
Method

7.

TOPIC: Power in 3 Phase Circuit


OBJECTIVE
To explain how to calculate power in a 30 circuit.
Method

8.

TOPIC: Simple Machines for line Work


OBJECTIVE
(i) To describe the principle of operation of the screw jack and its field of
application
(ii) To describe the principle of operation and the field of application of
Hydraulic Jack .
Description of the Screw Jack
KA, VR and Efficiency of the Screw Jack
Field of Application
Description of the Hydraulic Jack
Mechanical Advantage, Velocity Ratio and the Efficiency of the hydraulic Jack
Field of application

9.

TOPIC: Circuit Breakers


OBJECTIVE:
(i) To describe the construction and principles of operation of A. C. 3s
(ii) To describe the construction and operation of O.C. 3s

(iii) To describe the construction and operation of SF6


INTRODUCTION
Construction of an Air Circuit Breaker
9.1.2

Operation of an Air Circuit Breaker


Construction of an Oil Circuit Breaker
Operation of an Oil Circuit Breaker
Construction of an SF6
Operation of an SF6
Maintenance details of an SF6

10.

TOPIC: Air Switches


OBJECTIVES:
(i) To highlight the type of air switches in use by NEPA
(ii) To describe the principle of operation of arc switches
(iii) to describe arc interruption principles of air switches.
INTRODUCTION

10.1

Types of Air Switches

10.2

Operation of Air Switches

10.3

Arc interruption in Air Switches

NATIONAL ELECTRIC POWER AUTHORITY


CABLE JOINTING SECTION
Course Title:

Cable Jointing Basic Course Stage 1

Duration:

Four (4) Weeks

Entry Behaviour: WASC/GCE


Designed for:

Cable Jointers Mate learner/Staff III

Methodology:

Lectures and Practical Work

Objective:

At the end of the course, participants should be able to:

Appreciate their roles as Cable Jointers

Apply and observe various safety measures

Care and maintain tools used in jointing

Identify various Electrical Equipments, parts of cables and their functions

Carryout various low voltage termination and joints with minimal supervision

Make use of jointings and soldering materials.

COURSE CONTENT:
CABLE JOINTING STAGE 1
1.0

Introduction Cable Jointing

2.0

Care and uses of Cable Jointing tools

2.1

Introduction

2.2

Instruction on caring for tools

2.3

Use of tools

2.4

Cleanliness

2.5

Orderliness

3.0

Jointing Metals and soldering materials

3.1

Introduction

3.2

To solder a cable socket

3.3

Diagram

3.3 Fig. 1

Inserting prepared cable into cable socket

3.3 Fig. 2

Making up level of socket

3.4

Procedure

4.0

Technique of soldering Electrical component

4.1

Introduction

4.2

Tinning

5.0

Cable laying techniques

6.0

Basic safety rules and rules on underground cable

7.0

Standard protection code (SPC)

7.1

Introduction

7.2

Agent

7.3

Alive

7.4

Approval

7.5

Apparatus

7.6

Authorized

7.7

Caution Tag

7.8

De-energise

7.9

District

7.10

Ground or Earth

7.11

Hold-off

7.12

Isolated

7.13

Lines

7.14

Protection Guarantee

7.15

Qualified

7.16

Rules

7.17

Station

7.18

Station Guarantee

7.19

Work-permit

7.20

Work and Test permit

8.0

Duties and responsibilities of cable 3.

