Res. 101 Element of Research Module5: Analysis, Presentation, and Interpretation of Data Objective: 1.

Ton organize, Classify and interpret of Data Procedure: 1. Define: a. Analysis b. synthesis c. talligram Analysis-is the process of breaking up the hole study into its constituents parts categories according to specific questions under the statement of the problem. Synthesis- assembling of parts into a new form or complex form Talligram - is the presentation of data in the statistical tables, where they (data) have to be tallied first in a tabulation diagram. Talligram - is a contraction of tally and diagram, where the individual responses to a questionnaire o interview schedule for examples have to be tallied one by one. 2. How are data classified and arranged? Explain. Data are classified on the basis of group such as: a. Qualitative (kind) – this is the grouping of data having the same quality or are of the same kind. b. Quantitative – this is the grouping of data according to their quantity. In age, for instance, people may be grouped into ages 10-14, 15-19, 20-24, 25-29, etc. c. Geographical- data may be arranged according to geographical location or according to direction. Data from Ilocos Region may be listed from north to south by province as Ilocos norte, Abra, Ilocos Sur and La Union. d. Chronological- this listing down data occurred first and last those that occurred last or vice versa according to the purpose of presentation. This is especially as: a. Qualitative (kind)- this is the grouping of data having the same quality or are of the same kind. b. Quantitative- this is the classification of data according to their quantity. In age, for instance, people may be grouped into ages 10-14, 15-19, 20-24, 25-29, etc. c. Geographical- this is the classification of data according to their location. For instance, the schools in the secondary level in Province A may be grouped by district, as District 1, District 2, District 3, etc. d. Chronological- data are classified according to the order of their occurrence.

Example: The Enrolments of the high schools of Province A may be classified according to school years, as for, instance enrolments during the school years 1985-1986, 1986-1987, 1987-1988. The bases of arrangement of data or groups of data are the same as these of a. Qualitative- data are arrange alphabetically, or from the biggest class to smallest class from phylum to specie in classifying animals or vice-versa, or listing the biggest country to the smallest one or vice-versa, etc. Ranking of student according brightness is qualitative arrangement. b. Quantitative- this is arranging data according to numerical magnitudes, from the greatest to the smallest number or vice-versa. Schools may be arranged according to their population, from the most populated, and so with countries, provinces, cities, towns, etc. c. Geographical- data maybe arranged according to their geographical location or according to direction. Data from the Ilocos region may be listed from north to south by province as Ilocos Norte, Abra, Ilocos Sur, and La union. e. Chronological- this is listing down data occurred first and last those that occurred last, or vice-versa according to the purpose of presentation. This is especially true in historical research. For instance, data during the Spanish period should be treated first before the data during the American period. 3. Explain how group- derived generalizations are made. Why are they important in the analysis? Group-derived generalizations are made when the data are collected by means of the use of the survey, usually called the normative survey as a method of research implies the study of groups. From the finding are formulated conclusions in the form of generalizations that pertain to the particular group studied. So, the generalizations of the conclusion of the said group study designed to represent characteristics of groups and are applied to group rather than the individual cases one at a time. These are applicable to all kinds of research, be they social, science or natural research, are important in analysis because without these, the analysis of the research data can’t be successful knowing the fact that the main purpose in analyzing data is to form inferences, interpretations, conclusions, and/or generalization from the collected data. 4. Explain the process of contracting a talligram. A talligram may be constructed as follows: 1. Determine the classes and their respective subclasses along with their respective numbers. For instance, in the study about science teaching in the high schools in province A, orient the qualifications of the teachers, supposed there are four degree earned by the teachers such as AB (Bachelor of Art), BSCE (Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering),




BSE (Bachelor of Science in Education), MA (Master of Arts), with under graduate courses. The subclasses are the specializations or majors of the teachers. There are also four such as English, History, Mathematics, and Science. The classes and their sub classes are arranged alphabetically. Make rows for the classes by drawing horizontal lines and the numbers of the rows should be two more than the number of the classes. So in the example given in Steps no.1, there should be six rows because there are four classes. The uppermost row is for the labels of the subclasses, the bottom row is for the totals, and the middle four rows are for the classes: AB, BSCE, BSE, and MA. Make Columns for the subclasses by Drawing vertical lines and the numbers of columns should be two more than the numbers of subclasses. So in the example in the no. 1 step there should be six columns. The leftmost column is for the labels of the class rows. The rightmost column is for totals and the four middle columns are for the four subclasses. What are the three general ways of presenting data? What are the advantages and disadvantages of each?

