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ESE-2015

Detailed Exam Solutions


(Objective Paper - II)
Mechanical

solutions
Explanation of Mechanical Engg. Paper-II (ESE - 2014)
SET - D
Directions : Each of the following twenty (20) items Ans. (c)
consists of two statements, one labelled as ‘Statement

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(I)’ and the other as ‘Statement (II)’. Examine these Sol. Involute pinion can not have any number of
two statements carefully and select the answers to teeth because a minimum number of teeth
these items using the codes given below. are decided by interference phenomenon.
Both involute and cycloidal teeth satisfy

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Codes :
constant velocity ratio condition. Because
(a) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are
velocity ratio depends upon ratio of number
individually true and Statement (II) is the
of teeth or ratio of pitch diameters.
correct explanation of Statement (I)
3. Statement (I) : Hooke’s joint connects two non-
(b) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are parallel non-intersecting shafts to transmit
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individually true but Statement (II) is not motion with a constant velocity ratio.
the correct explanation of Statement (I)
Statement (II) : Hooke’s joint connects two
(c) Statement (I) is true but Statement (II) is shafts the axes of which do not remain in
false alignment while in motion.
(d) Statement (I) is false but Statement (II) is
true Ans. (c)
M

1. Statement (I) : The cam in contact with a


follower is a case of complete constraint. Sol. The Hooke’s joint connects two non-parallel
Statement (II) : The pair, cam and follower, by shafts but intersecting. For constant velocity
itself does not guarantee continuity of contact ratio there are two Hooke’s joints in particular
all the time. torks orientation
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4. Statement (I) : Lewis equation for design of


Ans. (c) involute gear tooth predicts the static load
capacity of a cantilever beam of uniform
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Sol. The cam in contact of follower is case of strength.


successful constant. Because spring force Statement (II) : For a pair of gears in mesh,
is required to maintain the contact. This pressure angle and module must be same to
spring force does not guarantee the contact satisfy the condition of interchangeability and
all time because after certain speed, the correct gearing.
follower losses contact with can due to inertia
force. Ans. (a)
2. Statement (I) : Involute pinions can have any
Sol. Both Statement I & II are correct.
number of teeth.
5. Statement (I) : Tensile strength of CI is much
Statement (II) : Involute profiles in mesh satisfy
higher than that of MS.
the constant velocity ratio condition.
Statement (II) : Percentage of carbon in CI is
more than 1.5.

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Ans. (d) Statement (II) : Fiberglass acquires strength
from then polymer and flexibility from the glass.
Sol. Tensile strength of cast iron is very less
compared to mild steel. However, percentage
Ans. (c)
of carbon in cast iron is more than 2%.

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6. Statement (I) : Centrifugal clutches are Sol. Main strength of composite (i.e. febreglan)
designed to provide automatic and smooth comes from glass fibres and not the polymer.
engagement of load to driving member. 10. Statement (I) : Industrial rotors will not have

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Statement (II) : Since the operating centrifugal uniform diameter throughout their lengths.
force is a function of square of angular velocity, Statement (II) : These rotors will have to
the friction torque for accelerating a load is accommodate transmission elements like
also a function of square of speed of driving pulleys and gears and supports like anti-friction
member. bearings.
AS
Ans. (a) Ans. (a)
7. Statement (I) : Heating the steel specimen in Sol. Difference diameter on shafts are to support
the furnace up to austenitize temperature transmission elements. Shoulder are provided
f ollowed by f urnance cooling is termed to restrict axial movement of bearings.
annealing. 11. Statement (I) : Cored induction furnace cannot
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Statement (II) : Annealed steel specimen be used for intermittent operation.


possesses fine pearlitic structure. Statement (II) : Cored induction furnace,
though most efficient, requires a liquid metal
Ans. (c) charge while starting.
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Sol. Annealed steel specimen has a “coarse


pearlite” structure and not “fine pearlite” due to Ans. (a)
slow cooling in furance. Sol. Cored induction furnace requires a liquid metal
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8. Statement (I) : The susceptibility of a charge while starting. Therefore, they cannot
ferromagnetic material decreases with an be used for intermittent operations.
increase in Curie temperature. 12. Statement (I) : Low-carbon steel has high
Statement (II) : A critical temperature at which weldability and is more easily welded.
the alignment of magnetic moments vanishes Statement (II) : Higher carbon contents tend
is called Curie temperature. to soften the welded joints resulting in
development of cracks.
Ans. (a)

Sol. Magnetic suspetibility occurs above curie Ans. (c)


temperature only. Thus, higher the curie Sol. High carbon content tends to make the weld
temperature lower is the suseptibility. more brittle and thus more prone to cracking.
9. Statement (I) : Fiberglass is a polymer Low carbon steels have excellent weldeability
composite made of a plastic matrix containing due to low carbon content.
fine fibers of glass.

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13. Statement (I) : For cutting multi-start threads, 16. Statement (I) : In chain drives, angle of
the speed ratio is expressed in terms of the articulation through which link rotates during
lead of the job thread and lead of the lead engagement and disengagement, is greater for
screw threads. a small number of teeth.
Statement (II) : The speed of the job is reduced Statement (II) : The greater angle of articulation
to one-third or one-fourth of the job speed used will increase the life of the chain.

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in the turning operation.
Ans. (c)
Ans. (b)
Sol. For greater life of chain, the angle of articulation
14. Statement (I) : The Bauschinger effect is

due to loss of mechanical energy during local


yielding.
Statement (II) : The Bauschinger effect is a
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observed in tension test of mild steel specimen
17.
should be reduced to minimize wear of chain
& fatigue of rollers.
Statement (I) : The CNC is an NC system
utilizing a dedicated stored program to perform
all numerical control functions in manufacturing.
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function of section modulus of specimen under Statement (II) : The DNC is a manufacturing
test. process in which a number of process
machines are controlled by a computer through
Ans. (c) direct connection and real time analysis.

Sol. The Baeeschinger effect refers to a property Ans. (b)


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of materials where the material’s stress strain


characteristics change as a result of the Sol. Both Statement I and II are correct, but
microscopic stress distribution of material. It Statement II does not explain Statement I,
is observed in tensile test of mild steel 18. Statement (I) : In interference fit, the outer
specimen. diameter of the shaft is greater than the inner
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This effect is a material property and not a diameter of the hole.


geometric property. So it is not dependent Statement (II) : The amount of clearance
on section modulus. obtained from the assembly of hole and shaft
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15. Statement (I) : The ceramic tools used in resulting in interference fit is called positive
machining of material have highly brittle tool clearance.
tips.
Ans. (c)
Statement (II) : Ceramic tools can be used on
hard-to-machine work material. Sol. Clearance obtained in an interference fit is a
negative clearance.
Ans. (b) 19. Statement (I) : One of the most commonly
Sol. Ceramic tools have very brittle tool tips, that is used techniques for testing surface integrity of
why they all prone to impact loads. These tools material is metallography.
are used on hard to machine work material Statement (II) : Surface integrity of a material
such as cast iron as they are highly wear & does not contribute for the mechanical and
abrasion resistant. metallurgical properties.

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Ans. (c) c = 50 N/mm2
Sol. Surface integrity affects mechanical properties 22. A system under biaxial loading induces principal
such as fatigue strength of material. stresses of 100 N/cm2 tensile and 50 N/cm2
20. Statement (I) : The change in critical path compressive at a point. The normal stress at

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requires rescheduling in a PERT network. that point on the maximum shear stress plane
Statement (II) : Some of the activities cannot is
be completed in time due to unexpected (a) 75 N/cm2 tensile

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breakdown of equipment or non-availability of (b) 50 N/cm2 compressive
raw materials. (c) 100 N/cm2 tensile
(d) 25 N/cm2 tensile
Ans. (a)

21. A copper rod of 2 cm diameter is completely Ans. (d)


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encased in a steel tube of inner diameter 2 cm
and outer diameter 4 cm. Under an axial load, Sol. 1 = 100 N/cm2
the stress in the steel tube is 100 N/mm 2. If Es
2 = – 50 N/cm2
= 2Ec, then the stress in the copper rod is
(a) 50 N/mm2 (b) 33.33 N/mm2 On maximum shear stress plane,
Normal stress
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(c) 100 N/mm2 (d) 300 N/mm2


 = avg
Ans. (a)
2cm
1  2 100  50
Sol. For copper = =
2 2
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d = 2cm
= 20 mm = 25 N/cm2 (Tensile)

For steel 23. In a biaxial state of stress, normal stresses are


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di = 2 cm Copper x  900 N / mm2 ,  y  100 N / mm2 and


= 20 mm
shear stress   300 N / mm2 . The maximum
d0 = 4 cm
principal stress is
= 40 mm
Steel
(a) 800 N / mm2 (b) 900 N / mm2
s = 100N/mm2
Es = 2Ec 4cm (c) 1000 N / mm2 (d) 1200 N / mm2
Strain in steel = strain in copper
Ans. (c)
s c
=
Es Ec Sol.  x = 900 N/mm2

