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THE FEATURES OF MERCY IN
ISLAM
COMPILED
BY
MUHAMMAD JALAL RAZA (Indian)
Graduate Nizamia University Hyderabad Deccan
B. A. Al Azhar University Cairo
M. PHIL. Islamic Philosophy Dept.
Cairo University Egypt
Forwarded
By
PROFESSOR DR.ALI GOMAA MUHMMAD
GRAND MUFTI OF EGYPT

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Table of Contents
Chapter First
MUHAMMAD A MERCY FOR THE UNIVERSE
Preface by Dr. Ali Gomaa, The Grand Mufti of Egypt... 8
Preface by Dr. Basheer Ahmad Director (ICCR) Embassy of
India, Cairo……………………………………………….10
Preface by Sayed Ahmad Imam Bukhari……………….....10
Principal of Pakistan International School, Cairo
Preface, by the compiler …………………………………..16









The Pre-Islamic Days……………………………..20
His Birth Upbringing Appearance and physique…22
His Dress and Way of Living……………................24
His Way of Eating……………………………….... 26
The Reason of His Simplicity……………………….29
His Cleanliness …………………………………….31
His Truthfulness and Honesty……………………….33
His Jest and Humor ………………………………..35
His Modesty and His Sincerity………………………38
The Mercy of the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah
and his blessings be upon him) in Inflicting a
Punishment…………………………...…43
 The Mercy Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and
His blessings be upon him) and The Dignity of
Women………………………………………………46
 His Tenderheartedness………………………………50
 Muhammad (May peace of Allah and His blessings be
upon him) The Gifted Mercy………………………..53
 His Patience And Tolerance………………………...56
 The Mercy of the Prophet (May peace and blessings be
upon him) when He Taught..........................................63
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 The Rays of Mercy in His Farewell Sermon…………
67
Chapter Second
Features of Mercy in Qur’an and Sunnah
 The Word of Mercy in Islam…………………………73
 The Word of Peace in Islam………………………….74
 The Mercy of Islam upon the Child…………………..76
 The Mercy of Islam upon the Orphan……………….87
 The Mercy of Islam upon the Woman……………….90
 The Mercy of Islam upon the Old…………………..100
 The Mercy of Islam upon the Needy and Helpless..102
 The Mercy of Islam upon the Slave and Servant.108
The Mercy of Islam upon the Neighbour……...112

 The Mercy of Islam upon the Living Thing…..…115
 The Mercy of Islam upon Non-Muslim………....120
 The Mercy and Jihad in Islam……………….…127
 The Mercy and Islamic Punishments…………....131
 The Mercy of Islam upon the Sinner……………136
 The Mercy and Main Objectives of Islam………145
 The Mercy and Flexibility in Islamic Shari’ah……148

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Chapter Third
Some False Accusations and Their Logic Answers
 Was Islam Spread by Sword?..............................160
 Why Has Islam Forbidden a Muslim Woman to Get
Married with a Non-Muslim Man?.............................165
Why Did the Prophet Muhammad (May peace of Allah

and His blessings be upon him) Got Married More Than
Four Women ?.......167
 Why Does a Muslim Woman in Islam Gets Half Share in
Inheritance Compared with Man?.....................169
Why Is a Muslim Man Permitted to Marry More Than
One
Wife?..........................................................................170

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MUHAMMAD—A MERCY FOR THE
UNIVERSE

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Chapter One
MUHAMMAD A MERCY FOR THE UNIVERSE.
PREFACE
















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The Pre-Islamic Days
His Birth Upbringing Appearance and Physique
His Dress and Way of living
His Way of Eating
The Reason of His Simplicity
His Cleanliness
His Silver Ring
His Jest and Humor
His Truthfulness and Honesty
His Modesty and His Sincerity
The Mercy of the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah
and his blessings be upon him) in Inflicting a
Punishment
The Mercy Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and
His blessings be upon him) and the Dignity of Women
His Tenderheartedness
Muhammad (May peace of Allah and His blessings be
upon him) The Gifted Mercy
His Patience And Tolerance
The Mercy of the Prophet (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) when He Taught
The Rays of Mercy in his Farewell Sermon

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You have been created free from all imperfections; it seems
that you have been created as you have liked.
My eye has never seen more handsome, more lovely than you.
Nor any woman has given birth to more good looking and
more graceful than you.
—Hassan Bin Thabit, the poet companion of the Prophet
Muhammad (May Allah be pleased with him)

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Foreword
Dr. Ali Gomaa
The Grand Mufti of Egypt
In Islam mercy starts with the Creator and is bestowed by Him
to every living creature. The often-quoted attributes of Allah
in Islam are that of Al-Rahman and Al-Rahim which mean
“The Most Gracious“ and “The Most Merciful.“ These two
attributes are mentioned in a phrase recited at the beginning of
each chapter of the Qur’an: “In the name of Allah the Most
Gracious the Most Merciful.” This phrase is a continuous
reminder of Allah’s endless mercy and great bounties.
One of the first things that we Muslims teach our
children is the words of Prophet Muhammad (May peace of
Allah and His blessings be upon him) “The merciful are
shown mercy by the all merciful, show mercy to those on
earth and He Who is in heaven will show mercy unto you.”
Prophet Muhammad (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) was sent as a gift of mercy for the
entire humanity. Allah states about Prophet Muhammad (May
peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him): “We have not
sent thee except as a mercy to the worlds” (21:107).
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Mercy, compassion, and love have been the underlying
foundations upon which both life and civilization have been
built.

For this reason, I welcome the contribution of Br.

