You are on page 1of 29

Introduction

ADC

ES MUET

Course Description

Title of Subject :
Disciplines :
Term :
Effective :
Pre-requisites : Assessment :
Sessional Work: 20%
Marks : Theory: 100
Credit Hours : 4
Minimum Contact
Hours : 52

ADC

Analog & Digital Communication


Electronic Engineering
(6th Term)
09ES-Batch and onwards
Co-requisite: Written Examination: 80%
Practical: 50
2
26
ES MUET

Sessional Work
?? Quizzes
?? Assignments
2 Class tests
(Aims & objectives of this course + recommended
books available on the website:
http://www.muet.edu.pk/departments/electronicsengineering/course-outline)
ADC

ES MUET

About me
Khuhed Memon
(Lecturer Dept of ES MUET)
MS Signal Processing (Nanyang Technological
University, Singapore)
BE Electronics (Pakistan Navy Engineering
College, National University of Sciences &
Technology, Pakistan)
ADC

ES MUET

Class style
Interactive:
Discussions + questions in class, email,
office..

ADC

ES MUET

Contact Info:
Office: OIC Basic Electronics Lab
E-mail: khuhedkk@hotmail.com
*best way to communicate : e-mail

ADC

ES MUET

Enjoy the course

ADC

ES MUET

This lecture

Concept of Signal Processing


Introduction to Signals
Classification of Signals
Basic elements of SP System
Analog to Digital Conversion
Sampling
Quantization

Nyquist Theorem
Applications of Signal Processing
ADC

ES MUET

Signal Processing
Representation, transformation,
manipulation of signals and the information
they contain.
Classification:
Depends upon the type of signal to be
processed.
Analog Signal Processing
Digital Signal Processing
ADC

ES MUET

Signal Processing
Analog SP
Continuous time signals are processed.

Digital SP
Discrete - time discrete - valued signals
processed by digital computers or other data
processing machines.
ADC

ES MUET

10

Signal??
Any indication / information
A change in which some information is
residing

ADC

ES MUET

11

Classification of Signals
Continuous-time / Discrete-time Signals
Continuous-valued / Discrete-valued
Signals
Deterministic / Random Signals
One-dimensional / Multi-dimensional
Signals

ADC

ES MUET

12

Fundamental SP system
Most signals Analog in nature.
Analog to Digital Converter is used as an
interface between analog signal and Digital
Signal Processor.
Analog

Analog

Input Signal
A/D Converter

ADC

Digital Signal
Processor

ES MUET

Output Signal
D/A Converter

13

A-D Conversion
1. Sampling
First step in going from analog to digital.
In signal processing, sampling is the
reduction of a continuous signal to a
discrete signal. A common example is the
conversion of a sound wave (a continuoustime signal) to a sequence of samples (a
discrete-time signal).
ADC

ES MUET

14

Sampling

ADC

ES MUET

15

ADC

ES MUET

16

ADC

ES MUET

17

Nyquist Theorem
In order the samples represent correctly the
analog signal, the sampling frequency must
be greater than twice the maximum
frequency of the analog signal:
fs2FM
The limiting frequency 2FM is called
Nyquist rate.
ADC

ES MUET

18

Aliasing (Time Domain)

ADC

ES MUET

19

Aliasing (Frequency Domain)

ADC

ES MUET

20

Methods of avoiding Aliasing


To avoid aliasing, there are two approaches:
One is to raise the sampling frequency to satisfy
the sampling theorem.
The other is to filter off the unnecessary highfrequency components from the continuous-time
signal. We limit the signal frequency by an
effective low-pass filter, called anti-aliasing
prefilter, so that the highest frequency left in the
signal is less than half of the intended sampling
rate.
ADC

ES MUET

21

General DSP System

ADC

ES MUET

22

Quantization

Slide 143 CCN module 2


MIT OCW

ADC

ES MUET

23

Companding or Non-linear
Encoding

Companding = compressing + expanding


Why companding?
Quantization levels not evenly spaced
Reduces overall signal distortion
Can also be done by companding

ADC

ES MUET

24

ADC

ES MUET

25

ADC

ES MUET

26

ADC

ES MUET

27

ADC

ES MUET

28

Applications of SP

RADAR
SONAR
Medical
Image Processing
Pattern recognition
Edge detection

Audio Signal Processing


Speech generation
Speech recognition
Speaker identification

Telecommunications
Multiplexing
Compression
Echo control
ADC

ES MUET

29