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Abstract
Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic risk factors and defines the need
for clinical treatment of obese who have multiple additional risk factors. Nowadays
there is a tendency of evolution of metabolic syndrome in a syndrome of renal,
cardiac and vascular indices which contribute to atherosclerosis and exacerbate
vascular endothelial dysfunction.
Metabolic syndrome can not be considered as a predictor in cardiovascular
risk assessment models with a short study period (e.g., 10-year risk), such as the
Framingham risk score.
The presence of metabolic syndrome is closely linked with an increased risk
of diabetes and cardiovascular disease development. It is also associated with the
urgent need to assess the overall cardiovascular risk and the presence of subclinical
atherosclerosis by noninvasive imaging.
Metabolic syndrome can bring together the fields of cardiovascular disease
and diabetes in an effort to limit the risks of both aforementioned situations.

1. . . :
. . . 2007

2. S. M Grundy, I. Cleeman, S. R. Danielset et al. Diagnosis and management


of the metabolic syndrome. An American Heart Association/National Heart,
Lung, and Blood Institute Scientific Statement. Circulation, 2005, 112: 2735
2752
3. P. Strazzullo, A. Barbato, A. Siani Et al Diagnostic criteria for metabolic
syndrome: a comparative analysis in an unselected sample of adult male
population Metabolism Clinical and Experimental 57 (2008) 355361
4. J. B. Meigs Metabolic Syndrome: In search of a clinical role Diabetes Care
2004 27:2761-2763
5. Cusi K. The role of adipose tissue and lipotoxicity in the pathogenesis of type
2 diabetes. Curr Diab Rep2010;10:306315
6. Manrique C, Lastra G, Sowers JR et al New insights into insulin action and
resistance in the vasculature. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1311: 138150.
7. Hartstra, K. Bouter, F.

Bckhed, et al

Insights Into the Role of the

Microbiome in Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Diabetes Care January


2015 38:159-165

8. S. Devaraj, P. Hemarajata, J. Versalovic The Human Gut Microbiome and


Body Metabolism: Implications for Obesity and Diabetes Clinical Chemistry
2013;59:1-12

9. Lakka HM,, Laaksonen DE, Lakka TA et al The metabolic syndrome and total
and

cardiovascular

disease

mortality

in

middle-aged

men.

JAMA. 2002;;288(21):2709-16.
10. S. Gami, B. J. Witt, D. E. Howard et al Metabolic Syndrome and Risk of
Incident Cardiovascular Events and Death : A Systematic Review and MetaAnalysis of Longitudinal Studies J.

American College of Cardiology

2007;49:403-414
11. Athyros VG, Ganotakis ES, Elisaf MS et al Prevalence of vascular disease in
metabolic syndrome using three proposed definitions. Int J Cardiol.
2007;117(2):204-10
12. L. Guize, F. Thomas, B. Pannier et al All-Cause Mortality Associated With
Specific Combinations of the Metabolic Syndrome According to Recent
Definitions Diabetes Care September 2007 30:2381-2387
13. I. Protopsaltis, Georgios Nikolopoulos , Melidonis A, et al Metabolic syndrome
and its components as predictors of all-cause mortality and coronary heart
disease in type 2 diabetic patients Atherosclerosis 195 (2007) 189194
14. M. P. Stern, K. Williams, C. Gonzlez-Villalpando et al Does the Metabolic
Syndrome Improve Identification of Individuals at Risk of Type 2 Diabetes
and/or Cardiovascular Disease? Diabetes Care 2004 27:2676-2681

15. C. Kastorini, H. Milionis, K. Esposito et al The effect of Mediterranean diet on


metabolic syndrome and its components JACC 2011;57:1299-1313
16. R. Kahn, J. Buse, E. Ferrannini, et al The Metabolic Syndrome: Time for a
Critical Appraisal: Joint statement from the American Diabetes Association
and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes Diabetes Care
2005 28:2289-2304

17. . Reiner , A. Catapano , G. De Backer et al ESC/EAS Guidelines for the


management of dyslipidaemias EHJ 2011;32:1769-1818
18. R. K. Simmons, K. G. M. M. Alberti, E. A. M. Gale et al The metabolic
syndrome: useful concept or clinical tool? Report of a WHO Expert
Consultation. Diabetologia 2010; 53: 600-605

19. Mottillo S, Filion KB, Genest J, et al. The metabolic syndrome and
cardiovascular risk a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Coll
Cardiol. 2010;56:11131132

20. R. Khoshdel, S. L.Carney and A. Gillies et al Circulatory Syndrome: An


Evolution of the Metabolic Syndrome Concept! Current Cardiology Reviews
2012;8:68-76
21. Kelly CT, Mansoor J, Dohm GL, et al. Hyperinsulinemic syndrome: The
metabolic syndrome is broader than you think. Surgery 2014; 156: 40511
22. M. Schlaich,

N.

Straznicky, E.

Lambert et al Metabolic syndrome: a

sympathetic disease? Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2015;3:148-57

- :

Key-words:

Metabolic Syndrome

Insulin Resistance

Circulatory Syndrome

Central obesity