100  Ec  y = 100 N/mm2


c = Es
xy = 300 N/mm2

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Maximum principal stress Ans. (c)

  x  y  1 2 Sol.  x = 100 MPa


1 =   x  y   4 2xy
 2  2
 y = 200 MPa
 900  100  1  2 2
=   900  100   4   300  1 = 250 MPa

R
 2  2
1  2 =  x  y
1
= 500  640000  360000
2 2 = 100  200   250

24.
= 500 
1
2
 500  = 1000 N/mm2

A constitutional diagram shows relationship


among which of the following combinations in
TE    y  1
1 =  x
 2  2

= 50 MPa

x  y 
2
 42xy
AS
a particular alloy system?  100  200  1  2
250 =   100  200   42xy
(a) Temperature and composition  2  2
(b) Temperature and phases present
1
(c) Temperature, composition and phases 100 = 100  200 2  42xy
present 2
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(d) Temperature and pressure 40000 = 10000 + 4 2xy

Ans. (c) 4 2xy = 30000


Sol. A constitutional diagram gives information
regarding temperature, composition and phases xy = 50 3 MPa
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present. 26. Consider the following statements regarding


25. The state of stress at a point in a body is given powder metallurgy :
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by x  100 MPa and y  200 MPa . One of 1. Refractory materials made of tungsten
can be manufactured easily.
the principal stresses 1  250 MPa . The
2. In metal powder, control of grain size
magnitudes of the other principal stress and results in relativ ely much unif orm
the shearing stress xy are respectively structure.
3. The powder heated in die or mould at
(a) 50 3 MPa and 50 MPa high temperature is then pressed and
compacted to get desired shape and
(b) 100 MPa and 50 3 MPa strength.
4. In sintering, the metal powder is gradually
(c) 50 MPa and 50 3 MPa
heated resulting in coherent bond.
(d) 50 3 MPa and 100 MPa Which of the above statements are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only

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(b) 1, 2 and 4 only
2xy = 17500
(c) 2, 3 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4 xy = 50 7 MPa

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28. The state of stress at a point is given by
Ans. (d)
x  100 MPa , y   50 MPa and
Sol. All options are correct
xy  100 MPa . The centre of Mohr’s circle and

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27. The magnitudes of principal stresses at a point
are 250 MPa t ensil e and 150 MPa its radius will be
compressive. The magnitudes of the shearing
stress on a plane on which the normal stress (a)  x  75 MPa, xy  0  and 75 MPa
is 200 MPa tensile and the normal stress on a
plane at right angle to this plane are (b)  x  25 MPa, xy  0  and 125 MPa
AS
(a) 50 7 MPa and 100 MPa (tensile) (c)  x  25 MPa, xy  0  and 150 MPa

(b) 100 MPa and 100 MPa (compressive)


(d)  x  75 MPa, xy  0  and 125 MPa
(c) 50 7 MPa and 100 MPa (compressive)
Ans. (b)
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(d) 100 MPa and 50 7 MPa (tensile)


Sol.  x = 100 MPa
Ans. (c)  y = – 50 MPa
Sol. 1 = 250 MPa
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xy = 100 MPa


2 = – 150 MPa
   x  y  
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 x = 200 MPa centre =   ,0 


 2  
1  2 =  x  y = [25 MPa, 0]

 y = (250 – 150) – 200 1 2


Radius of Mohr’s circle = x  y   4 2xy
2
 y = – 100 MPa
1
= 100  50 2  4 1002 
 200  100  1  2 2
1 =   200  100   42xy
 2  2
1
= 22500  40,000
 200  100  1  2 2
250 =   200  100  42xy
 2  2 = 125 MPa
29. Consider the following sttements related to
400 =  300 2  42xy Mohr’s circle for stresses in case of plane

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stress : (c) 120 MPa and 120 MPa
1. The construction is for variations of stress (d) 60 MPa and 120 MPa
in a body.
2. The radius of the circle represents the Ans. (b)
magnitude of the maximum shearing Sol.  = 1.2 × 10–5/°C
stress.
E = 2 × 105 MPa

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3. The diameter represents the difference
between the two principal stresses. T = 50°C
Which of the above statements are correct? A C

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B
(a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1 and 2 only 20mm 10mm 20mm
R R

Ans. (a)
X 20mm 20mm 20mm B
AS
30. The figure shows a steel piece of diameter 20
mm at A and C, and 10 mm at B. The lengths Since supports are rigid.
of three sections A, B and C are each equal to
20 mm. The piece is held between two rigid   L A  t   LB T   Lc  T  
surfaces X and Y. The coefficient of linear
 RL A RLB R  LC 
expansion   1.2 105 / C and Young’ss – E  A  E  A  E  A  = 0
M

 A B C
modulus E  2  105 MPa for steel :
 LA = LB = LC = L

L R R R 
3L   T =  
E  A A A B A C 

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A B C
 1 1 1 
3E  T = R    
20 10 20
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 2  2  2
   20    10    20  
 4  4  4 

 3  2  105  1.2  105  50 


20 20 20 R =
 4 4 4 
X Y    202    102    202 

= 18849.56 N
When the temperature of this piece increases
by 50 C , the stresses in sections A and B are R
A = = 60 MPa
(a) 120 MPa and 480 MPa  2
  20 
4 
(b) 60 MPa and 240 MPa

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Ans. (b)
R
B = = 240 MPa
 2 Sol. 1 = 0.0004
  10 
4 
2 = – 0.00012

R
31. For a material following Hooke’s law, the values
E = 2 × 105
of ealstic and shear moduli are 3 105 MPa
 = 0.3

TE
and 1.2 105 MPa respectively. The value for
E
bulk modulus is 1 = 1   2 
1  2
(a) 1.5 105 MPa (b) 2 105 MPa
 2  105 
5 = 0.0004  0.3   0.00012 
(c) 2.5 10 MPa (d) 3 105 MPa 1  0.3 2
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= 80 MPa
Ans. (b)

Sol. E = 3 × 105 MPa E


2 = 2   1
G = 1.2 × 105 MPa 1  2 
M

9KG  2  105 
E = 3K  G
=
1  0.32 
9  K  1.2  105  [(–0.00012) + {0.3 × 0.0004}]
3 × 105 =
3K  1.2  105   = 0 MPa
S

3K + (1.2 × 105) = 3.6 K 1  2 80  0


Maximum shar stress = =
0.6 K = 1.2 × 105 2 2
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K = 2 × 105 MPa = 40 MPa

32. At a point i n a body, 1  0.0004 and Smallest normal stress = 0


33. A cantilever of length 1.2 m carries a
2   0.00012 . If E  2 105 MPa and   0.3 , concentrated load of 12 kN at the free end.
the smallest normal stress and the largest The beam is of rectangular cross-section with
shearing stress are breadth equal to half the depth. The maximum
(a) 40 MPa and 40 MPa stress due to bending is not to exceed
(b) 0 MPa and 40 MPa 100 N / mm2 . The minimum depth of the beam
(c) 80 MPa and 0 MPa should be
(d) 0 MPa and 80 MPa (a) 120 mm (b) 60 mm
(c) 75 mm (d) 240 mm

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Ans. (a) (c) 260 MPa and 260 MPa
(d) 260 MPa and 520 MPa
Sol. W =12 kN
b
Ans. (a)
A 3 h
L=1.2m Sol. 1 = 0.0013

R
2 = – 0.0013
E = 2 × 105 MPa
b = h/2
 = 0.3

TE
At point A,
E
Mmax = WL 1 =  1  2 
= (12 × 103) N × (1.2)
1 2 
= 14.4 × 103 N-m  2  105 
= [0.0013 +
= 14.4 × 106 N-mm 1  0.32 
AS
{0.3 × (–0.0013)} = 200 MPa
Mmax  y
max = E
I
2 = 2  1
1  2 
14.4  106   h / 2 
100 =  2  105 
 bh3 
= [(– 0.0013)
M

  1  0.32 
 12 
+{0.3×(0.0013)} = – 200 MPa
6
6  14.4  10
100 =  1  2 
bh2  Maximum shear stress  max  = 
 2 

S

bh2 = 6 × 14.4 × 104


200  200
= = 200 MPa
h 2 2
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   h = 86.4 × 104
2
35. A beam ABCD, 6 m long, is supported at B
h3 = 172.8 × 104 and C, 3 m apart with overhangs AB = 2 m
h = 120 mm and CD = 1 m. It carries a uniformly distributed
load of 100 kN/m over its entire length :
34. Two strain gauges fixed along the principal
directions on a plane surface of a steel member 100 kN/m
A B C D
recorded strain values of 0.0013 tensile and
0.0013 compressive respectively. Given that the
2m 3m 1m
value of E  2 105 MPa and   0.3 , the
largest normal and shearing stress at this point The maximum magnitudes of bending moment
are and shear force are
(a) 200 MPa and 200 MPa
(b) 400 MPa and 200 MPa

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(a) 200 kN-m and 250 kN
100 kN/m
(b) 200 kN-m and 200 kN B C
A D
(c) 50 kN-m and 200 kN RC
RB
(d) 50 kN-m and 250 kN 2m 3m 1m

