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Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide

Area Measurement System

By
Lashkari Himanshu Dineshkumar
Enrolment No: - 110430707001

Guided by
Prof. Jaydeepsinh B. Sarvaiya
M.E. (Electrical Power System)
Assistant Professor
Electrical Engineering Department

A thesis Submitted to
Gujarat Technological University
In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirement for
The Degree of Master of Engineering
In Electrical Engineering

May-2014

Electrical Engineering Department


Shantilal Shah Engineering College, Bhavnagar

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that research work embodied in this thesis entitled Application of
Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement system was carried out by
Mr. Lashkari Himanshu Dineshkumar (110430707001) at Electrical Engineering
Department, Shantilal Shah Engineering College, Bhavnagar, for the partial
fulfillment of M.E. degree to be awarded by Gujarat Technological University. This
research work has been carried out under my supervision and is to my satisfaction of
department. The students work has been published for publication.

Date:

Place:

Guided By

Principal

Prof. Jaydeepsinh B. Sarvaiya

Dr. M. G. Bhatt

Seal of Institute

COMPLIANCE CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that research work embodied in this thesis entitled Application of
Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System was carried out by
Mr. Lashkari Himanshu Dineshkumar (Enrollment No. 110430707001) at Shantilal
Shah Engineering College (043), Bhavnagar for partial fulfillment of Master of
Engineering degree to be awarded by Gujarat Technological University. He has
complied with the comments given by the Dissertation phase I as well as Mid
Semester Thesis Reviewer to my satisfaction.
Date:

Place:

Signature and Name of Student

Signature and Name of Guide

PAPER PUBLICATION CERTIFICATE


This is to certify that research work embodied in this thesis entitled Application of
Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System carried out by Mr.
Lashkari Himanshu Dineshkumar (Enrollment No. 110430707001) at Shantilal Shah
Engineering College (043), Bhavnagar for partial fulfillment of Master of Engineering
degree to be awarded by Gujarat Technological University, has published article
entitled Matlab Based Simulink Model of Phasor Measurement Unit and Optimal
Placement strategy for PMU Placement for publication by the INTERNATIONAL
JOURNAL FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT in May 2014.
Date:

Place:

Signature and Name of Student

Signature and Name of Guide

Signature and Name of Principal

II

THESIS APPROVAL

This is to certify that research work embodied in this entitled Application of


Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System was carried out by
Mr. Lashkari Himanshu Dineshkumar (110430707001) at Shantilal Shah Engineering
College (043) is approved for award of the degree of Electrical Engineering by
Gujarat Technological University.

Date:

Place:

Examiner(s) :-

_____________________ _____________________ _____________________

III

DECLARATION OF ORIGINALITY

I hereby certify that I am the sole author of this thesis and that neither any part
of this thesis nor the whole of the thesis has been submitted for a degree to any other
University or Institution.
I certify that, to the best of my knowledge, my thesis does not infringe upon
anyones copyright nor violate any proprietary rights and that any ideas, techniques,
quotations, or any other material from the work of other people included in my thesis,
published or otherwise, are fully acknowledged in accordance with the standard
referencing practices. Furthermore, to the extent that I have included copyrighted
material that surpasses the bounds of fair dealing within the meaning of the Indian
Copyright Act, I certify that I have obtained a written permission from the copyright
owner(s) to include such material(s) in my thesis and have included copies of such
copyright clearances to my appendix.
I declare that this is a true copy of my thesis, including any final revisions, as
approved by my thesis review committee.

Date:

Place:

Sign. of Student:- :Name of Student :-

Lashkari Himanshu Dineshkumar

Enrollment No. :-

110430707001

Signature of Supervisor :Name of Supervisor :-

Prof. Jaydeepsinh B. Sarvaiya

Institute Code :-

043

IV

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I sincerely express my deep sense of reverential gratitude to my guide Prof.
J. B. Sarvaiya, Assistant Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, Shantilal
Shah Engineering College, Bhavnagar, for his valuable suggestions, constant
encouragement and unflinching co-operation throughout this work. I sincerely
thank for his exemplary guidance and encouragement. His trust and support inspired
me in the most important moments of making right decisions and I am glad to work
with him. I would like to thank faculties of Electrical Engineering at S.S.E.C.

I would also like to thank Dr. M. C. Chudasama, Head, Department of


Electrical Engineering, Shantilal Shah Engineering College, Bhavnagar.
I extend my sincere thanks to all respected faculties of Department of
Electrical Engineering, Shantilal Shah Engineering College, Bhavnagar for
providing me such an opportunity to do my project work.
I want to thank my family for always being there for me. Their love,
constant support and encouragement to pursue my goals made this thesis possible.
Special thanks to my colleague and friend Brijesh Solanki for useful advice as
well as help and support.

LASHKARI HIMANSHU DINESHKUMAR

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Certificate

Compliance Certificate

II

Thesis Approval

III

Declaration of Originality

IV

Acknowledgement

Table of Contents

VI

List of Figures

VIII

Abstract

Chapter 1

IX

Introduction
1.1 Objective of Thesis

1.2 Scope of Work

1.3 Thesis Outline

Chapter 2

Literature Review

Chapter 3

Power System Monitoring

Chapter 4

3.1 General

3.2 Smart Grid

3.3 Wide Area Measurement System

3.4 Overview of Synchronized Phasor Measurements

3.5 Phasor Measurement Unit

11

3.6 Communication Methods

13

3.7 Applications

14

3.8 Summary

15

Fundamentals of Phasor Measurement Unit


4.1 Methods to obtain Synchronized Phasor Data

17

4.2 Architecture of PMU

19

4.3 PMU Implementation if India

20

VI

Chapter 5

Chapter 6

Placement of Phasor Measurement Unit


5.1 General

22

5.2 Concepts of PMU Placement

23

5.3 Observability Rules for PMU

24

5.4 PMU Placement Algorithms

28

Protection System with Phasor Measurements

6.1 Differential Protection of Transmission Line


Chapter 7

Chapter 8

32

Simulation and Results


7.1 Matlab Simulink Model for PMU

36

7.2 Sampling Process for PMU

37

7.3 Matlab Modeling of DFT

38

7.4 Case Study of 5 bus System for PMU Output

38

7.5 Simulation Result

42

Conclusion and Future Scope

43

44

References
Appendix A

Nomenclature and Abbreviations

45

Appendix B

Index

46

VII

List of Figures
Figure 3.1

Phasor Representation

Figure 3.2

Phasor Representation with common reference

Figure 3.3

Phasor Representation with different Angles

Figure 3.4

Block diagram of PMU

Figure 3.5

A single line diagram presented for a Network

Figure 4.1

Sampling of waveform in discrete time

Figure 4.2

PMU Architecture

Figure 5.1

Example of the First Observability Rule

Figure 5.2

Example of Second Observability Rule

Figure 5.3

Example of Third Observability Rule

Figure 5.4

Depth First Algorithm for PMU Placement

Figure 5.5

Recursive N Security Algorithm

Figure 5.6

Recursive N-1 Spanning Algorithm

Figure 5.7

Algorithm for PMU Placement

Figure 6.1

Basic Current Differentials

Figure 6.2

Exact model of Transmission Line

Figure 7.1

Matlab model of PMU

Figure 7.2

Sample and Hold Circuit for PMU

Figure 7.3

Matlab discrete fourier transform

Figure 7.4

Case Study

Figure 7.5

Microsoft Excel Output of PMU

Figure 7.6

IEEE 14 Bus Network

Figure 7.7

Matlab Model for Protection system using Phasor Measurements

Figure 7.8

Output Waveform of case study

VIII

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area


Measurement System
Submitted By
Lashkari Himanshu Dineshkumar

Supervised By
Prof. Jaydeepsinh B. Sarvaiya
Assistant Professor in Electrical Engineering