The three general ways of presenting data are: 1. Textual presentationuses statements with numerals or numbers to described data. Advantages: The aims of textual presentation are to focus attention to some important data and to supplement tabular presentation. Disadvantages: If the Textual presentation is too long, is that it is boring to read and the reader may not be able to grasp the quantitative relationships of the data presented. The reader may even skip some statements. 2. Tabular Presentation of Data Statistical table or simply table is defined as a systematic arrangement of related data in which classes of numerical facts or data are given each a row and their subclasses are given each a column in order to present the relationships of the sets or numerical facts on data in a definite, compact, and understandable form or forms. The purpose of a table is to facilitate the study and interpretation, the making of inferences and implications. Table construction for data presentation is a part of analysis because the data are separated and grouped according to class or category.

Advantages of Tabular Presentation 1. Statistical tables are concise, and because data are systematically grouped and arranged, explanatory matter is minimal. 2. Data are easily read, understood and compared because of theirsystematic and logical arrangement into rows and columns. The readers can understand and interpret a great bulk of data rapidly because he can see significant relationships of data at once. 3. Tables given the whole information even without combining numerals with textual matter, This is because tables are so constructed that the ideas they convey can be understood even without reading their textual presentation. 4. Graphical PresentationA graph is chart representing the quantitative various changes of a variable in comparison with those of another variables in pictorial or diagrammatic form. Advantages Graphical Presentation 1.It attracts attention more effectively than do tables, and therefore, is less likely to be overlook. 2. This use of colors and pictorial diagrams makes a list of figures in business reports more meaningful. 3. It give a comprehensive view of quantitative data. 4. Graphs enable the busy executive of a business concern to graph the essential facts quickly, and without much troubles. 5. Their general usefulness lies in the simplicity they add to the presentation of numerical data Disadvantage of Graph: 1. Graphs do not shows as much information at a time as do tables. 2. Graphs do not show data as accurately as the tables do. 3. Chart require more skill, more time, and more expense prepare than tables. 4. Graphs cannot be quoted in the same way as tabulated data. 5. Graphs can be made only after the data have been tabulated. 6. What are the major functional parts of a statistical table? What are their functions? The major functional parts of a statistical table are: 1. Table Number - Each table should have a number, preferably in Arabic, for reference purposes. This is because only the tables numbers are cited, the number is written above the title. Tables are numbered competitively throughout the thesis report. If there is only one table the number is unnecessary.

2. Title a. Tells the subject matter that table deals with, where such subject is situated or b. to what entity or persons it belongs, or from whom the data about such subject were gathered. c. when data about such subject matters were gathered or the time period when such data were existent; and d. sometimes how the data about such subject matter are classified. 3. Headnote or Prefatory Note - This is written below the title land it is usually enclosed in parenthesis. It explains some things in the table that are not clear. 4. Stub contains the stub head nd the row labels. The stub head tells what the stub contains, the row labels. Each row label describes the data contained in that row. contains the master caption, the column captions, and the column captions in twin describes the sub column captions.

5. Box Head -

6. Main body, field or text - the main body, field, or text of the table contains. All the quantitative and / or proportional information presented in the table in rows and in columns. Each numerical datum is entered in the cell which is the interselection of the row and the column of the datum. 7. Footnote the footnote which appears immediately below the bottom line of the table explains, qualifies, or clarifies some items in the table which are not readily understandable or are missing. Proper symbols are used to indicate the items are clarified or explained.

8. Source notes - the source note which is generally written below the footnote indicates the origin or source of the data presented in the table. The purposes of placing the source note are: a. To give credit or recognition to the author of the table or the source of the data. b. To allow the user to secure additional data from the same source.

c. To provide the user a basis for alternating the accuracy and reliability of the information provided by the table. d. To protect the maker of the tables against any charge of inaccuracy and unreliability. 7. Explain the meanings of finding, implication, inference, and interpretation. Findings - are the original data, quantitative or otherwise, derived are taken from the original sources and which are results of questionnaires, interview, experiments, tests, observations and other data gathering instruments. Implication - includes the possible causes of the problems discovered, the possible effects of the problems, and the remedial measures to solve the problems. it also includes the good points of a system which ought to be continued or to be improved if possible. Inference Interpretation 8. Enumerate the different types of graphs and their uses. The different types of graphs are: 1. Bar graphs. a. Single vertical bar graph b. Single horizontal bar graph c. Grouped or multiple or composite bar group. d. Duo-directional or bilateral bar graph e. Subdivided or component bar graph f. histogram 2. a. b. c. d. e. Liner graphs Time series or chronological line chart. Composite line chart Frequency polygon Ogive Band chart

