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Synchrophasor Technology is very advanced Technology in Power System. By using PMU (Phasor Measurement Unit), We can Implement this technology for Wide Area Measurement System. This implementation will make our Power system more accurate, and Faster Protection.

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By

Lashkari Himanshu Dineshkumar

Enrolment No: - 110430707001

Guided by

Prof. Jaydeepsinh B. Sarvaiya

M.E. (Electrical Power System)

Assistant Professor

Electrical Engineering Department

A thesis Submitted to

Gujarat Technological University

In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirement for

The Degree of Master of Engineering

In Electrical Engineering

May-2014

Shantilal Shah Engineering College, Bhavnagar

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that research work embodied in this thesis entitled Application of

Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement system was carried out by

Mr. Lashkari Himanshu Dineshkumar (110430707001) at Electrical Engineering

Department, Shantilal Shah Engineering College, Bhavnagar, for the partial

fulfillment of M.E. degree to be awarded by Gujarat Technological University. This

research work has been carried out under my supervision and is to my satisfaction of

department. The students work has been published for publication.

Date:

Place:

Guided By

Principal

Dr. M. G. Bhatt

Seal of Institute

COMPLIANCE CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that research work embodied in this thesis entitled Application of

Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System was carried out by

Mr. Lashkari Himanshu Dineshkumar (Enrollment No. 110430707001) at Shantilal

Shah Engineering College (043), Bhavnagar for partial fulfillment of Master of

Engineering degree to be awarded by Gujarat Technological University. He has

complied with the comments given by the Dissertation phase I as well as Mid

Semester Thesis Reviewer to my satisfaction.

Date:

Place:

This is to certify that research work embodied in this thesis entitled Application of

Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System carried out by Mr.

Lashkari Himanshu Dineshkumar (Enrollment No. 110430707001) at Shantilal Shah

Engineering College (043), Bhavnagar for partial fulfillment of Master of Engineering

degree to be awarded by Gujarat Technological University, has published article

entitled Matlab Based Simulink Model of Phasor Measurement Unit and Optimal

Placement strategy for PMU Placement for publication by the INTERNATIONAL

JOURNAL FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT in May 2014.

Date:

Place:

II

THESIS APPROVAL

Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System was carried out by

Mr. Lashkari Himanshu Dineshkumar (110430707001) at Shantilal Shah Engineering

College (043) is approved for award of the degree of Electrical Engineering by

Gujarat Technological University.

Date:

Place:

Examiner(s) :-

III

DECLARATION OF ORIGINALITY

I hereby certify that I am the sole author of this thesis and that neither any part

of this thesis nor the whole of the thesis has been submitted for a degree to any other

University or Institution.

I certify that, to the best of my knowledge, my thesis does not infringe upon

anyones copyright nor violate any proprietary rights and that any ideas, techniques,

quotations, or any other material from the work of other people included in my thesis,

published or otherwise, are fully acknowledged in accordance with the standard

referencing practices. Furthermore, to the extent that I have included copyrighted

material that surpasses the bounds of fair dealing within the meaning of the Indian

Copyright Act, I certify that I have obtained a written permission from the copyright

owner(s) to include such material(s) in my thesis and have included copies of such

copyright clearances to my appendix.

I declare that this is a true copy of my thesis, including any final revisions, as

approved by my thesis review committee.

Date:

Place:

Enrollment No. :-

110430707001

Institute Code :-

043

IV

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I sincerely express my deep sense of reverential gratitude to my guide Prof.

J. B. Sarvaiya, Assistant Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, Shantilal

Shah Engineering College, Bhavnagar, for his valuable suggestions, constant

encouragement and unflinching co-operation throughout this work. I sincerely

thank for his exemplary guidance and encouragement. His trust and support inspired

me in the most important moments of making right decisions and I am glad to work

with him. I would like to thank faculties of Electrical Engineering at S.S.E.C.

Electrical Engineering, Shantilal Shah Engineering College, Bhavnagar.

I extend my sincere thanks to all respected faculties of Department of

Electrical Engineering, Shantilal Shah Engineering College, Bhavnagar for

providing me such an opportunity to do my project work.

I want to thank my family for always being there for me. Their love,

constant support and encouragement to pursue my goals made this thesis possible.

Special thanks to my colleague and friend Brijesh Solanki for useful advice as

well as help and support.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Certificate

