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CARE Bangladesh Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Change (RVCC) Project

(A CIDA funded project)

FINAL DRAFT

PEOPLES’ KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES and BEHAVIOR ON CLIMATE CHANGE: Results from Baseline Study in Southwest Bangladesh

Prepared and Written by: A. K. M. Mamunur Rashid (PDO-Human Rights) ADVOCACY UNIT, RVCC Project

June 2003 Khulna, Bangladesh. © RVCC Project, CARE Bangladesh

Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Change (RVCC) Project

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE NO.

LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES ACROMYMS ACKNOWLEDGEMENT EXECUTIVE SUMMARY CHAPTER ONE 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 INTRODUCTION AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

III IV V VI VII

Background of the Knowledge Attitude and Behavior (KAB) Study Statement of the Problem Operational Definition Conceptual Framework Objective of KAB Study RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

9 10 11 13 14

CHAPTER TWO 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10

Introductory notes Study Area Study Population Sources of Data Development of Research Tools Formation of Study Team Methods of Data Collection from Primary Sources Analysis of Data Workshop on Review of the Study Results Limitation of the Study

15 15 16 17 17 18 19 19 20 20

CHAPTER THREE RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 3.1 Background of the Respondents 3.2 Knowledge Status on Climate Change Effects 3.3 Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change Consequences 3.4 Knowledge about Causes of Climate Change CHAPTER FOUR LIST OF TABLES REFERENCES CONCLUSIONS

21 21 23 25 27 29 36

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LIST OF TABLES Page No. 29 30 30 31 32 32 33 34 35 35

Table 1: Table 2: Table 3: Table 4: Table 5: Table 6: Table 7: Table 8: Table 9: Table10:

Distribution of Interviews by Study Area, Study Population and Gender Distribution of FGDs by District and Study Population Knowledge Status of Respondents on Climate Change Effects by Gender Knowledge Status of Respondents on Climate Change Effects by Category Knowledge Sources of Respondents’ Unprompted and Prompted Knowledge by Gender Strength of Belief of Respondents on Unprompted and Prompted Knowledge by Gender Knowledge Status of Respondents on Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change Effects by Gender Knowledge Status of Respondents on Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change Effects by Category Knowledge Status of Respondents on Causes of Climate Change Knowledge Status of Respondents by Categories on Causes of climate change

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure 01: Figure 02: Figure 03: Figure 04: Figure 05: Figure 06: Figure 07: Figure 08: Explanatory Model of Interactions of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Map of the Study Area Range of Difference between Males and Females Unprompted Knowledge on Effects Analysis of Unprompted Responses on Climate Change Effects by Category of Respondents Range of Difference between Males and Females Unprompted Knowledge on Adaptation Analysis of Unprompted Responses on Adaptation/Coping Mechanism to Climate Change Effects by Category of Respondents Range of Difference between Males and Females Unprompted Knowledge on Causes Analysis of Unprompted Responses on Causes of Climate Change by Category of Respondents Page No. 13 15 22 22 24 25 26 26

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ACROMYMS

BCAS CBO CDP CIDA CO2 DC F FGD HSC IGA KAB M NGO PC PDO PL RVCC SPSS SSC UP

Bangladesh Center for Advanced Studies Community Based Organization Coastal Development Partnership Canadian International Development Agency Carbon dioxide Deputy Commissioner Female Focus Group Discussion Higher-secondary School Certificate Income Generating Activities Knowledge Attitude and Behavior Male Non-Governmental Organization Project Coordinator Project Development Officer Post Larva Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Change Statistical Package for Social Science Secondary School Certificate Union Parishad

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This report presents the results of a baseline study of the awareness-raising program of Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Change (RVCC) Project in Bangladesh, implemented by CARE Bangladesh with the financial assistance of Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA).

During fieldwork, staff of partner organizations, UP chairman, schoolteachers, and other institutions assisted the team. Mr. Kashem (Assistant Teacher of Shubhasini High School), Rezaul Islam (SAMADHAN), Shahidul Islam (UTTARAN), Idris Ali (BCAS), Bidhan Chandra Tikadar (BCAS), Ashraful Alam Tutu (CDP), Mizanur Rahman Panna (Rupantar), Rashiduzzaman (Chariman of Kapilmuni Union, Paikgacha, Khulna), and Miazan Ali (Chairman of Tetulia Union of Tala Upazila). This report has been edited by Claudia Schaerer (Project Coordinator, RVCC Project, CARE Bangladesh), Arifa S. Sharmin (External Relations Manager, CARE Bangladesh), Rob Koudstaal (Team Leader, ICZMP and Technical Advisor to the RVCC Project), who have provided their valuable comments and corrections to the report. The contribution of Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) funded the RVCC Project and subsequently made this study possible. Last but not least, UP members, CBO members, NGO staff, journalists, school teachers, students, other key informants and villagers, who were interviewed for the study, are gratefully acknowledged.

Khulna, March 2003 A. K. M. Mamunur Rashid Project Development Officer-Human Rights, RVCC Project Team leader

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior (KAB) Study on climate change issues was conducted to set a baseline for awareness activities. Objectives of the study were to: understand the existing knowledge level of the inhabitants of the Southwest Region in Bangladesh about climate change and its impacts; explore the knowledge and pattern of people’s responses towards adverse environmental conditions; and, identify sources of people’s environmental knowledge. The study was carried out in six districts of southwest Bangladesh: Satkhira, Khulna, Bagerhat, Gopalganj, Narail, and Jessore (Figure-2). A purposively selected number (294) of respondents were approached in the study for individual interviews and a total of 24 FGDs were conducted. The study started on 20th August 2002 with field testing of the interview schedule. The study revealed that on average, 13% of respondents have unprompted knowledge on effects of climate change. After prompting 61% showed knowledge about climate change effects. On the other hand, 27% people have no knowledge regarding climate change effects, even after being prompted. Effects of climate change most known by respondents without prompting were flooding (28% female and 25% male), water and vector borne diseases (25% female and 25% male), effects on agricultural productivity (28% female and 20% male), increase of global temperature (21% female and 24% male), and increase in water logged areas (20% female and 20% male); as respondents gave these responses without any prompting in more than 20% of cases. The study revealed that respondents’ main sources of knowledge on climate change effects were their own experiences/observations (74%). Other significant sources were books/magazines (6%), newspapers (5%), television (3%), radio (2%), teachers (2%), other educated persons (2%), and NGOs (1%). 4% of the respondents did not mention any source. When gender was considered, own observations and husbands were found main sources of females’ knowledge. Newspaper (1%) and books/magazines (0%) were the least important source of their knowledge. In FGDs, female participants opined that their husbands and other male members were their main source of outsider knowledge. Unprompted adaptation strategies revealed a very significant picture that respondents think immediately about livelihood accommodation or adjustments after experiencing very adverse environmental or climatic hazards. Without prompting, 48% of the respondents, responded
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that they will migrate, 22% responded that they have to change their occupation, 18% wanted to sell their labor, 15% wanted to involve in income generating activities more than they did previously, 11% expected relief from government and non-government agencies and 10% were interested to take loan to lead their life as an immediate option.

People’s understanding about causes of climate change was explored from the perspectives of students, school teachers, NGO staff and journalists. The total respondents for this search were 126. The study revealed that respondents understood the causes of climate change which they have experienced in their life. Respondents were found to have better unprompted knowledge about the following causes: emission of different types of gases from industries (45%), massive use of pesticides in agricultural sector (31%) and deforestation (69%) than atomic and nuclear power testing (9%), overuse of radioactive matter (10%), huge use of fossil fuel (14%), harmful industries in developed countries (5%) and overconsumption and excessive profit-oriented economic system (2%).

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CHAPTER ONE: 1.1

INTRODUCTION AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Background of the Knowledge Attitude and Behavior (KAB) Study

Change in practice and behavior of the target audience is a challenge for development activists around the world. To achieve behavioral change often requires creating awareness or knowledge and/or changing attitudes. Lack of awareness or low level of awareness in many ways can be interpreted as lack of adequate knowledge. Knowledge Attitude and Behavior (KAB) is a qualitative and quantitative research tool intended to measure the unprompted and prompted knowledge, actual behavior, and covert attitudes of the target audience on specific issues. The most common tools and methods used are questionnaires, interviews, discussions and checklists for assessing knowledge; crossreferenced interviews, case studies, key-informant interviews, checklists, and questionnaires for assessing attitudes; and checklists, observation and interviews for assessing behavior. The communication and advocacy component of the RVCC project has several communication objectives, which include: • • • To increase local capacity to understand, use and disseminate climate change information To increase capacity of partners to collect and disseminate information related to climate change To increase capacity of local institutions (e.g. civil society organizations, Community Based Organizations (CBO), Union Parishads (UP), Community Leaders, etc.) to advocate on climate change. The KAB assessment tool is being used by the RVCC Project to assess changes over the life of the project in knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of the target audience around the theme of climate change. The RVCC Project seeks behavioral change among project participants or other stakeholders in all project strategies. The desired behavioral change is reflected in the outcome level of the logical framework1. To achieve behavioral change often requires creating awareness or knowledge and/or changing attitudes. The tool that is most often used to assess changes in knowledge, attitudes and behavior, especially in the health sector with social marketing programs, is a KAB Assessment.
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Outcome 3 of RVCC Project Logframe reflects the following statement: ”local partners demonstrate increased capacity to collect and disseminate information related to climate change, and to advocate with the government on climate change” (RVCC Project Implementation Plan, p.23) and in output-4 of the logical framework reflects following statement: “1 million people living in the southwest have been exposed to climate change messages in awareness campaigns implemented by local partners” (RVCC Project Implementation Plan, p.24) 9

Study Report on People's Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior on Climate Change

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At the beginning of the project, a baseline KAB assessment was conducted to obtain information from participants on current levels of knowledge about climate change, attitudes towards climate change and behavior related to climate change. Near the end of the project life (early 2005), the assessment will be replicated and information compared to the baseline to be able to identify changes that have occurred. These changes will be analyzed to determine whether they can be attributed to project activities. During the KAB assessment, a series of questions were asked, combining spontaneous recall and prompting procedures. The KAB assessment not only investigated existing knowledge about the climate change and related issues but also investigated any differences between knowledge and practice, which may be caused by attitude. RVCC Project will use the KAB study as a baseline to provide an assessment of initial levels of knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices in the rural communities. The KAB Study also provides a solid background for developing messages, identifying appropriate media for use in the project’s awareness campaign strategy, advocacy direction, and program planning. 1.2 Statement of the Problem