9.0

Electrical Devices & Equipment

9.1

Transformer

9.2

O. C. B

9.3

R.M.U

9.4

Feeder Pillar

9.5

Fuse

9.6

Earth wire

9.7

Neutral wire

9.8

Condenser

9.9

Pot head

9.10

Lightening Arrester

9.11

Hydro Electric generation

9.12

Thermal Electric generation

9.13

Grid system

9.14

Isolator

9.15

Ground Isolator

9.16

Sky wire

9.17

Generator

9.18

Schematic Diagrams

9.18 Fig. 1

Transformer

9.18 Fig. 2

O. C. B

9.18 Fig. 3

R. M.U

9.18 Fig. 4

R.M.U with extension

9.18 Fig. 5

R.M.U with two extension

9.18 Fig. 6

Feeder Pillar

9.18 Fig. 7

Oil Fuse Switch

9.18 Fig. 8

D Fuse

9.18 Fig. 9

Line Isolator

9.18 Fig 10

O.C.B

9.18 Fig. 11

Switch Fuse

9.18 Fig. 12

Earth

9.18 Fig. 13

Underground Cable

9.18 Fig. 14

Overhead line

9.18 Fig. 15

Fuse Switch

9.18 Fig. 16

Generator

9.18 Fig. 17

Batteries

9.18 Fig. 18

Capacitor

9.18 Fig. 19

Delta

9.18 Fig. 20

Star

10.0

Circle

10.1

Introduction

10.2

Diameter

10.3

Radius

10.4

Constant

10.5

Parallel line

10.6

Horizontal straight line

10.7

Angle

10.8

Isosceles triangle

10.9

A riladrant

10.10

A Sector

10.11

An Arc

10.12

A cord

10.13

A segment

10.14

A tangent

10.15

Diagrams

10.15 Fig. 1

Circle

10.15 Fig. 2

Diameter and Radius

10.15 Fig. 3

Parallel line

10.15 Fig. 4

Horizontal and vertical line

10.15 Fig. 5

Circle showing point of content, tangent, Quadrant, Radius


Diameter Cord, sector and segment.

11.0

Fundamental of Cables and Application

11.1

Introduction

11.2

Shapes of Conductor

11.3

Concentric Round

11.4

Compact concentric round

11.5

Annular concentric

11.6

Segmental

11.7

Sector conductor

11.8

Hollow core

11.9

Diagram

11.9 Fig. 1

Concentric

11.9 Fig. 2

Segmental

11.9 Fig. 3

Annular concentric

11.9 Fig. 4

Sector

11.9 Fig. 5

Hollow care

12.0

Preparation of Cable Ground

12.1

Tools Recommended for use

12.2

Material Recommend

12.3

Procedure

12.4

Diagram

12.4 Fig. 1

Cable Gland

12.4 Fig. 2

Procedure of Cutting Cable Gland

13.0

Types of Cable fault

14.0

Things that can lead to the failure of the joint during construction

15.0

Application of connectors

15.1

Introduction

15.2

Types of connectors and sizes

15.3

Application

15.4

Diagrams

15.5 Fig. 1-7


16.0

Limit of Approach

16.1

Introduction

16.2

Normal voltage range and distance

16.2

Absolute limit of approach

16.3

For qualified personnel

17.0

Types of Cable used in NEPA

17.1

Introduction

17.2

PILC

17.3

PVC

17.4

CLPE

17.5

Diagrams

17.5 Fig 1

PILC 3 Core

17.5 Fig. 2

PILC 3 Core double screen belted

17.5 Fig. 3

PILC 3 Core type H cable

17.5 Fig. 4

PVC Cable 4 core

17.5 Fig. 5

XLPE simple core

17.5 Fig. 6

XLPE (Thermoteen) single core

17.5 Fig. 7

XLPE (Thermoteen) three core

17.5 Fig. 8

XLPE (Silicon carbride) cable single core

18.0

Definition of electrical terms

18.1

Current

18.2

Voltage

18.3

Resistance

18.4

Ampere

18.5

Volt

18.6

Ohm

18.7

D1 Electric

18.8

Skin Effect

18.9

Corona

18.10

Birdcaping

18.11

Capacitance

18.12

Electric Stress

19.0

Insulating Tapes

19.1

Introduction

19.2

White Cotton Tape

19.3

Lassovic Tape

19.4

Ozokerite Tape

19.5

Holborn Tape

19.6

Adhensive Tape

19.7

Densotape

19.8

Kaleories Tape

20.0

Application of insulating tape

20.1

Instruction

20.2

Method

20.3

Diagram

21.0

Impregnation of insulating tapes

21.1

Materials required

21.2

Tools Required

21.3

Method

21.4

Diagram

22.0

Striping of Cable (PILC, PVC, XLPE)

23.0

Standard sizes of common cables and their current carrying capacity

23.1

Overhead

23.2

Underground Cable

24.0

Electric Cable Conductors

24.1

Introduction

24.2

Conductor

24.3

Stranding

24.4

Working examples

25.0

Low voltage termination

25.1

Outdoor termination PVC 4 Core

25.2

Indoor termination to feeder pillar/LV Switch Gear with PVC 4-Core


Cable.

26.0

Good House Keeping.

