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Width of carriage way= 7.5 m

Thickness of wearing coat =80 mm

Spacing of main girders =2.5 m

Width of kerb =0.5 m

Width of footpath =1 m

Thickness of deck slab =250 mm

Modular ratio =10

Number of main Girders =4

Stress in concrete (compression) =10

Stress in steel (tension) = 200

N /mm

N /mm2

bars.

As width of carriage way is 7.5m, number of proposed lanes are 2.

Therefore LIVE LOAD COMBINATION: ONE LANE OF 70R OR TWO LANES OF

CLASS A

6.5.1 Load calculation for grillage model

(i) Dead load:

Self weight

-1

97

(ii)SIDL

a) Wearing coat (80 mm) = -1.84 kN/m 2

b) Weight of kerb = -7.8 kN/m 2

c) Weight of crash barrier = -14.86 kN/m2

d) Pedestrian load = -3.889 kN/m 2

6.5.2 Sectional properties of longitudinal and transverse members:

A=1.037*106 mm2, Yc=914 mm, Ixx =0.2466*10 12 mm4, Iyy=108 mm4 Izz=0.1233 *10 12 mm4

98

A=0.975*106 mm2, Yc=906 mm, Ixx =0.240*10 12 mm4, Iyy=108 mm4 Izz=0.120 *10 12 mm4

span:

Table 6.35: B.M due to DL and SIDL for external longitudinal girder at mid span

Load type

DEAD LOAD

SIDL

243

282

Table 6.36: B.M due to Live load for external longitudinal girder at mid span

Load type

BENDING MOMENT(kN-m)

CLASS A

70R TRACKED

70 R WHEELED

327

983

690

397

1081

862

Mmax = (Dead load +SIDL) B.M +max. of (class A or 70R Tracked or 70R Wheeled)B.M

99

=243+282+1081

=1606 kN-m

Design of section:

Effective depth d =

Ast =

M

stJd

M

Qb

1606106

1.4801000

= 1041mm.

160610

2000.8891041

= 8676 mm2

Provide 12 # of 32

ASt provided =9650 mm2

Effective depth provided= 1140 mm.

Stress check:

Calculation of neutral axis

Bf *Df*(hc-Df) +Bw*(hc-Df)*(hc -

Df

2 )

hc = 273

=m*Ast*(d-hc) mm

fc =

f st

m

hc

* dhc

200

= 10

273

* 1516273

2

2

f c = 6.29 N /mm < cbc 10 N /mm

100

0.5b(kd ) cbc

A st

fst =

fst =

141 N / mm

< st

0.5100027310

9650

(200

N /mm2 )

Table 6.37: S.F due to DL and SIDL for external longitudinal girder at mid span

Load type

DEAD LOAD

SIDL

54

92

Table 6.38: S.F due to Live load for external longitudinal girder at mid span

Load type

CLASS A

70R TRACKED

70 R WHEELED

107

341

240

129

375

300

WHEELED)S.F

=54+92+375 = 521KN

Check for shear stress

v

Vu

bwd

1.28 N /mm2

>

<

512 103

3501140

c max

0.589 N /mm2

2.2 N /mm

101

Vs =Vu A sw

V ss

= std

27610 200

2001140

=242 mm2

6.5.4 Design of reinforcement for external girder at l/4:

6.5.4.1 Design of B.M reinforcement for external girder at quarter span

Table 6.39: B.M due to Dead load and SIDL for external longitudinal girder at quarter span

Load type

DEAD LOAD

SIDL

181

215

Table 6.40: B.M due to Live load for external longitudinal girder at quarter span

Load type

BENDING MOMENT(kN-m)

CLASS A

70R TRACKED

70 R WHEELED

253

785

553

307

863

691

=181+215+863

=1259 kN-m

Design of section:

Effective depth d =

Ast =

M

stJd

M

Qb

1259106

1.4801000

1259106

2000.8891140

= 6211 mm

102

= 922 mm.

Provide 8 # of 36

ASt provided =8143 mm2

Effective depth provided= 1140 mm.