Abstract
For the secure and reliable operation of the interconnected power system, it is
required to measure and monitor the system in real time. Conventional Supervisory
Control and Data Acquisition / Energy Management System (SCADA/EMS) obtain
the data at interval of 2-10 sec. This report gives an idea about synchronized Phasor
Measurement (SPM) based Wide Area Monitoring System (WAMS) using Phasor
Measurement Unit (PMU) placed at various locations in electrical power network.
They are synchronized by the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. High
precision time stamped data are obtained from PMUs at typical rates of 30 samples
per second. For improvements in power system control and protection by utilizing
real time synchronized phasor measurements is suggested. In this Dissertation work,
Objective of the work is to develop a Matlab based Simulink model of the Phasor
Measurement Unit. Phasor Data Concentrator for Data storage and a common
reference time data are also developed in Matlab.

To install optimal nos. of PMUs in power system network is an important task.


Various methods like Depth First, Recursive Security, Recursive N-l spanning
suggesting optimal placement of PMUs for complete observability of a power system
are reviewed. Steady state and single branch outages for PMU placement algorithms
are analysed on IEEE-14 bus test system.

Synchronized Phasor Measurements can be used for Power system protection. This
SPM makes our power system protection more accurate and faster. So, we have
develop a Matlab Simulink model of differential protection using Synchronized
Current Measurements.

IX

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System

Chapter

Introduction
The deregulation

of electrical power system had been initiated

by United

Kingdom in the year of 1990 and then followed by other countries.

Electricity

Act 2003 changes the whole power scenario of India by deregulation


power system.

In this open market different utilities install power plant at

various locations and feed generated


there

of

is a challenge

to maintain

achieve that some important


in time synchronized
Phasor Measurement
it transmit important

manner

power to nearest existing grid.


system

parameters

availability and reliability.

Now
To

like P, Q, V, f, b to be measured

and in real time.

For those measurements

Units (PMU) should install at particular

location so

data to respective grid.

In recent years, power systems have been very difficult to manage as the load
demands increase and environment constraints restrict the transmission network.
Three main factors cause voltage instability and collapse. The first factor is
dramatically increasing load demands. The second factor is faults in the power
system. The last factor is increasing reactive power consumption.

Many solutions have been developed to avoid blackouts However, catastrophic


blackouts still happen on the transmission line systems in some countries. In the early
1980s, a new technology, which is called the Synchronized Phasor Measurement Unit,
was developed to address many power systems problems around the world. The
output of the synchronized phasor measurement unit is very accurate due to the
phasor measurement at different locations being exactly synchronized. Using data,
comparisons could be made between two quantities to determine the system
conditions. The advantages of synchronized phasor technology are increasing power
system reliability and providing easier disturbance analysis system protection.

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System

1.1

Objective

The objective of this project is to develop a Matlab based Simulink model for the
Phasor Measurement Unit. Presently, EMS/SCADA system is in use for the
StateEstimation of the system. But it suffers from some serious disadvantages like
Non-accurate State Estimation, unsynchronized data with respect to time. So, prime
requirement of current scenario is to develop such a system, that can oversome this
disadvantages of current measurement system and which is capable to give accurate
time synchronized state estimation of various parameters.

Synchronized
wide

area measurement

monitoring,
units

phasor measurements
systems

protection,

(PMUs)

measurements

are

are becoming an important


used

and control
power

system

in

advanced

applications.
devices that

element of

power

system

Phasor

measurement

provide

synchronized

of real- time phasors of voltages and currents. Synchronization

of voltage and current waveforms are achieved by same-time

sampling using

timing signals from the Global Positioning System Satellite.

1.2

Scope of Work

The scope of work is to make Comparative

study of existing SCADA

based power monitoring a n d Wide Area Monitoring

System(WAMS).

To develop a Matlab based prototype model for Wide Area Measurement


System.

To imp le me nt WAMS , inst allat io n co st of P MU is ver y high, so


t her e is need t o place t he opt ima l number o f P MUs. Hence
ana lys is o f d iffer ent opt imizat io n met hods o n st andar d IEEE
t est s syst em t o be carr ied out .

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System

1.3 Thesis Outline


The work carried out during project has been organized in Six chapters.
The present chapter consists of present scenario of Indian Power System.
Objective and scope of work of the project work also described.

Chapter 2 describes the Literature Review for this Dissertation Work. In this
chapter various Reference Books & Papers are included which is very helpful to
carry out this work.

Chapter 3

presents

limitations.

It also coverers the basic concepts

measurement

existing

and its usefulness

power monitoring

in current

methods

and its

of synchronized
power system

phasor

for better

performance.

Chapter 4 describes about Fundamentals of the PMU. The basic PMU


architecture and PMU and Synchrophasor initiative in India has been discussed

Chapter 5 denotes concept and placement rules of PMU in power system.


Various optimization methods for PMU placement discussed. It also concludes
the main findings of the work presented in this report and further area of work.

Chapter 6 presents basic concepts of Protection system with Phasor


Measurements. A differential Protection approach using the Synchronized Phasor
has been described.

Chapter 7 is the Simulation and Result for the Phasor Measurement Unit and its
Placement strategies. Developed Simulink model of PMU is also used for the
power system protection.

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System

Chapter

Literature Review
Literature Review plays a very important role in the project. Literature survey consists
of book referred which gives fundamental knowledge of synchronized phasor
measurement and its applications. Papers were taken from IEEE conference
proceeding referred etc. IEEE standards for PMU and PDC are also referred.

[1] Phadke A. G.,

Thorp J.S. and De La Ree Jaime

This paper entitled

Synchronized Phasor Measurement Applications in Power Systems paper


provides a brief introduction to the PMU and wide-area measurement system
(WAMS) technology and discusses the uses of these measurements for improved
monitoring, protection, and control of power networks.

[2] Adamiak Mark, Premerlani William and Kasztenny Bodgan

This paper at

General Electrical Co. entitled Synchrophasors: Definition, Measurement, and


Application provides Basic Idea regarding Synchrophasor Definition, Phasor
Reporting and system architecture for the Technology.

