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System - Interrelated procedures necessary to achieve a well defined goal.

Procedure Related method necessary to complete work process
Method Specific clerical or mechanical operations or activities.
Objectives of System and Procedures

To bring efficiency in the utilization of the organization resources.

To control operating costs.
To improve operating efficiency.
To help achieve the objectives of the organization.

Designing an Efficient Office System

Efficient office system is the result of careful planning and design. When a new
system is required to be developed, it would appropriate to proceed through the
following steps
1. Determination of objectives and forms of office services.
2. Study and analysis of various office services.
3. Development of simple procedures and methods.
4. Simplification and improvement in procedures through use of:
a. Analysis of end products
b. Analysis of primary information.
c. Analysis of methods.
d. Mechanization of office services.
5. Development of the system.
Characteristics of a Well-Design System
1. Effectiveness
2. Efficiency
3. Dependability
4. Flexibility
5. Simplicity
6. Acceptability
A Means of Integrating Systems
A generalized approach to integrating system has already been indicated. Basically,
the approach requires defining the output or goals desired from the total system,
then defining the major inputs which influence achievement of these general goals.
The same approach then must be extended backward through subsystem and
supporting operations. Finally, the different parts must be interrelated. Two major
steps are needed to move towards integration of systems: 1.Development of a
master plan of system and subsystem, and 2. Development of information flow
which guides operative activities involved in the systems.
The Master Systems Plan
A desirable preliminary in development a master systems plan is recognition of the
different levels of system like to be found in any enterprise:
1. The total system of operations, designed to achieve general enterprise goals.
2. Integrated systems such as the linking of production with inventory control,
or of sales with accounts receivable, or of purchase with accounts payable.
3. Subsystems such as the entire inventory control system, made up of separate
procedures for requisitioning procedures, issuing, reordering, receiving, and
updating records.
4. Procedures such as the inventory requisitioning procedures made up of a
series of operations such as checking stock, preparing a materials requisition,
securing proper authorization, and transmitting the requisition.

5. Methods which are simply the means of performing individual operations,

such as use of a standard form and typewriter by a clerk in preparing a
materials requisition.
A Special Role of Procedures
A procedure, as suggest earlier, is a specific work sequence. It is a series of
operations pointed towards achieving a particular objective, such as recording a
sales order, hiring an employee, or requisitioning a company car. A procedure thus
stands between a system and an operation. A system for completing a sale is made
up of network procedures, one of which is likely to be that of collection for credit
sales. A procedure lays out the sequence of steps usually followed in performing a
recurring type of work and most of the work of a typical enterprise is a recurring
type of work and most of the work of a typical enterprise is recurring or repetitive.
System Design
Up to time of the system proposal, Analysis are concerned themselves with the local
design of the system. Although they have decide that specific procedures should be
followed. Instead, they concentrate on general systems flow, the cost of the system,
and overall feasibility.
After the systems proposal is agreed to, Analysis or Systems Designers concern
themselves with the physical design of the system. Here they create detailed
specifications for every aspect of the system. This includes form designers; file
organizations, procedural steps and so on. If a computer system is to be used they
will chart the steps required for all phases of processing.
The following are the major steps in system design:
1. Specification of data element, records and files.
2. Specification on input forms, data preparation formats and identification of
personnel who will complete them.
3. Specifications of system output.
4. Development of system flow chart.
5. Development of feedback and control procedures.
6. Development of program specifications.
7. Development of operating specifications.
8. Resource planning.
9. Implementation/plan/schedule
Phasing out the existing system
Training user/personnel
System review and parallel operation
System Requirements
1. Practical
2. Economical
3. Efficient
4. Flexible
5. Reliable
6. Secure
Various Stages in Computerizing Commercial System
A system can be defined as a group of interrelated components that seeks the
attainment of a common goal by accepting input and processing them into output in
an organized process. Thus, a production system accept raw materials as input and
procedures finished goods as output in an organized process with a goal of
maximizing return of investment and the components of in an organized process
with a goal of maximizing return of investment and the components of this system:
man, machines and material interact with one another in an organized manner.
Step 1: Area Selection
This is the first activity carried by System Analyst. Under a preliminary investigation
they examine the functioning of each unit/department before deciding specific
areas in which the computerized may be most useful.
Step 2: Overall Analysis
Various activities performed by the consultant in the overall analysis phase include:
a. Documentation of the current system

b. Analysis of the present system to identify potential improvements.

c. Determining several alternatives and cost/benefits of alternative solutions.
d. Producing preliminary schedules and budgets for design implementation of
alternative systems.
e. Feasibility study
Step 3: Master Development Plan
In this phase, the Analysis prepares a sort of blue print for the system
development effort.
Step 4: System Analysis
This step involves collection, recording, verification and analysis of how the
operations are being out presently. System analysis is the activity which is used
to sort out the prospective are for computerization. It also determines the data
volumes and information requirements for each selected application.
Step 5: System Design
This step involves preparation of design specifications for converting input data
into output results.
Step 6: Programming Analysis
Programmer at this stage, break down the design specifications into input/output
calculation, logic/comparison, storage/retrieval operations etc. the step also
includes preparation of program flow charts.
Step 7: Program Preparation
This step comprises translation (called coding) by programmers, of the specific
operations identified earlier into a language on from acceptable to the computer.
Step 8: System Implementation
At this stage, the Analysis is concerned with those tasks which are necessary to
make the system fully operational one. It involves programmer, users and
operations management, but its planning and timing is a prime function of
System Analysis. It includes software writing and also the final testing of the
complete system to users satisfaction and supervision of the initial operations of
new system.
Step 9: System Maintenance and Review
The newly design and implemented system is reviewed by the Analysis after
sometime. He critically examines whether the system in use is suitable to meet
the objectives of the system for requirements. He also ensures that the system
fully meets the objectives of the system for which it has been created.
Education and Training
The changeover to the computerized system can indeed be traumatic to the
Managers. The new system can alter the jurisdictions of the existing
departments some of which may even disappear. Those affected by the change
have therefore to be educated for the new system. Education is to be imparted
to the departments carrying out the changeover, department directly affected
and senior and middle managements who will be directly affected. The
education is aimed at broadening peoples minds to accept the change,
dispelling mystique of the computer and allaying any apprehensions. There has
also to be a comprehensive training program that is intended to train the
employees in their new assignments.
Planning Security
Security, like any other activity, must be well-planned. Although a determined
thief or an intruder cannot be completely stopped from entering into the office,
yet it might be impossible to make his life difficult. A careful security plan tries to
minimize risks and even eliminate them.
Steps in Planning Security
1. Forming a Committee
2. Seeking information and opinions
3. Formulating security plan or system
4. Circulating the plan or system
5. Formulating the system
6. Communicating the system
7. Recruiting employees
Effective Preparation of Office Manuals

1. Use easy to understand wording. Words should be chosen very carefully

and words that can interpreted in many different ways should be avoided.
The purpose of a manual is to communicate, not to confuse.
2. Strive for both brevity and completeness. Admitted this is a tall order,
but it is attainable through the who does what when formula, and by
keeping the user in mind in applying this formula. It should be explained as
thoroughly as possible in as few words as possible.
3. Adapt the format to the user. Any form of communication should be
prepared with the receiver in mind so that the message can be geared to the
level of the receiver.