Stress check:

Calculation of neutral axis

Bf *Df*(hc-Df) +Bw*(hc-Df)*(hc -

Df

2 )

hc = 204

=m*Ast*(d-hc) mm

fc =

f st

m

hc

* dhc

200

= 10

204

* 1140204

2

2

f c = 4.35 N /mm < cbc 10 N /mm

fst =

fst =

0.5b(kd ) cbc

A st

2

125 N / mm

< st

0.5100020410

8143

(200

N /mm2 )

Table 6.41: S.F due to Dead load and SIDL for external longitudinal girder at quarter span

Load type

103

DEAD LOAD

SIDL

109

104

Table 6.42: S.F due to Live load for external longitudinal girder at quarter span

Load type

CLASS A

70R TRACKED

70 R WHEELED

119

344

253

144

378

316

WHEELED)S.F

109+104+378 = 591KN

v

Vu

= bwd

1.48 N /mm2

>

<

591 10

= 3501140

c max

0.589 N /mm2

2.2 N /mm

Vs =Vu -

A sw

V ss

= std

355103150

2001140

=253mm2

104

6.6.1 LOAD CALCULATION FOR GRILLAGE MODEL

(i) Dead load:

-1

Self weight

(ii)SIDL

a) Wearing coat (80 mm) = -1.84 kN/m 2

b) Weight of kerb = -7.8 kN/m 2

c) Weight of crash barrier = -14.86 kN/m2

d) Pedestrian load = -3.889 kN/m 2

LOAD COMBINATION =1.35*(DL) +1.75 *(SIDL)+1.5*(LIVE LOAD)

6.6.2 Sectional properties of longitudinal and transverse members:

A=1.037*106 mm2, Yc=914 mm, Ixx =0.2466*10 12 mm4, Iyy=108 mm4 Izz=0.1233 *10 12 mm4

105

A=0.975*106 mm2, Yc=906 mm, Ixx =0.240*10 12 mm4, Iyy=108 mm4 Izz=0.120 *10 12 mm4

Table 6.43: B.M due to Dead load and SIDL for external longitudinal girder at mid span

Load type

DEAD LOAD

SIDL

327

494

Table 6.44: B.M due to Live load for external longitudinal girder at mid span

Load type

BENDING MOMENT(kN-m)

CLASS A

70R TRACKED

70 R WHEELED

491

1470

938

596

1617

1172

Mmax = (Dead load +SIDL) B.M +max. of (class A or 70R Tracked or 70R Wheeled)B.M

106

=327+494+1617

=2438 kN-m

Design of section:

Step1: Assume neutral axis lies in the flange

x

d

=1.2 -

x

d

=1.2 -

x

d

=0.07

1.22

1.22

6.68M u

F ckbf d

6.682438106

2

3027501100

x = 77 mm <Df

Mu

Ast = 0.87f (d0.42x )

y

u

2438106

Ast = 0.87415(14500.4277)

Ast = 6009

mm2

Provide 8 # of 32

Ast provided =6433 mm2

Effective depth provided= 1156 mm

Check for deflection and cracking:

1) Deflection:

107

L

D

(i)

=20*0.8*1=16

L

10000

=

D

1156

Provided

=8.65<16 ok

span

800

10000

800

=12.5mm.

2) Cracking:

Wk=

Sr,max * (sm-cm)

Sr,max = 1.3 *(d-x)

=1.3*(1156-899) =257 mm

Wk

Table 6.45: S.F due to Dead load and SIDL for external longitudinal girder at mid span

Load type

DEAD LOAD

SIDL

72

161

Table 6.46: S.F due to Live load for external longitudinal girder at mid span

Load type

CLASS A

70R TRACKED

70 R WHEELED

132

511

360

150

562

450

108

WHEELED)S.F

Shear reinforcement:

1) The design shear resistance VRd.c >VEd.

2) The design shear resistance of the member without shear reinforcement VRd.c is given by:

V = [0.12*K*(80*p *f ) 0.33+0.15* ] *b *d

Rd.c

ck

cp

VRd.c = 440 kN

Shear reinforcement should be designed for a shear force = 355 kN.

A sw

f

VRd.s= s *z* ywd

For 4 legged 10 @200 mm c/c spacing shear capacity carrying of a section =542 kN

Table 6.47: B.M due to Dead load and SIDL for external longitudinal girder at quarter span

Load type

DEAD LOAD

SIDL

244

277

Table 6.48: B.M due to Live load for external longitudinal girder at quarter span

Load type

CLASS A

70R TRACKED

70 R WHEELED

BENDING MOMENT(kN-m)

379

993

722

460

1090

902

Mmax = (DEAD LOAD +SIDL) B.M +Max. OF (CLASS A OR 70RTRACKED OR 70R WHEELED) BM

= 244+277+1092

109

=1613 kN-m

Design of section:

Step1: Assume neutral axis lies in the flange

x

d

x

d

=1.2 -

=1.2 -

1.22

1.22

6.68M u

F ckbf d

6.681613106

2

3027501150

x = 48 mm <Df

Mu

Ast = 0.87f (d0.42x )

y

u

1613106

Ast = 0.87415(11500.4277)

Ast = 3954 mm2

Provide 4 # of 36

Ast provided =4071 mm2

Effective depth provided= 1156 mm

Table 6.49: S.F due to Dead load and SIDL for external longitudinal girder at quarter span

Load type

DEAD LOAD

SIDL

109

183

110

Table 6.50: S.F due to Live load for external longitudinal girder at quarter span

Load type

CLASS A

70R TRACKED

70 R WHEELED

178

517

381

216

568

476

WHEELED) S.F

=109+183+568= 860KN

Shear reinforcement:

3) The design shear resistance VRd.c >VEd.

4) The design shear resistance of the member without shear reinforcement VRd.c is given by:

V = [0.12*K*(80*p *f ) 0.33+0.15* ] *b *d

Rd.c

ck

cp

VRd.c = 440 kN

Shear reinforcement should be designed for a shear force = 420 kN.

VRd.s=

A sw

s

* *

f ywd

For 4 legged 10 @150 mm c/c spacing shear capacity carrying of a section =723 kN

Deck slab

IRC 21

DEAD LOAD MOMENTS:

Dead weight of wearing coat=0.08*23=1.84 kN/m

111

K=

s h ort span

long span

u

B

v

L

=1,

2.5

2.5

=1

=1

m1=0.037

m2=0.037

Taking continuity into effect, the design moments are

MB=(0.8*49)*(0.037 + 0.15*0.037)=1.66 kN-m

ML= (0.8*49)*(0.037 + 0.15*0.037)=1.66 kN-m

0.35

2

2

2.5

] = 9.14 kN

u =0.84+2*0.08 =1

v =4.57+2*0.08 =4.73

s h ort span

K= long span

u

B

=0.4,

=

v

L

2.5

2.5 .

=1

=1

112

m1=0.037

m2=0.037

2.5

W=Effective load on the span =385 * 4.73

= 203 kN

ML= 203*(0.037+0.15*0.037) = 8.63 kN-m

As slab is continuous, the design bending moments are obtained by applying the continuity

factor as

MB =8.63 * 0.8 =6.90 kN-m

ML=8.63 *0.8 =6.90 kN-m

Shear force

Dispersion in the direction of span =0.84+2*(0.08+0.25)=1.5 m

Shear max at 0.75 m

Effective width of slab = k*x*( 1-

x

l

) +bw

=2.988 m

350

Load per metre = 2.998

=116.28

Shear force = 75 kN

Design bending moments are given by:

MB= 1.66 +8.63 = 10.29 kN-m

113

Design of slab:

6

Spacing =

78.51000

285

10.2910

2000.9200

=285 mm2

=275 mm.

Spacing =

78.51000

285

10.29106

2000.9200

=275 mm.

Check for shear

Design shear force =84 kN.

84103

Nominal shear = 1000200

=0.42

Therefore the slab is safe against shear stresses.

IRC 112

Deck slab

114

= 285 mm2

Dead weight of wearing coat=0.08*23=1.84 kN/m

s h ort span

K= long span

u

B

=

v

L

=1,

2.5

2.5

=1

=1

m1=0.037

m2=0.037

Taking continuity into effect, the design moments are

MB=(0.8*70)*(0.037 + 0.15*0.037)=2.38 kN-m

ML= (0.8*70)*(0.037 + 0.15*0.037)=2.38 kN-m

0.35

2

] = 13.15 kN

2

2.5

u =0.84+2*0.08 =1

v =4.57+2*0.08 =4.73

K=

s h ort span

long span

2.5

2.5 .

=1

115

u

B

v

L

=0.4,

=1

m1=0.037

m2=0.037

2.5

W=Effective load on the span =577 * 4.73

= 304 kN

ML= 304 *(0.037+0.15*0.037) = 12.9 kN-m

As slab is continuous,the design bending moments are obtained by applying the continuity factor

as

MB =12.9* 0.8 =10.32 kN-m

ML=12.9*0.8 =10.32kN-m

Shear force

Dispersion in the direction of span =0.84+2*(0.08+0.25)=1.5 m

Shear max at 0.75 m

Effective width of slab = k*x*( 1-

x

l

) +bw

=2.998m

Load per metre =

3501.5

2.998

=175 kN

116

MB= 2.38+12.9 = 15.28 kN

ML= 2.38+12.9 = 15.28 kN

Design of slab:

Effective depth of the slab required =102mm

Provided 200mm.