[3] IEEE Std C37.118 for Synchrophasors for Power Systems

This Standard

defines the measurement, provides a method of quantifying the measurements and


quality test specifications. It also defines data transmission formats for real-time
data reporting.

[4] Dotta Daniel and Chow Joe H.

This paper entitled A MATLAB-based PMU

Simulator discusses the importance of PMU data for Power system operation. In
this paper the main computational algorithms involved in the phasor measurement
process are illustrated using a MATLAB based PMU simulator. This paper gives a
good understanding of the phasor measurement process.

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System


[5] Mynam Mangapathirao V., Harikrishna Ala, and Singh Vivek

The Paper

entitled Synchrophasors Redefining SCADA Systems discusses the existing


SCADA system and the recently installed Wide Area Monitoring System
(WAMS) at the Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd (PGCIL) Northen Regional
Load Despatch Center (NRLDC). In case study two real system events are
analyzed for comparision of SCADA and Synchrophasor Measurements.

[6] Phadke A. F. and Nuqui R. F. 6 Phasor Measurement Unit Placement


Techniques for Complete and Incomplete Observability, This paper represents
the Optimal Placement Strategies for PMU Placement.

[7] Xu B., and Abur A. 7 Optimal Placement of Phasor Measurement Units for State
estimation The above PSERC report states about Optimal PMU Placement with
the State Estimation of the Power system Network.

[8]Federico M., 8 Documentation for PSAT The paper is the Documentation for
use of Power System Analysis Toolbox. It is a Matlab Toolbox which is very
helpful for the Implementation of various PMU Placement Technique.

[9] Phadke A. G. and Thorp J.S.

A book entitled Synchronized Phasor

Measurement and Their Applications gives information about fundamentals of


Phasor Measurement Techniques, Phasor Measurement Units. It enlightens about
synchronized phasor measurement applications in power system control and
protection schemes.

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System

Chapter

and complex network.

For

protection, control, observe, billing purpose various electrical parameters

are

Power System Monitoring


3.1

General

Electrical

power system is widely distributed

measured and stored in a database.


many techniques

To transfer data from one point to other,

are available and applied

according

to importance

of

measured data.

3.1.1

Traditional

The traditional

Power System Monitoring

approach to obtain a power system monitoring uses a SCADA

system to gather

system

data.

SCADA systems

meters, transducers, IEDs, and similar devices.


all the measurements

obtain

these data

This process guarantees

from
that

are taken within a time window that is typically of a

few seconds long. The gathered data include status of breakers and switches,
real and reactive power flows, and volt- age magnitudes.
in steady state, the measured
gathering

process.

quantities

When the system is

remain constant

during

the data-

Thus, the time skew between measurements does not

introduce errors. The location of each measurement

is chosen so that there are

enough data to estimate the voltage magnitudes and angles at all buses with
respect to an angle reference.

3.1.2

Limitations

Conventional

of Traditional Power System Monitoring

system monitors can fail under two circumstances:

when the

system state is changing quickly and when critical data are missing. When the
power system state
window

is changing

quickly,

of a few seconds are not

inconsistencies

measurements

consistent

with

between any two analog measurements

the time difference between the measurements


states are changing.

Additionally,

and the

taken

in a time

each other.
are proportional
rate

The
to

at which the

rapid changes in system states are often

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System


caused by changes in the topology of the system.
are undetected
measurement

3.2

or happen during SCADA data polling, the monitoring


estimation

Smart

A smart

Grid
advanced

and integrated communications

location

and

is likely to fail.

grid integrates

technologies

When topology changes

into the electricity

and sources of data

methods

values obtained

sensing technologies,

control methods,

grid.

The smart grid

that could be utilized to improve fault

by matching the field measurements


using power system

to the simulated

models. The smart grid brings both

benefits and design challenges to the utility, its customers, and the associated
technologists.

The emerging smart grid system requires high speed sensing

of data from all the sensors on the system within few power cycles.

3.3

Wide Area Measurement System

A power syst em is continually


and

generation

changes,

disturbances
oscillations
frequency

faults

and

and system frequency

transients

frequency

measurement

setup

WAMS
frequency

in the

are essentially

Unlike c o n v e n t i o n a l

is required. Wide

based on new data

control systems which use

Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) to acquire non synchronized


of currents

These

like inter-machine

changes. They can be observed

Systems(WAMS)

acquisition technology.

trippings.

at various locations in the grid. To observe these

a wide area

Area Measurement

in the form of load

equipment

give rise to electromechanical

measurements

transients,

subject to disturbances

RMS values

and voltages.

system

acquires

phasor data

power system.

GPS

measured

synchronized
by PMUs

The measured quantities

phase angles, being time-synchronized


of one microsecond.

at selected

include

both

voltage
locations
magnitudes

and
in the
and

via CPS receivers with an accuracy

Wide area monitoring

not only increases system security,

current,

is a viable alternative

as it

but also allows the power system to

be run at its predefined security margin.

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System

3.4
Phasor

Overview of Synchronized Phasor


representation

circuits.

has been used to simplify

The vector representation

is achieved by using the magnitude


respective

phase angles.

system operators
phasor

Measurement
the analysis

of the sinusoidal voltages and currents


of the voltage and/or

Phasor measurements

current and their

at important

gain a dynamic view of the power system.

measurements

of AC

nodes help
Synchronized

resolved the issues of SCADA and have been used

mainly for power system

model validation,

post-event

analysis, real-time

display, and opens a wide range of new applications.


What is a Phasor?
Phasor is a quantity
reference) that

with m a g n i t u d e

is used to represents

phase or phase angle is the distance


and a specified
Here,
phasor

the

reference

reference

magnitude

and

and phase

sinusoidal

(with respect

signal figure 3.1. Here the

between the signal's

is expressed

to a

using

sinusoidal

an angular

peak

measure.

is a fixed point in time (such as time = 0). The


is related

to the amplitude

Consider a pure sinusoidal quantity

of the sinusoidal

signal.

given by

x(t) = Xm cos(t + )

(3.1 )

here being the frequency of the signal in radians per second, and being
the phase angle in radians. Xm is the peak amplitude of the signal. The root
mean square (RMS) value of the input signal is (Xm/2).

Equation

3.1

can also be written as


x(t) == Re{ Xm ej(t+) } == Re [{ej(t) } Xmej]

(3.2)

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System

Figure 3.1: Phasor Representation

The sinusoid of Equation 3.1 is represented by a complex number X known as


its phasor representation:
X(t) X == (Xm/2) ej == (Xm/2) [cos + jsin ]

(3.3)

What is Synchrophasor Technology?


-This synchronized sampling process of the different waveforms provides a common reference for the phasor calculation at all different locations.

The phase angle differences between two sets of phasor measurements is


independent of the reference.

Typically, one of the phasor measurements is chosen as the "reference" and


the difference between all the other phase angle measurements (also known as
the absolute phase angle) and this common "reference" angle is computed and
referred to as the relative phase angles with respect to the chosen reference.