Compliance Certificate

II

Thesis Approval

III

Declaration of Originality

IV

Acknowledgement

Table of Contents

VI

List of Figures

VIII

Abstract

Chapter 1

IX

Introduction

1.1 Objective of Thesis

Chapter 2

Literature Review

Chapter 3

Chapter 4

3.1 General

11

13

3.7 Applications

14

3.8 Summary

15

4.1 Methods to obtain Synchronized Phasor Data

17

19

20

VI

Chapter 5

Chapter 6

5.1 General

22

23

24

28

Chapter 7

Chapter 8

32

7.1 Matlab Simulink Model for PMU

36

37

38

38

42

43

44

References

Appendix A

45

Appendix B

Index

46

VII

List of Figures

Figure 3.1

Phasor Representation

Figure 3.2

Figure 3.3

Figure 3.4

Figure 3.5

Figure 4.1

Figure 4.2

PMU Architecture

Figure 5.1

Figure 5.2

Figure 5.3

Figure 5.4

Figure 5.5

Figure 5.6

Figure 5.7

Figure 6.1

Figure 6.2

Figure 7.1

Figure 7.2

Figure 7.3

Figure 7.4

Case Study

Figure 7.5

Figure 7.6

Figure 7.7

Figure 7.8

VIII

Measurement System

Submitted By

Lashkari Himanshu Dineshkumar

Supervised By

Prof. Jaydeepsinh B. Sarvaiya

Assistant Professor in Electrical Engineering

Abstract

For the secure and reliable operation of the interconnected power system, it is

required to measure and monitor the system in real time. Conventional Supervisory

Control and Data Acquisition / Energy Management System (SCADA/EMS) obtain

the data at interval of 2-10 sec. This report gives an idea about synchronized Phasor

Measurement (SPM) based Wide Area Monitoring System (WAMS) using Phasor

Measurement Unit (PMU) placed at various locations in electrical power network.

They are synchronized by the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. High

precision time stamped data are obtained from PMUs at typical rates of 30 samples

per second. For improvements in power system control and protection by utilizing

real time synchronized phasor measurements is suggested. In this Dissertation work,

Objective of the work is to develop a Matlab based Simulink model of the Phasor

Measurement Unit. Phasor Data Concentrator for Data storage and a common

reference time data are also developed in Matlab.

Various methods like Depth First, Recursive Security, Recursive N-l spanning

suggesting optimal placement of PMUs for complete observability of a power system

are reviewed. Steady state and single branch outages for PMU placement algorithms

are analysed on IEEE-14 bus test system.

Synchronized Phasor Measurements can be used for Power system protection. This

SPM makes our power system protection more accurate and faster. So, we have

develop a Matlab Simulink model of differential protection using Synchronized

Current Measurements.

IX

Chapter

Introduction

The deregulation

by United

Electricity

power system.

there

of

is a challenge

to maintain

in time synchronized

Phasor Measurement

it transmit important

manner

system

parameters

Now

To

like P, Q, V, f, b to be measured

location so

In recent years, power systems have been very difficult to manage as the load

demands increase and environment constraints restrict the transmission network.

Three main factors cause voltage instability and collapse. The first factor is

dramatically increasing load demands. The second factor is faults in the power

system. The last factor is increasing reactive power consumption.

blackouts still happen on the transmission line systems in some countries. In the early

1980s, a new technology, which is called the Synchronized Phasor Measurement Unit,

was developed to address many power systems problems around the world. The

output of the synchronized phasor measurement unit is very accurate due to the

phasor measurement at different locations being exactly synchronized. Using data,

comparisons could be made between two quantities to determine the system

conditions. The advantages of synchronized phasor technology are increasing power

system reliability and providing easier disturbance analysis system protection.

1.1

Objective

The objective of this project is to develop a Matlab based Simulink model for the

Phasor Measurement Unit. Presently, EMS/SCADA system is in use for the

StateEstimation of the system. But it suffers from some serious disadvantages like

Non-accurate State Estimation, unsynchronized data with respect to time. So, prime

requirement of current scenario is to develop such a system, that can oversome this

disadvantages of current measurement system and which is capable to give accurate

time synchronized state estimation of various parameters.

Synchronized

wide

area measurement

monitoring,

units

phasor measurements

systems

protection,

(PMUs)

measurements

are

used

and control

power

system

in

advanced

applications.

devices that

element of

power

system

Phasor

measurement

provide

synchronized

sampling using

1.2

Scope of Work

System(WAMS).

System.

t her e is need t o place t he opt ima l number o f P MUs. Hence

ana lys is o f d iffer ent opt imizat io n met hods o n st andar d IEEE

t est s syst em t o be carr ied out .

The work carried out during project has been organized in Six chapters.

The present chapter consists of present scenario of Indian Power System.

Objective and scope of work of the project work also described.

Chapter 2 describes the Literature Review for this Dissertation Work. In this

chapter various Reference Books & Papers are included which is very helpful to

carry out this work.

Chapter 3

presents

limitations.

measurement

existing

power monitoring

in current

methods

and its

of synchronized

power system

phasor

for better

performance.

architecture and PMU and Synchrophasor initiative in India has been discussed

Various optimization methods for PMU placement discussed. It also concludes

the main findings of the work presented in this report and further area of work.

Measurements. A differential Protection approach using the Synchronized Phasor

has been described.

Chapter 7 is the Simulation and Result for the Phasor Measurement Unit and its

Placement strategies. Developed Simulink model of PMU is also used for the

power system protection.

Chapter

Literature Review

Literature Review plays a very important role in the project. Literature survey consists

of book referred which gives fundamental knowledge of synchronized phasor

measurement and its applications. Papers were taken from IEEE conference

proceeding referred etc. IEEE standards for PMU and PDC are also referred.

provides a brief introduction to the PMU and wide-area measurement system

(WAMS) technology and discusses the uses of these measurements for improved

monitoring, protection, and control of power networks.