Rural people may not be familiar with the term climate change, but they are very familiar with its consequences. People in the south-west region of Bangladesh, namely Khulna, Satkhira, Bagerhat, Gopalganj, Narail and Jessore Districts, are facing numerous environmental problems, a great many of which will be exacerbated due to climate change and accelerated by human interventions. The changing nature of the climate is now a well-proven fact. The RVCC Project conducted a vulnerability assessment in May 2002 and October 2002 in two phases. In May 2002, project staff, assisted by a group of NGOs selected by project staff, conducted a first perception survey with 19 focus groups in 13 villages. In October-November 2002, partner NGOs of the RVCC Project conducted a second survey with 52 focus groups in 44 villages. This was later complemented by an additional 7 focus groups conducted within the same 44 villages in January 2003 (RVCC Project, 2003; p.4). From the first assessment report, 13 major environmental problems or vulnerability contexts were identified that people are facing. These are: flood, waterlogging, river erosion, drought, siltation, salinity, tidal surge, wind/storm, cyclone, heavy rainfall, scarcity of potable water, water and vector borne diseases, and loss of bio-diversity. These vulnerability contexts are affecting their livelihoods or well-being; i.e., income, food, housing, health, clothing, education, communication/transportation, social security, female mobility, recreation, drinking water, trees, livestock, time for recreation, electricity, furniture, nutrition, access to irrigation and employment (RVCC Project, 2003; annex 6). Therefore, there may be reason to
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believe that people have partial understanding about their sufferings, but do not fully understand the causes of such sufferings. This explanation might not be correct, as the project does not have any information in this regard. An in-depth investigation of knowledge, attitudes, and behavior related to climate change was required in order for the project to develop and promote interventions that are relevant to local people. 1.3 1.3.1 Operational Definitions Attitude

Attitude is a personal characteristic. Persons in every culture develop attitudes about significant persons, groups and objects in their world. These attitudes influence social relationships in many important ways. Attitude is a generalized feeling, positive or negative, toward persons or things in our world. An attitude is the result of an evaluative belief that the person has about the object. An evaluative belief includes an evaluative concept, which is relative and changeable. Attitude is not a thing with which man is born, through socialization or enculturation process, man ascribes it from the individual, family and community. Attitude can change with the acculturation process in which humans with the help of new information and interaction can achieve new and different attitudes. As individuals grow up in a society, they acquire a large number of evaluative concepts. They learn that some things are good, desirable, worthwhile, preferable, and so on, whereas other things are judged to be bad, undesirable, worthless and the like. Attitudes are a consequence of the beliefs that persons have about the object. Beliefs have at least two dimensions that are important for attitudes: the strength of the belief and the quality of the evaluative concept embedded in the belief. 1.3.2 Attitudes and Behavior

The reason many persons want to change attitudes, is because they believe that attitudes are related to overt behavior. This is a complex issue, because behavior is influenced by many factors and attitude is only one of these factors. To resolve the question of whether or not attitudes are related to behavior, several aspects of the situation must be considered. First, it is necessary to determine that attitude and behavior are related; however, an attitude cannot be expected to relate to all kinds of behavior. Second, both the attitude and behavior must be measured with reliable and valid instruments. And, finally, it must be shown that strong determinants of counter attitudinal behavior are not present. Only investigations that meet these criteria can be accepted as evidence concerning the relation of attitude to behavior.
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1.3.3

Attitudes and Perception

Perception is a crucial aspect of psychological behavior. Our perceptions of the world around us exert a powerful influence on our orientation to it and all aspects of our behavior. The effect of natural and social factors on perception and the perception of other people, is perhaps the single most important part of perception, because it determines our behavior with respect to other events, persons, and groups. It is, therefore, of great significance not only to our day to day interactions with others, but also to the very existence of society. Basically the process of perception is selective and organized. The individual selects from a vast array of objects only those objects that are of interest and significance to that person, who then organizes the separate parts of these perceptions into a meaningful whole. 1.3.4 Knowledge

Knowledge is a covert category of cultural elements, which is expressed semantically, and is understandable by interpreting language (verbal and non-verbal). Therefore, knowledge is interpreted as a “sum of relationships of meanings that people create in their minds from available information, their experience, their feelings, and their ideas.” (Ferreira, 2002, p.2). Knowledge is also interpreted as “a dynamic process of justification of beliefs, or of hypotheses on relationship and causality, through experimental verification” (Ferreira, 2002, p.2). Knowledge is a type of strong belief, arising from interpretation of the objective reality, through rigorous brainstorming and by building a logical perception, seemingly based on truth and valid for a certain period. Scientists define knowledge as a valid statement or realization that is developed through a scientific process and consciousness, from observation or scientific interpretation. Knowledge could be tacit or explicit. Tacit knowledge emerges from experiences and is not formalized in a person’s mind, therefore is not transmitted in visible form. On the other hand, explicit knowledge is formalized and recorded in a physical medium (Ferreira, 2002). Information is an important input to knowledge and usually information is a composition of messages seemingly meaningful to the receiver. Ferreira (2002) described information as “a fragment of knowledge and/or an input in its production. Information is composed of messages or disruptions perceived as meaningful by those who receive it”.

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1.4

Conceptual Framework:

Figure 1 below illustrates the interactions among Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior.

Interpretation is Changeable
Fact/ Reality
I N T E R P R E T A T I O N RESULTS

Reality changes based on new facts Knowledge is changeable through a. acculturation b. changing perceptions c. changing interpretation d. changing reality

Perceived Knowledge
B U I L D

Attitudes Behavior Practice
INFLUENCE

Perceived Knowledge

Attitude changes slowly over time by changing reality, interpretation and perceived knowledge

Attitudes

Fact/ Reality

Note:

Denotes non-observable phenomena of KAB Denotes observable phenomena of KAB Denotes the description of the nature of phenomenon

Figure 01: Explanatory Model of Interactions of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior

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In the model, there are four circles. The outer circle describes the objective reality or prevailing fact. The next circle describes perceived knowledge that is a result of the interpretation of the objective reality or fact. The third circle describes the attitudes that develop primarily from perceived knowledge through internalization of the reality, resulting in a set of evaluative concepts. The fourth and innermost circle describes the behavior or practice corresponding with the attitudes built from the perceived knowledge through the interpretation of the fact or objective reality. The inner circle is the only observable part of the model. It is explicit and overt whereas the other circles are not observable because they are implicit and covert in nature. 1.5 Objective of KAB Study

The objective of the study was to: • • • understand the existing knowledge level of the inhabitants of the Southwest Region in Bangladesh about climate change and its impacts, explore the knowledge and pattern of environmental conditions, and identify sources of people’s environmental knowledge. people’s responses towards adverse

This study report describes the methodology used in the study (Chapter Two). In Chapter Three, general background of the people is presented followed by knowledge on climate change effects, people’s sources of climate change knowledge, strength of belief on the knowledge people have regarding the effect of climate change, adaptation strategies of people in facing climate change effects, knowledge about causes of climate change and media behavior of people. Conclusions and recommendations for further research are included in Chapter Four.

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CHAPTER TWO: 2.1 of

METHODOLOGY

Introductory Notes
Figure-2

The study was carried out in six districts southwest Bangladesh: Satkhira, Khulna, Bagerhat, Gopalganj, Narail, and Jessore (Figure 2). A purposively selected number (294) of respondents were approached in the study and interviewed individually (for details see Section 2.3). The study team was comprised of Partner Organizations’2 staff and 3-staff of RVCC. The Project Development Officer (Human Rights) of RVCC Project led the study, and assumed responsibility of data analysis and report writing. Relations The of ManagerCARE External

Bangladesh’s Mission Management was consulted in the process as per need. Data was collected through individual interviews and Focus Group Discussions (FGD). The study started on 20th August 2002 with field testing of the interview schedule. A total of 24 FGDs were conducted. The final draft of the study will be presented at a workshop with project staff, Partner Organizations, and representatives of the study population. Comments will be incorporated into the final report. 2.2 Study Area

The study team collected data from 6 districts, 7 upazilas, and 37 unions of southwest Bangladesh (Table 1) (Figure-2).

The majority of the project’s activities will be implemented by local organizations (NGOs/ CBOs/ Research Organizations). These organizations have signed Memorandums of Understanding with the RVCC Project and subsequently are the partners of the RVCC Project. 15

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2.3

Study Population

The study population was distributed by gender, type and resident district. In this regard, professions like journalism and CBO were treated as exceptions. The study population for the KAB study was as follows3. Students of Secondary School (60) Villagers (120) Community Based Organizations (30) Union Parishads (18) Journalists (18) NGOs (18) Secondary School Teachers (30) Policy Implementers (6) Policy Makers (2) Selection of the respondents The selection of respondents from each category was done randomly. First, considering the time constraint facing the project, it was decided that the KAB survey needed to be completed within 2-3 months. After the determination of total sample size of 302, the total sample was divided into types of study population. Considering the number of project and partner staff available to work on the KAB survey the sample size was decided purposively. Weight was given to the villagers, and then to the students and teachers. This prioritization was based on a popular estimation of the size of universe of the category of respondents. The total number of samples in each category of respondents was again distributed equally over the six districts. The exact sample from each category of respondent from each district was determined using a stratified random sampling method. The process of selecting respondents randomly is as follows. The study team first randomly selected a Upazila4 from one district by putting the names of all Upazilas on separate pieces of paper, placing the papers into a box and through lottery picking one. From the selected Upazila, data collector(s) chose one Union by lottery and interviewed UP members from that chosen Union Parishad available in their office. From the chosen Union, interviewers’ selected one village from the UP members suggested 10 possible villages by lottery and interviewed 20 villagers who meet first randomly. In case of NGOs, the team first made a list of NGOs in the Upazila, and then selected 2 to 3 randomly.