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System

Figure 3.2: Phesor Representation with Common Reference

Figure 3.3: Phesor Representation with Angle

10

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System


3.4.1

Measurement

Synchrophasor

of Synchrophasors

measurements

Constant (UTC)

shall be tagged

time corresponding

shall consist of three numbers:

with the Universal

to the time of measurement.

The SOC count shall be a 4-

byte binary count in seconds from midnight (00:00) of January


second. Synchrophasor

to UTC time with accuracy


of the standard

This

a second of century (SOC) count, a fraction

of second count, and a time sta- tus value.

to the current

Time

1 s , 1970,

measurements shall be synchronized

sufficient to meet the accuracy

requirements

IEEE C37.118. Time error o f 1 corresponds to a phase error

o f 0.022 for 60 Hz system

and 0.018 for a 50 Hz system.

As standard

permits phase error of 0.01 radian or 0.57 , this corresponds to a maximum


time error of 26 s for a 60 Hz system, and 31 s for a 50 Hz system.

3.5

Phasor

The

Phasor

Measurement Unit
Measurement

Unit

(PMU)

receive

signals

Positioning System (GPS) satellites, and provide synchronized


from different
the phasor

locations

to the desired destination,

data concentrator

for wide area monitoring;


dynamic

system ratings;

and control
estimator

with help of Energy


estimates

buses by using the


injections,

and improvements

power

the voltage
available
flows,

in state

measurements

voltage magnitudes,

known as

data can be used

and stability

Management
magnitudes

measurements

commonly

(PDC). The measurement

real time dynamics

from Global

monitoring;

estimation, protection,

System

(EMS). A state

and phase angles at the


in the

form

or current

of power

through

the

branches.

The f i r s t p r o t o t y p e of the PMU was developed


Tech in the early 1980s. The first commercial

and tested

in Virginia

unit, the Macrodyne

1690

was developed in 1991. In the late 1990s, Bonneville Power Administration


(BPA)
initiated

developed

a wide area measurement

system

(WAMS),

which

the usage of PMUs for large-scale power systems.

11

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System

Figure 3.4: Block Diagram of PMU

A PMU When placed at a bus, can provide a highly accurate measurements of the
voltage phasor at that bus, as well as the current
transmission
Modern

lines (depending

phasors through the incident

on the available

PMUs have some other

measurement of derived quantities


related indicators.etc. and monitoring

features,

measurement

like frequency

like power components,

measurement,
power quality

of substation

apparatus.

The analog signals are derived from the voltage and current

transformer

secondaries, with
microprocessor

appropriate

of the status

channels).

anti-aliasing

determines the positive

and

sequence

surge

filtering.

The

phasors, and the

timing

message from the G PS, along with the sample number

at the beginning

of a window, is assigned to the phasor as its identifying tag. The computed


string of phasors,
assembled

one for each of the positive sequence measurements,

in a message

stream

to be communicated

to a remote

according to IEEE C37.118 standard. The messages are transmitted


dedicated communication

is
site

over a

line.
12

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System

3.6

Communication

Methods

For power system monitoring various communication

links used both wired

and wire- less options.


Telephone

lines:

The main advantage

of using phone lines is that

they are easy to set up and economical to use. These o f f e r data rates o f
up to about 56 kbps ( analog).
Fiber-optic

cables:

billion bits per second


immunity
that

it

These offer data rates ranging from 50 million to 1


The advantages

to RF and atmospheric
provides, which

telecommunication

can

of using fiber-optics

interference,
be

used

by

needs. The disadvantag

include

its

and the massive bandwidth


the

utilities

of using

for

fiber-optics

other
is its

high initial investment.


Power
that

lines:

Power line communication

is fast emerging

the electricity supply

and offering data


grid.

links:

is a new technique

rates in the range of 4 Mbps via

Power line technology

low voltage electric supply grid for transmission


Microwave

(PLC)

uses the medium

and

of data and voice.

Point to point microwave links are also being used

by util- ities to a great extent.

Microwave links provide a better

option

as compared to leased lines, since they are easy to set up and are highly
reliable. The main disadvantages of using microwave links are signal fading
and multipath

propa- gation.

Satellites:

Earth

orbiting satellites

can also be used to exchange data

between the PMUs and the monitoring stations.

Remote substation

SCADA

is one area where satellites have been used effectively. The disadvantages

of

using a satellite include its high cost, narrow bandwidth.

13

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System

3.7

Applications

Monitoring the State Variables


Synchronized phasor measurement unit can provide voltage and current magnitude
and phase in real time. The state variables of a network analysis are based on these
quantities, especially the phase angle, as angles are used to determine the voltage
stability and operation margin.

Figure 3.5: A single-line diagram presented for a network

The real power flow from the sending end can be calculated by

The reactive power is expressed by

Recall the equation of voltage regulation which is defined as

The relationship between can be also written by the line impedance, the phase angle
and the reactive power supplied to the line. Therefore, from these three equations
above, the new equation of voltage regulation can be written as

Voltage and current phasing verification


Improved state estimation

14

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System


State estimation and dynamic monitoring
Traditional state estimation uses multiple asynchronous measurements, (such as active
and reactive power, voltage, current amplitude, etc.), obtained by iterative methods.
This process usually takes from a few seconds to minutes and generally only applies
to static state estimation. Through the application of synchronized phasor
measurement technology, the system node positive sequence voltage phasors and line
positive sequence current phasors can be directly measured. Various measurements
are taken by phasor measurement and combines traditional measurements. It can
improve the system state estimation speed and accuracy.
Substation

voltage measurement

Synchrophasor- based protection


SCADA verification and backup
Wide-area frequency monitoring
Wide-area disturbance

recording

Distributed

control

generation

Detecting out-of-step conditions


FACTS device operation
Voltage instability

and control

advance warning scheme

Angular stability advance warning scheme


Identifying

3.8

inter-area power oscillations

Summary

In this chapter

brief introduction

and its potential applications

of Synchronized

Phasor

Measurement

is given.

15

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System

Chapter 4

Fundamentals of Phasor Measurement Unit


In this chapter we will consider certain practical implementation aspects of the PMUs
and the architecture of the data collection and management system necessary for
efficient utilization of the data provided by the PMUs. One of the most important
features of the PMU technology is that the measurements are time-stamped with high
precision at the source, so that the data transmission speed is no longer a critical
parameter in making use of this data. All PMU measurements with the same
timestamp are used to infer the state of the power system at the instant defined by the
time-stamp. It is clear that PMU data could arrive at a central location at different
times depending upon the propagation delays of the communication channel in use.
The time-tags associated with the phasor data provide an indexing tool which helps
create a coherent picture of the power system out of such data. The Global Positioning
System (GPS) has become the method of choice for providing the time-tags to the
PMU measurements, and will be described briefly in the following sections. Other
aspects of the overall PMU data collection system such as phasor data concentrators
(PDCs), communication systems, etc. will also be considered in this Chapter.
The industry standards which define file structures for compliant PMUs have been
very important to ensure interoperability of PMUs made by different manufacturers,
and will be considered in section.