R
+200 kN
Ans. (b)
+ve +ve

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Sol. 100 kN/m A D
–ve B P –ve C
B C
A D
P –100kN
RB RC –200kN
2m 3m 1m
S.F.D
x
Taking moment about point B,
AS
(Rc × 3) – (100 × 6 × 1) = 0 B P C D
A
Rc = 200 kN
RB + Rc = 600
RB = 400 kN M=–50 kN-m
(S.F.)A = 0 Mmax=–200 kN-m
M

 S.F.B = –(100 × 2) = – 200 kN


 S.F.B = – 200 + 400 = 200 kN
 S.F.C = 200 – (100 × 3) = – 100 kN 36. A solid circular cross-section cantilever beam
 S.F.C = – 100 + (200) = 100 kN of diameter  100 mm carries a shear force
S

(S.F.)D = 0 of 10 kN at the free end. The maximum shear


Point P, stress is
– (100 x) + RB = 0
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4 3
100x = 400 (a) Pa (b) Pa
x = 4m 3 4
(B.M.)A = 0
3 16
(B.M.)B = – (100 × 2 × 1) = – 200 N-m (c) Pa (d) Pa
16 3
 5
(B.M.)C = –  100  5   + (400 × 3)
 2 Ans. (d)
= – 50 N-m
(B.M.)D = 0 Sol. d = 100mm
V = 10 kN
*  x
(B.M.)D = RB  x  2    100  x   = 104 N
 2
4
 4 max =   avg 
= (400 × 2) –  100  4   3
 2
=0

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4  104  N  WL 
=    y
8 
3    1002  mm2
  max = 
4  I

16 W1
= MPa
3 P R Q

R
37. A beam of length L simply supported at its
ends carrying a total load W unif ormly L
distributed over its entire length deflects at the
W1L3

TE
centre by  and has a maximum bending
 =
stress  . If the load is substituted by a 48EI
concentrated load W1 at mid-span such that W1L3 5 WL3
the deflection at the centre remians unchanged, =
48EI 384 EI
the magnitude of the load W1 and the W1 = 0.625 W
AS
maximum bending stress will be Mmax  y
1max =
(a) 0.3 W and 0.3 I

(b) 0.6 W and 0.6 W1L y


=
4 I
(c) 0.3 W and 0.6
W L y
=  0.625 
M

(d) 0.6 W and 0.3 4 I


0.625
Ans. (*) =  8 max
4
Sol. Let load intensity is .
1max = 1.25 max
S

38. For a rectangular section beam, if the beam


depth is doubled, keeping the width, length and
A C B
loading same, the bending stress is decreased
IE

RA RB by a factor
L
L = W (a) 2 (b) 4

L
(c) 6 (d) 8
RA = RB =
2
Ans. (b)
deflection at point C
Sol. For rectangular section,
5 L4 5 WL3
  = = M  y M   h/2 
384 EI 384 EI =
b = I bh3 /2 
 L L   L L 
Mmax =     
 2 2  2 4 6M
b =
bh2
L2 WL
= =
8 8

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if h = 2h (a) 75 MPa (b) 85 MPa
(c) 125 MPa (d) 250 MPa
b
6M 6M Ans. (a)
b = 2
= 2

R
bh b  2h 
h Sol. 3kN x
1kN/m
1  6M 
=  2  A

TE
4  bh  RA C RB B
1m 2m
b x
b = x
4
taking moment about point A
39. A helical compression spring of stiffness K is 3

(RB × 3) – (3 × 1) –  3  1  = 0
AS
cut into two pieces, each having equal number
 2
of turns and kept side-by-si de under
3RB = 3 + 4.5
compression. The equivalent spring stiffness
RB = 2.5 kN
of this new arrangement is equal to
RA + RB = 3 + (1 × 3)
(a) 4 K (b) 2 K RA + RB = 6
(c) K (d) 0.5 K RA = 3.5 kN
M

Mmax = (B.M.)c
Ans. (a)
 1
Sol. When spring is cut into two pieces. = (RA × 1) –  1 1 
 2
Stiffness of each spring (k ) = 2k = 3 kN-m
S

Mmax = 3 × 106 N-mm


and then these springs are arranged in parallel
150
so k = k  k y= = 75mm
2
IE

= 2k  2k
Mmax  y
b =
=4 k I
40. A beam AB simply supported at its ends A and  3  106 N-mm    75mm 
B, 3 m long, carries a uniformly distributed load =
300  10 4 mm 4
of 1 kN/m over its entire length and a
= 75 MPa
conventrated load of 3 kN, at 1 m from A :
41. Which of the following statements apply to
3 kN provision of flash gutter and flash land around
1 kN/m the parts to be forged?
C
A B 1. Small cavities are provided which are
1m 2m directly outside the die impression.
2. The volume of flash land and flash gutter
4
If ISJB 150 with IXX  300 cm is used for the should be about 20% - 25% of the volume
of forging.
beam, the maximum value of bending stress is

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3. Gutter is provided to ensure complete 2.5 x = 0.01
closing of the die.
0.01
(a) 1 and 2 only (b) 1 and 3 only x = = 0.004mm
25
(c) 1, 2 and 3 (d) 2 and 3 only
43. Consider the following statements :
Ans. (a) In case of assembly of mating parts

R
1. the difference between hole size and
Sol. Gutter is provided to ensure complete filling of
shaft size is called allowance
die cavity and not closing of die.
2. in transition fit, small positive or negative

TE
42. A hole and a shaft have a basic size of 25 mm,
clearance between the shaft and hole
and are to have a clearance fit with a maximum
member is employable
clearance of 0.02 mm and a minimum
clearance of 0.01 mm. The hole tolerance is to Which of the above statements is/are correct?
be 1.5 times the shaft tolerance. The limits of (a) 1 only (b) Both 1 and 2
both hole and shaft using hole basis system (c) 2 only (d) Neither 1 nor 2
AS
will be
(a) low limit of hole = 25 mm, high limit of Ans. (c)
hole = 25.006 mm, upper limit of shaft =
Sol. • Allowance is a planned deviation between
24.99 mm and low limit of shaft = 24.986
an actual dimension and a nominal or
mm
theoretical dimension.
(b) low limit of hole = 25 mm, high limit of
M

• In transition fit, small positive clearnace or


hole = 25.026 mm, upper limit of shaft =
negative clearance (Interference) between the
24.8 mm and low limit of shaft = 24.76
shaft and hole member is employable.
mm
Only statement (2) is correct.
(c) low limit of hole = 24 mm, high limit of
44. An organization has decided to produce a new
S

hole = 25.006 mm, upper limit of shaft =


25 mm and low limit of shaft = 24.99 mm product. Fixed cost for producing the product
is estimated as Rs. 1,00,000. Variable cost for
(d) low limit of hole = 25.006 mm, high limit
producing the product is Rs. 100. Market survey
IE

of hole = 25 mm, upper limit of shaft =


indicated that the product selling price could
24.99 mm and low limit of shaft = 25 mm
be Rs. 200. The break-even quantity is
Ans. (a) (a) 1000 (b) 2000
(c) 500 (d) 900
Sol. For hole basis system
Low limit of hole = 25 mm Ans. (a)
High limit of hole = 25.006
High limit of shaft = 24.99 mm F 100000
Sol. BEQ = = = 1000
Low limit of shaft = 24.986 S  V 200  100
Also tolerance of shaft + minimum clearance + 45. Usi ng ex ponential smoot hening, a car
tolerance of hole = 0.02 mm manufacturing company predicted the demand
x + 1.5 x + 0.01 = 0.02 for that year as 1040 cars. The actual sale
was found to be 1140 cars. If the company’s

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forecast for the next year is 1080, what is the 48. a part is made from solid brass rod of 38 mm
value of the smoothening constant? diameter and length 25 mm. The machining
(a) 0.4 (b) 0.6 time taken to finish the part is 90 minutes and
labour rate is Rs. 2 per hour. Factory overheads
(c) 0.7 (d) 1.2
are 50% of direct labour cost. The density of

R
material is 8.6 gm per cubic cm and its cost is
Ans. (a)
Rs. 1.625 per newton. The factory cost of the
part will be

TE
Sol. Ft = dt 1  1    Ft 1
(a) Rs. 8.40 (b) Rs. 4.80
1080 =   1140  1    1040 (c) Rs. 14.80 (d) Rs. 18.40
= 1140  1040  1040 
Ans. (a)
40 = 100 
AS
2
 = 0.4 Sol. Volume of rod = /4d  
46. Coarse feed, low rake angle, low cutting speed =  /4×3.82  2.5 = 28.36 cm3
and insufficient cooling help produce Mass of rod = 28.36 × 8.6 = 243.84 grms or
(a) continuous chips in ductile materials 0.243kg
(b) discontinuous chips in ductile materials weight of rod = 2.4 N
M

(c) continuous chips with built-up edges in Cost of rod = 2.4 × 1.625 Rs. 3.89
ductile materials Cost of labour = 2 × 1.5 = Rs. 3
(d) discontinuous chips in brittle materials
Factory overhead = 0.5 × 3 = Rs. 1.5
Total factory cost = 3 + 1.5 + 3.89 = Rs. 8.40
S

Ans. (c)
49. A company wants to expand the solid propellant
Sol. Coarse feed, low rate angle, low cutting speed manufacturing plant by the addition of more
& i nsuf f icient cooling hel p to produce
IE

than 1 ton capacity curing furnace. Each ton of


continuous chips with built-up edges in ductile propellant must undergo 30 minutes of furnace
materials. tim e including loading and unloading
47. In NC machining, coordinated movement of operations. Furnace is used only 80 percent of
separately driven axes motion is required to the time due to power restrictions. The required
achieve the desired path of tool relative to output for the new layout is to be 16 tons per
workpiece. The generation of these reference shift (8 hours). Plant (system) efficiency is
signals is accomplished through a device called estimated at 50 percent of system capacity.
(a) approximator (b) interpolator The number of furnaces required will be
(c) coordinator (d) director (a) 3 (b) 2
(c) 1 (d) 4
Ans. (b)
Ans. (a)
Sol. Interpolator coordinate the motion of tool
relative to workpiece.

