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BRIDGE DATA 3:

EFFECTIVE SPAN OF Tee BEAM= 10 m


Width of carriage way= 7.5 m
Thickness of wearing coat =80 mm
Spacing of main girders =2.5 m
Width of kerb =0.5 m
Width of footpath =1 m
Thickness of deck slab =250 mm
Modular ratio =10
Number of main Girders =4
Stress in concrete (compression) =10
Stress in steel (tension) = 200

N /mm

N /mm2

M30 Grade and Fe-415 Grade HYSD


bars.
As width of carriage way is 7.5m, number of proposed lanes are 2.
Therefore LIVE LOAD COMBINATION: ONE LANE OF 70R OR TWO LANES OF
CLASS A

6.5 DESIGN BASED ON IRC: 21-2000


6.5.1 Load calculation for grillage model
(i) Dead load:
Self weight
-1
97

(ii)SIDL
a) Wearing coat (80 mm) = -1.84 kN/m 2
b) Weight of kerb = -7.8 kN/m 2
c) Weight of crash barrier = -14.86 kN/m2
d) Pedestrian load = -3.889 kN/m 2
6.5.2 Sectional properties of longitudinal and transverse members:

Fig 6.33: Cross Section of End Longitudinal girder


A=1.037*106 mm2, Yc=914 mm, Ixx =0.2466*10 12 mm4, Iyy=108 mm4 Izz=0.1233 *10 12 mm4

98

Fig 6.34: Cross Section of Intermediate Longitudinal girder


A=0.975*106 mm2, Yc=906 mm, Ixx =0.240*10 12 mm4, Iyy=108 mm4 Izz=0.120 *10 12 mm4

6.5.3 Design of reinforcement for external girder at L/2

6.5.3.1 Design of B.M reinforcement for external girder at mid


span:
Table 6.35: B.M due to DL and SIDL for external longitudinal girder at mid span
Load type
DEAD LOAD
SIDL

BENDING MOMENT (kN-m)


243
282

Table 6.36: B.M due to Live load for external longitudinal girder at mid span
Load type

BENDING MOMENT(kN-m)

BENDING MOMENT WITH

CLASS A
70R TRACKED
70 R WHEELED

327
983
690

IMPACT FACTOR (kN-m)


397
1081
862

Mmax = (Dead load +SIDL) B.M +max. of (class A or 70R Tracked or 70R Wheeled)B.M
99

=243+282+1081
=1606 kN-m
Design of section:

Effective depth d =

Ast =

M
stJd

M
Qb

1606106
1.4801000

= 1041mm.

160610
2000.8891041

= 8676 mm2

Provide 12 # of 32
ASt provided =9650 mm2
Effective depth provided= 1140 mm.
Stress check:
Calculation of neutral axis

Bf *Df*(hc-Df) +Bw*(hc-Df)*(hc -

Df
2 )

hc = 273
=m*Ast*(d-hc) mm

1) Compressive stress in concrete:

fc =

f st
m

hc
* dhc

200

= 10

273

* 1516273

2
2
f c = 6.29 N /mm < cbc 10 N /mm

2) tensile stress in steel


100

0.5b(kd ) cbc
A st

fst =

fst =

141 N / mm

< st

0.5100027310
9650

(200

N /mm2 )

6.5.3.2 Design of Shear reinforcement for external girder at L/2


Table 6.37: S.F due to DL and SIDL for external longitudinal girder at mid span
Load type
DEAD LOAD
SIDL

SHEAR FORCE (kN)


54
92

Table 6.38: S.F due to Live load for external longitudinal girder at mid span
Load type

SHEAR FORCE (kN)

SHEAR FORCE WITH

CLASS A
70R TRACKED
70 R WHEELED

107
341
240

IMPACT FACTOR (kN)


129
375
300

Vmax = (DEAD LOAD +SIDL)S.F +Max. OF (CLASS A OR 70RTRACKED OR 70R


WHEELED)S.F

=54+92+375 = 521KN
Check for shear stress
v

Vu
bwd

1.28 N /mm2

>
<

512 103
3501140

c max

0.589 N /mm2
2.2 N /mm

Design of shear reinforcement for Vs.:


101

Vs =Vu A sw

b*d = 512*103- 0.589*350*1140 =276 kN

V ss
= std

27610 200
2001140

=242 mm2

Adopt 4 legged 10 @ 200 mm c/c.