CABLE JOINTING SECTION


Course Title:

Cable Jointing Basic Course Stage II

Duration:

Four (4) Weeks

Entry Behaviour:

WASC/GCE

Designed for:

Cable Jointers Staff II who have completed Stage 1

Methodology:

Lecture and practical work in the field

Objective:

At the end of the course, participants should be able to:

Carryout all low voltage joints and termination without supervision

Perform insulation Resistance test

Have Basic understanding on the fundamentals of cable and their application

Carryout various high voltage joints and terminations using thermosetting,


premoulded and prestreched materials with minimum supervision.

Trace Cable fault

Appreciate Generation of E.M.F

Explain the meaning of Dielectric field and shielding.

COURSE CONTENT:
CABLE JOINTING STAGE II

1.0

Fundamental of Cables and Application

1.1

Introduction

1.2

Shapes of conductor

1.3

Concentric round

1.4

Compact concentric round

1.5

Annular concentric

1.6

Segmental

1.7

Sector conductor

1.8

Hollow core

6.5

Main requirements of a joint

6.6

Tools/materials required to prepare tee joint

6.7

Preparation

6.8

Jointing procedure

6.9

Diagram

6.10

Fig. 1 7

7.0

High Voltage Cable Termination

7.1

Introduction

7.2

Improving the Electrical characteristic

8.0

Raychem premolded/prestressed component and function

8.1

Parts of Elastimold and functions

8.2

Contents of 3m pole mounted termination and function

9.0

Test on Cable Jointing

9.1

Head Test

9.2

Moisture Test

9.3

Potential test

9.4

Insulation Resistance test

9.5

Capacitance test

9.6

High potential test/acceptance test (Hipo 1) continuity test

10.0

Techniques of soldering Electrical component

10.1

Introduction

10.2

Tinning

11.0

Application of insulation materials

11.1

Heat shrinkable material

11.2

B.I.C.C Bundy

11.3

Elastimold

11.4

3M

11.5

Raychem

11.6

B.I.C.C

12.0

Elastimold Elbow termination

12.1

Introduction

12.2

Preparation

12.3

Installation of Adaptor

12.4

Installation of the Elbow on bushing

12.5

Content of the kits Elbow Housing

12.6

Diagram

3.0

3m pole mounting terminating

3.1

Introduction

3.2

Content of the kit

3.3

Preparation of the Cable

3.4

Application of Material

13.5

Diagram

4.0

Raychem Indoor and Outdoor termination

4.1

General Instruction

14.2

Contents of the kit

14.3

Terminating Instruction

14.4

Application of Jointing Materials

14.5

Diagram

15.0

Raychem Straight Through Joint for Belted 3 core MIND paper insulated cable
12KV.

15.1

General Instruction

15.2

Cable Preparation

15.3

Size of conductor (mm2 )

15.4

Location of part in crutch Area

15.5

Dimensions of connection Area

15.6

Dimension in (mm2 )

15.7

Location of parts in complete joint

15.8

Completion of joint

16.0

Feeder pillar

16.1

Definition

16.2

Types of feeder pillar

16.3

Parts of Feeders

16.4

Description

16.5

Causes of faults on feeder pillar

17.0

Earthing

17.1

Introduction

17.2

Reason for earthing

17.3

Earthing tool and material

17.4

Earth procedure

17.5

Earth terms

18.0

Limit of Approach

18.1

Introduction

18.2

Normal voltage range and distance

18.3

Absolute limit of approach

18.4

For qualified personnel

19.0

Electric Cable Conductor

19.1

Introduction

19.2

Conductor

19.3

Stranding

19.4

Working examples

20.0

Grounding of Cables and sub-station equipments

20.1

Tools and materials

20.2

Earthing of grounding

20.3

Diagrams

20.3 Fig. 1

High voltage cable end box

20.3 Fig. 2

Feeder pillar showing earthing point

21.0

Electic device and equipment

22.0

Application of connector

22.1

Introduction

22.2

Types of connectors and sizes

22.3

Application

22.4

Fig. 1 7

CABLE JOINTING SECTION


Course Title:

Updating (Basic Course 3)

Duration:

Three (3) weeks

Entry Behaviour:

WASC/STAFF 1 (Cables)

Objectives:

At the end of the course, participants should be able to:

i.

Carryout all high voltage joints and terminations without supervision

ii.

Plan and construct an outdoor distribution sub-station

iii.

Carryout improvisation in Cable Jointing

iv.

Be conversant with all distribution electrical equipments and their operations.