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Sol. Required output 16 tons in 8 hours or 8 × 60 52. Consider the following statements :
= 480 minutes. In a single-server queueing model
Operating time of furnace = 0.8×480 = 384 1. the arrivals is a memoryless process
minutes.
2. the arrivals is described as a Poisson
16 ton propellent requires = 16 × 30 = 480 distribution
minutes of furnace.
3. uncertainty concering the demand for

R
Plant efficiency (in minutes) = 0.5 × 382 = 192 service exists
minutes
Which of the above statements are correct?

TE
Total furnace time (a) 1 and 2 only (b) 1 and 3 only
Furnace required =
Total plant time (c) 1, 2 and 3 (d) 2 and 3 only

480 Ans. (c)


= = 2.5 or 3
192
Sol. In a single server queuing model
AS
50. The purpose of providing side rake angle on
• Arrivals are markov or memoryless
the cutting tool is to
• Serivce is also memory less.
(a) avoid work from rubbing against tool
• Arrivals follow poisson distribution
(b) control chip flow
53. To construct an operating characteristic curve,
(c) strengthen tool edge
an agreement has to be reached between
(d) break chips
M

producer and consumer through which of the


following points?
Ans. (b)
1. Maximum proportion of defectives that will
Sol. Purpose of side rake angle of cutting tool is to make the lot definitely unacceptable
control chip flow. 2. The producer is willing to aceept that
S

51. The annual demand of a commodity in a some of satisfying the quality level (AQL)
supermarket if 80000. The cost of placing an will rejected    5% 
order is Rs. 4,000 and the inventory cost of
IE

each item is Rs. 40. What is the economic 3. Maximum level of percentage defectives
that wi ll make the lot def init ely
order quantity?
unacceptable
(a) 2000 (b) 4000
4. The consumer is willing to take lots of
(c) 5656 (d) 6666 quality level (LTPD) even though they are

Ans. (b) unacceptable    10% 


(a) 1, 2 and 3 only (b) 1, 2, 3 and 4
2  80000  4000 (c) 1, 2 and 4 only (d) 2, 3 and 4 only
Sol. EOQ =
40
= 4000 unit Ans. (d)

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Sol. To construct an OC curve requirements are x 0
• AQL for which produce risk ( = 0.05) is 5%
y0
• Consumers risk for LTPD ( = 0.1) or 10%

R
x y
• Lot tolerance percent deflective (LTPD)    1
500 1000
54. Assuming X and Y are the two control variables,
the following are the constraints laid out for y y

TE
   1
maximizing the profit : 800 600
Maximize profit (P) = 8X + 5Y
x y
subject to    1
800 800
Constraint-1 : 2X  Y  1000
x y
AS
Constraint-2 : 3X  4Y  2400    1
350 350
Constraint-3 : X  Y  800 y
100 Constraint 1
Constraint-4 : X  Y  350
Constraint 3
800
Constraint-5 : X 0 Constraint 2
M

600 Constraint 4
Constraint-6 : Y 0
Which of the above constraints is a redundant
one and does not have any effect on the x
solution? 500 800
S

(a) Constraint-1
(b) Constraint-2 From figure it is clear that constraint -3 does
IE

(c) Constraint-4 not have effect on solution because. It is not a


binding constraint.
(d) Constraint-5 and Constraint-6
55. A transportation problem consists of 3 sources
Ans. (b) and 5 destinations with appropriate rim
conditions. The number of possible solutions
Sol. Max (p) = 8x + 5y is
(a) 15 (b) 225
Constraint 1  2x  y  1000
(c) 6435 (d) 150
Constraint 1  3x  4y  2400
Ans. (a)
Constraint 3  x  y  800 Sol. For a 3 × 5 transportation problem. The number
of possible solutions are (5 × 3) i.e. 15
Constraint 4  x  y  350

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56. Maximize Z  2X1  3X2 (b) 30 minutes, 22.5 minutes and 2.25
technicians
subject to
(c) 22.5 minutes, 22.5 minutes and 2.75
2X1  X2  6 technicians
(d) 30 m inutes, 30 m inutes and 2.25
X1  X2  3
technicians

R
X1, X2  0
Ans. (b)
The solution to the above LPP is
Service rate = 8/hr = 

TE
(a) optimal (b) infeasible Sol.
(c) unbounded (d) degenerate Arrival rate = 6/hr = 

Ans. (b) 6 3
 = =
8 4
Sol. y
AS
Tim e spent in the system =
6 1 60
= = 30 minutes
 2

 6  60
Time spent in the queue =       = 8  2
M

x
3
2x 1

= 22.5 minutes
+x 2

–3
Expected technicians i n the queue =
=6

2 9/16 9
= = = 2.25 technicians.
S

1  1/4 4
Hence, there is no feasible region. Thus 58. Objective function
solution to LPP is infeasible
IE

57. A company has a store which is manned by 1 Z  5X1  4X2 (Maximize)


attendant who can attend to 8 technicians in subject to
an hour. The technicians wait in the queue and
0  X1  12
they are attended on first-come-first-served
basis. The technicians arrive at the store on 0  X2  9
an average 6 per hour. Assuming the arrivals
to follow Poisson and servicing to follow 3X1  6X2  66
exponential distribution, what is the expected
time spent by a technician in the system, what X1 , X2  0
is teh expected time spent by a technician in What is the optimum value?
the queue and what is the expected number of
(a) 6, 9 (b) 12, 5
technicians in the queue?
(c) 4, 10 (d) 0, 9
(a) 22.5 minutes, 30 minutes and 2.75
technicians

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Ans. (b)
m IE
=
Sol. x2 t F
x1=12
where I is current in amperes.

R
H
(4, 9) F = Faraday’s constant
(0, 9) x1=9
A
Feasible (12, 5) E is given chemical equivalent =
Z

TE
region
where A is atomic mass of workpiece
(10, 0) (12, 0) 22 x1 Z is valency of anode material
61. In a crank and slotted lever type quick return
Z is maximized at any of the corners of feasible mechanism, the link moves with an angular
region i.e. (12, 5)
AS
velocity of 20 rad/s, while the slider moves with
59. Which of the following defines the compiler’s a linear velocity of 1.5 m/s. The magnitude and
function correctly? direction of Coriolis component of acceleration
(a) It translates high-lev el l anguage with respect to angular velocity are
programs into object code (a) 30 m / s2 and direction is such as to
(b) It translates object code into a high-level
rotate slider velocity in the same sense
M

language
as the angular velocity
(c) It translates object code into assembly
language instructions (b) 30 m / s2 and direction is such as to
(d) it translates assembly language rortate slider velocity in the opposite
sense as the angular velocity
S

instructions into object code


(c) 60 m / s2 and direction is such as to
Ans. (a)
rotate slider velocity in the same sense
IE

Sol. Compiler’s function is to translate high-level as the angular velocity


progress into object code.
60. Which one of the following properties of work (d) 60 m / s2 and direction is such as to
materials is responsible for the material removal rotate slider velocity in the opposite sense
rate in electrochemical machining? as the angular velocity
(a) Hardness
Ans. (c)
(b) Atomic weight
(c) Thermal conductivity
(d) Ductility

Ans. (b)

Sol. MRR in ECM is given as

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Sol. The schematic of quick return mechanism 4. Mathematically not accurate except in
three positions
V
5. Has only turning pairs
6. Controls movement of two front wheels
C 2V  
(a) 2, 4, 5 and 6 (b) 1, 2, 3 and 6
(c) 2, 3, 5 and 6 (d) 1, 2, 3 and 5

R
Ans. (a)

TE
Sol. The basic schematic of Ackerman steering
mechanism.
The Coriolis acceleration
A W D
ac = 2V = 2× 1.5 × 20
= 60 m/sec2
AS
Direction: The direction of Coriolis component B C
of acceleration depends upon velocity of slider
• All pairs (A, B, C, and D) are turning pair
‘C’. If slider moves away from centre, the
in four bar mechanism A, B, C and D.
Coriolis acceleration will be in the direction of
link rotation. If the slider moves toward centre • This steering satisfy fundamental equation
of rotation the Coriolis acceleration will be  w
M

opposite to link rotation as shown below. of steering  Cot   cot  =  in three


 
V positions only namely in straight motion
  = 0 and two positions    25  toward
C
left and right
2V C
S

2V • Since very less sliding surfaces (turning pairs


V only) So longer life. Due to longer life it is
used generally despite it is not correct
IE

mathematically.

