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Average velocity is along a chord of the path i.e. along the displacement vector r.

Instantaneous acceleration has no direct relation to path.

=

Besides the above basic definitions, Equations of motion for constant acceleration are often used:

v = u + at

r = ut + at2

v2 = u2 + 2a.r

All vector relations hold equally well in component form. As such any vector equation is equivalent to

three new scalar equations- one along each co-ordinate axes.

Orthogonal components are independent of each other. This implies that motion along a particular axis is

independent of motion along any other perpendicular axis. As such any general 2-D or 3-D motion can

be broken into 1-dimensional problems, and each axis motion can be separately dealt with.

In a general path problem, often we deal with acceleration vector by splitting into two components- one

tangential to path (tangential acceleration at), the other perpendicular to path (along normal, centripetal

acceleration ac).

at =

ac = v2/R (centripetal acceleration takes into account only the change in direction)

An acceleration component (say ax) can be written, using chain rule, as:

All motions taking place only under the effect of gravity are free fall problems. The acceleration in such

cases is constant and equal to g.

As such all problems, of particles either thrown upwards, downwards or at an angle (i.e. projectile) are

problems of free fall. All of them can be dealt with using the three Equations of Motion for Uniform

Acceleration in vector form.

All kinematic variables (r, v and a) must be specified with respect to some observer i.e. reference frame.

Unless otherwise specified, all parameters are taken with respect to ground reference frame.

Kinematics problems are often dealt with by changing reference frames. The basic vector definitions of

kinematic variables and vector relations for constant acceleration hold equally well in all reference

frames. (So velocity is still the derivative of displacement, only that they are taken relative to the chosen

frame).

While solving a problem from a certain reference frame (say B), first we bring that reference frame itself

to rest. Then analyze the motion of everything else (A), but taking into account that all vectors (r, v and

a) are now used with respect to this new reference frame (rAB, vAB, aAB). All problems of rain-man, river

boat, etc are simple applications of these.

The relative position/separation magnitude between two particles is an extremum (maximum

/minimum/constant) when their relative velocity component along the line joining them is zero. This

implies the either relative velocity vector is zero, or it is perpendicular to relative position vector.

o Different points along an inextensible string or rigid body, in general, have different velocities.

However, different particles have the same velocity component along the line joining them, since

relative separation between them does not change in magnitude (constant).

Problems on collision can be dealt with properly by changing reference frames. In the reference frame of

one of the particles, the other must pass through the origin of the reference frame.

For collision between projectiles, the relative acceleration is zero (since both have same acc. g). As such

on changing reference frame, the other appears to move in a straight line, with constant velocity (the

initial relative velocity).

ax = v

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