This paper at

Application provides Basic Idea regarding Synchrophasor Definition, Phasor

Reporting and system architecture for the Technology.

This Standard

quality test specifications. It also defines data transmission formats for real-time

data reporting.

Simulator discusses the importance of PMU data for Power system operation. In

this paper the main computational algorithms involved in the phasor measurement

process are illustrated using a MATLAB based PMU simulator. This paper gives a

good understanding of the phasor measurement process.

[5] Mynam Mangapathirao V., Harikrishna Ala, and Singh Vivek

The Paper

SCADA system and the recently installed Wide Area Monitoring System

(WAMS) at the Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd (PGCIL) Northen Regional

Load Despatch Center (NRLDC). In case study two real system events are

analyzed for comparision of SCADA and Synchrophasor Measurements.

Techniques for Complete and Incomplete Observability, This paper represents

the Optimal Placement Strategies for PMU Placement.

[7] Xu B., and Abur A. 7 Optimal Placement of Phasor Measurement Units for State

estimation The above PSERC report states about Optimal PMU Placement with

the State Estimation of the Power system Network.

[8]Federico M., 8 Documentation for PSAT The paper is the Documentation for

use of Power System Analysis Toolbox. It is a Matlab Toolbox which is very

helpful for the Implementation of various PMU Placement Technique.

Phasor Measurement Techniques, Phasor Measurement Units. It enlightens about

synchronized phasor measurement applications in power system control and

protection schemes.

Chapter

For

are

3.1

General

Electrical

many techniques

according

to importance

of

measured data.

3.1.1

Traditional

The traditional

system to gather

system

data.

SCADA systems

all the measurements

obtain

these data

from

that

few seconds long. The gathered data include status of breakers and switches,

real and reactive power flows, and volt- age magnitudes.

in steady state, the measured

gathering

process.

quantities

remain constant

during

the data-

enough data to estimate the voltage magnitudes and angles at all buses with

respect to an angle reference.

3.1.2

Limitations

Conventional

when the

system state is changing quickly and when critical data are missing. When the

power system state

window

is changing

quickly,

inconsistencies

measurements

consistent

with

states are changing.

Additionally,

and the

taken

in a time

each other.

are proportional

rate

The

to

at which the

caused by changes in the topology of the system.

are undetected

measurement

3.2

estimation

Smart

A smart

Grid

advanced

location

and

is likely to fail.

grid integrates

technologies

methods

values obtained

sensing technologies,

control methods,

grid.

using power system

to the simulated

benefits and design challenges to the utility, its customers, and the associated

technologists.

of data from all the sensors on the system within few power cycles.

3.3

and

generation

changes,

disturbances

oscillations

frequency

faults

and

transients

frequency

measurement

setup

WAMS

frequency

in the

are essentially

Unlike c o n v e n t i o n a l

is required. Wide

of currents

These

like inter-machine

Systems(WAMS)

acquisition technology.

trippings.

a wide area

Area Measurement

equipment

measurements

transients,

subject to disturbances

RMS values

and voltages.

system

acquires

phasor data

power system.

GPS

measured

synchronized

by PMUs

of one microsecond.

at selected

include

both

voltage

locations

magnitudes

and

in the

and

current,

is a viable alternative

as it

3.4

Phasor

representation

circuits.

respective

phase angles.

system operators

phasor

Measurement

the analysis

of the voltage and/or

Phasor measurements

at important

measurements

of AC

nodes help

Synchronized

model validation,

post-event

analysis, real-time

What is a Phasor?

Phasor is a quantity

reference) that

with m a g n i t u d e

is used to represents

and a specified

Here,

phasor

the

reference

reference

magnitude

and

and phase

sinusoidal

(with respect

is expressed

to a

using

sinusoidal

an angular

peak

measure.

is related

to the amplitude

of the sinusoidal

signal.

given by

x(t) = Xm cos(t + )

(3.1 )

here being the frequency of the signal in radians per second, and being

the phase angle in radians. Xm is the peak amplitude of the signal. The root

mean square (RMS) value of the input signal is (Xm/2).

Equation

3.1

x(t) == Re{ Xm ej(t+) } == Re [{ej(t) } Xmej]

(3.2)

its phasor representation:

X(t) X == (Xm/2) ej == (Xm/2) [cos + jsin ]

(3.3)

-This synchronized sampling process of the different waveforms provides a common reference for the phasor calculation at all different locations.

independent of the reference.

the difference between all the other phase angle measurements (also known as

the absolute phase angle) and this common "reference" angle is computed and

referred to as the relative phase angles with respect to the chosen reference.

10

3.4.1

Measurement

Synchrophasor

of Synchrophasors

measurements

Constant (UTC)

shall be tagged

time corresponding

second. Synchrophasor

of the standard

This

to the current

Time

1 s , 1970,

requirements

As standard

time error of 26 s for a 60 Hz system, and 31 s for a 50 Hz system.