A A
• Steering control is provided in front wheels
only in all steering mechanisms.
Since nothing is mentioned about velocity of 63. The displacement of a follower of a cam in a
slider (away or toward centre) so assume it printing machine is represented by the
moves away from centre, the right. expression
62. Which of the following are associated with
x 10  120 2  1500 3  2000 4  2500 5
Ackerm an steering mechanism used in
automobiles? where  is the angle of rotation of the cam.
1. Has both sliding and turning pairs The jerk given by the system at any position is
2. Less friction and hence long life (a) 900 3  48000 3   1500003 2
3. Mechanically correct in all positions
(b) 9000 3

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(c) 240 2  9000 2   240002 2 3 2
=  (9000  48000  150000 )
64. A body starting from rest moves in a straight
 500003 3
line with its equation of motion being

R
(d) 480003   1500003 2 s  2t3  3t2  2t  1
where s is displacement in m and t is time in
Ans. (a) s. Its acceleration after one seond is

Sol. Displacement of follower in cam

x = 10  1202  15003  20004  25005

culure  = is angle of rotation of cam.


TE (a)

(c)
6 m / s2

12 m / s2
(b) 2 m / s2

(d) 3 m / s2
AS
Ans. (a)
Since the jerk is third derivative of follower
displacement Sol. Displacement of body
s = 2t 3 – 3t 2 + 2t + 1
d3 x
 Jerk, J = …(i)
dt3
ds
Velocity, v = = 6t 2 – 6t + 2
M

dt
dx
  (10  240  45002  Acceleration,
dt
d
80003  125004 ) dv d2 s
dt a = 
S

dt dt

dx 2 = (6 × 2t) – 6 + 0
= (10  240  4500
IE

dt = 12t – 6
80003  125004 )
Acceleration, at t = 1 sec
Assuming cam rotates with uniform angular
velocity  a = 12 × 1 – 6
= 6 m/sec2
d2 x 65. The crank shaft of a reciprocating engine having
 = (0  240  9000
dt a 20 cm crank and 100 cm connecting rod
d
240002  500003 ) rotates at 210 r.p.m. When the crank angle is
dt
45 , the velocity of piston is nearly
= 2 (240  9000  240002  500003 ) (a) 1.8 m/s (b) 1.9 m/s
(c) 18 m/s (d) 19 m/s
d3 x 2
Jerk  =  (0  9000
dt3 d
48000  1500002 )
dt

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Ans. (a) Ans. (b)

Sol. Reciprocating engine mechanism 67. A four-bar mechanism is as shown in the figure
bleow. At the instant shown, AB is shorter than
cm CD by 30 cm. AB is rotating at 5 rad/s and CD
= 100
 is ratating at 2 rad/s:
x r = 20 cm

R
P   = 45 B C

Piston
Angular velocity of crank


2N 2  210
60

60
= 22 rad/sec

Ratio of length of connecting rod to crank


length
TE A

The length of AB is
D
AS
(a) 10 cm (b) 20 cm
l 100 (c) 30 cm (d) 40 cm
n  5
r 20
Ans. (b)
The velocity of piston-P,
Sol. The schematic of mechanism
M

 sin2 
v  r  sin    B C
 2n 
1=5rad/sec
 sin90 
 v = 0.2  sin 45  
 25 
S

A
2 =2rad/sec
 1 1
= 0.2  22   
IE

 2 10  D

= 4.4 × (0.707 + 0.1) At the instant shown in figure, the linear


= 1.7756 m/sec velocity of point B and C will be same
 VBA = VCD
 1.8 m/sec
66. While designing a cam, pressure angle is one 1AB  2CD
of the most important parameters which is
directly proportional to 5AB = 2CD …(i)
(a) pitch circle diameter Since the difference between AB and CD
(b) prime circle diameter
CD – AB = 30
(c) lift of cam
From equation (i)
(d) base circle diameter

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(d) a relative motion of axes and none of the
5
CD = AB axes of gears has relative motion with the
2
frame

5 Ans. (a)

R
 AB  AB  30
2
Sol. In planetary gear train or compound epicyclic
3 gear train, the axis of at least one gear

TE
AB  30
2 rotates (not fixed) about to the fixed frame.
The beauty of this train is that it ensures
2  30 large speed reduction in small space.
AB = = 20 cm 70. The flywheel of a machine having weight of
3
4500 N and radius of gyration of 2 m has cyclic
68. A governor is said to be isochrnous when the
AS
fluctuation of speed from 125 r.p.m. to 120
equilibrium speed is
r.p.m. Assuming g = 10 m/s2, the maximum
(a) variable for different radii of ratation of fluctuation of energy is
governor balls
(a) 12822 N-m (b) 24200 N-m
(b) constant for all radii of ratation of the balls
(c) 14822 N-m (d) 12100 N-m
within the working range
(c) constant for particular radii of ratation of
M

Ans. (d)
governor balls
(d) constant for only one radius of ratation of Sol. Weight of flywheel, w = mg = 4500 N
governor balls
Radius of gyration, k = 2 m
S

Ans. (b) Speed fluctuates between

Sol. A governor is said to be isochronous when = 125 – 120 rpm


IE

equilibrium speed is same or constant for all


2
radii of rotation of balls within working range. = (125  120) rad/sec
The isochronous governor has zero range 60
of speed. This isochronism character is = (13.09 – 12.57) rad/sec
possible in spring controlled governors only
not in dead weight types.  max = 13.09 rad/sec
69. A planetary gear train is a gear train having
(a) a relative motion of axes and the axis at min = 12.57 rad/sec
least one of the gears also moves relative Maximum fluctuation of energy

to the frame
(b) no relative motion of axes and no relative e = Emax – Emin
motion of axes with respect to the frame
1 2 1 2
(c) no relative motion of axes and the axis of at = Imax  Imin
2 2
least one of the gears also moves relative
to the frame

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Ans. (d)
1
= I(max  min )(max  min )
2 Sol. For complete dynamic balancing of rotating
systems,
1
= mk2 (max  min )(max  min ) (1) There should not be any couple in the
2
system

R
1 4500 2 (2) System should be statically balanced
=  2 (13.09  12.57) i.e., centre of mass of the system
2 10
(13.09  12.57) should be on axis of rotation

= 900 × 25.66 × 0.52


= 12009 N.m.
So the nearest answer is 12100 N.m.
TE Hence in complete dynamic balance, the
reaction on the support are due to weight of
system and remain constant during rotation
of system i.e., no force should airse due to
rotation.
AS
71. Alumina doped with magnesia will have 73. Which of the following statements is correct
reduced thermal conductivity because its about the balancing of a mechanical system?
structure becomes
(a) If it is under static balance, then there will
(a) amorphous be dynamic balance also
(b) free of pores (b) If it is under dynamic balance, then there
(c) crystalline will be static balance also
M

(d) mixture of crystalline and glass (c) Both static as well as dynamic balance have
to be achieved separately
Ans. (c) (d) None of the above
72. W hi ch of the f ol lowing statements are
S

associated with complete dynamic balancing Ans. (b)


of rotating systems?
Sol. For complete balancing or simply balancing
1. Resultant couple due to all inertia forces is
IE

of m echan i cal syst em . T he dynam i c


zero balancing i.e., no couple, requires static
2. Support reactions due to forces are zero balancing (centre of mass of system at axis
but not due to couples of rotation) of system as pre condition.
3. The system is automatically statically 74. The accelerometer is used as a transducer to
balanced measure earthquake in Richter scale. Its design
4. Centre of masses of the system lies on the is based on the principle that
axis of rotation. (a) its natural f requency is v ery low in
(a) 1, 2, 3 and 4 comparison to the frequency of vibration
(b) 1, 2 and 3 only (b) its natural frequency is very high in
(c) 2, 3 and 4 only comparison to the frequency of vibration
(d) 1, 3 and 4 only (c) its natural frequency is equal to the
frequency of vibration

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(d) measurement of vibratory motion is without 6l
any reference point. = 2 g
e

Ans. (c)
l
= 2 g . 6

R
The natural frequency of accelerometer should e
be kept around frequency of vibration/excitation
in order to read the very weak earthquake. = Te 6

TE
In case of resonance the peak is control by 76. While calculating the natural frequency of a
proper dampnig. spring-mass system, the effect of the mass of
75. As compared to the time period of a simple the spring is accounted for by adding X times
pendulum on the earth, its time period on the its value to the mass, where X is
moon will be
1 1
AS
(a) 6 times higher (a) (b)
2 3
(b) 6 times lower
1 3
(c) 6 times higher (c) (d)
4 4
(d) 6 times lower
Ans. (b)
M

Ans. (c)
Sol. The period of oscillation of spring-mass
Sol. The time period of simple pendulum on earth system including the mass of spring.