Muhammad Jalal Raza. It is a timely book about the merciful
character of Prophet Muhammad (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) at a time in which global communities
are passing through crucial ethical problems.
I am sure that this book will be welcomed by both
Muslims and non-Muslims alike, and I pray Allah to reward
the author immensely for his unfailing and most appreciated
efforts to serve Islam and to defend the honor and noble
character of our beloved Prophet Muhammad (May peace of
Allah and His blessings be upon him).
Dr. Ali Gomaa
The Grand Mufti of Egypt
21/10/07

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Maulana Azad Centre for Indian Culture
(ICCR)
Embassy of India, Cairo
The book entitled The Features of Mercy in Islam by
Muhammad Jalal Raza is a simple and lucid book on the
quality of mercy to be shown among all creatures, including
human beings. Mercy in real sense covers all tender human
qualities of compassion, pity, forgiveness, kindness, sympathy,
understanding, clemency, leniency, and benevolence.
The author has, in his first chapter of the book,
extensively covered almost all life aspects of the Prophet
(May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him), who was
an embodiment and incarnation of mercy and compassion
through out his life. His second chapter deals with the
importance and value of mercy in Islam and how it calls upon
its followers to practice mercy and forgiveness in different
stages of life and within different sections of society. He
devotes his third chapter to dispelling wrong notions and
misunderstandings about Islam and its Prophet (May peace of
Allah and His blessings be upon him).
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I believe that Mr. Mohammad Jalal Raza has made a
sincere attempt through this book to project Islam in a right
way and at a right time. And I hope that his book will be well
received by the reading public. I am pleased with him for
having written and published such a good and useful book. I
look forward to seeing more of his academic and research
productions in future.
Dr. Basheer Ahmad
Director
Moulana Azad Center for Indian Culture
Cairo
06/12/07

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Preface
By
Sayed Ahmad Imam Bukhari
Principal of Pakistan International School, Cairo.
I am, in any capacity, no authority to write preface to a book
that is about the most sublime personality of this universe for
all ages. It is humanly impossible to write about the greatest of
all prophets possessing countless attributes. Allah Almighty
has praised him throughout in the Holy Qur’an. I will quote
only from two verses:
‫وما أرسلناك إل رحمة للعالمين‬.
a) We sent you not, but as a mercy for the whole universe.
(Surah 21:Al Anbiya 107)

b) ‫لقد من ا على المؤمنين إذ بعث فيهم رسول من أنفسهم يتلو عليهم آياته‬
‫ويزكيهم‬
‫ويعلمهم الكتاب والحكمة وإن كانوا من قبل لفي ضلل مبين‬.
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Allah verily hath shown grace to the believers by sending unto
them a messenger of them who reciteth unto them His
revelation and causeth them to grow and teacheth them to
Scripture and wisdom, although before (he came to them) they
were in flagrant error.
(Surah 3 Ali Imran164)
All aspects of his life are evidence of his sublime and
charismatic character. In this respect, the attempt of Mr.
Muhammad Jalal Raza, my friend and an intelligent research
scholar of Cairo University, to present The Features of Mercy
in Islam is quite commendable. The objective is to give room
to the light of truth among dark clouds of prejudice, hatred,
and negative propaganda about Islam, the Holy Qur’an, and
Prophet Muhammad (May peace of Allah and His blessings be
upon him).
In this regard, I would like to quote from some prominent
scholars who were non-Muslims but were seekers of truth. Let
us see what they say.

George Barnard Shaw says about him: “I have studied
him—the wonderful man and in my opinion far from
being an anti-Christ—he must be called the Savior of the
Humanity“1

(The Genuine Islam by Sir G.B.Shaw)

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Michael H. Hart in his book Ratings of Men ranked
Muhammad first in the list. He says: “My choice of
Muhammad to lead the list of the world's most influential
persons may surprise some readers and may be questioned
by others, but he was the only man in history who was
supremely successful on both the religious and secular
levels.“

Lamar Tine, the renowned historian, speaking on the
essentials of human greatness wonders: “If greatness and
astounding results are the three criteria of human genius,
who would dare to compare any great man in modern
history with Muhammad“ and “As regards all the
standards by which Human Greatness my be measured,
we may well ask, Is there any greater than H.E.“2

Edward Gibbon and Simon Ockley, speaking on the
profession of Islam, write, “ 'I believe in one God, and
Mohamet, an apostle of God' is the simple and invariable
profession of Islam. The intellectual image of the Deity
has never been degraded by any visible idol, the honor of
the Prophet has never transgressed the measure of human

( Historie de la Turquie,Paris 1854).

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virtues, and his living precepts have restrained the
gratitude of his disciples within the bounds of reason and
religion.“3
Mahatma Gandhi, speaking on the charter of

Muhammad (May peace of Allah and His blessings be
upon him) says in Young India, “I wanted to know the best
of one who holds today's undisputed sway over the hearts
of millions of mankind . . . I became more than convinced
that it was not the sword that won a place for Islam in
those days in the scheme of life. It was the rigid
simplicity, the utter self-effacement of the Prophet, the
scrupulous regard for his pledges, his intense devotion to
his friends and followers, his intrepidity, his fearlessness,
his absolute trust in God and in his own mission. These
and not the sword carried everything before them and
surmounted ever obstacle.“
Thomas Carlyle in his book Heroes and Hero Worship

was simply amazed as to “How one man single-handedly,
could weld warring tribes and wandering Bedouins into a
most powerful and civilized nation in less than two
decades.”
( History of Saracen Empires, London, 1870)

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And said: “The lies (Western slander) which well-meaning
zeal has heaped round this man (Muhammad) are disgraceful
to ourselves only” and “A silent great soul, one of that who
cannot but be earnest. He was Kindle the World, the World's
maker had ordered so.”
With these few praiseworthy texts, eminent scholars of their
time invite all those who are seeking truth to shun their
prejudices against Islam and Prophet Muhammad (May peace
of Allah and His blessings be upon him) and to check for
themselves what is right and what is wrong.

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Preface
By
The compiler
All praise is for Allah, the Sustainer of the worlds. May
peace and blessings of Allah be upon Muhammad, the chief of
the prophets and messengers, his offspring, companions, as
well as upon those who follow his footsteps until the Day of
Judgment.
Respective readers! This is a concise introduction
intended to remind the people about the noble character of the
Prophet Muhammad (May peace of Allah and His blessings be
upon him) and to introduce his good manners in order to
motivate the agonized human being of this age to be adorned
with the ethics of the Prophet Muhammad (May peace of
Allah and His blessings be upon him) and to adhere to his
exemplary manners.