3.5

Phasor

The

Phasor

Measurement Unit

Measurement

Unit

(PMU)

receive

signals

from different

the phasor

locations

data concentrator

dynamic

system ratings;

and control

estimator

estimates

injections,

and improvements

power

the voltage

available

flows,

in state

measurements

voltage magnitudes,

known as

and stability

Management

magnitudes

measurements

commonly

from Global

monitoring;

estimation, protection,

System

(EMS). A state

in the

form

or current

of power

through

the

branches.

Tech in the early 1980s. The first commercial

and tested

in Virginia

1690

(BPA)

initiated

developed

system

(WAMS),

which

11

A PMU When placed at a bus, can provide a highly accurate measurements of the

voltage phasor at that bus, as well as the current

transmission

Modern

lines (depending

on the available

related indicators.etc. and monitoring

features,

measurement

like frequency

measurement,

power quality

of substation

apparatus.

The analog signals are derived from the voltage and current

transformer

secondaries, with

microprocessor

appropriate

of the status

channels).

anti-aliasing

and

sequence

surge

filtering.

The

timing

at the beginning

string of phasors,

assembled

in a message

stream

to be communicated

to a remote

dedicated communication

is

site

over a

line.

12

3.6

Communication

Methods

Telephone

lines:

they are easy to set up and economical to use. These o f f e r data rates o f

up to about 56 kbps ( analog).

Fiber-optic

cables:

immunity

that

it

The advantages

to RF and atmospheric

provides, which

telecommunication

can

of using fiber-optics

interference,

be

used

by

include

its

the

utilities

of using

for

fiber-optics

other

is its

Power

that

lines:

is fast emerging

grid.

links:

is a new technique

Microwave

(PLC)

and

option

as compared to leased lines, since they are easy to set up and are highly

reliable. The main disadvantages of using microwave links are signal fading

and multipath

propa- gation.

Satellites:

Earth

orbiting satellites

Remote substation

SCADA

is one area where satellites have been used effectively. The disadvantages

of

13

3.7

Applications

Synchronized phasor measurement unit can provide voltage and current magnitude

and phase in real time. The state variables of a network analysis are based on these

quantities, especially the phase angle, as angles are used to determine the voltage

stability and operation margin.

The real power flow from the sending end can be calculated by

The relationship between can be also written by the line impedance, the phase angle

and the reactive power supplied to the line. Therefore, from these three equations

above, the new equation of voltage regulation can be written as

Improved state estimation

14

State estimation and dynamic monitoring

Traditional state estimation uses multiple asynchronous measurements, (such as active

and reactive power, voltage, current amplitude, etc.), obtained by iterative methods.

This process usually takes from a few seconds to minutes and generally only applies

to static state estimation. Through the application of synchronized phasor

measurement technology, the system node positive sequence voltage phasors and line

positive sequence current phasors can be directly measured. Various measurements

are taken by phasor measurement and combines traditional measurements. It can

improve the system state estimation speed and accuracy.

Substation

voltage measurement

SCADA verification and backup

Wide-area frequency monitoring

Wide-area disturbance

recording

Distributed

control

generation

FACTS device operation

Voltage instability

and control

Identifying

3.8

Summary

In this chapter

brief introduction

of Synchronized

Phasor

Measurement

is given.

15

Chapter 4

In this chapter we will consider certain practical implementation aspects of the PMUs

and the architecture of the data collection and management system necessary for

efficient utilization of the data provided by the PMUs. One of the most important

features of the PMU technology is that the measurements are time-stamped with high

precision at the source, so that the data transmission speed is no longer a critical

parameter in making use of this data. All PMU measurements with the same

timestamp are used to infer the state of the power system at the instant defined by the

time-stamp. It is clear that PMU data could arrive at a central location at different

times depending upon the propagation delays of the communication channel in use.

The time-tags associated with the phasor data provide an indexing tool which helps

create a coherent picture of the power system out of such data. The Global Positioning

System (GPS) has become the method of choice for providing the time-tags to the

PMU measurements, and will be described briefly in the following sections. Other

aspects of the overall PMU data collection system such as phasor data concentrators

(PDCs), communication systems, etc. will also be considered in this Chapter.

The industry standards which define file structures for compliant PMUs have been

very important to ensure interoperability of PMUs made by different manufacturers,

and will be considered in section.

16

Introduction to the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT)

Discrete Fourier Transform

Digital computers are usually used to analysis the phasor data of a power system.

First, a discrete-time signal is obtained by sampling the original analog waveform. A

mathematic method which is called Discrete Fourier Transform is then applied to this

sampled data to obtain a sampled frequency waveform.

Consider periodic discrete-time finite signal, taking N samples from 0 to 2, so that

the sampling time interval is 2 /N. The Fourier Transform can be expressed as

a + bj)

DFT has components at + and-. These components can be combined and divided

by the square root of 2 to get the RMS value.

-1.

The equation for the fundamental component can be rewritten as complex form as

following

17

DFT extracts the fundamental frequency component from input sinusoidal signal. It

will measure the Magnitude and Phase Angle of the signal.

1 cycle Discrete Fourier Transformer (DFT) = most commonly used phasor

estimation method.