3 4

For details please refer to Table 1 The Upazila(s) were also listed based on the working area of partner organizations. 16

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In the selected NGOs, the staff (respondent) was selected again randomly (by lottery). In case of CBOs, the team rapidly listed a number of CBOs from the Upazila and then randomly selected (by lottery) the respondents from those listed CBOs. In the selection of school teachers and students, study team listed the secondary schools in the Upazila, and then selected two schools from the listed schools by lottery. For students, the team selected one class randomly by lottery, and again selected five students using systematic random sampling method by roll number; and 2-3 teachers were selected randomly by lottery from one school. Journalists were selected randomly from available journalists in the Upazila Press Club when the team went for interview. (Table 1) 2.4 Sources of Data

The data was collected from primary sources. Primary data was collected from the mentioned study population. 2.5 Development of Research Tools

Two research tools were used in the study: questionnaire and FGD guidelines. Development of Questionnaire: In May 2002, the RVCC Project conducted a vulnerability assessment in the southwest region of Bangladesh through 19 FGDs in 13 communities. In that assessment 21 vulnerability contexts are revealed that are related to climate change. A great many adaptation strategies or coping mechanisms were also identified by the participants. The climate change impacts and subsequent adaptation strategies were therefore taken from the interim report of the vulnerability assessment (RVCC, 2002). A draft questionnaire was prepared on the basis of these climate change impacts and adaptation/coping mechanisms. The causes of climate change in the draft questionnaire were selected from among the causes of climate change as identified by the staff of RVCC’s Advocacy Unit. Three sets of questionnaires were prepared for conducting the KAB study: one for villagers, CBO members and UP members; one for students; and one for secondary school teachers, NGO staff and journalists. Questions related to causes of climate change were not asked for the villagers, CBO members and UP members as the field test revealed that this is far beyond their ability to answer. RVCC Project staff field-tested the questionnaire in three locations with all categories of informants. After the field test, the team sat together and prepared a final draft for internal review. CARE Bangladesh’s External Relations Manager and the Project Coordinator of RVCC Project reviewed the final draft. The data collectors further

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tested the final draft questionnaires in the field before finalizing the questionnaires and printing for data collection.

Development of FGD guidelines Similar to the questionnaires three sets of FGD guidelines were prepared. These three draft FGD guidelines were also field tested by RVCC and partner NGO staff and reviewed by PCRVCC and External Relations Manager of CARE Bangladesh before FGD guidelines were finalized. 2.6 Formation of Study Team

In the communication strategy workshop of RVCC Project held in August 2002, it was decided that a KAB study would be conducted to assess the current knowledge level of primary, secondary and tertiary audience of RVCC Project’s awareness and advocacy activities. It was also planned that the study results will be used as a baseline of the activities of the awareness program of RVCC Project. Therefore, data collection was done by three partner organizations: Coastal Development Partnership (CDP), RUPANTAR and UTTARAN. Two staff from each of the three organizations comprised the data collection team, headed by the RVCC Project’s PDO-Human Rights. Data analysis and report writing were the responsibilities of the PDO-Human Rights. The total team was composed of: Team Leader
A.K.M. Mamunur Rashid, Project Development Officer (PDO), RVCC Project, CARE Bangladesh;

Members
Quazi A.Z.M. Kudrat-e-Kabir, Advocacy Coordinator, RVCC Project, CARE Bangladesh Bikash Shingha Sutradhar, Project Development Officer, RVCC Project, CARE Bangladesh Md. Mizanur Rahman, Project Development Officer, RVCC Project, CARE Bangladesh Marina Juthi, Publication In-charge, Coastal Development Partnership (CDP) Shyamole Sutar, Training Centre In-charge, Coastal Development Partnership (CDP) Md. Monirul Mamun, Project Officer (Environment), UTTARAN Md. Moniruzzaman, Project Officer (Monitoring and Evaluation), UTTARAN Chandana Mandol, Pot Educator, RUPANTAR Humayun Kabir Munna, Pot Educator, RUPANTAR

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2.7 2.7.1

Methods of Data Collection from Primary Sources Interview

Interviews were conducted on an individual basis (please see the interview schedule5 in Annex 01). The interview schedule provided a basic guideline for data collection, with scope to accommodate new information not specifically covered by the interview schedule. A total of 294 individual interviews were conducted in the study. Process followed during interview: The interviewer asked questions in an open-ended style ensuring that the interviewee remained focused on the question being asked. In case of questions related to knowledge of climate change, the facilitator started the discussion in an informal and open-ended environment. The facilitator initiated the discussion without citing any examples or references (non-prompted) and recorded the findings by putting tick ( ) marks in the unprompted column. Then the facilitator gave some examples and references of climate change/environmental impacts (prompted) and asked the interviewee whether they were aware of that knowledge (information) recording the outputs by putting tick ( ) marks in the prompted column. The facilitator tried to know everything in detail through asking-why and how. The facilitator tried to get specific examples in favor of their prompted knowledge. When no knowledge was mentioned even after prompting, the facilitator put tick ( ) marks against the relevant knowledge/information in the last (unknown) column [for details refer to Annex-1]. 2.7.2 Focus Group Discussion (FGD)

FGDs were conducted to supplement the individual interviews. A total of 21 FGDs were conducted with different study populations. The FGDs were conducted with villagers (12), UP members (4), and students (5) (Table 2). 2.8 Analysis of Data

After completion of the individual interviews, data were edited and inputted to a SPSS (Windows based SPSS 10.0 version) spreadsheet for analysis. Three separate spreadsheets were made to input the three types of questionnaires. At the end of data entry and recheck, a compiled spreadsheet was made, combining similar questions from the 3 questionnaires for analysis of all 294 questionnaires. Knowledge on climate change effects and related strength of belief, sources of knowledge, knowledge on adaptation, and general
Interview schedule refers to a questionnaire that is applied verbally ex. interviewer verbally asks questions to respondent. 19
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understanding on climate and weather were the questions which were similar for all respondents: these were analyzed by categories and gender of respondents. FGD data were analyzed manually. A supplementary report of this KAB study is produced with title "A Study on Media Use Behavior of People of Southwest Bangladesh" contains analysis of media related questions-answer (data) of the study. 2.9 Workshop and Review of the Study Report

Data were collected in two phases; in the first phase data collectors covered Satkhira, Khulna and Jessore Districts. At the end of the first round of data collection, a review workshop with the full team was held. Taking into consideration the experiences of the first round, the second round of data collection covered Bagerhat, Gopalgang and Narail Districts. The draft report was reviewed by the Project Coordinator-RVCC and brought to the workshop held on 26th April 2003. Comments of the participants in the workshop were incorporated in the report. 2.10 Limitation of the Study

In the study planning we planned to interview 6 Deputy Commissioners (DC) and 2 policy makers but we conducted only 2 DC interviews due to time constraints. This is a limitation of the study.

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CHAPTER THREE

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

The KAB study was carried out to understand the current knowledge level of causes and effects of climate change and adaptation strategies to cope with adverse conditions due to climate change. The study also explored the sources of people’s knowledge and the media use pattern of different primary stakeholders of the RVCC Project. A very brief background of the respondents is pertinent to cite before presenting a detailed discussion about the knowledge level of the study population.

3.1

Background of the Respondents

The study team collected data from 6 districts, 7 upazilas, and 37 unions of southwest Bangladesh (Table 1). Data were also collected from diversified types of people namely secondary school students (60 total, boys 26, girls 34), secondary school teachers (30 total, male 20, female 10), NGO staff (18 total, male 10, female 8), CBO members (30 total, male 28, female 2), UP members (18 total, male 9, female 9), journalists (18 total, male 18, no female), and villagers (120 total, male 55, female 65) (Table 1). In relation to the educational background of the respondents, 23% of females and 31% of males have completed primary school (5 years education), 20% of females and 21% of males cannot write or read, 23% of females and 12% of males can write or read, 21% of females and 24% of males have completed Secondary School Certificate (SSC), 3% of females and 4% of males have completed Higher Secondary school Certificate (HSC), 5% of females and 2% of males did not complete SSC, 3% of females and 1% of males had graduated and 2% of females and 5% of males had a post graduation.

3.2

Knowledge Status on Climate Change Effects

The study revealed that respondents have a very low level of unprompted knowledge about climate change effects. Respondents showed slightly better unprompted knowledge (more than 20% of respondents) about flood, as an effect of climate change (28% female and 25% male), water and vector borne diseases (25% female and 25% male), effects on agricultural productivity (28% female and 20% male), increase of global temperature (21% female and 24% male), and increase of water logging areas (20% female and 20% male) than increase of salinity (1% female and 3% male), increase of sea water level (6% female and 4% male), siltation of river (16% female and 22% male), increase of rainfall in rainy season (16% female and 18% male), inundation of coastal areas in 30-50 years (4% female and 2% male), increase of pests and insects (9% female and 8% male), extinction of Sundarbans (5% female and 3% male), disruption of communication (8% female and 4% male), loss of bio-diversity (7% female and 5% male), increase of river erosion (13% female and 7% male),

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Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Change (RVCC) Project

increase of drought (2% female and 10% male) and increase of cyclone and storm (7% female and 16% male) (Table 3). If we analyse the respondents unprompted knowledge on climate change effects, we find that there are only 5 effects where the difference between male and female responses is greater than 5% (Figure-3). As a whole very little difference was observed between males and females.
Fig.3: Range of Difference between Males and Females Unprompted Knowledge on Effects

More than 5% difference
Effect of climate change
Agricultural productivity will be reduced (8%) Increase of river erosion (6%)

Less than 5% difference
+
F F

No difference (0%-1%)
+
F F F F F F M M M

Effect of climate change
Increase of flood (3%) Inundation of coastal areas in 30-50 years (2%) Disruption of communication (4%) Increase of sea water level (2%) Extinction of SRF (2%) Bio-diversity will be affected (2%) Increase of salinity (2%) Increase of global warming (3%) Increase of rainfall (2%)

Effect of climate change
Increase of pests and insects Increase of water logging Increase of water and vector borne diseases

Rivers are being silted (6%) Increase of drought (8%) Increase of cyclone and storm (9%)

M M M

When category of respondents was considered, it was revealed that villagers have a lower level of unprompted knowledge and UP members have a higher level of unprompted knowledge on climate change effect than other categories of respondents (Figure 4).
Figure 4: Analysis of 20% and above unprompted responses on climate change effects by category of respondents
Effects of Climate Change Increase of Salinity Increase of Global warming Increase of Sea water level Rivers are being silted Increase of Rain fall Inundation of most of the coastal areas in 30 years Water logging is increasing Increase of Pests and insects Increase of water and vector borne diseases Extinction of Sundarbans Disruption of communications Agricultural productivity will be reduced Bio-diversity will be affected by climate change River erosion will increase Increase of Drought Increase of Cyclone and storm Increase of Flood
Villagers UP Members CBO Members Students NGO Staff School Teachers Journalist s

39% 22% 22% 22% 22% 39%

27% 23% 23%

20% 20% 20%

33% 22% 22% 28%

43% 20% 30% 27%

33% 39%

28% 50%

28%

27%

20%

20%

27%

23%

39%

20%

44%

23% 22% 30% 22% 40%

If we analyse the findings of climate change effect, we find that the main climate change fact “sea-level rise” is unknown to the respondents. There is close linkage with sea-level rise, increase of salinity, extinction of Sundarbans and inundation of coastal areas within 30
22

Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Change (RVCC) Project

years. Respondents’ revealed unprompted knowledge about sea-level rise (4%), increase of salinity (25), extinction of Sundarbans (4%) and inundation of coastal areas within 30 years (3%) also showed a linkage among these effects (Chart 1). Water logging and siltation have close linkages. Therefore, it was expected that level of responses for these two effects would be close, and in fact 19% respondents had unprompted knowledge about siltation and 20% had unprompted knowledge about water logging (Chart 1). Change in rainfall pattern and increase of drought are interlinked but study findings showed variance between unprompted knowledge about these two effects (17% respondents had unprompted knowledge about change in rainfall pattern whereas only 7% respondents had unprompted knowledge about increase of drought). It reflects that respondents failed to connect the two things (Chart 1). Increase of flood is closely linked with interruption of communication6. Study findings showed highest (26%) unprompted knowledge about increase of flood but lower (5%) unprompted knowledge about interruption of communication. It reflects that respondents failed to connect the relationship among two things (Chart 1). When gender is considered we find that no significant knowledge differences are found among male and female regarding effects of climate change (Chart 2, 3 and 4).