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How great is our need for his nobility of character! This
can be judged by the sufferings of the human beings of the
present day. They would be saved from their pains and agonies
by his nobleness. They would be able to enjoy the real
happiness and bliss of this world and the Hereafter after
coming under his shelter. These moral values have endured for
centuries after centuries—the source of bliss and dignity for
all people irrespective of faith, religion, color, race, or caste.
Undoubtedly, the present circumstances of the world
impose upon us the duty of defending the Prophet of Allah
(May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him).
However, now more than ever before the need is great to
present and introduce the greatness of the Prophet of Allah
(May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him) to those
who are unacquainted with his loftiness and dignity.
Islam is the only one religion among the most famous
religions of the world that possesses the important elements of
love, unity, and fraternity that are sure to create the harmony,
cooperation, and peaceful living among the followers of
different religions. For example, the present Judaism cannot
lead the world because it dishonors Prophet Jesus (May peace
of Allah and His blessings be upon him), and his mother Mary
(May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon her). On the
other hand, it does not accept the prophethood of Prophet
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Muhammad (May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon
him). In addition, Christianity also cannot create a peaceful
atmosphere of love and coexistence among the pluralistic
societies of the world because it does not accept the Prophet
Muhammad (May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon
him) as an Apostle.
However, Islam undoubtedly can guarantee the mutual
regard and peaceful atmosphere among all people: It accepts
Moses (May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him) as
a respective prophet and asserts that he received a Divine book
(the Torah). Islam also believes in Jesus (May peace of Allah
and His blessings be upon him) as an honored Prophet of
Allah and in Mary (May peace of Allah and His blessings be
upon her) as a truthful, honest, chaste, and pure slave of Allah.
Dear reader! It is very clear that the present human
societies are passing through the crucial crossroads of history
and that the whole of humankind is suffering from religious
and ethical decline. Jungle law is prevailing all over the world,
and the sublime moral values have no place in our general
dealings with each other—on all levels, whether as individuals
or in groups. The present generation has no hope; the worth of
the human life has no meaning.
This is the reason that we are in great need of reviving
those lofty moral values in our daily lives. This is the purpose
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for which the prophets and messengers (May peace of Allah
and His blessings be upon them) were sent one by one by
Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He) until the chain of
prophecy was completed and ended upon our Prophet
Muhammad (May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon
him).
The Prophet Muhammad (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) has explained his goal, saying: “I was
sent in order to perfect the nobilities of ethics.”
Undoubtedly, good conduct has a very high rank and
great importance in Islam. In addition, good behavior has been
attached to faith itself in many cases, as it has been in the
traditions of the Prophet Muhammad (May peace of Allah and
His blessings be upon him). For example, he said:
“Whoever has no honesty (in fact) has no faith.”
“Whoever cheats us is not from among us.”
“Whoever believes in Allah and the Hereafter must
honor his guest.”
“He is not a true believer who does not secure his
neighbor from his disturbance.”
Thus, the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) has emphasized the importance of fair
dealing and good conduct. He (May peace of Allah and His

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blessings be upon him) has also called the people to adhere to
the nobility of character by his own words and actions.
Verily Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He) has assigned
him to be the example and pattern for the whole of
humankind.
Furthermore, Allah Himself (Glorified and Exalted be
He) educated him. As the Prophet of Allah (May peace of
Allah and His blessings be upon him) has said, “My Lord has
raised me; that is why He decorated me with good manners
and I was brought up properly.”
Likewise, he is the role model and the ideal for all
humankind in every aspect of human life. He is an ideal
husband when he interacts with his wife. He is an ideal father
when he deals with his sons and daughters. He is an ideal
commander when he commands his forces. He is an ideal
planner for a poor when he feels the severity of hunger. He is
an ideal worshipper when he worships his Lord. He is an ideal
businessman when he buys and sells his goods and services.
This introduction aims to present the good manners of
the Prophet Muhammad (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) on different occasions and with
different people.
I render here my thanks and appreciation to my helping
wife Asfia Shereen for her active contribution to this work; in
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fact, her efforts cannot be described, but they are deeply felt. I
pray the Almighty to bless our two gifted flowers by Allah—
Zahra and Sha’ima—and to decorate them with good manners.
In addition, I express my regards and thanks to every
one who has helped me by any means in this task.
Dear reader! It is an honor to present this study in
English. I pray to Allah the Almighty to reward the grand
Mufti of republic of Egypt professor Dr. Ali Gomaa
Muhammad (May Allah bless us with his blessings) for his
efforts in introducing the message of the Prophet to people all
over the world in different languages. (Ameen)
May peace and blessings of Allah be upon the best among His
creations, Muhammad, and his offspring, the companions,
followers and his lovers.

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The Pre-Islamic Days (Days of Ignorance)
The pagans of the Arabian Peninsula during that era were far
astray from sound guidance. They worshipped idols, the
religion of Prophet Abraham—the worship of one true God—
was forgotten, and they even installed idols to worship in the
sacred Kaba’ah. The true nature and purity of the Divine
revelations was lost. There was no respect for the weak, the
orphans, or the widows. Bloodshed was commont, men
frequently indulged in drinking, which led them to fight with
each other for simple tribal reasons. Sometimes the tribal wars
would continue for generations upon generations. Human
beings were more brutal and cruel than hyenas. The powerful
ate the weak. Tyranny and oppression were regarded as
virtuous, and prideful acts were venerated. Adultery and
fornication were more common than legal marriages. A father
himself would bury his daughters alive.
Moral values had no meaning at all; people were
unable to legislate laws to rule and govern. They were unable
to establish the governing systems that would establish justice
among them. Moreover, the right was mixed with wrong, and
the good acts were considered to be evil acts. They judged
according to their own desires and selfish inclinations. There
was no brotherhood among them. Each one was ready to shed
his rival's blood. Indeed, there was no Light, and people were
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merely wandering in darkness and arrogance—not only the
Arabs, but the whole of humankind as well.
Humanity was thirsty for a Divine Leader who could take
their hands and guide them to a safe coast that would relieve
their pain and suffering. Therefore, it is an absolute mercy of
Allah who selected as a Messenger among them—Muhammad
the pure, chaste, truthful, honest, intelligent, and merciful—to
rescue human beings from the bottom of inhumanity and give
them the means to rise to the top of leadership of the whole
world. Indeed, the coming of our Prophet Muhammad was the
dawn after a long night to reestablish monotheism.
Allah has mentioned His favor when He guided them to
the right path. Allah says in the Glorious Qur’an: “And hold
fast, all together, by the rope which Allah (stretches out for
you), and be not divided among yourselves and remember
with gratitude Allah's favor on you, for ye were enemies and
he joined your hearts in love, so that by His Grace, ye became
brethren and ye were on the brink of the pit of the fire, and He
saved you from it. Thus doth Allah make His signs clear to
you: That ye may be guided“ (3:103).