Sampled data Xk used to calculate the phasor as,

Where,

frequency

Sampling angle

The Nyquist criterion

If a signal contains frequency components greater than Hz, then sampling the signal at

cannot express the signal, an artefact called aliasing takes place. Therefore, any

analog signal must be bandwidth limited

18

19

National and Regional Load Despatch Centres in India are being operated by Powem

Systems Operation Corporation(POSOCO), a wholly owned subsidiary of

POWERGRID, whereas State Load DespatchCentres are operated by respective State

utilities. They are equipped with State-of-the-Art SCADA/EMS system.

Telemetry from different sub-stations and power plants are being received at each

SLDC/RLDC and subsequently to NLDC which are being utilized in day to day

operations of the regional grid.

(for example formation of NEW grid ) and various changes undergoing in the Indian

power industry requires better situational awareness of the grid event and

visualization at the control center for real time system operation. Knowledge about

the angular separation between different nodes of a power system has always been of

great interest for power system operators. Phase angle measurement is commonly

used in auto synchronization of generating stations and check synchronization relays

used at substations for closing of lines as well as during three-phase auto-reclosing.

All these applications are at the local level.

Prior to the introduction of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) at control centre level

this analogue value is normally not considered as measurable in SCADA system and

hence does not form a part of the SCADA measurement. However SCADA

technology does provide an estimate of the relative phase angle difference (with

respect to a reference bus) through the State Estimator. The State estimator uses the

SCADA inputs (analogue and digital measurands) to estimate the system state viz.

node voltage and angle.

Information about phase angle difference between two different nodes in a power

system has also been calculated based on the real time power flow between the nodes,

bus voltages and network reactance using standard equation = sin-1 (P*X/V1*V2).

Angular information at control centre is also obtained by placing phase angle

transducer at strategic locations and interfacing it in existing SCADA system

20

However all the above methods of calculation of phase angle difference have

limitations due to resolution, data latency, updation time and data skewedness.

Update time in the SCADA system is considerably large (up to 10-15 seconds) for

visualizing and controlling the dynamics of power system. The real time angular

measurement in the power system avoids above uncertainties and can be relied on to

assess the transmission capability in real time which is very crucial in efficiently

operating the present electricity market mechanism.

PMUs are able to measure what was once immeasurable: phase difference at different

substations. A pilot project was implemented in Northern Region (NR) to assess the

potential of PMU/synchrophasor measurements. Experienced gained with this pilot

project is described in the following paragraph.

21

Chapter

5.1

General

Secure o p e r a t i o n

system

of power systems

operating conditions.

substations

close monitoring

The measurements

of the

and un-metered

electrical

current

(I), active

network

parameters

measurements

quantities e.g.

were pr o vid ed

of global positioning

bus voltage

(V), frequency

by SCADA,

including

active

magnitudes.

and reactive

The utilization

relaying

applications

units

are monitoring

devices that

PMU installed at a bus can make synchronized measurements

phasor

incident

channels.

These

(f),

power flow (P) reactive power (Q), load angle (J) and

of PMUs

requires

phasor

and Ohm's

c a lc u la t e d

as pseudo

that

these

laws, the

of the voltage

measurements

Kirchhoff's

phasors

are obtained

from t h e P M U s

have been

installed.

Then

remaining

variables

can

applying

easily b e

has been studied by various researchers in the past. Two different approaches

used for solving this problem

topological observability,

Placement

(OPP)

literature,

Genetic

and

like Depth

Simulated

First

Annealing

Search (DFS),

(SA), Tabu

Minimum

Search

(TS),

of PMU can be

22

5.2

Concepts of PMU

Placement

the current phasors of some or all the lines connected

to that

bus and

bus. The

Rule

measurement

to a bus where

measurement

to each branch

to each node

R u l e 3: Assign one current

co nnect ing

pseudo-measurement

a l l o w s interconnecting

current

pseudo-measurement

be indirectly

law (KCL).

are

known.

This

observed zones.

where current can

to each branch

calculated

to each branch

by the

Kirchhoff

balance

at a node is known.

The observability

conditions

that

the

Condition 1: For PMU

phasor

and

the current

installed

phasors

of all incident

branches

are

known.

Condition 2: If one end voltage phasor and the current phasor of a

branch are known, then the voltage phasor at the other end of the

branch can be calculated.

Condition 3: If voltage phasors of both ends of a branch

known, then the current

are

can be directly

obtained.

23

bus without

PMU and

the current phasors of the incident branches are all known but one,

then the current

using KCL.

Condition 5: If the voltage

phasor

of a zero-injection

bus is

be obtained

Condition 6: If the voltage

phasors

injection

adjacent

buses to that

of zero

injection

of a set of adjacent

buses

can

zero

be computed

phasors

by node

voltage

equations.

The m e a s u r e m e n t s

measurements.

obtained

The measurements

called pseudo-measurement.

from Condition

obtained

1 are called

from Conditions

The measurements

obtained

direct

from Conditions

Placing a PMU at every substation would certainly provide all the necessary real-time

Voltage magnitudes and angles for system observability; however this is redundant

due to an important attribute of PMUs. Provided that you know a buss voltage

magnitude and angle, all current phasors, and the connecting line parameters, then all

connecting bus voltages and angles can be calculated. By ohms law, if you know the

voltage magnitude and phase at Bus A, the voltage at Bus B would be the voltage at

bus A minus the voltage drop caused by the current traveling through the connecting

line. This sets up the first observability rule, that all buses connected to a directly

observable bus are observable themselves, as illustrated in Figure 5.1

24

Figure:- 5.1 Example of the First Observability Rule. Red values are already

known, blue values can be calculated.