16

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System

4.1 Method to obtain the synchronized phasor data


Introduction to the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT)
Discrete Fourier Transform
Digital computers are usually used to analysis the phasor data of a power system.
First, a discrete-time signal is obtained by sampling the original analog waveform. A
mathematic method which is called Discrete Fourier Transform is then applied to this
sampled data to obtain a sampled frequency waveform.

Figure sample a waveform in discrete time


Consider periodic discrete-time finite signal, taking N samples from 0 to 2, so that
the sampling time interval is 2 /N. The Fourier Transform can be expressed as

X is the complex number to express phasor ( usually expressed in rectangular form as


a + bj)

DFT has components at + and-. These components can be combined and divided
by the square root of 2 to get the RMS value.
-1.
The equation for the fundamental component can be rewritten as complex form as
following

17

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System

1 Cycle Discrete Fourier Transform


DFT extracts the fundamental frequency component from input sinusoidal signal. It
will measure the Magnitude and Phase Angle of the signal.
1 cycle Discrete Fourier Transformer (DFT) = most commonly used phasor
estimation method.
Sampled data Xk used to calculate the phasor as,

Where,

N = number of Samples in 1-cycle of nominal


frequency
Sampling angle
The Nyquist criterion
If a signal contains frequency components greater than Hz, then sampling the signal at
cannot express the signal, an artefact called aliasing takes place. Therefore, any
analog signal must be bandwidth limited

18

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System

4.2 Architecture of PMU

Fig 4.2 :- PMU architecture

19

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System

4.3 Phasor Measurement Implementation in India


National and Regional Load Despatch Centres in India are being operated by Powem
Systems Operation Corporation(POSOCO), a wholly owned subsidiary of
POWERGRID, whereas State Load DespatchCentres are operated by respective State
utilities. They are equipped with State-of-the-Art SCADA/EMS system.

Telemetry from different sub-stations and power plants are being received at each
SLDC/RLDC and subsequently to NLDC which are being utilized in day to day
operations of the regional grid.

Synchronous Interconnection of regional grids forming large interconnected system


(for example formation of NEW grid ) and various changes undergoing in the Indian
power industry requires better situational awareness of the grid event and
visualization at the control center for real time system operation. Knowledge about
the angular separation between different nodes of a power system has always been of
great interest for power system operators. Phase angle measurement is commonly
used in auto synchronization of generating stations and check synchronization relays
used at substations for closing of lines as well as during three-phase auto-reclosing.
All these applications are at the local level.

Prior to the introduction of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) at control centre level
this analogue value is normally not considered as measurable in SCADA system and
hence does not form a part of the SCADA measurement. However SCADA
technology does provide an estimate of the relative phase angle difference (with
respect to a reference bus) through the State Estimator. The State estimator uses the
SCADA inputs (analogue and digital measurands) to estimate the system state viz.
node voltage and angle.

Information about phase angle difference between two different nodes in a power
system has also been calculated based on the real time power flow between the nodes,
bus voltages and network reactance using standard equation = sin-1 (P*X/V1*V2).
Angular information at control centre is also obtained by placing phase angle
transducer at strategic locations and interfacing it in existing SCADA system

20

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System


However all the above methods of calculation of phase angle difference have
limitations due to resolution, data latency, updation time and data skewedness.

Update time in the SCADA system is considerably large (up to 10-15 seconds) for
visualizing and controlling the dynamics of power system. The real time angular
measurement in the power system avoids above uncertainties and can be relied on to
assess the transmission capability in real time which is very crucial in efficiently
operating the present electricity market mechanism.

PMUs are able to measure what was once immeasurable: phase difference at different
substations. A pilot project was implemented in Northern Region (NR) to assess the
potential of PMU/synchrophasor measurements. Experienced gained with this pilot
project is described in the following paragraph.

21

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System

Chapter

Placement of Phasor Measurement Unit


5.1

General

Secure o p e r a t i o n
system

of power systems

operating conditions.

substations

close monitoring

The measurements

of the

received from numerous

are used in control centers to provide an estimate for all metered

and un-metered

electrical

current

(I), active

network

parameters

measurements

quantities e.g.

of the power system.

were pr o vid ed

of global positioning

bus voltage

(V), frequency

Until recently, the a v a i l a b l e

by SCADA,

including

and bus voltage

active

magnitudes.

and reactive

The utilization

system (GPS), in addition to sampled data processing

techniques, for computer

relaying

applications

[1]. Phasor measurement

units

has led to the development


are monitoring

devices that

provide extremely accurate positive sequence time tagged measurements.


PMU installed at a bus can make synchronized measurements
phasor

of the bus and the current

incident

to the bus, assuming

channels.

These

(f),

power flow (P) reactive power (Q), load angle (J) and

power flows and injections

of PMUs

requires

phasor

and Ohm's

c a lc u la t e d

as pseudo

that

these

laws, the

of the voltage

of some or all the branches

the PMU has sufficient number of

measurements

directly at t he locations, where


Kirchhoff's

phasors

are obtained

from t h e P M U s

have been

installed.

Then

remaining

variables

can

applying
easily b e

measurements. The problem of network observability

has been studied by various researchers in the past. Two different approaches
used for solving this problem
topological observability,

are based on numerical observability

which have their own advantages and disadvantages.

A wide range of such strategies


Placement

(OPP)

literature,

Spanning Tree (MST),


Genetic

and

can be cited from the Optimum PMU

like Depth

Simulated

First

Annealing

Search (DFS),
(SA), Tabu

Algorithms (GA). In the power system placement

Minimum

Search

(TS),

of PMU can be

studied by various methods considering complete system observability.

22

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System

5.2

Concepts of PMU

Placement

A PMU is able to measure the voltage phasor of the installed


the current phasors of some or all the lines connected

to that

bus and
bus. The

following generalized rules can be used for PMU placement.


Rule

1: Assign one voltage

measurement

PMU is placed, including one current

to a bus where

measurement

to each branch

Rule 2: Assign one voltage pseudo-measurement

to each node

connected to the bus itself.

reached by an- other equipped with a PMU.


R u l e 3: Assign one current
co nnect ing

pseudo-measurement

two buses wher e vo lt a g e s

a l l o w s interconnecting

current

pseudo-measurement

be indirectly

law (KCL).

are

known.

This

observed zones.

R u l e 4: Assign one current


where current can

to each branch

calculated

to each branch
by the

This rule applies when the current

Kirchhoff
balance

at a node is known.

The observability

conditions

that

have to be met for selecting

the

placement of PMU sets are


Condition 1: For PMU
phasor

and

the current

installed
phasors

at a bus, the bus voltage


of all incident

branches

are

known.
Condition 2: If one end voltage phasor and the current phasor of a
branch are known, then the voltage phasor at the other end of the
branch can be calculated.
Condition 3: If voltage phasors of both ends of a branch
known, then the current

phasor of this branch

are

can be directly

obtained.