6.5.4 Design of reinforcement for external girder at l/4:
6.5.4.1 Design of B.M reinforcement for external girder at quarter span
Table 6.39: B.M due to Dead load and SIDL for external longitudinal girder at quarter span
Load type
DEAD LOAD
SIDL

BENDING MOMENT (kN-m)


181
215

Table 6.40: B.M due to Live load for external longitudinal girder at quarter span
Load type

BENDING MOMENT(kN-m)

BENDING MOMENT WITH

CLASS A
70R TRACKED
70 R WHEELED

253
785
553

IMPACT FACTOR (kN-m)


307
863
691

Mmax = (Dead Load +SIDL)B.M +Max. OF (class A OR 70RTracked OR 70R Wheeled)BM


=181+215+863
=1259 kN-m
Design of section:

Effective depth d =

Ast =

M
stJd

M
Qb

1259106
1.4801000

1259106
2000.8891140

= 6211 mm

102

= 922 mm.

Provide 8 # of 36
ASt provided =8143 mm2
Effective depth provided= 1140 mm.

Stress check:
Calculation of neutral axis

Bf *Df*(hc-Df) +Bw*(hc-Df)*(hc -

Df
2 )

hc = 204
=m*Ast*(d-hc) mm

1) Compressive stress in concrete:

fc =

f st
m

hc
* dhc

200

= 10

204

* 1140204

2
2
f c = 4.35 N /mm < cbc 10 N /mm

2) tensile stress in steel

fst =

fst =

0.5b(kd ) cbc
A st
2

125 N / mm

< st

0.5100020410
8143

(200

N /mm2 )

6.5.4.2 Design of Shear reinforcement for external girder


Table 6.41: S.F due to Dead load and SIDL for external longitudinal girder at quarter span
Load type

SHEAR FORCE (kN)


103

DEAD LOAD
SIDL

109
104

Table 6.42: S.F due to Live load for external longitudinal girder at quarter span
Load type

SHEAR FORCE (kN)

SHEAR FORCE WITH

CLASS A
70R TRACKED
70 R WHEELED

119
344
253

IMPACT FACTOR (kN)


144
378
316

Vmax = (DEAD LOAD +SIDL)S.F +Max. OF (CLASS A OR 70RTRACKED OR 70R


WHEELED)S.F

109+104+378 = 591KN

Check for shear stress


v

Vu
= bwd

1.48 N /mm2

>
<

591 10
= 3501140

c max

0.589 N /mm2
2.2 N /mm

Design of shear reinforcement for Vs.


Vs =Vu -

A sw

c *b*d = 591*103- 0.589*350*1140 =355 kN


V ss
= std

355103150
2001140

=253mm2

Adopt 4 legged 10 @ 150 mm c/c.

104

6.6 DESIGN BASED ON IRC: 112-2011


6.6.1 LOAD CALCULATION FOR GRILLAGE MODEL
(i) Dead load:
-1
Self weight

(ii)SIDL
a) Wearing coat (80 mm) = -1.84 kN/m 2
b) Weight of kerb = -7.8 kN/m 2
c) Weight of crash barrier = -14.86 kN/m2
d) Pedestrian load = -3.889 kN/m 2
LOAD COMBINATION =1.35*(DL) +1.75 *(SIDL)+1.5*(LIVE LOAD)
6.6.2 Sectional properties of longitudinal and transverse members:

Fig 6.35: Cross Section of End Longitudinal girder


A=1.037*106 mm2, Yc=914 mm, Ixx =0.2466*10 12 mm4, Iyy=108 mm4 Izz=0.1233 *10 12 mm4

105

Fig 6.36: Cross Section of Intermediate Longitudinal girder


A=0.975*106 mm2, Yc=906 mm, Ixx =0.240*10 12 mm4, Iyy=108 mm4 Izz=0.120 *10 12 mm4

6.6.3 Design of reinforcement for external girder at L/2

6.6.3.1 Design of B.M reinforcement for external girder:


Table 6.43: B.M due to Dead load and SIDL for external longitudinal girder at mid span
Load type
DEAD LOAD
SIDL

BENDING MOMENT (kN-m)


327
494

Table 6.44: B.M due to Live load for external longitudinal girder at mid span
Load type

BENDING MOMENT(kN-m)

BENDING MOMENT WITH

CLASS A
70R TRACKED
70 R WHEELED

491
1470
938

IMPACT FACTOR (kN-m)


596
1617
1172

Mmax = (Dead load +SIDL) B.M +max. of (class A or 70R Tracked or 70R Wheeled)B.M

106

=327+494+1617
=2438 kN-m
Design of section:
Step1: Assume neutral axis lies in the flange

x
d

=1.2 -

x
d

=1.2 -

x
d

=0.07

1.22

1.22

6.68M u
F ckbf d

6.682438106
2
3027501100

x = 77 mm <Df

Neutral axis lies in the flange, assumption is ok.


Mu
Ast = 0.87f (d0.42x )
y
u
2438106
Ast = 0.87415(14500.4277)
Ast = 6009

mm2

Provide 8 # of 32
Ast provided =6433 mm2
Effective depth provided= 1156 mm
Check for deflection and cracking:
1) Deflection:
107

L
D

(i)

=20*0.8*1=16

L
10000
=
D
1156

Provided

=8.65<16 ok

(ii) Max. Deflection in T beam girder as per grillage analysis =6 mm

Max .deflection as per IRC: 21-2011 for vehicular =

span
800

10000
800

=12.5mm.

2) Cracking:
Wk=

Sr,max * (sm-cm)
Sr,max = 1.3 *(d-x)
=1.3*(1156-899) =257 mm

Wk

= 257*6 *10-4 = 0.1542< 0.3 mm

6.6.3.2 Design of Shear reinforcement for external girder at L/2


Table 6.45: S.F due to Dead load and SIDL for external longitudinal girder at mid span
Load type
DEAD LOAD
SIDL

SHEAR FORCE (kN)


72
161

Table 6.46: S.F due to Live load for external longitudinal girder at mid span
Load type

SHEAR FORCE (kN)

SHEAR FORCE WITH

CLASS A
70R TRACKED
70 R WHEELED

132
511
360

IMPACT FACTOR (kN)


150
562
450

108

Vmax = (DEAD LOAD +SIDL)S.F +Max. OF (CLASS A OR 70RTRACKED OR 70R


WHEELED)S.F

=72 + 161+ 562 = 795 KN


Shear reinforcement:
1) The design shear resistance VRd.c >VEd.
2) The design shear resistance of the member without shear reinforcement VRd.c is given by:
V = [0.12*K*(80*p *f ) 0.33+0.15* ] *b *d
Rd.c

ck

cp

VRd.c = [0.12*1.415*(80*0.0159*30)0.33 + 0.15* 3.49 ] *350*1156


VRd.c = 440 kN
Shear reinforcement should be designed for a shear force = 355 kN.
A sw
f
VRd.s= s *z* ywd
For 4 legged 10 @200 mm c/c spacing shear capacity carrying of a section =542 kN

6.6.4 Design of reinforcement for external girder at L/4

6.6.4.1 Design of B.M reinforcement for external girder:


Table 6.47: B.M due to Dead load and SIDL for external longitudinal girder at quarter span
Load type
DEAD LOAD
SIDL