VB = VA IAB(RAB + jXAB)

VC = VA IAC(RAC + jXAC)

VD = VA IDA(RAD + jXAD)

This significantly reduces the number of PMUs (and therefore cost) needed for

complete observability. PMUs are required to be on a minimum of 20-30% of buses to

achieve full system observability. Because of the ability of a PMU to observe

neighboring busses, PMU placement for full observability is very similar to the graph

theory topic of Domination.

There are also many special situations in which a bus can be calculated even if it is

not connected to a directly observable bus. The following general rules cover many of

these situations in which a bus does not have injection. If a bus without injection is

observed and all but one of its connecting buses is observed, then the unobserved bus

becomes observed.

25

VA = VC + IAC(RAC + jXAC)

IDA = VD - VA / (RAC + jXAC)

IAB = IDA IAC

VB = VA + IAB(RAB + jXAB)

An unobserved bus without injection connected only to observed buses is itself

observable.

26

VA = VB + IAB(RAB + jXAB)

VA = VC + IAC(RAC + jXAC)

VA = VA IDA(RAD + jXAD)

0 = IDA - IAC - IAB

There could be other specific observability rules, but the three stated rules cover the

vast majority of situations and are adequately comprehensive and easy to implement

in placement algorithms. To recap:

1. All buses neighboring a bus with a PMU are observable themselves.

2. If all but one bus neighboring an observable bus without injection are

themselves observable, then all the neighboring buses are observable.

3. If all the buses neighboring a bus without injection are observable, then that

bus is also observable.

27

5.4 PMU

Placement Algorithms

Spanning,are

5.4.1

Depth

Recursive

Security,

Recursive

first

N-1

First Algorithm

This met hod uses rules from 1 to 3 (it does not consider p u r e transit

nodes)

only. The first P MU is placed at the bus with the largest number of connected

branches. If there are more than one bus with such characteristic, one is randomly

chosen. PMU are placed with the same criterion, until the complete network

visibility is obtained as depicted in figure 5.4

28

5.4.2

Recursive

This method

N Security Algorithm

is a modified depth

can be

Step 1: Generation

the flowchart

of N minimum

of the minimum

algorithm is performed

spanning

N times

tree generation

(N being the

Step 2: Search of alternative

spanning trees:

number

algorithm.

The

of buses),

using

bus .

patterns:

replaced at the buses connected with the node where a PMU was originally

set, as depicted in figure3.2 PMU placements

Step 3: Reducing PMU number in case of pure transit nodes: In this step, it is

verified if the network remains observable taking out one PMU at a time from

each set, as depicted in figme3.2. If the network does not present pure transit

nodes, the procedure ends at step (2). The placement sets which present the

minimum numbers of PMUs are finally selected.

5.4.3 Recursive N-l Spanning Algorithm

The rules for minimal PMU placement assume a fixed network topology and a

complete reliability of measurement

which yield a

complete visibility in case of one line outage at a time (N-l spanning) is based on

the following: A bus is said to be observable if at least one of the two following

conditions applies:

Step 1: A PMU is placed at the node.

Step 2: The node is connected at least to two nodes equipped with a PMU.

Step 2 is ignored, if the bus is connected to single-end line.

29

30

The Proposed Algorithm is for Optimal location of PMU placement from which, the

power system network is completely observable. This developed method uses the

Placement rules for PMU placement and this algorithm is applied to IEEE 14 bus test

system. The Optimum location of PMU from above method are as shown in Results.

31

Chapter 6

Synchronized phasor measurements have offered solutions to a number of

vexing protection problems. These include the protection of series compensated lines,

protection of multi terminal lines, and the inability to satisfactorily set out-of-step

relays. In many situations the reliable measurement of a remote voltage or current on

the same reference as local variables has made a substantial improvement in

protection functions possible. In some examples communication of such

measurements from one end of a protected line to the other is all that is required while

in others communication across large distances is necessary.

functions which have relatively slow response times. For such protection functions,

the latency of remote measurements is not a significant issue. For example, back-up

protection functions of distance relays and protection functions concerned with

managing angular or voltage stability of networks can benefit from remote

measurements with propagation delays with latencies of up to several hundred

milliseconds. The next two sections will consider improved line protection using

phasor measurements from the remote ends of the line. The following section

involves adaptive protection in which the phasor measurements assist in making

adjustments automatically in various protection functions in order to make them more

attuned to prevailing system conditions.

Differential protection of buses, transformers, and generators is a wellestablished protection principle that has no direct counterpart in protection of long

transmission lines. Pilot relays use communicated information from remote locations.