3.3

Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change Consequences

18 adaptation strategies or coping mechanisms identified in the interim vulnerability assessment report of the RVCC Project (2002) were used to develop the questionnaire on knowledge of adaptation strategies. These findings provide the practice and behavioral responses of respondents to climate change consequences. Adaptation knowledge is used to explore the possible behavior or practice that respondents implement or will implement to cope with the effects of climate change. Adaptation strategies that identified without prompting reveal a very interesting picture of two aspects: how they are currently thinking or adapting with current effects and what will they do (practice) in future effects (based on theoretical hypothesis) of climate change. Without prompting, 48% of the respondents stated that they will migrate, 22% responded that they would have to change their occupation, 18% would increase selling household labor, 15% wanted to be more involved in income generating activities than they were previously, 11%
6

This could also be due to storm/cyclone. 23

Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Change (RVCC) Project

expected relief from government and non-government agencies and 10% were interested to take a loan as an immediate option (Table 7 and Chart 5). After prompting, 79% responded that taking a loan is the immediate option to cope, 77% thought to sell household resources including land, 74% thought to cultivate new variety of paddy, and 66% thought to sell labour. The study revealed that even after prompting, respondents were thinking about immediate solutions to climate change consequences rather than long term adaptation. These responses also indicate that respondents have very limited ability to cope with change. Rather than thinking long-term, people are focused on how to cope on a day-to-day basis. Hydroponics (2% unprompted), cultivating water tolerant rice varieties (1% unprompted), and cultivating saline tolerant rice varieties (1% unprompted) were not as high priorities in the respondents’ adaptation strategy (Table 7 chart 5) as more immediate, short-term strategies. The study revealed that males preferred some adaptation strategies more than females, and also some adaptation strategies were mentioned equally by both sexes. Cage-aquaculture, occupation change, taking a loan, leasing out land and waiting for relief were females’ preferred adaptation strategies. Cultivation of deep-water variety, cultivation of saline water variety, shrimp and fish Firming, selling of labor and depending on forest were preferred by males (Table 7, Figure 5). On the other hand, no significant gender differences were observed for cultivating new variety of paddy, hydroponics, migration, PL or fry collection, selling resources, involvement in income generating activities, collecting rice or paddy as loan and taking it as usual (Table 7 chart 6, 7 and 8 and Figure 5).
Figure 5: Range of Differences between Males and Females Unprompted Knowledge on Adaptation Strategies

More than 5% difference
Adaptation/Coping Strategy
Cultivate new variety of paddy (9%) Sale of resources like cattle and poultry (7%)

Less than 5% difference
+ Adaptation/Coping Strategy
Taking Loan (3%) Leasing out land (2%) Increase of selling labour (3%) Wait for relief (2%) Involve in IGA (2%) Increase uses of natural forest/honey collection (2%) Cultivate deep water and saline tolerant varieties (2%) Take it as usual (4%) Prawn, Shrimp and Fish Farming (4%) Cage-Aquaculture (3%)

No difference (0%-1%)
+ Adaptation/Coping Strategy
Hydroponics Migration PL or fry collection

F F

F F F F F F M M M M

Change of occupation (5%) Collect rice or paddy as loan (5%)

M M

Positive Adaptation/Coping Mechanism

Seemingly Neutral

Negative/Short-time Adaptation or Coping Mechanism

When category of respondents was considered, villagers, UP members and students showed weaker knowledge on adaptation strategies (greater than 20% of respondents) than CBO members, NGO staff, school teachers and journalists. The highest numbers of

24

Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Change (RVCC) Project

responses on adaptation/coping strategies among all categories of respondents were negative or short-term coping strategy (Fig.6). Villagers identified migration (48% of respondents) and change of occupation (23%) as coping strategy. UP members identified migration (67%) and waiting for relief (22%) as coping strategy. Students identified migration (43%) and increase of selling labour (20%) as coping strategy. CBO members identified one short-term strategy (migration, 43%), one neutral (change of occupation, 23%) and one positive strategy (involve in IGA, 27%) as adaptation to climate change effects. NGO staff identified two negative strategy (migration, 44% and increase of selling labour, 28%), one neutral strategy (change of occupation, 39%) and one positive strategy (involve in IGA, 22%). School teachers identified two negative strategy (migration, 47% and increase of selling labour, 23%) and one neutral strategy (change of occupation 27%). Journalists identified one negative strategy (migration, 56%) and one neutral strategy (change of occupation, 22%) (Figure 6).
Figure 6: Analysis of 20% and above unprompted responses on adaptation/coping mechanism to climate change effects by category of respondents
Villagers UP Members CBO Members Students NGO Staff School Teachers Journalist s

Effects of Climate Change
Hydroponics Cultivate deep water and saline tolerant variety Cage aqua-culture Migration Prawn, shrimp, fish farming Change of occupation Taking loan Lease out land PL or fry collection Sell resources like cattle or poultry Increase of selling labour Wait for relief Involve in IGAs Increase uses of natural forest/honey collection Take it as usual Collect rice or paddy as loan Positive Adaptation/Coping Mechanism

48% 23%

67%

43% 23%

43%

44% 39%

47% 27%

56% 22%

20% 22% 27%

28% 22%

23%

Seemingly Neutral

Negative/Short-time Adaptation or Coping Mechanism

3.4

Knowledge about Causes of Climate Change

People’s understanding about causes of climate change was explored from the perspective of students, school teachers, NGO staff and journalists. The total respondents were 126. If the response pattern of respondents about causes of climate change was analyzed, it was noted that respondents’ knowledge is heavily influenced by the general awareness about deforestation. Respondents identified this cause much more than other causes (24% more than next closest cause). Deforestation (69%), emission of gasses (45%), use of pesticides

25

Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Change (RVCC) Project

(31%) and loss of bio-diversity (13%) are generally observed by the people, and therefore, the knowledge level about these causes became higher than unseen causes like excessive profit oriented economic system (2%), harmful industries in developed countries, (5%) atomic and nuclear power testing (9%) and overuse of radio active matter (10%). When gender differences of unprompted knowledge on climate change causes were considered, results reflected as follows.
Figure 7: Range of Difference between Males and Females Unprompted Knowledge on Causes

More than 10% difference
Causes of Climate Change Use of pesticides in agricultural sector (14%) Emission of different types of gases from industries (14%) +

Less than 10% difference
Causes of Climate Change Huge use of fossil fuel (9%) Loss of bio-diversity (9%) +

No difference (0%-2%) F F M M
Causes of Climate Change Deforestation Overuse of radioactive matter Harmful industries in the developed countries

F M

Atomic and nuclear power testing and its use (5%) Over consumption and excessive profitoriented economic system (4%)

When analysis of 25% and above unprompted responses on climate change causes by category of respondents is done the results reflected that respondents are less aware about causes pf climate change in international spectrum. The analysis is showed in the Figure 8.
Figure 8: Analysis of 25% and above unprompted responses on causes of climate change by category of respondents
School Teachers NGO Staff Student Journalists

Effects of Climate Change
Emission of different types of gases from industries Use of pesticides in agricultural sector Deforestation Atomic and nuclear power testing and its use Overuse of radioactive matter Huge use of fossil fuel Harmful industries in the developed countries Over consumption and excessive profitoriented economic system Loss of bio-diversity

60% 33% 70%

61% 72% 28%

37% 33% 68%

33% 28% 67%

26

Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Change (RVCC) Project

CONCLUSIONS The study results clearly reflect that respondents unprompted knowledge level about causes of climate change, effects of climate change and adaptation to climate change effects is very low overall. After prompting, respondents responded well in most cases but it could not counted as valid knowledge regarding the issue. Sometime, without understanding, respondents responded positively. The study provides baseline data about respondents knowledge level regarding climate change causes and effects of climate change. It is expected that at the end of the project, post-intervention data will indicate increased awareness of the causes, effects and adaptation of climate change in comparison to the baseline data: unknown percentages will be abolished, prompted percentages will be reduced and unprompted percentages will increase significantly. If percentages of unprompted and prompted responses increases and unknown percentages are abolished or significantly reduced then the awareness activities of the project will have been successful. The results of this study indicate that awareness activities of the project need to focus on: sea level rise, increase of salinity, possibility of extinction of Sundarban and possibility of inundation of coastal areas within 30-50 years, because of the extremely low level of knowledge of these effects. The project should emphasis on villagers and students among the categories of people in conducting awareness campaign. In gender perspective, women villagers (generally all females) should be considered essentially focused beneficiary of awareness campaign. At the same time, the project needs to focus on long-term adaptation strategies such as hydroponics, cultivation of new rice varieties, and involvement in IGAs in our awareness campaign. Regarding causes of climate change, awareness raising activities should focus on industrialization, radio-active matter, over-consumption and use of fossil fuel, causes that are currently poorly known.