l
S

Te = 2  g …(i)
e

Since on Moon, the acceleration due to


IE

ms
1
gravity in th of acceleration due to gravity k
6
at earth.
M
ge
 gm =
6
 ms 
M   M  Xms
3 
l T = 2   2
 T m = 2 g k k
m

l 1
= 2  g   X =
3
e
 
 6  77. A block of mass 10 kg is placed at the free end
of a cantilever beam of length 1 m and second
moment of area 300 mm 4. Taking Young’s

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modulus of the beam material as 200 GPa, the 78. The speed rating for turbine rotors is invariably
natural frequency of the system is more than 2 times its natural frequency to
(a) 30 2 rad s (b) 2 3 rad s (a) increase stability under heavy load and high
speed
(c) 3 2 rad s (d) 20 3 rad s (b) isolate vibration of the system from the
surrounding

R
Ans. (c) (c) minimize deflection under dynamic loading
as well as to reduce transmissbility of force
Sol. The cantilever vibrator, to the surrounding

 = 1m
M =10 kg TE
Sol.
(d) none of the above

Ans. (b)

The rotating speed of turbine rotor is more


AS
than 2 times of natural frequency (n ) of
Second moment of inertia, system. Because beyond this speed, the
transmissibility T r is less than one as shown
I = 300 mm 4
below
Young’s modulus,
E = 200 GPa
M

The deflection at free end


'Tr'
Turbine rotor
speed range
mg3
st 
3EI 1.0
S

 Stiffness constant
IE

mg 3EI
k =   3
st  1.0 = 2 (/n )

3  200  109  300  1012


Hence force transmitted to foundation by
k = turbine is less than it impress upon isolator.
3
So t he v i brat i ons are i sol at ed f rom
= 600 × 300 × 10–3 surroundings.
79. The magnitude of swaying couple due to partial
= 180 N/m
balance of the primary unbalnacing force in
Frequency of oscillation locomotive is
(a) inversely proportional to the reciprocating
k 180 mass
n =  = 3 2 rad/sec
m 10

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(b) directly proportional to the square of the (d) each governor ball for given percentage
distance between the centrelines of the two change of speed
cylinders
(c) inversely proportional to the distance Ans. (c)

R
between the centrelines of the two cylinders
Sol. The power of governor is defined as = sleeve
(d) directly proportional to the distance between
displacement × effort
the centrelines of the two cylinders

TE
The effort of governor is defined as average
Ans. (d) force on sleeve for a given change of speed.
So the power can be defined as work done
Sol. at sleeve for given rate of change of speed.
81. Copper has FCC structure; its atomic radius is
(1  c) mr2 cos  1.28 A and atomic mass is 63.5. The density of
AS
Cylinder–1 copper will be
(a) 8.9×103 kg/mm3
a/2
(b) 8.9×103 kg/cm3
(c) 8.9×103 kg/m3
x x
(d) 8.9×103 g/mm3
M

a/2 Ans. (c)


Cylinder-2
Mass × No. of atoms in a unit
2 cell
(1  c) mr cos    90  Sol. Density (g/m3) =
Volume × Avagadro's
S

The swaying couple due to unbalance force Number


about centre line x – x Volume of a unit cell = a3 = (2 2R)
3
IE

= 47.46 × 10–30 m3
2 a
= (1  c)mr cos 
2 4  63.5
=
 a 47.46  1030  6.023  1023
(1  c)mr2 cos(  90)   
 2 = 8.9 × 106 g/m3
or 8.9 × 103 kg/m3
2
mr a 82. A plane intersects the coordinate axes at
= (1  c) (cos   sin )
2
2 1 1
80. The power of a governor is the work done at x , y  and z  . What is the Miller index
3 3 2
(a) the governor balls for change of speed of this plane?
(b) the sleeve for zero change of speed (a) 932 (b) 432
(c) the sleeve for a given rate of change of (c) 423 (d) 364
speed

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Ans. (d)
4
but a = R for BCC will only
Sol. 3

1/2 2  2 
= R R =   1 R
3  3 
2 1/3

R
3 Roctahedral = 0.158 R

3
 2 1 1 also R = a

TE
Intercepts are   4
3 3 2
3  0.158  3
Take reciprocal intercepts i.e.  3 2 Roctahedral = a
2  4
Converting to whole number by multiplying by
= 0.0684 a
2
AS
Doctahedral = 2 × Roctahedral = 0.136 a
miller indices = (3 6 4)
84. If the atomic radius of aluminium is r, what is
83. What is the diameter of the largest sphere in
its unit cell volume?
terms of lattice parameter  , which will fit the
void at the centre of the cube edge of a BCC 3 3
 2r   4r 
crystal? (a)   (b)  
 2  2
M

(a) 0.134  (b) 0.25 


3 3
(c) 0.433  (d) 0.5   2r   4r 
(c)   (d)  
 3  3
Ans. (a)
S

Ans. (b)
Sol. Sol. Aluminium has FCC crystal structure
IE

a
a = 2 2r
volume of unit cell = a3

= (2 2r)3 = 8×2× 2r 3 = 16 2r 3
a
3
a  4r 
or  
 2

The void formed is an octahedral void. The 85. Consider the following staements regarding the
largest radius that can jet in it behaviour of dislocations:
1. Only edge dislocation and mixed dislocation
a 
Roctahedral =   R  can have glide motion.
2 

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2. A screw dislocation cannot have glide
motion.
3. Dislocat ion mov es in t he direct ion Temp. L
1453°C
perpendicular to that of shear stress.
L+S

R
4. Motion of disloacation occurs on slip plane
that contains Burger’s vector and direction 1085°C S
vector. C1=16% Ni {Given

TE
Which of the above statements are correct? C2=26% Ni data} C1 C0 C2
Cu100% 80%Cu 0%
(a) 1, 2 and 3 Ni0% 20%Ni 100%
(b) 1, 2 and 4 only %composition

(c) 2, 3 and 4 only


C2  C0 0.26  0.2
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4 wsolid (at 20% Ni) = C  C = 0.26  0.16
AS
2 1

Ans. (d) wliquid = 1 – wsolid = 0.4 or 40%


Sol. Dislocation w solid 0.6 3
= =
• Only edge & mixed dislocation can glide wliquid 0.4 2
along a specific plane defined.
87. Elements A and B form eutectic type binary
M

• For screw dislocation there is no specific glide


phase diagram and the eutectic composition is
plane defined.
60 wt% B. If just below eutectic temperature,
• Dislocations move perpendicular to direction the eutectic phase contains equal amounts (by
of shear stress along a slip plane containing wt) of two solid phases, then the compositions
Burger’s vector & direction vector. of the two solid phases are
S

86. A binary alloy of Cu and Ni containing 20 wt%


(a) 20 wt% B and 90 wt% B
Ni at a particular temperature coexists with solid
(b) 30 wt% B and 90 wt% B
phase of 26 wt% Ni and liquid phase of 16
IE

wt% Ni. What is the weight ratio of solid phase (c) 20 wt% B and 80 wt% B
and liquid pahse? (d) 30 wt% B and 80 wt% B
(a) 1 : 1 (b) 3 : 2
Ans. (b)
(c) 2 : 3 (d) 1 : 2
Sol. Equilibrium phase diagram for a eutectic alloy
Ans. (b) is

Sol. Cu-Ni phase diagram is given as (It is a binary eutectic point


isomorphos system) L
L L

   

x
A 100% 40% A y A 0%
B 0% 60% B B 100%
Just below eutectic point, the composition of

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two phases (i.e.  & ) be x and y Sol. Eutectic reaction is
respectively. L  

y  0.6 It is a reversible reaction which can take place


wd = = 0.5(given) both ways.
yx
89. At room temperature,  -iron contains negligible

R
y – 0.6 = 0.5y  0.5 x amount of carbon, cementite contains 6.67%
C and pearlite contains 0.8% C. Pearlite
y – 0.5y + 0.5 x = 0.6
contains how much cementite?
0.5(x + y) = 0.6

TE
(a) 8% (b) 10%
x+y = 1.2
(c) 12% (d) 14%
Similarly
Ans. (c)
0.6  x
w = = 0.5
yx Sol. At room temperature
AS
Amount of ferrite × %carbon in ferrite + Amount
0.6 – x = 0.5y – 0.5 x
of cementite × % carbon in cementite = overall
0.6 = 0.5y + 0.5x % carbon in pearlite. as % carbon in ferrite is
(x + y) = 1.2 negligible at toom temperature.
There, is only one option satisfying the Amount of cementite × 6.67 = 0.8
conditions i.e. 30 wt% B and 90 wt% B is
M

0.8
 and  phases. cementite = = 0.1199 or 12%
6.67
88. Consider the following statements :
90. Two metals A and B are completely immiscible
In a binary phase diagram
in sloid and liquid state. Melting point of A is
1. the freezing point of the alloy is minimum 800 ºC and melting point of B is 600 ºC. They
S

2. eutectic mixture solidifies at a constant form eutectic at 200 ºC with 40% B and 60%
temperature like pure metal A. The 50% B alloy contains.
IE