True differential protection was not possible before synchronized phasor

measurements. The advantages of differential protection are important for series

compensated lines and tapped lines. There are a number of forms of current

32

differentials for line protection. In the first form the currents are combined using a

communication channel and compared. In the second form the currents are sampled

and the samples communicated over a wide band channel, and in the third form

phasors are computed from the samples and the phasor values communicated

The dashed dual slope shown in Fig. 6.1 is used for high-current conditions

where current transformer (CT) accuracy and saturation is more likely. Transmission

lines equipped with series compensation, flexible alternating current transmission

system (FACTS) devices, or multiterminal lines present protection problems which

call for differential protection. To date, such transmission line problems are solved

with differential-like schemes such as phase comparison. The easy availability of

synchronized measurements using Global Positioning System (GPS) technology and

the improvement in communication technology make it possible to consider true

differential protection of transmission lines and cables. Differential protection can be

based on computed phasors or on samples, although it can be argued that significant

shunt elements in the transmission line make phasors the preferred solution. In either

33

case it is necessary to synchronize the sampling and time-tag the result. Phasors can

be computed from fractional-cycle data windows as in impedance relaying, although

full-cycle windows offer better security.

If Ii is the current phasor at terminal i (reference direction is positive when the

current is flowing into the zone of protection), the differential currents may be defined

as

Id = Ii

(6.1)

of all terminal currents or taking the maximum of all the terminal currents as the

restraint. Alternately, one restraining current for each pair of terminals may be

constructed in order to maintain uniform sensitivity when one of the terminals of a

multi terminal line is out of service. This is equivalent to the use of multiple restraints

for multi winding transformers. If a two-terminal line is modelled with the exact-

equivalent, then the phasor currents and voltages are shown in Fig.

The impedances Zc1 and Zc2 are the impedances of the possible series

capacitor networks or FACTS devices, Z and Ys are the exact- impedance and

admittance, respectively. If the relay measures I1, V1, I2, and V2, then the differential

currents Ix and Iy can be obtained from Eq. Under no-fault conditions using

Kirchhoffs current law Ix = Iy. When a fault occurs the 50-Hz exact- is no longer

valid because the currents and voltages are no longer pure fundamental frequency

signals. A percentage differential characteristic such as shown in Fig. 6.1 based on Ix

34

and Iy on a per-unit basis, with a modest slope, is capable of sensing faults within the

zone defined by the terminal where Ix and Iy are measured.

V3 = V1 I1Zc1

(6.2)

V4 = V2 I2 I2ZC2

IS1 = V3YS

IS2 = V4YS

IX = I1 IS1

IY = I2 IS2

(6.3)

The preceding discussion is for lines of any length because of the exact- equivalent

but has the disadvantage of requiring voltage measurements. In an approximation to

the charging current is proposed which does not require voltage measurement. The

assumption is that each end uses data communicated from the other end to perform

the current differential calculation.

The best synchronization is obviously obtained with GPS. Pre fault load

currents can also be used for synchronizing. Data communication over a dedicated

fibre channel, while expensive, provides the best performance. A frequency shift

power line carrier, voice-grade channel operating at 64 kbps, can also be used. The

reliability of current differential schemes can be improved by adding redundant

channels.

35

Chapter 7

Simulation and Results

Matlab Simulation of WAMS Architecture

In this chapter Matlab Simulation of Prototype PMU is developed. In this chapter,

Simulink Models and their Results are shown.

In this model it is shown that how a PMU can be realized in Matlab. Three phase

Source is taken and V-I measurement from conventional CT & PT is done. Voltage

and Currents is given to the DFT. Output of DFT is Magnitude & Phase angle of the

input phasor. This output is Time Synchronized as we are making Time

Synchronizing with UTC. This output is stored in work space and also in PDC.

36

Sampling is very important to get the precise time stamping to the measurements.

Nyquist criteria is to be followed for the sampling. For 50 Hz power system your

sampling frequency should be minimum of fs 2f0 . In our case we are Sampling

frequency is of 500 samples per second.

37

Discrete Fourier Transform Extracts the Fundamental frequency from the given

sinusoidal input. It also gives the Magnitude output and phase angle of the input

signal.

Here

Matlab

modeling

for

DFT

is

done

by

the

Fourier

TransformvMathematical Relation.

In this case study a simple 5 bus system is considered. 5 PMU is placed at each bus.

PMU is calculating the magnitude and phasors with time synchronization.

38

From above diagram it is quite clear that PMU measures the input phasors and Phasor

Data concentrator concentrates that data with common time reference frame.

The a lgo r it hms

discussed

are ga ine d

with h e l p o f Power S y s t e m

described

location

required

various

observability

Analysis

Toolbox

(PSAT) a nd

PMU hardware

indicates

PMU

placement

combinations

remained

possible

for complete

observable.