27

Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Change (RVCC) Project
Table 1: Distribution of Interviews by Study Area, Study Population and Gender

District

Upazila

Union Islamkathi Jatpur Khalilnagar Magur Ghona Tala Tetulia Haridhali Kapilmuni Raruli Bahirdia Mansha Fakirhat Faltita Mansha Moubhog Naldah Sonakhali Jalirpar Kasalia Moksudpur Nanirkher Ragdhi Satpar Chanrimapur Habkhali Kurigram Madhobpolli Maizpara Pourashava Narail Mashimnagar Mongol Kote Haridaskatti Keshobpur Nuton Mulgram Pajia Sufalakathi Trimohini

Villagers F M

Students M F 1

CBO Members M F

Category of Respondents UP Members School Teachers M F M F 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1

NGO Staff M F

Journalists M F 1

Satkhira

Tala

6 6 4 3 4 1 1

14 10 7 3

1 2 5 3

Khulna

Paikgacha

1 1 4 2 3

2 3 1 2 2 2

2 1 1 1 1 1

1 2 1

1 2 1 1

1 1 1

2 3

1

3

Bagerhat

Fakirhat

2 1 5 1 2 1 8 2 1 9 3 4 4 3 2 3

3 2

1

1

2

1

Gopalganj

Moksudpur

4 7 3 2 1 3 2 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 29 1 9 9 20 10 1 1 10 1 8 18 0 2 4 1 4 26 6 34 28 1 1 2 2 1 1

Sadar

Narail

Narail Sadar

Monirampur

Jessore

Keshobpur

Total

5 5 55

3 7 65

Total M 1 2 1 1 11 8 14 11 2 11 10 1 2 1 3 1 8 1 0 6 1 9 0 15 1 1 11 1 3 1 1 0 3 0 5 8 10 168

F 0 0 0 1 17 7 16 6 0 9 1 0 3 3 3 0 7 0 4 4 0 9 1 12 0 0 3 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 2 3 13 126

Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Change (RVCC) Project
Table 2: Distribution of FGDs by District and Study Population.

Category of Study Population Villagers UP Members School Students CBO Total

Satkhira 2 1 1 1 5

Khulna 2 1 1 4

Bagerhat 2 1 1 4

Gopalgang 2 1 3

Narail 2 1 3

Jessore 2 1 1 4

Total 12 5 5 1 23

Table 3: Knowledge Status of Respondents on Climate Change Effects by Gender Knowledge on Effect of Climate Change n Increase of Salinity Increase of Global warming Increase of Sea water level Rivers are being silted Increase of Rain fall Inundation of most of the coastal areas in 30 years Water logging is increasing Increase of Pests and insects Increase of water and vector borne diseases Extinction of Sundarbans Disruption of communications Agricultural productivity will reduce Biodiversity will be affected by climate change River erosion will increase Increase of Drought Increase of Cyclone and storm Increase of Flood 1 27 7 20 21 5 26 12 32 6 10 36 9 17 3 9 35 1 21 6 16 16 4 20 9 25 5 8 28 7 13 2 7 28 Unprompted Female % 5 40 6 36 30 3 34 13 42 5 6 33 9 11 17 26 41 n 3 24 4 22 18 2 20 8 25 3 4 20 5 7 10 16 25 Male % 6 67 13 56 51 8 60 25 74 11 16 69 18 28 20 35 76 n 2 23 4 19 17 3 20 9 25 4 5 24 6 10 7 11 26 Total % 62 80 67 89 77 50 62 95 69 62 82 73 88 70 108 74 61 n 49 63 53 70 61 39 49 75 54 49 65 58 69 55 85 58 48 Female % n 116 112 104 110 98 105 70 119 91 99 103 105 106 106 130 107 83 Prompted Male % 70 67 62 66 59 62 42 71 54 59 62 63 64 64 78 64 48 n 178 192 171 199 175 155 132 214 160 161 185 178 194 176 238 181 144 Total % 60 65 58 68 60 53 45 73 54 55 63 60 66 60 81 62 49 64 20 53 18 29 72 39 20 26 59 35 18 30 40 16 44 31 n 50 16 42 14 23 57 31 16 20 46 28 14 24 32 13 35 24 Female % 46 15 57 21 39 59 63 35 34 63 58 29 52 50 20 34 43 n 28 9 34 13 23 23 38 21 20 38 35 17 31 30 12 20 26 Unknown Male % n 110 35 110 39 68 131 102 55 60 122 93 47 82 90 36 78 74 Total % 37 12 37 13 23 45 35 19 20 42 31 16 28 31 12 26 25

30

Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Change (RVCC) Project
Table 4: Knowledge Status of Respondents on Climate Change Effects by Category
Villagers Unprompted Unprompted Prompted Unknown UP Members Unprompted Prompted Unknown CBO Members Prompted Unknown Category of Respondents Students Unprompted Unprompted Prompted Unknown NGO Staff Unprompted Prompted Unknown School Teachers Unprompted Prompted Unknown Journalists Prompted Unknown % 78 61 83 50 56 67 44 67 39 67 72 56 n 3 1 2 2 5 5 5 4 2 4 5 % 17 6 11 11 28 28 28 22 11 22 28 67 61 89 78 78 2 2 11 11 3 6 17 33

Effects of Climate Change

Increase of Salinity Increase of Global warming Increase of Sea water level Rivers are being silted Increase of Rain fall Inundation of most of the coastal areas in 30 years Water logging is increasing Increase of Pests and insects Increase of water and vector borne diseases Extinction of Sundarbans Disruption of communications Agricultural productivity will reduce Biodiversity will be affected by climate change River erosion will increase Increase of Drought Increase of Cyclone and storm Increase of Flood

n 1 15 1 16 12

% 1 12 1 13 10

n 64 85 58 87 74 56

% 53 71 48 72 62 47 39 81 58 41 63 62

n 55 20 61 17 34 64 51 15 17 69 39 21

% 46 17 51 14 28 53 42 12 14 58 32 18

n 7 1 4 4 1 4 4 7

% 39 6 22 22 6 22 22 39

n 12 11 10 13 12 9 7 9 4 7

% 67 61 56 72 67 50 39 50 22 39 61 61

n 6

% 33

n 8

% 27 3 23 23

n 19 20 20 22 19 18

% 63 67 67 73 63 60 53 67 53 73 50 97

n 11 2 9 1 4 12 9 8 6 8 10 2

% 37 7 30 3 13 40 30 27 20 27 33 7

n 2 12 5 12 12

% 3 20 8 20 20

n 36 37 34 35 37 26

% 60 62 57 58 62 43 52 68 53 55 62 53

n 37 11 21 13 11 34 18 13 16 24 21 14

% 22 18 35 22 18 57 30 22 27 40 35 23

n 6

% 33

n 12 11 13

% 67 61 72 67 56 72 50 67 67 83 67 56

n 3 1 5 2 4 4 4 5 4 1 5 1

% 33 6 28 11 22 22 22 28 22 6 28 6

n 2 13 4 6 9 5 8 2 3 2 3 6

% 7 43 13 20 30 17 27 7 10 7 10 20

n 21 17 21 21 13 21 17 23 19 23 21 20

% 70 57 70 70 43 70 47 77 63 77 70 67

n 7

% 23

n 1 6

% 6 33 6 39 17 6 28 11 50 11

n 14 11 15 9 10 12 8 12 7 12 13

7 1 2 8 7 5 7 11 6 5

39 6 11 44 39 28 39 61 33 28

1 7 7

5 3 8 4 8 5 8 5 6 4

17 10 27 13 27 17 27 17 20 13

1 7 3 1 5 2 9 2

4 4 1 5 1 2 2 1 7

22 22 6 28 6 11 11 6 39

12 10 13 9 12 12 15 12 10

22 8 33 2 4 24

18 7 28 2 3 20

47 97 70 49 76 75

5 2 8

17 7 27

16 20 16 22

11 6 12 3 2 14

18 10 20 5 3 23

31 41 32 33 37 32

1 2

6 11

11 11

5 8

17 27

15 20

8

44

10

5 10 6 11 31

4 8 5 9 26

83 73 97 68 50

69 61 81 57 42

32 37 17 41 39

27 31 14 34 32

1 1 2 2 4

6 6 11 11 22

8 11 13 12 9

44 61 72 67 50

9 6 3 4 5

50 33 17 22 28

3 1 4 7 5

10 3 13 23 17

19 19 25 18 18

63 63 83 60 60

8 10 1 5 7

27 33 3 17 23

2 8 1 6 18

3 13 2 10 30

36 33 45 38 28

60 55 75 63 47

22 19 14 16 14

37 37 23 27 23

2 2 2 2 4

11 11 11 11 22

12 13 15 12 12

67 72 83 67 67

4 3 1 4 2

22 17 6 22 11

2 5 3 5 12

7 17 10 17 40

24 16 27 19 13

88 53 90 63 43

4 9

13 30

3 1 2

17 6 11 11 11

12 11 16 14 14

5 5

20 17

2 2

31

Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Change (RVCC) Project
Table 5: Knowledge Sources of Respondents’ Unprompted and Prompted Knowledge by Gender

Source of Knowledge Own observation/experience Radio TV Newspaper Book/Magazine Teacher Relatives Friend Other educated person NGO Elderly people Expert People Others Not mentioned

Female n 1146 45 53 42 54 50 25 5 26 28 12 1 6 63 % 74 3 3 3 4 3 2 0 2 2 1 0 0 4 n 1585 40 52 127 170 10 2 5 28 13 16 11 1 81

Male % 74 2 2 6 8 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 4 n 2707 85 104 169 224 60 27 10 54 41 28 12 7 144

Total % 74 2 3 5 6 2 1 0 2 1 1 0 0 4

Table 6: Strength of Belief of Respondents on Unprompted and Prompted Knowledge by Gender Strong Effect of Climate Change n Increase of Salinity Increase of Global warming Increase of Sea water level Rivers are being silted Increase of Rain fall Inundation of most of the coastal areas in 30 years Water logging is increasing Increase of Pests and insects Increase of water and vector borne diseases Extinction of Sundarbans Disruption of communications Agricultural productivity will reduce Biodiversity will be affected by climate change River erosion will increase Increase of Drought Increase of Cyclone and storm Increase of Flood 50 92 41 98 79 32 72 86 81 40 73 96 86 68 86 53 71 79 86 55 90 81 58 82 80 80 60 78 88 89 78 78 64 74 Female % n 99 118 71 134 103 54 86 105 100 66 89 117 97 92 122 105 108 82 78 64 92 80 50 83 80 80 64 82 85 84 79 83 79 87 Male % n 149 210 112 232 182 86 158 191 187 106 162 213 183 160 208 158 179 Total % 81 81 61 91 80 53 82 80 80 62 81 86 86 78 81 73 81 12 11 31 5 13 17 11 13 13 21 13 9 7 13 19 21 16 n 19 10 42 5 13 31 12 12 13 31 14 8 7 15 17 25 17 Female % 21 27 34 9 17 42 15 21 18 24 13 14 14 15 15 20 11 n 17 18 31 6 13 39 14 16 14 23 12 10 12 13 10 15 9 Medium Male % 33 38 65 14 30 59 26 34 31 45 26 23 21 28 34 41 27 n 18 15 35 6 13 36 14 14 13 26 13 9 10 14 13 19 12 Total % 1 4 2 6 6 6 5 8 7 6 7 4 4 6 6 9 9 n 2 4 3 6 6 11 6 7 7 9 8 4 4 7 5 11 9 Female % 1 7 5 3 8 12 3 6 9 14 6 7 4 10 10 8 5 n 1 5 4 2 6 11 3 4 7 14 6 5 4 8 7 6 4 Weak Male % 2 11 7 9 14 18 8 14 16 20 13 11 8 16 14 17 14 n 1 4 4 3 6 11 4 6 7 12 6 4 4 8 5 8 6 Total %