COURSE CONTENT
1.0

Electric Cable Conductor

1.1

Introduction

1.2

Conductor

1.3

Stranding

1.4

Cross sectional area

2.0

Insulating materials for wire and cable

2.1

Introduction

2.2

Thermoplastic

2.2.1

Polyvinyl Chloride

2.2.2

Polythylene

2.3

Thermosetting

2.3.1

Natural rubber

2.3.2

Styrene Butadiene Rubber

2.3.3

Isobutylene Isoprene Rubber

2.3.4

Chloroprene rubber

2.3.5

Silicon Rubber

2.4

Mineral

2.4.1

Mica

2.4.2

Asbestos

2.4.3

Magnesium oxide

2.5

Miscellaneous

2.5.1

Paper

2.5.2

Vanish Cambric

3.0

Test on Cable Jointing

3.1

Moisture Test

3.2

Insulation resistance test

3.3

Capacitance test

3.4

High potential acceptance test

4.0

High voltage cable termination

4.1

Improving the electrical characteristic

5.0

Transition joint

5.1

General instruction

5.2

Jointing Instruction

5.3

Cable preparation

5.4

Completion of joint

6.0

Improvisation of material in Cable Jointing

6.1

Introduction

6.2

Data on basic elements of power cables and material equivalent

6.3

Points to be noted in improvisation

6.4

Practical guides

6.4.1

Differentiating HV Cables from LV Cable/Maerial

6.4.2

Use of HV Cable/Material for low voltage

6.4.3

Use of combination of substituting of premoulded, prestretched, thermosttting


(etc) materials in single or multicore cable.

6.4.4

Use of Raychem materials (Angle Bushing) on single or multicore cable in


absence in Elbow Housing vit on Plug in transformer.

6.4.5

Straight jointing of large size single core cables

6.5

Conclusion

7.0

33KV Termination (Out-door)

7.1

Contens of Jointing Kit

7.2

General Instruction

7.3

Termination Instruction

7.4

Application of Jointing materials

8.0

33KV Straight through joint

8.1

Contents of Jointing Kit

8.2

General instruction

8.3

Kit size (Table one)

8.4

Cable preparation

8.5

Maximum dimensions of connectors before installation (Table two).

8.6

Completion of Joint

9.0

Definition electrical devices and equipment with symbols

9.1

Transformer

9.2

Oil circuit breaker

9.3

RMU

9.4

Feeder Pillar

9.5

Fuse

9.6

Earth

9.7

Neutral wire

9.8

Condense

9.9

Lighting arresters

9.10

Pot head

9.11

Hydro electric generation

9.12

Thermal electric generation

9.13

Grid System

9.14

Sky wire

9.15

Current transformer

9.16

Isolator

9.17

Grounding Isolator

9.18

Symbols

10.0

Electrical Power System

10.1

Objective

10.2

Information

10.3

Hydro electric generation

10.4

Thermal electric generation

10.5

To describe transmission equipment

10.6

A typical 3 phase NEPA power circuit.

11.0

Electrical energy and power

11.1

Objectives

11.2

Introduction

11.3

Power and energy

11.4

Alternative expression for power

12.0

Magnetism

12.1

Objectives

12.2

Introduction

12.3

Natural magnets

12.4

The nature of magnets

12.5

Poles

12.6

Magnetic field

13.0

Electromagnetism

13.1

Objectives

13.2

Introduction

13.3

Principles of electromagnetism

13.4

Magnetic lines around conductors

13.5

Practical uses of electromangnetism

14.0

Transformers (Distribution) principles of operations

14.1

Introduction

14.2

Essential parts

14.3

Operation

14.4

Turn ratio

14.5

Losses

14.6

Summary

14.7

Transformers for voltage transformation in power circuits

14.8

Transformer for regulation of voltage

14.8.1

Regulating transformer

14.8.2

Step-voltage regulator

14.8.3

Induction voltage regulator

14.9

Transformer for regulation of current

14.10

Transformer for metering and protection

14.10.1

Instrument transformers

14.10.1.1

Current transformer

14.10.1.2

Potential transformer

14.10.1.3

Grounding transformers

14.11

Accessory transformers

15.0

Fundamentals of mutual induction (Transformation).