BENDING MOMENT (kN-m)


244
277

Table 6.48: B.M due to Live load for external longitudinal girder at quarter span
Load type
CLASS A
70R TRACKED
70 R WHEELED

BENDING MOMENT(kN-m)

BENDING MOMENT WITH

379
993
722

IMPACT FACTOR (kN-m)


460
1090
902

Mmax = (DEAD LOAD +SIDL) B.M +Max. OF (CLASS A OR 70RTRACKED OR 70R WHEELED) BM
= 244+277+1092

109

=1613 kN-m

Design of section:
Step1: Assume neutral axis lies in the flange
x
d

x
d

=1.2 -

=1.2 -

1.22

1.22

6.68M u
F ckbf d

6.681613106
2
3027501150

x = 48 mm <Df

Neutral axis lies in the flange, assumption is ok.


Mu
Ast = 0.87f (d0.42x )
y
u

1613106
Ast = 0.87415(11500.4277)
Ast = 3954 mm2
Provide 4 # of 36
Ast provided =4071 mm2
Effective depth provided= 1156 mm

6.6.4.2 Design of Shear reinforcement for external girder


Table 6.49: S.F due to Dead load and SIDL for external longitudinal girder at quarter span
Load type
DEAD LOAD
SIDL

SHEAR FORCE (kN)


109
183

110

Table 6.50: S.F due to Live load for external longitudinal girder at quarter span
Load type
CLASS A
70R TRACKED
70 R WHEELED

SHEAR FORCE (kN)

SHEAR FORCE WITH

178
517
381

IMPACT FACTOR (kN)


216
568
476

Vmax = (DEAD LOAD +SIDL) S.F +Max. OF (CLASS A OR 70RTRACKED OR 70R


WHEELED) S.F

=109+183+568= 860KN
Shear reinforcement:
3) The design shear resistance VRd.c >VEd.
4) The design shear resistance of the member without shear reinforcement VRd.c is given by:
V = [0.12*K*(80*p *f ) 0.33+0.15* ] *b *d
Rd.c

ck

cp

VRd.c = [0.12*1.415*(80*0.0159*30)0.33 + 0.15* 3.49 ] *350*1156


VRd.c = 440 kN
Shear reinforcement should be designed for a shear force = 420 kN.

VRd.s=

A sw
s

* *

f ywd

For 4 legged 10 @150 mm c/c spacing shear capacity carrying of a section =723 kN

Deck slab
IRC 21
DEAD LOAD MOMENTS:

Dead weight of slab = 0.25*24=6 kN/m2


Dead weight of wearing coat=0.08*23=1.84 kN/m

111

K=

s h ort span
long span
u
B

v
L

=1,

2.5
2.5

=1

=1

From pigeauds curves


m1=0.037

m2=0.037

Total dead load on the slab panel =7.84*2.5*2.5= 49 kN


Taking continuity into effect, the design moments are
MB=(0.8*49)*(0.037 + 0.15*0.037)=1.66 kN-m
ML= (0.8*49)*(0.037 + 0.15*0.037)=1.66 kN-m

Dead load shear force =7.84 *

0.35
2
2

2.5

] = 9.14 kN

Live load is 70R tracked


u =0.84+2*0.08 =1
v =4.57+2*0.08 =4.73
s h ort span
K= long span
u
B

=0.4,

=
v
L

2.5
2.5 .