32

Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Change (RVCC) Project
Table 7: Knowledge Status of Respondents on Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change Effects by Gender Adaptation Strategy/ Coping Mechanism to Climate Change Effects Hydroponics Cultivate deep water variety Cultivate saline tolerant variety Cage aqua-culture migration Prawn, shrimp, fish farming Change of occupation Take loan Cultivate new variety of paddy Lease out land PL or fry collection Sell resources like cattle or poultry Sell labor Wait for relief Involve in IGAs Fell forest/ Honey collection Take it as usual

Unprompted
Female n 3 2 0 0 1 61 5 24 15 2 8 2 15 26 15 21 9 6 3 1 48 4 19 12 11 6 2 12 20 12 16 7 5 2 % 4 4 4 6 79 13 40 15 3 6 2 9 28 17 23 8 15 11 n 2 2 2 4 47 8 24 9 2 4 1 5 17 10 14 5 9 7 Male % 7 4 4 7 140 18 64 30 5 14 4 24 54 32 44 17 21 14 n 2 1 1 2 48 6 22 10 2 5 1 8 18 11 15 6 7 5 Total % 61 76 44 75 49 78 88 104 88 89 56 92 78 84 80 42 68 77 n 48 60 35 59 39 61 69 82 69 70 44 72 61 66 63 33 54 61 Female % 89 113 84 88 66 110 106 127 128 105 80 134 117 106 111 69 87 99

Prompted
Male n 53 68 50 53 40 66 64 76 77 63 48 80 70 64 66 41 52 59 % 150 189 128 163 115 188 194 231 216 164 136 226 195 190 191 111 155 176 n 51 64 44 55 39 64 66 79 74 66 46 77 66 65 65 38 53 60 Total % 63 51 83 51 17 44 15 8 37 30 69 20 23 28 26 76 53 47 n 50 40 65 40 13 35 12 6 29 24 54 16 18 22 20 60 42 37 Female % 74 50 79 73 22 44 21 25 36 56 85 24 22 44 33 90 65 57

Unknown
Male n 44 30 47 44 13 26 13 15 22 34 51 14 13 26 20 54 39 34 % 137 101 162 124 39 88 36 33 73 86 154 44 45 72 59 166 118 104 n 47 34 55 42 13 30 12 11 25 29 52 15 15 24 29 56 40 35 Total %

Collect rice or paddy as loan

33

Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Change (RVCC) Project
Table 8: Knowledge Status of Respondents on Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change Effects by Category
Villagers Unprompted Unprompted Prompted Unknown UP Members Unprompted Prompted Unknown CBO Members Prompted Unknown Category of Respondents Students Unprompted Unprompted Prompted Unknown NGO Staff s Unprompted Prompted Unknown School Teacher Unprompted Prompted Unknown Journalists Prompted Unknown % 56 67 56 61 39 61 67 78 83 67 50 78 89 78 67 56 50 61 n 8 5 7 7 1 4 2 1 2 5 9 3 1 3 3 8 6 5 % 44 28 39 39 6 22 11 6 11 28 50 17 6 17 17 44 33 28

Adaptation Strategy / Coping Mechanism to Climate Change Effects
n 3 1 1 3 57 3 28 13 2 7 1 12 22 11 19 2 11 9

Hydroponics Cultivate deep water variety Cultivate saline tolerant variety Cage aqua-culture migration Prawn, shrimp, fish farming Change of occupation Take loan Cultivate new variety of paddy Lease out land PL or fry collection Sell resources like cattle or poultry Sell labor Wait for relief Involve in IGAs Fell forest/ Honey collection Take it as usual

% 2 1 1 2 48 2 23 11 2 6 1 10 18 9 16 2 9 8

n 54 70 42 57 50 70 76 95 86 85 51 94 80 83 78 45 76 79

% 45 58 35 45 42 58 63 79 72 71 42 78 67 69 65 38 63 66

n 53 49 77 63 13 47 16 12 32 28 68 14 18 26 23 73 33 32

% 52 41 64 52 11 39 23 10 27 23 57 12 15 22 19 61 28 27

n

%

n 8 12 9

% 44 67 50 83 22 83 83 83 78 56 33 83 72 67 50 39 61 56

n 10 6 9 3 2 3 1 4 6 11 3 3 2 6 9 7 7

% 56 33 50 17 11 17 6 22 33 61 17 17 11 33 50 39 39

n 1

% 3

n 20 22 16

% 67 73 53 53 30 73 70 73 90 70 40 87 77 57 67 40 33 67

n 9 8 14 14 8 7 2 5 3 9 18 2 2 10 2 16 17 10

% 30 27 47 47 27 23 7 17 10 30 60 7 7 33 7 53 57 33

n 3 1

% 5 2

n 30 37 26

% 50 62 43 67 38 70 68 78 57 58 53 57 52 58 60 33 47 43

n 27 22 34 19 11 13 12 10 26 23 27 19 17 18 20 34 32 33

% 45 37 57 32 18 22 20 17 43 38 45 32 28 30 33 57 53 55

n

%

n 12 16 9

% 67 89 50 56 50 39 61 72 78 67 44 89 67 67 7 22 50 72

n 6 2 9 6 1 8 2 3 6 10 1 1 4 2 13 7 5

% 33 11 50 33 6 44 11 17 33 56 6 6 22 11 72 39 28

n 1 2 1 14 3 8 3 1 2 1 1 7 4 3 4 2 1

% 3 7 3 47 10 27 10 3 7 3 3 23 13 10 13 7 3

n 16 20 16 17 13 21 18 25 26 19 18 27 20 17 24 13 12 17

% 53 67 53 57 43 70 60 83 87 63 60 90 67 57 80 43 40 57

n 14 9 12 12 3 6 4 2 3 9 11 2 3 9 3 13 16 12

% 47 30 40 40 10 20 13 7 10 30 37 7 10 30 10 43 53 40

n 1 1 10 3 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 3

% 6 6 56 17 22 17 6 6 6 6 6 17

n 10 12 10 11 7 11 12 14 15 12 9 14 16 14 12 10

12

67

15 4 15

13 1 7 3

43 3 23 10

16 9 22 21 22 27 21 12

1 26 5 7 3

2 43 8 12 5

40 23 42 41 47 34

2 8 3 7 3 1

11 44 17 39 17 6

10 9 7 11 13 14 12 8

3 2

17 11

15 15 14

2 1

11 6

10 6 15

2 1 7 12 7 4 6

3 2 12 20 12 7 10

35 32 34 31 35 36 20 28

2 5 3 8 2 3

7 17 10 27 7 10

26 23 17 20 12 10 20

1 5 2 4 1 2

6 28 11 22 6 11

16 12 12 12 4 9 13

2 4 3 2

11 22 17 11

13 12 9 7 11

3 2

17 11

9 11

Collect rice or paddy as loan

1

6

10

1

2

26

34

Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Change (RVCC) Project
Table 9: Knowledge Status of Respondents on Causes of Climate Change by Gender

Unprompted
Causes of Climate Change n Emission of different types of gases from industries Use of pesticides in agricultural sector Deforestation Atomic and nuclear power testing and its use Overuse of radioactive matter Huge use of fossil fuel Harmful industries in the developed nries Over consumption and excessive profitoriented economic system Loss of bio-diversity 19 20 35 3 5 10 3 9 37 39 69 6 10 20 6 18 Female % 38 19 52 8 7 8 3 3 7 n 51 25 69 11 9 11 4 4 9 Male % 57 39 87 11 12 18 6 3 16 n 45 31 69 9 10 14 5 2 13 Total % 28 28 13 29 32 26 34 30 26 n 55 55 26 57 63 51 67 59 51 Female % 32 48 20 59 57 54 50 40 47

Prompted
Male n 43 64 27 79 76 72 67 53 63 % 60 76 33 88 89 80 84 70 73 n 48 60 26 70 71 64 67 56 58 Total % 4 3 3 19 14 15 14 21 16 n 8 6 6 37 28 29 28 41 31 Female % 5 8 3 8 11 13 22 32 21

Unknown
Male n 7 11 4 11 15 17 29 43 28 % 9 11 6 27 25 28 36 53 37 n 7 9 5 21 20 22 29 42 29 Total %

Table 10:

Knowledge Status of Respondents on Causes of Climate Change by Category
School Teacher Journalist NGO Student

Causes of Climate Change

Unprompted
n % 60 33 70 20 17 20 10 3 17

Prompted
n 12 18 9 22 25 23 24 20 19 % 40 60 30 73 83 77 80 67 63

Unknown
n %

Unprompted
n 6 % 33 28 67 11 11 11 11 n

Prompted
% 61 72 33 83 83 78 78 72 78 1 1 2 4 3 4 n 1

Unknown
% 6

Unprompted
n 11 4 13 % 61 22 72 11 11 28 11 n 7

Prompted
% 39 78 28 79 78 50 83 72 61 2 2 4 1 5 4 n

Unknown
%

Unprompted
n 22 20 41 % 37 33 68 2 5 8 2 n

Prompted
% 50 52 22 62 58 57 52 40 48 n 8 9 6

Unknown
% 13 15 10 37 37 35 47 60 38

Emission of different types of gases from industries Use of pesticides in agricultural sector Deforestation Atomic and nuclear power testing and its use Overuse of radioactive matter Huge use of fossil fuel Harmful industries in the developed nries Over consumption and excessive profitoriented economic system Loss of bio-diversity

18 10 21 6 5 6 3 1 5

11 13 6 15 15 14 14 13 14

30 31 13 37 35 34 31 24

2 2 1 3 9 6

7 7 3 10 30 20

5 12 2 2 2 2

14 5 14 14 9 15 13

6 6 11 22 17 22

2 2 5 2

11 11 22 6 28 22

1 3 5 1

22 22 21 28 36 23

3

17

11

8

13

29

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Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Change (RVCC) Project

REFERENCES Ferreira, Sebastião Mendonça (2002). Sharing Knowledge to Overcome Poverty. CARE in the Latin America and Caribbean Region, Lima. RVCC Project (2003). Report of A Community Level Vulnerability Assessment Conducted in Southwest Bangladesh. CARE Bangladesh, Khulna. RVCC Project (2002). Interim Report of A Community Level Vulnerability Assessment Conducted in Southwest Bangladesh. CARE Bangladesh, Khulna. RVCC Project (2002). Project Implementation Plan. CARE Bangladesh, Khulna.

