ABRUPTIO PLACENTA DEFINITION: Placental abruption (also known as abruptio placentae) is an obstetric catastrophe (complication of pregnancy), wherein the

placental lining has separated from the uterus of the mother. It is the most common cause of late pregnancy bleeding. In humans, it refers to the abnormal separation after 20 weeks of gestation and prior to birth. It occurs in 1% of pregnancies world wide with a fetal mortality rate of 20-40% depending on the degree of separation. Placental abruption is also a significant contributor to maternal mortality. Many women can die from this type of abnormality. TYPES OF ABRUPTIO PLACENTA: 1. Covert Abruptio Placenta The placenta separates centrally and the blood is trapped between the placenta and uterine wall. 2. Overt Abruptio Placenta The blood passes between the fetal membranes and the uterine wall and escapes vaginally. May develop abruptly or progress from mild to extensive separation with external hemorrhage. 3. Severe Abruptio Placenta Massive vaginal bleeding is seen in the presence of almost total separation with possible fetal cardiac distress. RISK FACTORS: • • • women with parity of 5 or more women over 30 years of age women with pre-eclampsia - eclampsia and renal or vascular disease.

FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO ABRUPTIO PLACENTA: • • • • • • • multiple gestations hydramnios cocaine use dec. blood flow to the placenta trauma to the abdomen dec. serum folic acid levels PIH


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