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His Birth, Upbringing, Appearance, and Physique
Our leader Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah (May peace of
Allah and His blessings be upon him and his offspring), was
born an orphan on Monday 12th of Rabiul Awwal, coinciding
with the 29th of August, 570 A.D.
His father Abd’ullah died before his birth, and his
mother Amina, daughter of Wahab, died when he was six
years old, followed by his grandfather's death two years later.
In fact, Allah willed that Muhammad would be raised and
brought up under His sight and care. Moreover, he would
learn how he put his trust in Allah only and to submit himself
to his Lord in crises facing him during his missionary life.
Thus, he suffered the pain of his father's death followed with
his mother's death; therefore, he learned how to face different
kinds of agonies and difficulties, and he was prepared to be
the teacher of the whole humankind.4
His physical structure was medium, neither tall nor
short. His blessed head was large in size; his face was slightly
round; his forehead was wide; his eyebrows were very close to
each other, separated by a vein that would redden and expand
whenever he became angry.
4Encyclopedia of Islam Supreme Council Cairo

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The color of his blessed eyes was a beautifully black,
surrounded by white with redness. His beautiful eyelashes
were fairly long. He had a nicely arched nose. His blessed
mouth looked beautiful; his gums and shining white teeth
added to the beauty; his teeth had natural gaps between them,
and this added much to his handsomeness.5
His blessed beard was fairly thick. His hair was fairly
wavy. His blessed arms were fairly long; his shanks were
fairly thin. Biceps were strong, and his muscles were bound.
His face was fair. He had no sign of limpness in his body.6
Whenever he became angry, his face would turn red.7
And if he felt sadness, he would touch his blessed beard
frequently. When he spoke, he waved his whole palm. And
whenever he was surprised at something, he would turn his
palm. If he was absorbed in speaking, he put his left thumb in
his right palm, and if he saw something that was not pleasing,
he would turn away his face from it. Whenever he sneezed, he
covered his face. Sometimes he would laugh until his incisors
could be seen. He smiled more than any other person.

:

5 At-Tirmizi
64 At-Tirmizi
7Al-Byhaqi

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His Dress and Way of Living
The most favorite garment of the Prophet Muhammad (May
peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him) was the robe.
He had a robe made of cotton with sleeves that covered his
wrists, and it was long, extending down near his ankles.8
He wore a woolen garment,9 the cheapest cloth at that
time, and his dress was rough and uncomfortable.
At times he repaired his own shoes and patched his
garment by himself.10 He rode a donkey.11
He had a straw mat upon which he slept at night, and
during the daytime he unfolded it to sit upon it.12 He slept on
the straw mat, and it left marks on his blessed body from its
toughness.
Sometimes he slept on a cloak double folded. Once his
wife Hafsa (May Allah be pleased with her) folded that cloak
four times, and when he slept on it, he fell into deep sleep due
to its softness and thickness until his midnight prayer
(Tahajjud) was missed. So he stopped Hafsa (May Allah be

8At-Tirmizi
9Al-Bukhari
10Musnad Ahmad
11Zad u L Ma'ad
12Al-Bayhaqi

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pleased with her) from doing so; the next time he ordered her
to return it to its original condition.
Once a woman of Al-Ansar saw his rough straw mat and
gifted him a mattress stuffed with coir and covered with
leather. The Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) ordered Aishah (May Allah be pleased
with her) to return it to the woman. He even emphasized it
three times.
“I didn't return it until he ordered me three times. Since I
liked a mattress of this kind for the Messenger of Allah (May
peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him),” as Sayyidah
Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) stated.13
The reason behind this austerity by Prophet of Allah
(May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him) was to
keep himself far from the luxurious life, although Aisha
preferred it eagerly.
And, whenever he slept, he put his hand below his head,
and he slept on his right side.14
Note: The Prophet of Allah (May peace and blessing of Allah
be upon him) never liked poverty, nor did he prefer it. His
voluntarily ascetic life was neither incidental nor meaningless.
Because he used to say in his supplication to Allah “I take
13Al-Bayhaqi
14Al-Bukhari

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refuge of Allah from the inseparable hunger” he was able to
possess the whole wealth of all Arabic Peninsula in his hand.
Moreover, he always gave generously. A Bedouin
described his generosity, saying: “He gives openheartedly
such as, the generous that fears no poverty at all.”15

15Al Mojam As Saghir.

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His Way of Eating
He would not turn back whatever was available and would not
cause to be a burden that which was not present. Whenever
any permissible and delicious food was offered to him, he
would eat happily. If he did not like the food, he would leave
it without prohibiting. He never disgraced any kind of food if
he felt the desire for it. He would eat, and otherwise he would
leave.16
He loved sweet and cold drink,17 and he liked dates. He
ate watermelon with ripe dates and cucumbers with salt. In the
month of Ramadan he broke his fast with ripe dates. If ripe
dates were not available, he would break his fast with dry
dates. If they were not present, then he would break fast with
a drink of water.18 He ate with his three fingers, and he never
ate leaning on anything, and he explained the reason for this,
saying “I like to sit humbly like a slave as I like to eat like a
slave.”19
He sat commonly on earth, and his food was placed on a
sheet spread on the earth.

16Al Bukhari
17At-Tirmizi
18Abu-Dawood
19Al-Bukhari

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The cup with which he drank water was made of thick
wood adjusted with tin slides.20
When Cyrus (called Muqawqis in Arabic, the Egyptian
ruler of that era) gifted to him a cup made of glass, he began
to drink water through it. Whenever he supplied water among
his companions, he would make himself the last one in turn.
He would begin the turn from his right side, and he
would not take any consideration to the left side, no matter
who was there.21
If he did not find anything to eat, he would remain
hungry with patience and tolerance. And at times he would
fasten a stone on his blessed stomach (to support his back), as
he did at the time of digging the trench on the day of AlAhzab (Battle). His companions discovered the fastened
stones upon his blessed stomach due to the severity of hunger.
He never ate wheat bread to his fullness for three
consecutive days until he departed this world. He never ate
bread prepared with refined flour between the time he
declared his prophethood and the time he passed away. (They
refined the barley flour by blowing on it with their mouths.)22