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Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Change (RVCC) Project

ANNEXURES Annex-1: Interview Schedule Annex-2: FGD Guidelines

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Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Change (RVCC) Project

Annex 01: Interview Schedule Survey on Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior
For Villagers/UP members/CBO members
Interview Started at (Time)---------------------------------Interview completed at (Time)------------------------------Total duration of interview (in minutes)-------------------Date and day: --------------------------------------------------Place of interview: --------------------------------------------Name of the interviewer: ------------------------------Interviewer’s signature and date: -----------------------------Name of the supervisor: ---------------------------------Supervisor’s signature and date: ----------------------------------

Edited Code No. (To be filled up after editing by office) Date of Edit Edited By: Signature:

a
Sample No.
Category of informants code in box a A = Villagers B = UP C = CBO

b
Category of informants code in box b 1 = Satkhira 2 = Khulna 3 = Bagerhat 4 = Gopalganj 5 = Narail 6 = Jessore

c
Sex code in box c 1= Female 2= Male

d
Sl no of informants in box d if 1 then write 001 if 10 write 010

Description of informant Name.................................................................. Age................. Occupation..............................Educational Qualification.................. Marital Status...................

Village: ....................................Union:................................Thana:.................................
Socio-economic status of the household

a. amount of cultivable land......................................... b. amount of fallow land/water body...................... Why it is remaining unused? ........................................ c. amount of land occupied for housing.......................................

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Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Change (RVCC) Project

Media and communication
How far do you visit commonly (range of mobility)? Market Haat Mosque Public meeting Group meeting Relatives house Hospital Drama/Jatra/Pala song Football match Marriage ceremony Tea Stall Local shop Watching TV in neighbour’s house

Media use pattern
What do you do during your leisure time?

Listening radio
Which time of the day ? Which programs ? Which day(s) of the week ?

Watching TV

Newspaper
Which time of the day ? Which part/news? Which day(s) of the week ?

Magazine

Kabi gan, Pala gan, Jatra
In which season? Where it is organized usually ? pot song Which time of the day? In which season? Usually where organised? What do you like to do the most in your leisure time? What is your most common pastime? drama

Drama

playing cards

chatting

other

What types of leisure/communication materials do you have in your home?

Radio

Television

Newspaper

Other ----------------------------(please specify)

From where do you receive information on weather?

Radio Television Tea stall Local educated persons Others ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(please specify)
Do you understand information given on weather (explanation of different weather alarm signals)?

Yes

No

What do you understand by weather/climate?

.................................................................................................................................. ..................................................................................................................................

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Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Change (RVCC) Project

A.

Knowledge on Effect and Related Attitudes

[Facilitator will start discussion with informal and open-ended environment. Facilitator will initiate the discussion without citing any examples or references (non-prompted) and will record the findings by putting tick ( ) marks in the unprompted column. Then the facilitator will give some examples and references of climate change/environmental impacts (prompted) and records the outputs by putting tick ( ) marks in the prompted column. Facilitator will try to know every thing in detail through asking-why and how. The facilitator will try to get specific examples. The expected knowledge which are not mentioned even now (if there is any), the facilitator will put tick ( ) marks against those in the last (Unknown) column.] Reason Climate Change Effects Unprompted Prompted Unknown Source of Strength of knowledge belief (Code) S M W Sea water flows further to the north, so that new areas flat plains are being affected by saline water Global warming is increasing Sea water level is increasing Rivers are being silted Rain fall is increasing in the rainy season and Water logging is increasing Pests and insects are increasing Water and vector borne diseases are increasing The Sundarbans might become extinct due to climate change Human mobility and communications might be disrupted Agricultural productivity will reduce Biodiversity will be affected by climate change River erosion will increase Drought will increase and serious scarcity of irrigation water will be found during dry season Cyclones and storms will increase Floods will increase Other ........................................................................................................ Other ........................................................................................................ Other ........................................................................................................ Other ........................................................................................................ Code for strength of belief Code for source of knowledge S= Strong Belief; M= Medium belief; W= Weak Belief 1= Own observation/experience; 2= Radio; 3= TV; 4= Newspaper; 5= Books/Papers; 6= Teachers; 7= Relatives; 8= Friends; 9= Other educated person; 10= NGOs; 11= Knowledgeable elderly; 12= Experts; 13= Other______________________ (please specify) decreasing in the winter Most of the coastal areas will be inundated within 30 years

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Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Change (RVCC) Project

B. Knowledge on Adaptation
[Facilitator will informally discuss with the participants and try to extract the informant’s unprompted knowledge on adaptation and will list them by tick ( ) marks in the unprompted column. Then the facilitator will give some examples and references and will mark ( ) in the next column of the prompted knowledge. The expected knowledge on adaptation which are not mentioned after prompting, the facilitator will put ( ) marks against those in the last column.] Adaptation Strategy/ Coping Mechanism Hydroponics Cultivate tall water tolerant variety Cultivate saline tolerant variety Cage aqua-culture Migration Prawn, shrimp, fish farming Change of occupation Take loan Cultivate new variety of paddy Lease out land PL or fry collection Sell resources like cattle or poultry Sell labor Wait for relief Involve in IGAs Fell forest/ Honey collection Take it as usual Collect rice or paddy as loan
Unprompted Prompted Unknown

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

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Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Change (RVCC) Project

Survey on Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior
For School Teachers/Journalists/NGO Staff
Interview Started at (Time)---------------------------------Interview completed at (Time)------------------------------Total duration of interview (in minutes)-------------------Date and day: --------------------------------------------------Place of interview: --------------------------------------------Name of the interviewer: ------------------------------Interviewer’s signature and date: -----------------------------Name of the supervisor: ---------------------------------Supervisor’s signature and date: ----------------------------------

Edited Code No. (To be filled up after editing by office) Date of Edit Edited By: Signature:

a
Sample No. Category of informants code in box a A = School Teacher B = Journalist C = NGO Staff

b
Category of informants code in box b 1 = Satkhira 2 = Khulna 3 = Bagerhat 4 = Gopalganj 5 = Narail 6 = Jessore

c
Sex code in box c 1= Female 2= Male

d
Sl no of informants in box d if 1 then write 001 if 10 write 010

Description of informant
Name..............................................................Age................ Educational Qualification.................. Designation.................................................... Organization .........................................................

Village: ....................................Union:................................Thana:................................. Have you ever thought of climate change issues due to your profession? Yes No if yes, please tell us why?

.......................................................................................................................................... Media and communication
From which media do you receive most of the information?

Radio Television Topic oriented booklet Radio Television Topic oriented booklet Radio Television Topic oriented booklet

Newspaper Tea stall Newspaper Tea stall Newspaper Tea stall

Periodicals/Magazine Books Others ---------------------------(please specify) Periodicals/Magazine Books Others ---------------------------(please specify) Periodicals/Magazine Books Others ---------------------------(please specify) Health Program

Which media is most suitable for you to pass your leisure time?

Which media is very much accessible to you?

Which TV/Radio program do you like most?

Song Drama Cinema Agricultural program Others ----------------------------------------------(please specify)
From where do you receive information on weather?

Radio Television Tea stall Local educated persons Others ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(please specify)
Do you understand information given on weather (explanation of different weather alarm signals)?

Yes

No

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Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Change (RVCC) Project
What do you understand by weather/climate?

.................................................................................................................................. ..................................................................................................................................

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Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Change (RVCC) Project

A.

Knowledge on Effect and Related Attitudes

[Facilitator will start discussion with informal and open-ended environment. Facilitator will initiate the discussion without citing any examples or references (non-prompted) and will record the findings by putting tick ( ) marks in the unprompted column. Then the facilitator will give some examples and references of climate change/environmental impacts (prompted) and records the outputs by putting tick ( ) marks in the prompted column. Facilitator will try to know every thing in detail through asking-why and how. The facilitator will try to get specific examples. The expected knowledge which are not mentioned even now (if there is any), the facilitator will put tick ( ) marks against those in the last (Unknown) column.] Reason Climate Change Effects Unprompted Prompted Unknown Source of Strength of knowledge belief (Code) S M W Sea water flows further to the north, so that new areas flat plains are being affected by saline water Global warming is increasing Sea water level is increasing Rivers are being silted Rain fall is increasing in the rainy season and Water logging is increasing Pests and insects are increasing Water and vector borne diseases are increasing The Sundarbans might become extinct due to climate change Human mobility and communications might be disrupted Agricultural productivity will reduce Biodiversity will be affected by climate change River erosion will increase Drought will increase and serious scarcity of irrigation water will be found during dry season Cyclones and storms will increase Floods will increase Other ........................................................................................................ Other ........................................................................................................ Other ........................................................................................................ Other ........................................................................................................ Code for strength of belief Code for source of knowledge S= Strong Belief; M= Medium belief; W= Weak Belief 1= Own observation/experience; 2= Radio; 3= TV; 4= Newspaper; 5= Books/Papers; 6= Teachers; 7= Relatives; 8= Friends; 9= Other educated person; 10= NGOs; 11= Knowledgeable elderly; 12= Experts; 13= Other______________________ (please specify) decreasing in the winter Most of the coastal areas will be inundated within 30 years

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Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Change (RVCC) Project

B. Knowledge on Adaptation
[Facilitator will informally discuss with the participants and try to extract the informant’s unprompted knowledge on adaptation and will list them by tick ( ) marks in the unprompted column. Then the facilitator will give some examples and references and will mark ( ) in the next column of the prompted knowledge. The expected knowledge on adaptation which are not mentioned after prompting, the facilitator will put ( ) marks against those in the last column.] Adaptation Strategy/ Coping Mechanism Hydroponics Cultivate tall water tolerant variety Cultivate saline tolerant variety Cage aqua-culture Migration Prawn, shrimp, fish farming Change of occupation Take loan Cultivate new variety of paddy Lease out land PL or fry collection Sell resources like cattle or poultry Sell labor Wait for relief Involve in IGAs Fell forest/ Honey collection Take it as usual Collect rice or paddy as loan
Unprompted Prompted Unknown

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

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Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Change (RVCC) Project