23

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System

Condition 4: If there is a zero-injection

bus without

PMU and

the current phasors of the incident branches are all known but one,
then the current

phasor of the unknown branch can be calculated

using KCL.
Condition 5: If the voltage

phasor

of a zero-injection

unknown and the voltage phasors of all adjacent

bus is

buses are known,

then the voltage phasor of the zero-injection bus can

be obtained

through node voltage equations.


Condition 6: If the voltage

phasors

injection

buses are unknown,

adjacent

buses to that

of zero

injection

of a set of adjacent

but the voltage phasors of all the

set are known, then the voltage

buses

can

zero

be computed

phasors

by node

voltage

equations.

The m e a s u r e m e n t s
measurements.

obtained

The measurements

called pseudo-measurement.

from Condition
obtained

1 are called

from Conditions

The measurements

obtained

direct

2-3 are also

from Conditions

4-6 are called extension-measurements.

5.3 Observability Rules for PMUs


Placing a PMU at every substation would certainly provide all the necessary real-time
Voltage magnitudes and angles for system observability; however this is redundant
due to an important attribute of PMUs. Provided that you know a buss voltage
magnitude and angle, all current phasors, and the connecting line parameters, then all
connecting bus voltages and angles can be calculated. By ohms law, if you know the
voltage magnitude and phase at Bus A, the voltage at Bus B would be the voltage at
bus A minus the voltage drop caused by the current traveling through the connecting
line. This sets up the first observability rule, that all buses connected to a directly
observable bus are observable themselves, as illustrated in Figure 5.1

24

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System

Figure:- 5.1 Example of the First Observability Rule. Red values are already
known, blue values can be calculated.
VB = VA IAB(RAB + jXAB)
VC = VA IAC(RAC + jXAC)
VD = VA IDA(RAD + jXAD)
This significantly reduces the number of PMUs (and therefore cost) needed for
complete observability. PMUs are required to be on a minimum of 20-30% of buses to
achieve full system observability. Because of the ability of a PMU to observe
neighboring busses, PMU placement for full observability is very similar to the graph
theory topic of Domination.

There are also many special situations in which a bus can be calculated even if it is
not connected to a directly observable bus. The following general rules cover many of
these situations in which a bus does not have injection. If a bus without injection is
observed and all but one of its connecting buses is observed, then the unobserved bus
becomes observed.

25

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System

Figure:- 5.2 Example of Second Observability Rule


VA = VC + IAC(RAC + jXAC)
IDA = VD - VA / (RAC + jXAC)
IAB = IDA IAC
VB = VA + IAB(RAB + jXAB)
An unobserved bus without injection connected only to observed buses is itself
observable.

26

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System

Figure 5.3 Example of the Third Observability Rule


VA = VB + IAB(RAB + jXAB)
VA = VC + IAC(RAC + jXAC)
VA = VA IDA(RAD + jXAD)
0 = IDA - IAC - IAB
There could be other specific observability rules, but the three stated rules cover the
vast majority of situations and are adequately comprehensive and easy to implement
in placement algorithms. To recap:
1. All buses neighboring a bus with a PMU are observable themselves.
2. If all but one bus neighboring an observable bus without injection are
themselves observable, then all the neighboring buses are observable.
3. If all the buses neighboring a bus without injection are observable, then that
bus is also observable.

27

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System

5.4 PMU

Placement Algorithms

Various types of optimization

techniques like Heuristic methods-depth

and Meta- heuristic methods


Spanning,are

5.4.1

Depth

Recursive

Security,

Recursive

first
N-1

discussed as per review paper.

First Algorithm

This met hod uses rules from 1 to 3 (it does not consider p u r e transit

nodes)

only. The first P MU is placed at the bus with the largest number of connected
branches. If there are more than one bus with such characteristic, one is randomly
chosen. PMU are placed with the same criterion, until the complete network
visibility is obtained as depicted in figure 5.4

Figure 5.4 Depth First Algorithm for PMU Placement

28

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System


5.4.2

Recursive

This method

N Security Algorithm

is a modified depth

first approach. The procedure

can be

subdivided into three main steps as per figure 5.5


Step 1: Generation
the flowchart

of N minimum

of the minimum

algorithm is performed

spanning

N times

step (1) are reprocessed

Figure 3.2 depicts

tree generation

(N being the

each bus of the network as starting


Step 2: Search of alternative

spanning trees:

number

algorithm.

The

of buses),

using

bus .

patterns:

The PMU sets obtained with the

as follows: one at a time, each PMU of each set is

replaced at the buses connected with the node where a PMU was originally
set, as depicted in figure3.2 PMU placements

which lead to a complete

visibility are retained.


Step 3: Reducing PMU number in case of pure transit nodes: In this step, it is
verified if the network remains observable taking out one PMU at a time from
each set, as depicted in figme3.2. If the network does not present pure transit
nodes, the procedure ends at step (2). The placement sets which present the
minimum numbers of PMUs are finally selected.
5.4.3 Recursive N-l Spanning Algorithm

The rules for minimal PMU placement assume a fixed network topology and a
complete reliability of measurement

devices. Simple criteria

which yield a

complete visibility in case of one line outage at a time (N-l spanning) is based on
the following: A bus is said to be observable if at least one of the two following
conditions applies:
Step 1: A PMU is placed at the node.
Step 2: The node is connected at least to two nodes equipped with a PMU.
Step 2 is ignored, if the bus is connected to single-end line.

Figure 5.6 depicts the algorithms

for obtaining the N-1 Spanning placement.


29

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System

Figure 5.5 Recursive N Security Algorithm

Figure 5.6 Recursive N-1 Spanning Algorithm


30

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System

Figure 5.7 Algorithm for PMU Placement

The Proposed Algorithm is for Optimal location of PMU placement from which, the
power system network is completely observable. This developed method uses the
Placement rules for PMU placement and this algorithm is applied to IEEE 14 bus test
system. The Optimum location of PMU from above method are as shown in Results.

31

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System

Chapter 6

Protection System with Phasor Measurements


Synchronized phasor measurements have offered solutions to a number of
vexing protection problems. These include the protection of series compensated lines,
protection of multi terminal lines, and the inability to satisfactorily set out-of-step
relays. In many situations the reliable measurement of a remote voltage or current on
the same reference as local variables has made a substantial improvement in
protection functions possible. In some examples communication of such
measurements from one end of a protected line to the other is all that is required while
in others communication across large distances is necessary.

Phasor measurements are particularly effective in improving protection


functions which have relatively slow response times. For such protection functions,
the latency of remote measurements is not a significant issue. For example, back-up
protection functions of distance relays and protection functions concerned with
managing angular or voltage stability of networks can benefit from remote
measurements with propagation delays with latencies of up to several hundred
milliseconds. The next two sections will consider improved line protection using
phasor measurements from the remote ends of the line. The following section
involves adaptive protection in which the phasor measurements assist in making
adjustments automatically in various protection functions in order to make them more
attuned to prevailing system conditions.