3. eutectic reaction is irreversible (a) 83.33% B and 16.67% of eutectic


4. at eutectic temperature, liquids of two (b) 83.3% of eutectic and 16.67% B
metals will change into two solids (c) 50% B and 50% of eutectic
Which of the above statements are correct? (d) 40% B and 60% of eutectic
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only
(b) 1, 3 and 4 only Ans. (b)
(c) 1, 2 and 4 only Sol. For no miscibility in liquid and solid state, the
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4 phase diagram is

Ans. (c)

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a2 + a2 = (4R)2
800°C
2a2 = 16R2 4R a
Temp. Eutectic
point
a2 = 8R2
600°C
A

R
a = 2 2R
200°C a
C1 C0 C2 R = 1.246A° (given)
A 100°C 60%A 50%A 0%

TE
B% 100% a = 2 2 × 1.246 = 3.524A°
40%B 50%B

%Composition 3.524
d200 = = 1.762 A 
Composition at point A i.e. (50%B – 50%A) 22  0 2  0 2
can be found oil by lever rule.
3.524
AS
C0  C1 50  40 10 d220 = = 1.246 A 
Quantity of B = C  C = 100  40 = 60 2  22  02
2
2 1

= 16.67% of B. 3.524
d111 = = 2.034 A 
1  12  12
2
C2  C0 100  50
Quantity of eutectic = C  C = 100  40 92. Rotary swaging is a process for shaping
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2 1
(a) round bars and tubes
50 (b) billets
= = 83.33%
60 (c) dies
91. What is the interplanar spacing between (200), (d) rectangular blocks
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(220), (111) planes in an FCC crystal of atomic


radius 1.246 A? Ans. (a)
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(a) d(200) = 1.762 Å, d(220) = 1.24 Å and d(111) = Sol. Rotary swaging is used to shape round bars
2.034 Å and tubes such as gun barrels
(b) d(200) = 1.24 Å, d(220) = 1.762 Å and d(111) =
2.034 Å 93. Consider the following statements:
(c) d(200) = 2.034 Å, d(220) = 1.24 Å and d(111) = In shell moulding
1.762 Å 1. a single parting plane should be provided
(d) d(200) = 2.5 Å, d(220) = 4.2 Å and d(111) = for mould
2.6 Å 2. detachable pattern parts and cores could
be included
Ans. (a) 3. minimum rounding radii of 2.5 mm to 3 mm
should be used
Sol. Inteplaner spacing is given as
4. draft angles of not less than 1° should be
a used
d =
h  k 2  2
2 Which of the above statements are correct?
(a) 1, 3 and 4 only (b) 1, 2 and 3 only
for FCC

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(c) 2, 3 and 4 only (d) 1, 2, 3 and 4 • Very close fit between mating surface
96. Centre lathe is to be used to cut inch thread of
Ans. (a) 4 threads per inch. Lead screw of lathe has 3
Sol. • In shell molding mm pitch. Then change gear tobe used is
• Single parting plane should be provided 1 127
• Detachable pattern parts & cores should be (a) (b)
12 60

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avoided.
• Minimum rounding radii is 2.5 to 3 mm 30 20
• Draft angle should not be less than 1°. (c) (d)
127 80

TE
94. A big casting is to have a hole, to be produced
by using a core of 10 cm diameter and 200 cm Ans. (b)
long. The density metal is 0.077 N/cm3 and
25.4
density core is 0.0165 N/cm 3. What is the Sol. Threads per inch (TPI) =
pitch in mm
upward force acting on the core prints?
AS
25.4 25.4
(a) 200.5 N (b) 1100.62 N pitch in mm = =
TPI 4
(c) 950.32 N (d) 350.32 N Also pitch (mm) = Gear ratio × pitch of leads
crew.
Ans. (c)
25.4 25.4 254
Gear ratio = = or
Sol. Buoyant force acting on core. 43 12 120
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(metal  core ) × /4×d2   127


or
2 60
= /4× 10   200   0.077  0.0165 
97. Consider the following statements in respect of
= 950.33 N
the oxidizing flame due to excess of oxygen in
95. Consider the following :
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welding:
The purpose of lapping process is 1. At high temperature, it combines with many
1. to produce geometrically true surface metals to form hard and brittle oxides.
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2. to correct minor surface imperfections 2. It causes the weld bead and the surrounding
3. to improve dimensional accuracy area to have a scummy appearance.
4. to provide very close fit between the contact 3. It has good welding effect in welding of
surface copper-base metal.
Which of the above are correct? Which of the above statements are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only (b) 1, 3 and 4 only (a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 2, 3 and 4 only (d) 1, 2, 3 and 4 (c) 1 and 3 only (d) 2 and 3 only

Ans. (d) Ans. (a)

Sol. Lapping gives Sol. Oxidising flame


• Geo metrically true surface • Forms hard oxides which protect the weld
• Corrects minor surface imperfection metal
• Improves dimensional accuracy

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• Gives dirty & scummy appearance to weld Ans. (c)
bead
Sol. Taylor’s tool life equation is
• Has good welding effect on copper base
vTn = C
alloys, manganese steels and east iron.
v 1 × (T1)0.5 = 300

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...(i)
98. A cutter tip is initially at X = 10 mm, Y = 20
mm. In a rapid motion, using G00 code, it when speed is reduced by 25%
moves to X = 160 mm, Y = 120 mm. The X 0.75v 1 × (T2)0.5 = 300 ...(ii)

TE
and Y axes have maximum speed of 10000 Comparing (i) & (ii)
mm/min and 5000 mm/min respectively.
Operating at maximum speed, what is the time V1  T10.5 = 0.75v1  T20.5
it will take to reach the destination?
0.5
(a) 0.90 s (b) 1.08 s  T2  1
T  =
(c) 1.20 s (d) 2.16 s
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 1 0.75

Ans. (d) T2 2 2
 1  4 16
=   =   =
T1  0.75  3 9
Sol. y (160 , 120)
16
T2 = T1
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9
Increase in tool life
(10, 20)

x  16 
 T2  T1    T1  T1 
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For y axis cutter has to travel 100 mm at 5000 =    100 =    100


 T1   T1 
 250 
mm/mm  mm/sec  i.e. it will take =
 3 
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700
= = 77.78% or 78%
100  3 9
= 1.2s
250 100. Which of the following statements are correct
for temperature rise in metal cutting operation?
For x axis cutter has to travel 150 mm at 10000
1. It adversely affects the properties of tool
 500  150  3 material.
mm/min  mm/s  i.e. = = 0.9 s
 3  500 2. It provides better accuracy during machining.
Total time = 0.9 + 1.2 = 2.1 s 3. It causes dimensional changes in workpiece
99. If n = 0.5 and C = 300 for the cutting speed and affects accuracy of machining.
and the tool life relation, when cutting speed is 4. It can distort the accuracy of machine tool
reduced by 25%, the tool life will be increased itself.
by (a) 1 and 2 (b) 2 and 3
(a) 100% (b) 95% (c) 3 and 4 only (d) 1, 3 and 4
(c) 78% (d) 50%

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Ans. (d)
F F
 
Sol. Temperature rise does not give better accuracy A 0.707h
during machining. HIgh temperature affects
hardnen of cutting edge. It can also distort the The force are parallel to minimum threat area
tool due to thermal expansion. so it is designed for shear strength only.
102. If the permissible crushing stress for the
101. Consider the following:

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material of a key is double the permissible
The parallel fillet welded joint is designed for shear stress, then the sunk key will be equally
1. tensile strength strong in sheaering and crushing if the key is

TE
2. compressive strength a
3. bending strength (a) rectangular key with width equal to half the
4. shear strength thickness
Which of the above is/are correct? (b) rectangular key with width equal to twice
(a) 4 only (b) 3 only the thickness
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(c) 2 and 3 (d) 1 and 4 (c) squre key
(d) rectangular key with width equal to one-
Ans. (a) fourth the thickness

Sol. The parallel fillet welds along with force F. Ans. (c)
Thin weld is designed for shear strength of Sol. Given
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weldment throat, the thickness of threat.


c = 2
F

t
Also crushing force = c  
2
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t d
Crushing torque = c  
2 2
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d
k
Shearing torque =     
h 2
h
for equal strength in shearing & crushing

d t d
2h h      = c    
t = = = 0.707 h 2 2 2
2 2

Area of threat,  
= c
t 2
A =   t = 0.707 h  

 Shear stress, = 1 or  = t
t
Thus, it should be a square key

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103. Very small quantity of carbon in iron as in steels or disconnect the driving and driven shaft
forms interstitial solid solution mainly because according to wish of operator of requirement.
atomic size(s) of T hi s oper at i on happens due t o ax i al
(a) carbon and iron are almost same movement of spline hub or shaft ember.
Example clutch. The shaft in spline is under

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(b) iron is very much smaller than that of carbon
pure torsion i.e., shear.
(c) carbon is very much smaller than that of
106. For a power screw having square threads with
iron
lead angle of 45° and coefficients of friction of