20Al-Mawahib Al Laduniyah
21Zad u Al Ma'ad
22Al-Bukhari

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He used to stay for up to one month, while he had no
flour to prepare bread. He would even pass two months
without igniting a fire in his house (i.e., without cooking).23
‘Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) said:
“However, we were surrounded by neighbors from Al-Ansar
(people of Al-Madinah, who supported the Prophet (May
peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him) when he
emigrated toward them,as all other Muslims did to escape the
harm of the infidels of Makkah who gifted us some food.”24
‘Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) added, saying:
“If we had the lantern we would eat it [i.e., would eat its oil].
Our basic livelihood was water and dates.”25
Once the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) performed his prayer sitting because
he was physically weak because of severity of hunger.
Once they offered him some almond juice then he
ordered them saying: “Drive it away from me, it is the drink of
the luxuriant.”26

23At-Tirmizi
24Al-Bukhari
25Al-Bukhari
26Al Mawahib Al Laduniyyahb

32

33

The Reason for His Simplicity
By our calculation, if Muhammad (May peace of Allah and
His blessings be upon him) would take his share out of the
booty like any individual of his army, verily he would have
been the richest of all Arabs.
However, it had been foreordained by the Creator that
the human being would live many generations and there
would be poverty and richness among them. That is why the
best system of life would be only that which keeps its rulers
among the ranks of the poor.
However, it is narrated by At-Tirmidi that the Prophet
(May peace and blessings be upon him) stated, “My Lord
offered me to turn the field of Mecca into gold, then I asked
no O 'my Lord! But I prefer to be satisfied of food one day,
and remain hungry the next day whenever I would be hungry I
would supplicate to You and remember Your favor and
whenever I remain satisfied I would thank You and glorify
You.27“
Once the Prophet of Allah (May peace and blessings be
upon him) and Gabriel were on the mountain of As-Safa (a hill
in Sacred Mecca) the Prophet of Allah- (May peace and
blessings be upon him) addressed Gabriel “O Gabriel: By God
Who sent down upon me the divine revelation, indeed tonight
27At-Tirmizi

33

34

there was no wheat flour for the family of Muhammad (May
peace and blessings be upon him) to prepare food.
Suddenly the earth shook so severely that he was
frightened. Prophet of Allah (May peace and blessings be
upon him) asked Gabriel: “Is it the Day of Resurrection?” He
answered, “No.”
But just then the angel Israfeel came down. The angel
said, “Allah has heard your words and has sent me down with
the keys of treasuries of the whole earth and ordered me to
offer you, if you wish to live as a king-prophet, then you
would be accompanied by the mountain of Mecca as gold,
silver, emerald, and rubies or if you prefer to live as slaveprophet.” Then Gabriel suggested him to be modest thus, the
Prophet (May peace and blessings be upon him) preferred to
live as a slave-prophet.28
The Prophet Muhammad—may peace and blessings be
upon him—selected to be humble without properties and
wealth to strengthen the heart of the poor, which represents the
major part of the human society. In this way they should
endeavor as the Prophet has endeavored, and they should
tolerate as the Prophet has tolerated. How destructive is the
system that puts both authority and wealth in one hand! And
28At-Tabrani

34

35

how bad is the society in which luxuriates occupy the power
or the power indulges in luxuries!

35

36

His Cleanliness
The Prophet Muhammad loved cleanliness and tidy
appearance.
He used to sleep early in the night and would get up at
midnight. He would use the sewak (a wooden tooth stick) and
would make ablution to prepare himself to perform the
prayers.
Whenever he intended to go on a journey, ‘Aishah (May
Allah be pleased with her) made ready everything that he
would need during his journey. She always kept in his bag
perfume, a comb, a pair of scissors, a kohl container, and a
wooden tooth stick.29
He had a silver ring with his seal bearing the words that
meant, “Muhammad (May peace of Allah and His blessings be
upon him) is the Messenger of Allah.”
That was the seal that was transferred respectively to the
First Caliph of Islam Abu-Bakr (May Allah be pleased with
him). Then it was passed to the Second Caliph Omar (May
Allah be pleased with him), and finally it reached Uthman
(May Allah be pleased with him), the Third Caliph of Islam. It
remained with him for about 6 years after which time it fell
into the well of Al-Arees.30
29Al-Mo'jam Al-Ausat
30Fath ul-Bari

36

37

In spite of a shortage of water, all attempts to draw the
ring out of the well were in vain. The Muslims felt that some
unpleasing matter was going to happen in the coming days,
and they concluded from this event that the Islamic reign
would fall in the hands of those who would follow their own
wishes, not those of Allah. So it might be that Allah wanted to
keep the sacred seal of the Prophet Muhammad (May peace of
Allah and His blessings be upon him) far from attesting the
independent wishes of the rulers with that sacred seal and that
is why the ring disappeared and was followed by the end of
virtuous Islamic period.
If the details of those golden days had not been
preserved in the historical records, no one would believe that
there were such prosperous nations who lived ever on this
globe.

37

38

His Truthfulness and Honesty
Among the most famous characteristics of the Prophet,
Muhammad (May peace and blessings be upon him) was his
truthfulness and honesty. He was called “As-Sadiq” and “Al
-Ameen” (the truth, the trustworthy one) prior to his prophethood by the inhabitants of Mecca. His enemies also
acknowledged his honesty. Abu-Sufyan, for example, made
his confession in front of the Byzantine Emperor when he
said, “Muhammad never lied.”
“In this regard,” Abdullah-Ibn-Abbas narrated, “AbuSufyan Ibn Harb informed me that Heraclius the Emperor of
Abyssinia questioned me about the Prophet Muhammad as I
was the nearest kin of him. I was asked by Heraclius about
Muhammad's position in Arab tribes, ‘What is his family
status amongst you?’ I replied, 'He belongs to a good (noble)
family amongst us.' Heraclius further asked, 'Has anybody
amongst you ever claimed the same to be a Prophet before
him?' I replied, 'no'. He said ‘Was anybody amongst his
ancestors a king?' I replied “No.” Heraclius questioned me
again:”Have you ever accused him of telling lies before his
claim (To be a Prophet)?” I replied:” No. He is well known
among us by his truthfulness and honesty.” Heraclius asked:”
Has he ever betrayed?” I replied:” No.”