=1

=1

From pigeauds curves

112

m1=0.037

m2=0.037

Total load per track including impact =1.1*350 =385 kN


2.5
W=Effective load on the span =385 * 4.73

= 203 kN

MB=203*(0.037+0.15*0.037) = 8.63 kN-m


ML= 203*(0.037+0.15*0.037) = 8.63 kN-m
As slab is continuous, the design bending moments are obtained by applying the continuity
factor as
MB =8.63 * 0.8 =6.90 kN-m
ML=8.63 *0.8 =6.90 kN-m

Shear force
Dispersion in the direction of span =0.84+2*(0.08+0.25)=1.5 m
Shear max at 0.75 m
Effective width of slab = k*x*( 1-

x
l

) +bw

=2.988 m
350
Load per metre = 2.998

=116.28

Shear force = 75 kN
Design bending moments are given by:
MB= 1.66 +8.63 = 10.29 kN-m
113

ML= 1.66+8.63 = 10.29 kN-m


Design of slab:
6

Area of steel along short span =

Spacing =

78.51000
285

10.2910
2000.9200

=285 mm2

=275 mm.

Provide 10mm dia bars at 150 mm c/c spacing.

Area of steel along long span =

Spacing =

78.51000
285

10.29106
2000.9200

=275 mm.

Provide 10mm dia bars at 150 mm c/c spacing.


Check for shear
Design shear force =84 kN.
84103
Nominal shear = 1000200

=0.42

As per IRC 21, we have

c =k1 *k2* co =0.61 N/mm2


Therefore the slab is safe against shear stresses.

IRC 112

Deck slab
114

= 285 mm2

DEAD LOAD MOMENTS:

Dead weight of slab = 0.25*24=6 kN/m2


Dead weight of wearing coat=0.08*23=1.84 kN/m
s h ort span
K= long span
u
B

=
v
L

=1,

2.5
2.5

=1

=1

From pigeauds curves


m1=0.037

m2=0.037

Total dead load on the slab panel =11.32*2.5*2.5= 70 kN


Taking continuity into effect, the design moments are
MB=(0.8*70)*(0.037 + 0.15*0.037)=2.38 kN-m
ML= (0.8*70)*(0.037 + 0.15*0.037)=2.38 kN-m

Dead load shear force =11.32 *[

0.35
2
] = 13.15 kN
2

2.5

Live load is 70R tracked


u =0.84+2*0.08 =1
v =4.57+2*0.08 =4.73
K=

s h ort span
long span

2.5
2.5 .

=1

115

u
B

v
L

=0.4,

=1

From pigeauds curves


m1=0.037

m2=0.037

Total load per track including impact =1.1*350 *1.5=577 kN


2.5
W=Effective load on the span =577 * 4.73

= 304 kN

MB=304 *(0.037+0.15*0.037) = 12.9 kN-m


ML= 304 *(0.037+0.15*0.037) = 12.9 kN-m
As slab is continuous,the design bending moments are obtained by applying the continuity factor
as
MB =12.9* 0.8 =10.32 kN-m
ML=12.9*0.8 =10.32kN-m

Shear force
Dispersion in the direction of span =0.84+2*(0.08+0.25)=1.5 m
Shear max at 0.75 m
Effective width of slab = k*x*( 1-

x
l

) +bw

=2.998m
Load per metre =

3501.5
2.998

=175 kN

116

Design bending moments are given by:


MB= 2.38+12.9 = 15.28 kN
ML= 2.38+12.9 = 15.28 kN
Design of slab:
Effective depth of the slab required =102mm
Provided 200mm.
Hence safe.
6

Area of steel along short span =

Spacing =

78.51000
265

15.2810
0.87415200(10.420.48)

= 265 mm2

= 296 mm.

Provide 10mm dia bars at 150 mm c/c spacing.

Area of steel along long span =

Spacing =

78.51000
265

15.28106
0.87415200(10.420.48)

= 265 mm2

=296 mm.

Provide 10mm dia bars at 150 mm c/c spacing.