3. Hundred percent graphs or charts a. Subdivided bar or rectangular bar graph b. Circle or pie graph 4. Pictograms 5. Statistical maps 6. Ratio charts

Uses: bar graph- is often used for the graphical presentation of data, It is generally used to make comparison of simple magnitude every much more clearly and more distinctly perceptible to the eye. a. Single Vertical bar graph -are usually used to depict time series data. b. Single horizontal bar graph -used to compare magnitudes of the different categories into which the data are classified. -is usually used to compare magnitudes of categories. c. Grouped (Multiple or composite) Bar graph. - is used in comparing two or more categories of variable during a specified period or over successive period of time when the subgroups of the categories have common attributes. d. Doro- directional or bilateral bar graph -is used to present data in the form of assets, profits, and positive numbers, liabilities, losses and negative numbers. e. Subdivided (or Component0 bar graph - used to show the variations on the components parts of a whole and the whole itself. f. Histogram -is used with a grouped or class frequency distribution 2. Linear graphs- are good devices to show variation of values over successive periods of time. a. Time series linear charts -used to depict the variations of a variable over a period of time. b. Time series composite multi linear charts. -are used when comparison are made between or among categories on the same variables or variation of two or more variables over period of time. c. Frequency polygon -is used to graph class or grouped frequency distribution. d. Ogive - is used to graph cumulative frequencies (partial sums of frequencies), eight cumulative upward (from lower classes to upper class) or cumulative frequencies downward (from upper classes to lower classes. e. Band Chart - is a form of line graph of the time series variety. It shows the proportional variations of the components parts of a whole over a period of time.

3. One Hundred per cent graphs or charts - show the comparison of the proportional sizes of the component parts that make up the whole, the whole being made equipment, the whole being made equivalent to 100%. 4. Pictograms or pictograph - is used to portray data by means of pictures or symbols. 5. Statistical maps 6. Ratio Charts 9. What are the essentials of graph and their functions? Essential of graph are the following: 1. Number -chords or graphs are also numbered for reference purposes. 2. Title -the same principles hold in graphs as in tables. The title is usually written above the graph. 3. Scale -indicates the length or height unit that represent a certain amount of the variables which is the subject of the graph. 4. Classification and arrangement -the principles of classification and arrangement are the same in graphs as in tables. 5. Classes, categories, or time series are indicated at the X-axis and the scale units are indicated at the Y-axis. 6. Symmetry of the graph -the whole chart or graph should be a little greater than the height. The chart should be placed on the page in such away that the margins at the left and at the right should be about the same, or the margin at the left is a little wider. 7. Footnote -should be placed immediately, below the graph aligned with the left side of the graph. 8. Source -the source of data, if there is any, should be written just below the chart at the lower left immediately below the footnote, if there is any, but it should be above the graph number. 10. Construct a table for the following data; The enrolment of Canlaon. High School, 1991-1992 follows:
First Year: Girls: 145 Second Year: Boys: 115, Girls: 137 Third Year: Boys: 109, Girls:117 Fourth Year: Boys: 99, Girls:116

Enrolment of Canlaon High School 1991-1992
Curriculum Years I II III IV TOTAL Source: Principal’s Office 1991 – 1992 Male 124 115 109 99 447 Female 145 137 117 116 515 M&F Total Enrolment 269 252 226 215 962

Number of Students
300 250 200 150 100 50 0

Single Vertical Graph
Enrolment of Canlaon High School 1991-1992





Source: Principal’s Office Horizontal graph Enrolment of Camlaon High School 1991-1992 IV III II I 0 50 100 150 200 250 300

Source: Principals Office

100% bar graph The enrolment of Canlaon High School During the School Year 1991-1992


Fourth Year


Third Year


Second Year


First Year

12. Construct: a frequency polygon, histogram, and give for the following frequency distribution. Ages 10.14 15.19 20.24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 Frequency 24 30 35 45 40 32 26

12.1 Frequency polygon

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 0 5 10 0 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

• •

12.2 Histogram
45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10


10 - 14

15 - 19

20 - 24 25 - 29

30 - 34

35- 39 40 - 44

Age in Years 12.3 Frequency Distribution

260 240 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Ogive upward Ogive upward

Note: Data from the frequency distribution is basing on the table below. Ages 40-44 35-39 30-34 25-29 Frequency 26 32 40 45 Cumulative Frequency upward 232 206 174 134 Cumulative Frequency downward 26 58 98 143

20-24 15-19 10-14

35 30 24 N=232

89 54 24

178 208 232

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