38

39

Heraclius asked:” Are those who follow him from the nobles
or from the poor?” I replied:” It is the poor who follow
him.” .'He said:” Are his followers increasing or decreasing?
day by day.” I replied:” They are increasing.” He then asked:”
Does anybody amongst those who embrace his religion
become displeased and renounce the religion afterwards?” I
replied:” “No.” Heraclius asked:” Have you ever had a war
against him?” I replied:” Yes.” Then he said:” What was the
result of those battles?” I replied:” Sometimes he was
victorious and sometimes we were victorious.” 'Heraclius
said:” What does he order people to do?”I replied:” He tells
people to worship Allah alone and not to worship anything
along with Him. And to renounce all that our ancestors had
worshipped. He orders people to pray, to speak the truth, to be
chaste and to keep good relations with their kith and Kin.”
Hearing this, Heraclius said:” If what you have said is true, he
will very soon occupy this place underneath my feet.”
Moreover, he expressed his desire to meet him and he wished
to wash his blessed feet if he could. Heraclius intended to
make a comparison between the information about Prophet
Muhammad by Abu Sufyan and the predictions of his coming
in Gospel and ultimately he was verified and confirmed.31
31Al Bidayah W An Nihayah

39

40

His Jest and Humor
The Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His blessings
be upon him) sometimes remained awake and conversed with
his wives late at night. Likewise he would sit with his
companions after the dawn prayers until sunrise and talk about
the days of Jahiliah (pre-Islamic times), and they laughed, and
he passed a generic smile.32
He even shared jokes with his friends and did not speak
but the truth.
Once he said to an old woman, “None of the old women
will enter Paradise.” When she heard this, she burst into tears.
Then the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) explained to her, smiling: “Don’t you
know what Allah has said in His Glorious Qu’ran and recited
the following verses: “We have created (their Companions) of
special creation, and made them virginally pure (and
undefiled)”.33 When she understood the meaning of what he
said, she became happy and laughed.34
He once raced with ‘Aishah (May Allah be pleased with
her) when she was very young and slim thus she won the race.
And when she became older and her body matured and she
32An-Nasa'e
(Surah 56: Al Waqiah 35, 36)

33

34At-Tirmizi

40

41

gained weight, he again raced with her. This time he won the
race and said in amusement, “This is against that, you won
once and this time I won.”35
Sometimes he stuck out his blessed tongue in front of his
grandson Husain (May Allah be pleased with him). Husain
(May Allah be pleased with him) laughed upon seeing this.
Zaid (May Allah be pleased with him) the son of Aslam
narrated that a woman called Omme Ayman came to the
Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His blessings be
upon him) and said: “My husband has invited you.”
The Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) asked her, “Is he that who has
whiteness in his eyes?”
The woman was extremely surprised! “No, by Allah! He
has no whiteness in his eyes,” she said.
Then the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) said to her, “Why not? Undoubtedly,
he has the whiteness in his eyes.”
The woman still was in wonder and said, “No, by
Allah.”

35Ibn-Katheer

41

42

Then the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) said, smiling: “Every one has the
whiteness in their eyes.”36
It has also been told that a person once came to the
Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His blessings be
upon him) asking him for a riding camel, and the Prophet of
Allah (May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him)
told him: “I shall give you a baby of the camel.”
Then the person said to him: “O Prophet of Allah! (May
peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him) What can I do
with a baby camel?”
He stated, “The camel which I am going to offer you
was also a baby of a she camel.”37
Moreover, the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and
His blessings be upon him) said: “Indeed I marry women, I
eat meat, I sleep, I perform prayers at night, I fast, but I even
do not fast. Whoever turns away from my tradition then, he is

not among us.”38
His Modesty and His Sincerity
36Abu-Dawood
37Abu-Dawood
38Al Bukhari

42

43

Once a person addressed him with these words: “O our leader!
Son of our leader! The best among us! Son of the best among
us!” He instructed the person not to show off, saying: “Beware
of Satan! He should not misguide you. I am Muhammad, son
of Abdullah; I am just a humble servant of Allah and His
Messenger, by Allah! I don’t like to be raised above my
rank.”39
He used to say to his companions, “Don’t stand for my
respect such as the non-Arabs do in order to show respect to
their kings.”40 That is why his companions did not stand for
him whenever they saw him coming toward them, although he
was the most beloved to them. Since they knew that, he
disliked that kind of respect.
He even did not like his companions to walk behind him,
and he would pull whomever did so to walk with him side by
side.
On one occasion, somebody trembled with fear when he
saw him, then the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and
His blessings be upon him) said to him: “Don’t worry, and
relax! I am not a king, but I am son of a woman who used to
eat the dry steak.”41
39Ibn-katheer
40Musnd-Ahmad
41Abu-Dawood

43

44

He loved to help the orphans and widows. In fact, he
fulfilled their needs with is charity. He even stitched his
garments by himself. He always helped the needy and the
helpless widows.42
He visited the sick. He even served his Jewish neighbor.
His door never remained closed for his visitors; there
were no gatekeepers to interfere between him and his visitors.
Whoever wanted to meet the Prophet of Allah (May
peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him) would meet
him without any hindrance.
He encouraged his followers to criticize their leaders and
to seek their rights. He encouraged them to object to
oppression and to express their opinions independently. He
encouraged them to find out what is beneficial and useful. He
liked them to express fearlessly their thoughts about the
attitudes of their leaders.
Once he walked out wearing a thick garment. A Bedouin
came from behind and grabbed him through his thick garment
with such a force that it left its visible marks upon his blessed
body, then the Bedouin shouted at him saying “O Muhammad!
give me some fortune of Allah that your hand possessed.”

42An-Nasa'e

44

45

In spite of this terrible incidence, the Prophet of Allah
(May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him) smiled
and ordered his companion to give him whatever he liked.43
Once a Jew came to him and pulled on him, holding his
cloth until the cloth fell down, then he said, “O Muhammad!
return my loan soon! O children of Abdul Muttalib! You are
very reluctant to pay your dues.”
Omar (May Allah be pleased with him) became furious
at this rudeness and threatened him, saying: “O enemy of
Allah! How dare you talk to the Prophet of Allah (May peace
of Allah and His blessings be upon him) in such a manner?”44
But the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) advised him, smiling: “O Omar! He
and I both need something other than this quarrel. You should
advise me to pay his due as soon as possible and to advise him
to demand his loan in a better way. You also must help him to
get his debt returned. Go and give him back his loan, even add
20 Sa’a [an old Arabic measurement] of dates as a gift.”
When he was distributing the booty of war on the day of
Hunain (an Islamic battle), a Bedouin criticized him in a rude
manner, saying: “There is no equity in this distribution, since