C. Knowledge on Causes
[Please describe the causes of climate change based on your knowledge Note: Facilitator will initiate the discussion without giving any examples and records the findings (unprompted). After that the facilitator will give some examples and references of climate change causes and will record the outputs (prompting). After prompting, which causes are not answered by the respondent give mark to Unknown column] Causes of Climate Change 1.Emission of different types of gases from industries 2.Use of pesticides in agricultural sector 3.Deforestation 4.Atomic and nuclear power testing and its use 5.Overuse of radioactive matter 6.Huge use of fossil fuel 7.Harmful industries in the developed countries 8.Over consumption and excessive profitoriented economic system 9.Loss of biodiversity 10.Others (Please specify) 11.Others (Please specify) 12.Others (Please specify) 13.Others (Please specify) 14.Others (Please specify) 15.Others (Please specify) Unprompted Prompted Unknown

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Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Change (RVCC) Project

Survey on Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior
For School Students
Interview Started at (Time)---------------------------------Interview completed at (Time)------------------------------Total duration of interview (in minutes)-------------------Date : --------------------Place: --------------------------------Name of the interviewer: ------------------------------Interviewer’s signature and date: -----------------------------Name of the supervisor: ---------------------------------Supervisor’s signature and date: ----------------------------------

Edited Code No. (To be filled up after editing by office) Date of Edit a
Sample No. Category of informants code in box a A = Class VI-VII B = Class VIII C = Class IX-X Category of informants code in box b 1 = Satkhira 2 = Khulna 3 = Bagerhat 4 = Gopalganj 5 = Narail 6 = Jessore Sex code in box c 1= Girl 2= Boy Sl no of informants in box d if 1 then write 001 if 10 write 010

Edited By: b c

Signature: d

Information about the Student
Name .................................... Class ................Roll No. .......... Name of the School:........................................... Village ...........................................Union:...............................Upazila:.................................

Lessons in School
From which subject you can learn about environmental issues?
(1) ............................................. (2) . ................................................. (3) ..............................................

Have you learnt anything related to weather or changing environment from your books or class lessons?

No

Yes

(please describe ...................................................................... .)

Media and Communication
How far do you visit commonly other than going to school (range of mobility)? Market Haat Mosque Public meeting Football match Marriage ceremony Group meeting Relatives house Tea Stall Local shop Hospital Drama/Jatra/Pala song Watching TV in neighbour’s house

Media Use pattern What do you do when you find some timeout from your study?
Radio Television Newspaper Do you use the following media? If yes, how? When? Games Talking with elders Play with friends

Listening Radio Which time of the day? Which programs? Which day(s) of the week? Newspaper Which time of the day? Which part/news? Which day(s) of the week? Kabi gan, Pala gan, Jatra/pot song In which season? Where it is organised usually?
Which TV/Radio program do you like most?

Watching Television

Magazine

Drama

Agricultural program Cinema Radio Radio Yes Television Television No

Health related program Children’s program Newspaper Tea stall

Music Drama Other _______________

What types of leisure/communication materials do you have at your home?

No Applience Other___________ Local educated persons Others________

From where do you receive information on weather? Do you understand information given on weather (explanation of different weather alarm signals)? What do you understand by weather/climate?

............................................................................................................................................................. .......................................................................................................

54

Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Change (RVCC) Project

A.

Knowledge on Effect and Related Attitudes

[Facilitator will start discussion with informal and open-ended environment. Facilitator will initiate the discussion without citing any examples or references (non-prompted) and will record the findings by putting tick ( ) marks in the unprompted column. Then the facilitator will give some examples and references of climate change/environmental impacts (prompted) and records the outputs by putting tick ( ) marks in the prompted column. Facilitator will try to know every thing in detail through asking-why and how. The facilitator will try to get specific examples. The expected knowledge which are not mentioned even now (if there is any), the facilitator will put tick ( ) marks against those in the last (Unknown) column.] Reason Climate Change Effects Unprompted Prompted Unknown Source of Strength of knowledge belief (Code) S M W Sea water flows further to the north, so that new areas flat plains are being affected by saline water Global warming is increasing Sea water level is increasing Rivers are being silted Rain fall is increasing in the rainy season and Water logging is increasing Pests and insects are increasing Water and vector borne diseases are increasing The Sundarbans might become extinct due to climate change Human mobility and communications might be disrupted Agricultural productivity will reduce Biodiversity will be affected by climate change River erosion will increase Drought will increase and serious scarcity of irrigation water will be found during dry season Cyclones and storms will increase Floods will increase Other ........................................................................................................ Other ........................................................................................................ Other ........................................................................................................ Other ........................................................................................................ Code for strength of belief Code for source of knowledge S= Strong Belief; M= Medium belief; W= Weak Belief 1= Own observation/experience; 2= Radio; 3= TV; 4= Newspaper; 5= Books/Papers; 6= Teachers; 7= Relatives; 8= Friends; 9= Other educated person; 10= NGOs; 11= Knowledgeable elderly; 12= Experts; 13= Other______________________ (please specify) decreasing in the winter Most of the coastal areas will be inundated within 30 years

55

Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Change (RVCC) Project

B. Knowledge on Adaptation
[Facilitator will informally discuss with the participants and try to extract the informant’s unprompted knowledge on adaptation and will list them by tick ( ) marks in the unprompted column. Then the facilitator will give some examples and references and will mark ( ) in the next column of the prompted knowledge. The expected knowledge on adaptation which are not mentioned after prompting, the facilitator will put ( ) marks against those in the last column.] Adaptation Strategy/ Coping Mechanism Hydroponics Cultivate tall water tolerant variety Cultivate saline tolerant variety Cage aqua-culture Migration Prawn, shrimp, fish farming Change of occupation Take loan Cultivate new variety of paddy Lease out land PL or fry collection Sell resources like cattle or poultry Sell labor Wait for relief Involve in IGAs Fell forest/ Honey collection Take it as usual Collect rice or paddy as loan
Unprompted Prompted Unknown

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

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Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Change (RVCC) Project

C. Knowledge on Causes
[Please describe the causes of climate change based on your knowledge Note: Facilitator will initiate the discussion without giving any examples and records the findings (unprompted). After that the facilitator will give some examples and references of climate change causes and will record the outputs (prompting). After prompting, which causes are not answered by the respondent give mark to Unknown column] Causes of Climate Change 1.Emission of different types of gases from industries 2.Use of pesticides in agricultural sector 3.Deforestation 4.Atomic and nuclear power testing and its use 5.Overuse of radioactive matter 6.Huge use of fossil fuel 7.Harmful industries in the developed countries 8.Over consumption and excessive profitoriented economic system 9.Loss of biodiversity 10.Others (Please specify) 11.Others (Please specify) 12.Others (Please specify) 13.Others (Please specify) 14.Others (Please specify) 15.Others (Please specify) Unprompted Prompted Unknown

57

Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Change (RVCC) Project

Annex 02: FGD Guidelines

KAB Survey-Focus Group Discussion (FGD) Guidelines
(Villagers/ UP Members and CBO Members)
Village: Union: Thana: Focus group: Villagers/ UP chairman & members/CBO District: Total participants: Men: Women: Children:

1. • • • 2. • • •

Please describe your (both male & female) mobility pattern Generally where do the villagers go/visit for your daily requirements and recreation? Do females have any restrictions upon their mobility and why? Who actually controls female's mobility? Please describe the communication media that you have access to What type of communication means do the villagers have easy access to? What do villagers do in their leisure time? When do you enjoy radio, television, newspaper, jattra, pot song, chatting etc.? (Time of day? Day of week? variation among men, women, and children)

3. Please explain how you receive information on weather • How do you get weather news? • Do you understand information given on weather? 4. Please describe the environmental impacts of climate change from your own knowledge/idea

Note: Facilitator will initiate the discussion without giving any examples and records the findings (unprompted). After that the facilitator will give some examples and references of climate change impacts and will records the outputs (prompting) 5. Please describe your adaptation or coping strategies to climate change/current environmental conditions

Note: Facilitator will initiate the discussion without giving any examples and records the findings (non-prompting). After that the facilitator will give some examples and references of climate change impacts and will records the outputs (prompting). Facilitator will try to know everything in detail through asking-why and how. Try to get specific examples.

Name of facilitator: Date

:

58

Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Change (RVCC) Project

KAB Survey-Focus Group Discussion (FGD) Guidelines
(School teachers, Journalists and NGO Staff)

Name of place: Focus group:

Thana: School teacher/ Journalists/ NGOs

District: Total participants: Men: Women:

1. Please describe the communication and its sources • Generally from where do you get maximum information ex. radio, television, newspapers, books etc.? • Which program you like most i.e. drama, song, news etc. 2. Please explain from your own concept about weather/climate • How do you get weather news? • What do you understand by weather/climate? 3. Please describe the climate change impacts from your own knowledge/idea Note: Facilitator will initiate the discussion without giving any examples and records the findings (non-prompting). After that the facilitator will give some examples and references of climate change impacts and will records the outputs (prompting) 4. Please describe your adaptation or coping strategies to current environmental conditions Note: Facilitator will initiate the discussion without giving any examples and records the findings (non-prompting). After that the facilitator will give some examples and references of climate change impacts and will records the outputs (prompting) 6. Please describe the causes of climate change based on your knowledge Note: Facilitator will initiate the discussion without giving any examples and records the findings (non-prompting). After that the facilitator will give some examples and references of climate change impacts and will records the outputs (prompting)

Name of facilitator: Date

:

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Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Change (RVCC) Project

KAB Survey-Focus Group Discussion (FGD) Guidelines
(School students)
Name of school: Union: Focus group: Boys/ Girls Thana: Total participants: District:

1. Please describe your school and education materials • From which subject you can learn about environmental issues? • Have you learnt anything related to weather or changing environment from your books or lessons? 2. Please describe the communication and its sources • Generally where do you go other than your school? • What do you do in your leisure time other than studying of class lessons? • Do you enjoy radio, television, newspapers, books etc. in leisure time? When? • Which programs do you enjoy? 3. Please explain from your own concept about weather • How do you get weather news? (Time of day? day of week? station?) • Do you understand the weather news? • What do you know about weather/climate? 4. Please describe the environmental/climate change impacts based on your own knowledge

class

Note: Facilitator will initiate the discussion without giving any examples and records the findings (non-prompting). After that the facilitator will give some examples and references of climate change impacts and will records the outputs (prompting) 5. Please describe the adaptation or coping strategies with current environmental conditions 6. Please describe the causes of climate change based on your knowledge Note: Facilitator will initiate the discussion without giving any examples and records the findings (non-prompting). After that the facilitator will give some examples and references of climate change impacts and will records the outputs (prompting). Facilitator will try to know everything in detail through asking-why and how. Try to get specific examples.

Name of facilitator: Date

:

60