15.1

Objectives

15.2

Introduction

15.3

Principle of mutual induction or transformation

15.4

Direct current (DC) Transformation and application

15.5

Alternating current (AC) transformation and its application

16.0

Ohms law

16.1

Application

17.0

Sub-Stations

17.1

Functions

17.2

Types

17.2.1

Injection

17.2.2

Distribution

17.3

Factors influencing location

17.4

Distribution Sub-Station equipments

17.4.1

Ring main unit

17.4.2

J & P D Fuse

17.4.3

Transformer

17.4.4

Feeder Pillar

17.4.5

HV Cable

17.4.6

LV Cables

17.5

Trenching and Cable laying

17.6

Fencing

17.7

Commissioning

18.0

Fuses

18.1

Definition

18.2

Types

18.3

Advantages

18.4

Disadvantages

19.0

Earthing

19.1

Introduction

19.2

Reasons for earthing

19.3

Earthing tools and materials

19.4

Earthing procedure

19.5

Earthing terms

20.0

Electric Circuit

20.1

Electrical safety and First Aid

22.0

First Aid

22.1

Introduction

22.2

Aim

22.3

Responsibilities of First Aider

22.4

Summary and essential of First Aid.

CABLE JOITING SECTION


Course Title:

Distribution Maintenance Workshop

Duration:

Three (3) weeks

Entry Behaviour:

WASC/OND

Designed for:

Cable Jointers, Electrical Filters and Linesmen (Officer IV


Officer 1)

Methodology
Objective:

Lectures and Practical Work


At the end of the course, participants should be able to:

Supervie and ensure safety for various crew members

Carryout switching operation on outdoor equipments

Manipulate various testing equipments within a minimal interval

Locate and clear underground and overhead fault

Know the distribution network of his locality and obtain a reliable and minimal
fault free Distribution network.

COURSE CONTENT
1.0

Distribution Maintenance Workshop

1.1

Definition

1.1.1

Distribution

1.1.1

Maintenance

1.1.3

Workshop

1.2

Introduction

1.3

Objectives of Maintenance

1.4

Preventive Maintenance

1.5

Clue to preventive maintenance application

2.0

Ring Main Unit

2.1

Definition

2.2

Types

2.2.1

Long and Crawford

2.2.2

R3

2.2.3

J3

2.2.4

GF3

2.3

Lucy Oxford

2.3.1

DEOS

2.3.2

EOS

2.3.3

EFS

2.4

Construction Features

2.4.1

Internal arrangements

2.4.2

Oil

2.4.3

Fuses

2.5

External Features

2.5.1

Switch and its operation

2.5.2

R3 and J3

2.5.3

GF3

2.5.4

DOES

2.5.5

EOS

2.5.6

EFS

2.6

Lid or Cover

2.6.1

GF3

2.6.2

EFS

2.7

Cable end boxes

2.8

Padlocking

2.9

Test chamber

2.10

Installation and applications

2.11Advantages of a ring main unit


2.12

Switching procedure/precaution

2.13

Causes of faults/damage

2.14

Routine maintenance

3.0

Feeder pillars

3.1

Definition

3.2.0

Types of feeder pillars

3.2.1

Henley

3.2.2

Siemens

3.2.3

Lucy Oxford

3.3.0

Parts of feeder pillars

3.3.1

Cubicle

3.3.2

Incoming

3.3.3

Solid link

3.3.4

Bus bar

3.3.5

Outgoing Units

3.3.6

Fuses

3.3.7

Fuse handle

3.4.0

Description

3.5.0

Cause of faults on feeder pillars

3.6.0

Feeder pillar protection

3.7.0

Installation of feeder pillar

4.0

Network operation

4.1

Operating weapons

4.2

Sources or causes of HT and LT breakdown

4.3

Systematic approach to fault clearing

4.4

Load reading, shifting and back feeding

5.0

Clip-on Ammeter

5.1

Introduction

5.2

Principles of operations

5.3

Measurement

6.0

Fuses and circuits

6.1

Types of Fuses

6.2

Advantages

6.3

Disadvantages

7.0

Underground Cable Maintenance

7.1

To prove a cable isolated

7.2

To prove a cable insolated

7.3

Repair procedures

7.4

Armour

7.5

Lead Sheath

7.6

Protection from corrosion

7.7

Sheath inspection

7.8

Repairs

8.0

Hi potential acceptance test

8.1

Labelled Diagramme of Tester

8.2

Connection for testing of transformer

8.3

Connection for test between cable core and earth

8.4

Connection for test between conductors of cable

8.5

How to connect set for test

8.6

Voltage test

9.0

Electrical safety and first aid

9.1

Introduction

9.2

Objective

9.3

Causes of accident

9.4

Factors involving Electrical shock

9.5

Danger Associated with Electricity

10.0

Magnetism

11.0

Mutual induction (Transformation)