Check for shear
Design shear force =175+13.14 =188 kN.
As per IRC 112
The design shear resistance of the member without shear reinforcement VRd.c is given by:

117

VRd.c = [0.12*K*(80*p1*fck)0.33+0.15*

] *bw*d
VRd.c = [0.12*2*(80*0.36*30)0.33 + 0.15* 3.49 ] *1000*200
cp

VRd.c = 551 kN
Therefore the slab is safe against shear stresses.
DISCUSSIONS:

Bending moment due to dead load


350
300
250
200

WSM

BM in kNm 150

LSM

100
50
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

span in metres

Fig.6.37

118

4.5

Bending moment due to SIDL


600
500
400
WSM

BM in kNm 300

LSM

200
100
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

span in metres

Fig.6.38

Bending moment due to LL


1800
1600
1400
1200

BM in kNm

1000

WSM

800

LSM

600
400
200
0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

span in metres

Fig.6.39

119

Shear Force due to dead load


160
140
120
100

SF in kN

WSM

80

LSM

60
40
20
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

Length in metres

Fig.6.40

Shear Force due to SIDL


200
150
WSM

SF in kN 100

LSM

50
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

Length in metres

Fig.6.41

120

4.5

Shear Force due to LL


600
500
400
WSM

SF in kN 300

LSM

200
100
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

Length in metres

Fig.6.42
The bending moments due to dead load for LSM and WSM are shown graphically in Fig 6.37.
The bending moments due to SIDL for LSM and WSM are shown graphically in Fig 6.38
The bending moments due to dead load for LSM and WSM are shown graphically in Fig 6.39
The shear force due to dead load for LSM and WSM are shown graphically in Fig 6.40
The shear force due to SIDL for LSM and WSM are shown graphically in Fig 6.41
The shear force due to live load for LSM and WSM are shown graphically in Fig 6.42
The comparison of volume of concrete and area of steel are tabulated below:
Table 52: Comparison between two methods at mid span and quarter span
WSM

LSM

Volume of concrete(in mm3)

1.035*106

6
1.035* 10

Area of steel (in mm2) at L/2


Area of steel (in mm2) at L/4

9,650
8,143

6,433
4,071

121

As it very visible from above comparison that LSM has found out to be more economical of the
two methods. It means we can design the structure more economically by adopting ultimate
strength design method rather than the WSM.
The savings in concrete is zero, since we have adopted section for both LSM and WSM.
But at mid span the steel difference is quite noticeable compared to WSM, LSM is about 33%
more economic i.e., it consumes less steel than WSM.
However at quarter span the difference is quite noticeable, LSM is about 50% more economic
than WSM.
The main fundamental difference for working stress approach and limit state approach is that, in
working stress approach service loads are used in the whole design and the strength of material is
not utilized in the full extent, since stresses acting on structural members are calculated based on
elastic method and they are designed not to exceed certain allowable values. In fact, the whole
structure during the lifespan may only experience loading stresses far below the ultimate state.
For limit state approach, for each material and load, a partial safety factor is assigned
individually depending on the material properties and load properties. Therefore, each element of
load and material properties is accurately assessed resulting in a more refined and accurate
analysis of the structure. In this connection, the material strength can be utilized to its maximum
value during its lifespan and loads can be assessed with reasonable probability of occurrence.
This is the reason for LSM to be more economical than WSM.
In the deck slab, the area of steel in LSM and WSM are found to be same, though the area of
concrete is same for LSM and WSM, since the loads are multiplied by a partial safety factor in
LSM there is no significant change in area of steel. In case of slab the savings of materials in
slabs is almost nill.
But for Shear force reinforcement there is not much of change observed in both deck slab and in
girder. The reinforcement is almost same since the sections taken in LSM .
The reinforcement details of end longitudinal girder at mid and quarter span designed as per
IRC: 21-2000 and IRC: 112-2011 is shown below.

122

Fig.6.43: Reinforcement Detail in End Longitudinal Girder at mid span (IRC: 21-2000)

Fig.6.44 Reinforcement Detail in End Longitudinal Girder at mid span (IRC: 21-2000)
123

Fig 6.45 Reinforcement Detail in End Longitudinal Girder at mid span (IRC: 112-2011)

Fig 46: Reinforcement Detail in End Longitudinal Girder at mid span (IRC: 112-2011)

124