6.1 Differential Protection of Transmission Line


Differential protection of buses, transformers, and generators is a wellestablished protection principle that has no direct counterpart in protection of long
transmission lines. Pilot relays use communicated information from remote locations.
True differential protection was not possible before synchronized phasor
measurements. The advantages of differential protection are important for series
compensated lines and tapped lines. There are a number of forms of current
32

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System


differentials for line protection. In the first form the currents are combined using a
communication channel and compared. In the second form the currents are sampled
and the samples communicated over a wide band channel, and in the third form
phasors are computed from the samples and the phasor values communicated

Fig 6.1 Basic Current Differential

The dashed dual slope shown in Fig. 6.1 is used for high-current conditions
where current transformer (CT) accuracy and saturation is more likely. Transmission
lines equipped with series compensation, flexible alternating current transmission
system (FACTS) devices, or multiterminal lines present protection problems which
call for differential protection. To date, such transmission line problems are solved
with differential-like schemes such as phase comparison. The easy availability of
synchronized measurements using Global Positioning System (GPS) technology and
the improvement in communication technology make it possible to consider true
differential protection of transmission lines and cables. Differential protection can be
based on computed phasors or on samples, although it can be argued that significant
shunt elements in the transmission line make phasors the preferred solution. In either
33

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System


case it is necessary to synchronize the sampling and time-tag the result. Phasors can
be computed from fractional-cycle data windows as in impedance relaying, although
full-cycle windows offer better security.
If Ii is the current phasor at terminal i (reference direction is positive when the
current is flowing into the zone of protection), the differential currents may be defined
as
Id = Ii

(6.1)

A single restraining current may be constructed by averaging the magnitudes


of all terminal currents or taking the maximum of all the terminal currents as the
restraint. Alternately, one restraining current for each pair of terminals may be
constructed in order to maintain uniform sensitivity when one of the terminals of a
multi terminal line is out of service. This is equivalent to the use of multiple restraints
for multi winding transformers. If a two-terminal line is modelled with the exact-
equivalent, then the phasor currents and voltages are shown in Fig.

Figure 6.2 Exact model of Transmission Line

The impedances Zc1 and Zc2 are the impedances of the possible series
capacitor networks or FACTS devices, Z and Ys are the exact- impedance and
admittance, respectively. If the relay measures I1, V1, I2, and V2, then the differential
currents Ix and Iy can be obtained from Eq. Under no-fault conditions using
Kirchhoffs current law Ix = Iy. When a fault occurs the 50-Hz exact- is no longer
valid because the currents and voltages are no longer pure fundamental frequency
signals. A percentage differential characteristic such as shown in Fig. 6.1 based on Ix

34

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System


and Iy on a per-unit basis, with a modest slope, is capable of sensing faults within the
zone defined by the terminal where Ix and Iy are measured.
V3 = V1 I1Zc1

(6.2)

V4 = V2 I2 I2ZC2
IS1 = V3YS

IS2 = V4YS

IX = I1 IS1

IY = I2 IS2

(6.3)

The preceding discussion is for lines of any length because of the exact- equivalent
but has the disadvantage of requiring voltage measurements. In an approximation to
the charging current is proposed which does not require voltage measurement. The
assumption is that each end uses data communicated from the other end to perform
the current differential calculation.

The best synchronization is obviously obtained with GPS. Pre fault load
currents can also be used for synchronizing. Data communication over a dedicated
fibre channel, while expensive, provides the best performance. A frequency shift
power line carrier, voice-grade channel operating at 64 kbps, can also be used. The
reliability of current differential schemes can be improved by adding redundant
channels.

35

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System

Chapter 7
Simulation and Results
Matlab Simulation of WAMS Architecture
In this chapter Matlab Simulation of Prototype PMU is developed. In this chapter,
Simulink Models and their Results are shown.

7.1 Matlab based Simulink Model for Phasor Measurement Unit

Figure 7.1 Matlab model of PMU


In this model it is shown that how a PMU can be realized in Matlab. Three phase
Source is taken and V-I measurement from conventional CT & PT is done. Voltage
and Currents is given to the DFT. Output of DFT is Magnitude & Phase angle of the
input phasor. This output is Time Synchronized as we are making Time
Synchronizing with UTC. This output is stored in work space and also in PDC.
36

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System

7.2 Sampling Process for PMU

Figure:- 7.2 Sample & Hold Ckt. For PMU

Sampling is very important to get the precise time stamping to the measurements.
Nyquist criteria is to be followed for the sampling. For 50 Hz power system your
sampling frequency should be minimum of fs 2f0 . In our case we are Sampling
frequency is of 500 samples per second.

37

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System

7.3 Matlab modeling of DFT

Figure:- 7.3 Matlab Discrete Fourier Transform


Discrete Fourier Transform Extracts the Fundamental frequency from the given
sinusoidal input. It also gives the Magnitude output and phase angle of the input
signal.

Here

Matlab

modeling

for

DFT

is

done

by

the

Fourier

TransformvMathematical Relation.

7.4 Case Study of 5 bus system for PMU output

Figure:- 7.4 Case study of 5 bus system for PMU output

In this case study a simple 5 bus system is considered. 5 PMU is placed at each bus.
PMU is calculating the magnitude and phasors with time synchronization.

38

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System

Figure:- 7.5 Microsoft Excel Output of PMU

From above diagram it is quite clear that PMU measures the input phasors and Phasor
Data concentrator concentrates that data with common time reference frame.

7.5 Case Study for PMU Placement


The a lgo r it hms

discussed

in previous chapter are applied to IEEE 14 bus

test system. Figure 7.8 represent s


are ga ine d

with h e l p o f Power S y s t e m

described

location

required

various

observability

Results of all met hods

Analysis

Toolbox

(PSAT) a nd

as per T a b l e . The PMU heading in Table indicates minimum

PMU hardware
indicates

its graph model.

PMU

for complete system observability,


placement

combinations

with the no. of PMUs

remained

possible

and the results


for complete

same. The head ing B u s

points o ut t he bus numbers f o r PMU p o s i t i o n . Following a line

outage, N-1 method

result PMU set list and network would remain still

observable.
For complete

system

observability

the Re cur s ive

suggests minimum three PMUs i n s t e a d

algorithm

algorithm

of six from Dept h First algorithm,

hence i t would b e beneficial in cost comparison.


Spanning

N Security

would be more preferable

However R e c u r s i v e

N-1

as it includes s i n g l e

outage o f system component.