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(d) None of the above 0.15 between screw and nut, the efficiency of
the power screw, neglecting collar friction, is
Ans. (c)
given by
Sol. Carbon forms interstitial solid solution with iron (a) 75% (b) 64%
as size of carbon atom is very small as (c) 54% (d) 44%
AS
compared to size of iron atoms.
104. In a cotter joint, the width of the cotter at the Ans. (a)
centre is 5 cm, while its thickness is 1.2 cm.
The load acting on the cotter is 60 kN. The Sol. Efficiency of power screw is   = 90   = 45 
shear stress developed in the cotter is
(a) 50 N/mm2 (b) 100 N/mm2 tan  tan  1  tan  tan  
=
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 =
tan      tan   tan 
(c) 120 N/mm2 (d) 200 N/mm2

Ans. (b) tan 45 1  tan 45  0.15 


=
0.15  tan 45
Sol. Shear stress in cottor
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11  0.15 
P 60  103 60000 = = 0.739 or 74%
c = = = 1.15
2  b  t 12  50 600
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107. Aquaplaning occurs in vehicle tyres when there


= 100 N/mm2
is continuous film of fluid between the tyre and
105. The use of straight or curved external gear the wet road. It leads to
teeth in mesh with internal teeth in ‘gear and
(a) oscillatory motion of the vehicle
spline couplings’ is specifically employed to
accommodate. (b) jamming the brakes of the vehicle
(a) torsional misalignment (c) jamming the steering mechanism of the
vehicle
(b) parallel misalignment
(d) loss of control of the vehicle
(c) angular misalignment
(d) substantial axial movements between shafts Ans. (d)

Ans. (d) Sol. Aquaplaning or hydroplaning is the condition


in vehicle or aircraft when there is water layer
Sol. The gear and spline couplings are used in between tyre and road surf ace. In this
torque transmission when key fails to serve situation, there is excessive skidding or
the purpose. These couplings can connect slipping of vehicle i.e., loss of control of

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Ans. (b)
vehicle. This situation can be very dangerous
when al l t ype h av e equapl ani ng Sol. Velocity of driver
simultaneously.
v1 800
v2 = = = 100 rpm
100 V R 8
= = 102.04 rpm.
0.98 Due to creep

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108. If the angle of wrap on smaller pulley of
V2 100
diameter 250 mm is 120° and diameter of larger v2 =  =
1  1  0.02
pulley is twice the diameter of smaller pulley,
then the centre distance between the pulleys
for an open belt drive is
(a) 1000 mm
(c) 500 mm
(b) 750 mm
(d) 250 mm
TE = 102.04 rpm
110. Two shafts A and B of same material, and A is
twice the diameter of B. The torque that can
be transmitted by A is
(a) 2 times that of B (b) 8 times that of B
AS
Ans. (d) (c) 4 times that of B (d) 6 times that of B
Sol. Given D1 = 2D2
Ans. (b)
or r1 = 2r2

r1  r2 Sol. Torque transmitted by a shaft T d3


sin =
x
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TA =  2 3 TB = 8TB
where x is the center distance between the
pulleys 111. A worm gear set is designed to have pressure
for smaller pulley angle of 30° which is equal to the helix angle.
The efficiency of the worm gear set at an
wrap angle = 180 – 2 = 120°
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interface friction of 0.05 is


2 = 60° (a) 87.9% (b) 77.9%
or  = 30° (c) 67.9% (d) 57.9%
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250  125 Ans. (a)


sin 30° =
x
Sol. Helix angle of worm = 30°
125 Load angle of worm (  ) = 90° – 30° = 60°
x = = 250mm
sin30
1   tan 
109. If the velocity ratio for an open belt drive is 8 efficiency of worm gear =
1   /tan 
and the speed of driving pulley is 800 rpm.,
then considering an elastic creep of 2% the
1  0.05  tan60
speed of the driven pulley is =
1  0.05/tan 60°
(a) 104.04 rpm (b) 102.04 rpm
(c) 100.04 rpm (d) 98.04 rpm 0.9134
= = 0.8877
1.0289

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or 88.77% contact ratios are not equal. Large contact
112. Consider the following statements : ratio’s lead to engagement of multiple teeth.
The axes of spiral bevel gear are non-parallel 114. In an interference fit between a shaft and a
and intersecting hub, the state of stress in the shaft due to

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interference fit is
1. The most common pressure angle for spiral
bevel gear is 20°. (a) only compressive radial stress
2. The most common spiral angle for spiral (b) a tensile radial stress and a compressive

TE
bevel gear is 35°. tangential stress
3. Spiral bev el gears are generally (c) a tensile tangential stress and a compressive
interchangeable. radial stress
4. Spirals are noisy and recommended for low (d) a compressive tangential stress and a
speeds of 10 m/s. compressive radial stress
AS
Which of the above statements are correct?
Ans. (d)
(a) 1 and 4 (b) 1 and 2
(c) 2 and 3 (d) 3 and 4 Sol. For interference fit between hub & shaft, shaft
is considered externally pressed
Ans. (b) radial = – Pf (external pressure)
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Sol. Bevel gears are inherently non-interchangeable.


They are less noisy. Most common pressure Pf  rf2  rL2 
tan gential = –
angle is 20°C and most common spiral angle rf2  rL2 
is 35°.
113. Consider the following statements: rf = outer radius
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In case of helical gears, teeth are cut at an fi = inner radius


angle to the axis of rotation of the gears. Thus, both radial & tangential stream are
1. Helix angle introduces another ratio called compressive.
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axial contact ratio. 115. In case the number of teeth on two bevel gears
2. Transverse contact ratio is equal to axial in mesh is 30 and 60 respectively, then the
contact ratio in helical gears. pitch cone angle of the gear will be
3. Large transverse contact ratio does not allow 
multiple teeth to share the load. (a) tan–1 2 (b)  tan1 2
2
4. Large axial contact ratio will cause larger
axial force component. 
(c)  tan1 0.5 (d) tan–1 0.5
Which of the above statements are correct? 2
(a) 1 and 2 (b) 2 and 3
(c) 1 and 4 (d) 3 and 4 Ans. (a)

Sol. Pitch cone angle of gear (for metregears i.e.


Ans. (d)
where  is angle between two shafts.
Sol. Helical gears have two contact ratios i.e. Axial
contact ratio & transverse contact ratio. Both

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leakage of oil is not a problem.
TG 
1   60 
P2 = tan   = tan1   118. Consider the following statements in connection
 TP   30 
with thrust bearings:
= tan–1 (2) 1. Cylindrical thrust bearings have higher
116. In skew bevel gears, the axes are coefficient of friction than ball thrust bearings.
(a) non-parallel and non-intersecting, and teeth 2. Taper rollers cannot be employed for thrust

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are curved bearings.
(b) non-parallel and non-intersecting, and teeth 3. Double-row thrust ball bearing is not
are straight possible.
(c) intersecting, and teeth are curved and
oblique
(d) intersecting, and teeth are curved and can
be ground
TE 4. Lower race, outer race and retainer are
readily separate in thrust bearings.
Which of the above statements are correct?
(a) 1 and 2
(c) 3 and 4
(b) 2 and 3
(d) 1 and 4
AS
Ans. (a)
Ans. (d)
Sol. In skew bevel gears, the axes are non-parallel
and non-intersecting, and teeth are curved. Sol. • Cylindrical thrust bearings have higher
117. Consider that modern machines mostly use coefficeint of friction than ball thrust bearings
short bearings due to the following reasons: • Both taper roller & double row thrust ball
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1. l/d of the most modern bearings is in the bearings are used.


range of 1/4 to 2 119. The behaviour of metals in which strength of a
2. No end leakage of oil from the bearing metal is increased and the ductility is decreased
3. Shaft deflection and misalignment do not on heating at a relatively low temperature after
affect the operation cold-working is known as
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4. Can be applied to both hydro-dynamic and (a) clustering (b) strain aging
hydrostatic cases (c) twinning (d) screw dislocation
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Which of the above are correct?


Ans. (c)
(a) 1 and 4 (b) 2 and 3
(c) 1 and 3 (d) 2 and 4 Sol. Twi nni ng i s a pl ane def e ct where
arrangement of atoms on either side of a
Ans. (c)
twin plane are identical. Twinning occurs
either as mechanical twinning or Annealing
Sol. • A long bearing is where   d ( = length d
twins during annealing heat treatment.
= diameter) Twinning increases strength & reduces
A shaft bearing has advantages such as (i) ductility as twin planes hinders the movement
shaft deflection and misalignment do not of dislocations.
affect operation (ii) compact design (iii) Run 120. If the equivalent load in case of a radial ball
cooler. However, end leakage is a problem. bearing is 500 N and the basic dynamic load
On the other hand, long bearings have rating is 62500 N, then L10 life of this bearing
greater load carrying capacity and end

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is
(a) 1.953 million of revolutions
(b) 3.756 million of revolutions
(c) 6.953 million of revolutions

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(d) 9.765 million of revolutions

Ans. (a)

TE
Sol. Use of a ball bearing is given as:
k
c
L10 =  
w
where L10 = life in million revolutions
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c = Basic dynamic load rating
w = equivalent dynamic load
k = 3 for ball bearing
3
 62500 
L10 =  
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 500 
= (125)3 = 1953125
1.953125 million of revolution
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