43At-Tabari
44Al-Hakim

45

46

you have not intended the pleasure of Allah through this
distribution.”
The Bedouin shouted at the Prophet of Allah (May peace
of Allah and His blessings be upon him) and spoke loudly:
“Treat us equally! O Muhammad!”
The Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) answered with calm and patience: “If I
would not be just, then who would be the just!”
He added saying: “If I, too, could not treat equally, then I
am the loser and forfeiter.”45
Omar (May Allah be pleased with him) asked the
Prophet (May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him)
for his permission to kill the person for his disrespectful
behavior, but the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and
His blessings be upon him) stopped him and said: “I seek
refuge with Allah from the people's whispering to each other
that Muhammad kills his companions.”
Once he touched a person's stomach with a palm stick
that was in his blessed hand. The person came to him and
asked for the revenge. The Prophet of Allah (May peace of
Allah and His blessings be upon him) uncovered his blessed
stomach before him and gave him the stick to take his
revenge.
45Al-Bukhari

46

47

But the person took the advantage of that moment and
kissed the blessed stomach of the Prophet Muhammad (May
peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him).46
The intention of the companion was merely to frighten
the dictators coming after him and to guide them to the right
path.
Once a Bedouin ran over his foot unknowingly during a
battle, so the Prophet (May peace of Allah and His blessings
be upon him) struck him with a whip. When the battle came
to an end, the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) called upon him and gave him the
whip, asking him to take his revenge. But the person refused
to do so. Then the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and
His blessings be upon him) asked the person to forgive him.
He disliked any form of discrimination in the society—
whether on the basis of caste, creed, or color.
Moreover, he prohibited everything that might divide
society into groups. In addition, he disliked the caste system
as well as any degrading tale of story aboutspying on each
other.
He warned, “Whoever stayed in someone's house
without his permission, in case the house owner gouged his
46Majma Az Zawayed

47

48

eye then he has no right in compensation money or to take
revenge”.
And he said, “None of you is to tell me anything about
any others of you because I would like to meet you with a
sound heart.”47
He also said, “Keep away from evil suspicion for the
sake of evil suspicion. It is the falsest utterance. And do not
spy on each other. Do not envy each other. Do not hate each
other, and be brothers for each other, O slaves of Allah!”48
He instructed his followers, saying, “Every Muslim is a
brother to every other Muslim; hence he should not be unfair
to him nor surrender him neither should he degrade him. It is
enough for a person to be evil that he degrades his fellow
Muslim brother. All Muslims are sacred for one another their
blood, properties, and honors.”49
He said, “Whoever strives to fulfill the needs of his
brother, then Allah will fulfill his needs. And whoever
removes the misfortune of any Muslim, Allah will relieve him
of one misfortune of the Day of Judgments. And whoever
protects the secrets of a Muslim, Allah will protect his secret
on the Day of Judgment.”50
47At-Tirmizi
48Al-Bukhari
49Sho'ab ul Iman
50Muslim

48

49

And he said: “Whoever believes in Allah and the Last
Day should serve his guests generously and should honor his
neighbor.”51
The Mercy of the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah
and his blessings be upon him) in Inflicting a Punishment
The Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His blessings
be upon him) disliked a person to humiliate himself by
confessing his covered sins, which is why he stopped a sinner
from exposing his sin while Allah had revealed it to him.
One of his companions, namely Ma'iz, son of Malik
(May Allah be pleased with him), once came to the Prophet of
Allah (May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him).
He was an orphan, so he was brought up by Hozal Al-Aslami
according to his father's will.
When Ma'iz (May Allah be pleased with him) became an
adult, he went to his guardian Hozal and told him, “I loved a
woman and I slept with her, and now I regret my evil deed.
What is your opinion about my sin?”
He advised him to go to the Prophet of Allah (May peace
of Allah and His blessings be upon him) and to inquire of him.
Ma'iz (May Allah be pleased with him) did as was
suggested by his guardian. The Prophet of Allah (May peace
51Al-Bukhari

49

50

of Allah and His blessings be upon him) reminded him of this
principle four times by saying: “Perhaps you have only kissed
her… Perhaps you have just touched her.”
However, the sincere companion insisted frankly that he
has committed adultery with her.
The Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) asked him directly, though he usually
spoke indirectly in such matters.
But the God-fearing companion persisted in his clear
confession. The Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) began to ask him again in more detail.
Perhaps he would find for him a reason or an exception that
might free him from this major transgression of Islamic law
and its punishment.
Nevertheless, (May Allah be pleased with him)
remained attached to his confession, and the Prophet of Allah
(May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him) began to
question him in this way: “Do you know what adultery
actually means?”
Ma'iz answered, “Yes. I did with her illegally the same
that I do with my wife legally.”
Then the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) asked, “Are you a mad?”

50

51

He also asked his companions about the mental health of
Ma'iz, but he and his companions both confirmed that he was
a mentally sound person. Then the Prophet of Allah (May
peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him) asked him,
“What is your intention through this confession?”
He answered, “I intend to be purified through this
punishment from my sin.
Since then the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and
His blessings be upon him) has legislated the law: “If a sinner
who has confessed his sin surrenders in the beginning of the
punishment or tries to run away, it becomes obligatory to stop
the execution of the punishment immediately. Similarly, it is
obligatory to bring him back to the judge if he asks for it.”
And when someone degraded Ma'iz (May Allah be
pleased with him) for his sin and repentance, the Prophet of
Allah (May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him)
scolded him, saying: “Indeed he has offered a repentance. If a
small group of my followers did the same, then it would be
enough for all of my followers.”
Then, the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) told the guardian, “O Hozal! How bad
is the deed you have done with your orphan?” If only you had

51

52

covered upon his sin even with a right suggestion, in order to
salvage him from this punishment...!52
In addition, Muhamad (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) said in this regard, “Avert the
punishments if there are doubts.”
Therefore, the modern law says, “The doubt always
should be explained on behalf of the accused.”