39

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System

Figure 7.6 IEEE 14 bus Network


Table I: PMU Placement Results of IEEE-14 Bus through Distinct
Algorithms IEEE 14 Bus Test System

Method

No. of PMUs Set

Bus Location

Depth First

06

01

1, 4, 6, 8, 10, 14

Recursive N Security

03

01

2, 6, 9
2,5,6,7,9,10,13,14
1,3,5,7,9,11,12,13
1,2,4,6,7,10,13,14

Recursive N-1 Spanning

08

10

2,3,5,7,9,10,11,12
2,3,5,7,9,11,12,13
1,2,4,6,7,10,13,14
2,3,5,7,9,11,12,13
2,3,5,7,9,11,12,14

40

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System


2,3,5,6,7,9,11,13
1,2,4,6,7,10,12,14

Results from developed Method is as under:


Total No. of Possible Solutions for 14 bus Network = 2 14=16384
Solutions with Complete Observability = 6181
Solutions with Minumum PMUs

{2,6,7,9}{2,6,8,9}{2,7,10,13}{2,8,10,13}{2,7,11,13}

Differential Protection using Synchronized Phasor Measurements

Figure 7.7 Matlab model for Differential Protection system using Phasor
Measurements

41

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System


Differential Protection is one of the most important protection for Power system
protection as well as protection of Major Electrical Equipments. By development of
Time synchronized measurements, the differential protection can be more accurate
precise and Faster.

Figure 7.8- Output Waveform of Case Study for Differential Protection

7.5 Simulation Result

This is an attempt

to analyze three different

algorithms

discussed

in

this chapter. By using basic Rules and Conditions for PMU placement, a
generalized Algorithm is also developed and also tested for 14 bus IEEE test
system.

Here three distinct PMU Placement algorithms are compared with the aim of
achieving complete observability of the power system in steady state
conditions. The outage of one of the line or equipment also analysed and the
results of IEEE 14 bus test system are discussed.

A Matlab model for use of PMU for Differential protection is developed and
results are as shown in Figure 7.8
42

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System

Chapter 8
Conclusion:

From this dissertation work it can be concluded that Application of


Synchronized Phasor measurement Improves the current monitoring and
controlling SCADA sytem.

Matlab simulink model of Phasor Measurement Unit is developed. By that


precise Time stamped and Synchronized Voltage and Current measurements
are obtained. A model for Phasor Data concerntrator is developed in Matlab
and by that a Time stamped measurements of various PMUs are stored on
common reference time.

Various PMU Placement Algorithm are implemented with the Aim of


achieving complete observability of network. A Placement strategy based on
Binary Integer programming is developed and implemented for IEEE 14 bus
system.

PMU can be very useful in application of Power system protection. A Matlab


Simulink model of Differential protection using PMU is developed and by
applying Time stamped current samples; results are analysed it can be
concluded that PMU is able to Identify fault and generate trip signal using
Phase angle.

Future Scope:

This dissertation work can be further extended for various applications in


power system protection. Relay co-ordination using synchrophasor and
Adaptive power system protection scheme is the new area for which this
project work can be helpful.

State Estimation and Intelligent load shedding application is possible with


Time synchronized measurements.

43

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System

References
Papers:
[1] Phadke A. G., Thorp J.S. and De La Ree Jaime, Synchronized Phasor
Measurement Applications in Power Systems, IEEE Transactions On Smart
Grid, Vol. 1, No. 1, June 2010
[2] Adamiak Mark, Premerlani William and Kasztenny Bodgan,
Synchrophasors: Definition, Measurement, and Application, General
Electric Co., Global Research
[3] IEEE Std C37.118-2005 for Synchrophasors for Power Systems.
[4] Dotta Daniel and Chow Joe H., A MATLAB-based PMU Simulator, IEEE
Fellow.
[5] Mynam Mangapathirao V., Harikrishna Ala, and Singh Vivek, The Paper
entitled Synchrophasors Redefining SCADA Systems, Schweitzer
Engineering Laboratories, Inc., 2011.
[6] Phadke A. F. and Nuqui R. F., Phasor Measurement Unit Placement
Techniques for Complete and Incomplete Observability, IEEE Transactions
On Power Delivery, Vol. 20, No. 4, October 2005 2381
[7] Xu B., and Abur A. Optimal Placement of Phasor Measurement Units for
State estimation PSERC Final Project report, 2005
[8] Federico M., Documentation for PSAT , version 2.1.6 (2010)

Books:
[9] Phadke A. G. and Thorp J.S., Synchronized Phasor Measurement and Their
Applications, Springer, USA, 2008

Websites:
[10] www.naspi.com Northen American Synchrophasor Initiative
[11] www.pserc.com Power System Engineering and Relaying Committee

44

Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System

Appendix A

Abbreviation
EMS

Energy Management System

GIS

Geographical Information System

GPS

Global Positioning System

IED

Intelligent Electronic Device

OPP

Optimal PMU Placement

PDC

Phasor Data Concentrator

PMU

Phasor Measurement Unit

RMS

Root Means Square

RTU

Remote Terminal Unit

SCADA
SPM

Supervisory Control and Data


Acquisition
Synchronized Phasor Measurement

WAMS

Wide Area Measurement System

Nomenclature

Load Angle (radian)

Phase angle (radian)

Frequency (radian)

Frequency (Hz)

Current (Ampere)

Active Power (KW)

Reactive Power (KVAr)

Voltage

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Application of Synchrophasor Technology for Wide Area Measurement System

Appendix B
Index
Algorithm for PMU Placement, ........................................................ 31
Applications, ............................................................................ ........ 14
Architecture of PMU, .................. ........................................... ........ 19
Block Diagram of PMU, ...................................................... ........ 12
Case Study of 5 bus, .................... ........................................... ........ 38
Communication
Depth

Methods, ......... ........................................... ........ 13

First Algorithm, ............ ........................................... ........ 28

Differential Protection, ................ ........................................... ........ 32


Discrete Fourier Transform, ......... ........................................... ........ 17
IEEE 14 bus, ................................ ........................................... ........ 40
Introduction, ................................ ........................................... .......... 1
Literature Review, ....................... ........................................... .......... 4
Matlab model of PMU, ................ ........................................... ........ 36
Matlab modeling of DFT, ............ ........................................... ........ 38
Observability, .............................. ........................................... ........ 24
Phasor, ......................................... ........................................... .......... 8
Phasor

Measurement Unit, ...... ........................................... ........ 11

Phasor Representation, ................ ........................................... .......... 9


PMU

Placement, ..................... ........................................... ........ 23

PMU architecture, ........................ ........................................... ........ 19


Power System Monitoring, ....... ........................................... .......... 6
Recursive

N Security Algorithm, ..................................... ........ 29

Recursive N-l Spanning Algorithm, ....................................... ........ 29


References, .................................. ........................................... ........ 44
Results, ........................................ ........................................... ........ 36
Sampling Process for PMU, ......... ........................................... ........ 37
Simulation, .................................. ........................................... ........ 36
Smart

Grid, ............................... ........................................... .......... 7

Synchronized Phasor

Measurement, .................................... .......... 8

Wide Area Measurement System, ...................................... .......... 7


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