For complete

system

observability

algorithm

algorithm

Spanning

N Security

However R e c u r s i v e

N-1

as it includes s i n g l e

39

Table I: PMU Placement Results of IEEE-14 Bus through Distinct

Algorithms IEEE 14 Bus Test System

Method

Bus Location

Depth First

06

01

1, 4, 6, 8, 10, 14

Recursive N Security

03

01

2, 6, 9

2,5,6,7,9,10,13,14

1,3,5,7,9,11,12,13

1,2,4,6,7,10,13,14

08

10

2,3,5,7,9,10,11,12

2,3,5,7,9,11,12,13

1,2,4,6,7,10,13,14

2,3,5,7,9,11,12,13

2,3,5,7,9,11,12,14

40

2,3,5,6,7,9,11,13

1,2,4,6,7,10,12,14

Total No. of Possible Solutions for 14 bus Network = 2 14=16384

Solutions with Complete Observability = 6181

Solutions with Minumum PMUs

{2,6,7,9}{2,6,8,9}{2,7,10,13}{2,8,10,13}{2,7,11,13}

Figure 7.7 Matlab model for Differential Protection system using Phasor

Measurements

41

Differential Protection is one of the most important protection for Power system

protection as well as protection of Major Electrical Equipments. By development of

Time synchronized measurements, the differential protection can be more accurate

precise and Faster.

This is an attempt

algorithms

discussed

in

this chapter. By using basic Rules and Conditions for PMU placement, a

generalized Algorithm is also developed and also tested for 14 bus IEEE test

system.

Here three distinct PMU Placement algorithms are compared with the aim of

achieving complete observability of the power system in steady state

conditions. The outage of one of the line or equipment also analysed and the

results of IEEE 14 bus test system are discussed.

A Matlab model for use of PMU for Differential protection is developed and

results are as shown in Figure 7.8

42

Chapter 8

Conclusion:

Synchronized Phasor measurement Improves the current monitoring and

controlling SCADA sytem.

precise Time stamped and Synchronized Voltage and Current measurements

are obtained. A model for Phasor Data concerntrator is developed in Matlab

and by that a Time stamped measurements of various PMUs are stored on

common reference time.

achieving complete observability of network. A Placement strategy based on

Binary Integer programming is developed and implemented for IEEE 14 bus

system.

Simulink model of Differential protection using PMU is developed and by

applying Time stamped current samples; results are analysed it can be

concluded that PMU is able to Identify fault and generate trip signal using

Phase angle.

Future Scope:

power system protection. Relay co-ordination using synchrophasor and

Adaptive power system protection scheme is the new area for which this

project work can be helpful.

Time synchronized measurements.

43

References

Papers:

[1] Phadke A. G., Thorp J.S. and De La Ree Jaime, Synchronized Phasor

Measurement Applications in Power Systems, IEEE Transactions On Smart

Grid, Vol. 1, No. 1, June 2010

[2] Adamiak Mark, Premerlani William and Kasztenny Bodgan,

Synchrophasors: Definition, Measurement, and Application, General

Electric Co., Global Research

[3] IEEE Std C37.118-2005 for Synchrophasors for Power Systems.

[4] Dotta Daniel and Chow Joe H., A MATLAB-based PMU Simulator, IEEE

Fellow.

[5] Mynam Mangapathirao V., Harikrishna Ala, and Singh Vivek, The Paper

entitled Synchrophasors Redefining SCADA Systems, Schweitzer

Engineering Laboratories, Inc., 2011.

[6] Phadke A. F. and Nuqui R. F., Phasor Measurement Unit Placement

Techniques for Complete and Incomplete Observability, IEEE Transactions

On Power Delivery, Vol. 20, No. 4, October 2005 2381

[7] Xu B., and Abur A. Optimal Placement of Phasor Measurement Units for

State estimation PSERC Final Project report, 2005

[8] Federico M., Documentation for PSAT , version 2.1.6 (2010)

Books:

[9] Phadke A. G. and Thorp J.S., Synchronized Phasor Measurement and Their

Applications, Springer, USA, 2008

Websites:

[10] www.naspi.com Northen American Synchrophasor Initiative

[11] www.pserc.com Power System Engineering and Relaying Committee

44

Appendix A

Abbreviation

EMS

GIS

GPS

IED

OPP

PDC

PMU

RMS

RTU

SCADA

SPM

Acquisition

Synchronized Phasor Measurement

WAMS

Nomenclature

Frequency (radian)

Frequency (Hz)

Current (Ampere)

Voltage

45

Appendix B

Index

Algorithm for PMU Placement, ........................................................ 31

Applications, ............................................................................ ........ 14

Architecture of PMU, .................. ........................................... ........ 19

Block Diagram of PMU, ...................................................... ........ 12

Case Study of 5 bus, .................... ........................................... ........ 38

Communication

Depth

Discrete Fourier Transform, ......... ........................................... ........ 17

IEEE 14 bus, ................................ ........................................... ........ 40

Introduction, ................................ ........................................... .......... 1

Literature Review, ....................... ........................................... .......... 4

Matlab model of PMU, ................ ........................................... ........ 36

Matlab modeling of DFT, ............ ........................................... ........ 38

Observability, .............................. ........................................... ........ 24

Phasor, ......................................... ........................................... .......... 8

Phasor

PMU

Power System Monitoring, ....... ........................................... .......... 6

Recursive

References, .................................. ........................................... ........ 44

Results, ........................................ ........................................... ........ 36

Sampling Process for PMU, ......... ........................................... ........ 37

Simulation, .................................. ........................................... ........ 36

Smart

Synchronized Phasor

46

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