Hence safe.

6

Spacing =

78.51000

265

15.2810

0.87415200(10.420.48)

= 265 mm2

= 296 mm.

Spacing =

78.51000

265

15.28106

0.87415200(10.420.48)

= 265 mm2

=296 mm.

Check for shear

Design shear force =175+13.14 =188 kN.

As per IRC 112

The design shear resistance of the member without shear reinforcement VRd.c is given by:

117

VRd.c = [0.12*K*(80*p1*fck)0.33+0.15*

] *bw*d

VRd.c = [0.12*2*(80*0.36*30)0.33 + 0.15* 3.49 ] *1000*200

cp

VRd.c = 551 kN

Therefore the slab is safe against shear stresses.

DISCUSSIONS:

350

300

250

200

WSM

BM in kNm 150

LSM

100

50

0

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

span in metres

Fig.6.37

118

4.5

600

500

400

WSM

BM in kNm 300

LSM

200

100

0

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

span in metres

Fig.6.38

1800

1600

1400

1200

BM in kNm

1000

WSM

800

LSM

600

400

200

0

span in metres

Fig.6.39

119

160

140

120

100

SF in kN

WSM

80

LSM

60

40

20

0

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

Length in metres

Fig.6.40

200

150

WSM

SF in kN 100

LSM

50

0

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

Length in metres

Fig.6.41

120

4.5

600

500

400

WSM

SF in kN 300

LSM

200

100

0

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

Length in metres

Fig.6.42

The bending moments due to dead load for LSM and WSM are shown graphically in Fig 6.37.

The bending moments due to SIDL for LSM and WSM are shown graphically in Fig 6.38

The bending moments due to dead load for LSM and WSM are shown graphically in Fig 6.39

The shear force due to dead load for LSM and WSM are shown graphically in Fig 6.40

The shear force due to SIDL for LSM and WSM are shown graphically in Fig 6.41

The shear force due to live load for LSM and WSM are shown graphically in Fig 6.42

The comparison of volume of concrete and area of steel are tabulated below:

Table 52: Comparison between two methods at mid span and quarter span

WSM

LSM

1.035*106

6

1.035* 10

Area of steel (in mm2) at L/4

9,650

8,143

6,433

4,071

121

As it very visible from above comparison that LSM has found out to be more economical of the

two methods. It means we can design the structure more economically by adopting ultimate

strength design method rather than the WSM.

The savings in concrete is zero, since we have adopted section for both LSM and WSM.

But at mid span the steel difference is quite noticeable compared to WSM, LSM is about 33%

more economic i.e., it consumes less steel than WSM.

However at quarter span the difference is quite noticeable, LSM is about 50% more economic

than WSM.

The main fundamental difference for working stress approach and limit state approach is that, in

working stress approach service loads are used in the whole design and the strength of material is

not utilized in the full extent, since stresses acting on structural members are calculated based on

elastic method and they are designed not to exceed certain allowable values. In fact, the whole

structure during the lifespan may only experience loading stresses far below the ultimate state.

For limit state approach, for each material and load, a partial safety factor is assigned

individually depending on the material properties and load properties. Therefore, each element of

load and material properties is accurately assessed resulting in a more refined and accurate

analysis of the structure. In this connection, the material strength can be utilized to its maximum

value during its lifespan and loads can be assessed with reasonable probability of occurrence.

This is the reason for LSM to be more economical than WSM.

In the deck slab, the area of steel in LSM and WSM are found to be same, though the area of

concrete is same for LSM and WSM, since the loads are multiplied by a partial safety factor in

LSM there is no significant change in area of steel. In case of slab the savings of materials in

slabs is almost nill.

But for Shear force reinforcement there is not much of change observed in both deck slab and in

girder. The reinforcement is almost same since the sections taken in LSM .

The reinforcement details of end longitudinal girder at mid and quarter span designed as per

IRC: 21-2000 and IRC: 112-2011 is shown below.

122

Fig.6.43: Reinforcement Detail in End Longitudinal Girder at mid span (IRC: 21-2000)

Fig.6.44 Reinforcement Detail in End Longitudinal Girder at mid span (IRC: 21-2000)

123

Fig 6.45 Reinforcement Detail in End Longitudinal Girder at mid span (IRC: 112-2011)

Fig 46: Reinforcement Detail in End Longitudinal Girder at mid span (IRC: 112-2011)

124

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