52Muslim

52

53

The Mercy of the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah
and His blessings be upon him) and the Dignity of Women
Muhammad (May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon
him) loved a woman as a human being, as a mother, a wife, a
daughter, and a sister.
Once he was asked, “Who is worthiest of my good
behavior?” Then he answered, saying: “Your mother, then
again your mother, then again your mother, then your father.”53
And he said: “Whose father and mother were present
before him, or one of them, in spite of that he could not do the
filial piety with them, and died in such position thus he
entered the Hellfire, may Allah curse him!”54
And the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) used to kiss ‘Aishah (May Allah be
pleased with her). Moreover, if she drank water from a jar, he
would take the jar and drink from the same place that she
touched with her blessed mouth. Sometimes he recited the
Glorious Qur'an while his head rested in the lap of ‘Aishah
(May Allah be pleased with her), and he would kiss her while
he was fasting.55
53Al-Bukahri
54Muslim
55Muslim and Ahmad

53

54

Once the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) became angry with ‘Aishah (May
Allah be pleased with her). In order to reconcile with her, he
made a suggesion to her, saying: “Do you agree that Abu
Obaidah (May Allah be pleased with him) may make a
judgement between us?”
She refused, saying: “No, he never will judge against you
and in favor of me.”
Then he asked, “Do you agree that we may use Omar's
judgment?”
And she rejected him again, saying: “No, I fear injustice
Omar (May Allah be pleased with him).”
Then the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) asked her finally: “Do you agree that
Abu Bakr [her father] (May Allah be pleased with him) may
make a judgment between us?”
It was the only time that she agreed with pleasure, and
she said, “Yes, I agree.”
Thus Abu Bakr (May Allah be pleased with him) came
to them, and the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) asked him for his judgment. However,
Abu Bakr (May Allah be pleased with him) was astonished
and asked the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His

54

55

blessings be upon him) in surprise, “Will I be a judge between
you? O Prophet of Allah!”
Then the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) began to narrate the story of the
dispute and the reason for the controversy, but ‘Aishah (May
Allah be pleased with her) interrupted him and said: “Go right,
O Prophet of Allah! and say this rightly.”
Abu Bakr (May Allah be pleased with him) became
furious at her and slapped her face with a force that made her
nose bleed. Abu Bakr (May Allah be pleased with him)
shouted at her in anger, “If he does not speak the truth then
who will speak the truth?”
The Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) felt sorry for her and said to Abu Bakr
(May Allah be pleased with him): “This never was my
intention.”
And he got up immediately and washed the blood from
her face and her garment by himself.56
And whenever anyone of his wives became angry with
him, he put his blessed hand upon her shoulder and prayed, “O
Allah! Forgive her sins, and remove her heart's fire and protect
her from trials.”57
56Al-Kamil
57Al Jame As Saghir

55

56

Once Omar (May Allah be pleased with him) became
furious with his wife and had an argument with her. His wife
argued against him. Omar (May Allah be pleased with him)
disliked arguments. Omar's (May Allah be pleased with him)
wife objected to him fearlessly, saying, “Why do you hate my
argument against you? By Allah, the wives of the Prophet
(May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him) also
argue with him. And some of them separate themselves from
him until the night.”58
And whenever the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah
and His blessings be upon him) came back to his home at
night, he greeted them with a voice that could be heard only
by the awake, and he did not disturb the sleeping.59
He disliked that a person returns to his home from his
journey suddenly, without informing them prior to his return.
That is why he liked a traveler to inform his wife or family
before he arrived at his home.60
Once Abu Bakr (May Allah be pleased with him) came
to the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His blessings
be upon him) while he was wrapped in his cloth. Two girls
were beating a tambourine in front of ‘Aishah (May Allah be
58Mslim
59At-Tabarani
60Al-Bukhari

56

57

pleased with her). When Abu Bakr (May Allah be pleased
with him) saw it, he disliked it and condemned them. Then the
Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His blessings be
upon him) removed the cloth from his blessed face and said to
Abu Bakr (May Allah be pleased with him): “Leave them, O
Abu Bakr! (May Allah be pleased with him). These are the
festival days.”61
Once ‘Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) watched
the play of some Negroes lying upon the Prophet's blessed
shoulder until she became bored with it.62
And he said, “Whoever brings up two daughters
(according to Islamic law) will be accompanied by me on the
Day of Judgment like this. . .”
While saying this he showed his both of fingers joined to
each other (the forefinger and the middle finger),63 meaning
that both will remain together in Paradise.
The Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) did not even permit the use of
“withdrawal” as a contraceptive method if the wife did not
agree with it. So a man alone does not have the right to make
such a decision, nor may he consider the women merely a
61Al-Bukhari
62Al-Bukhari
63Muslim

57

58

source for satisfying his sexual desires. There is no insult
more offensive for a women's heart than this, for she likes
pregnancy from her husband, while he does not like it.
And the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) has said, “This world and this worldly
life are an entertainment, and their best entertainment is a
virtuous wife.”64
And he said: “The worst person before Allah would be
he who has sexual relationship with his wife then spreads her
secrets among the people.”65

64Muslim
65Muslim

58

59

His Tenderheartedness
Muhammad, the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and
His blessings be upon him) was soft-hearted, affectionate, and
merciful with his family members and with friends even with
those innocents whom he did not see.
Once Muhammad (May peace of Allah and His blessings
be upon him) went to visit Zaid (May Allah be pleased with
him) son of Harethah when he was injured in a battle. The
Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His blessings be
upon him) wept when the daughter of Zaid (May Allah be
pleased with him) wept at her father's wound. Then one of his
companions asked him the reason for his tears. He answered
saying, “It is the result of longing from an intimate friend for
his friend.”66
Once Muhammad (May peace of Allah and His blessings
be upon him) came to his grandson when he was in the
agonies of death, then the blessed eyes of the Prophet of Allah
(May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him) burst into
tears upon their separation.
Once Sa'ad (May Allah be pleased with him), son of
Obadah, fell ill, and the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah
and His blessings be upon him) wept for his illness.
66Abu Dawood

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And the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) kissed Uthman (May Allah be pleased
with him) son of Mazo'on, when he was injured in a fight, and
he wept for a long time upon seeing this.67
Once Muhammad (May peace of Allah and His blessings
be upon him) heard from a person that he had buried his
daughter alive in pre-Islamic days, and the Prophet of Allah
(May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him) wept
over this agonizing story until one of his attendants shouted at
that person, saying, “Indeed you have saddened the Prophet of
Allah.” However, the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah
and His blessings be upon him) stopped him and ordered that
person to repeat the story. And the Prophet of Allah (May
peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him) wept until
drops of his tears flowed down on his blessed beard.
His son Ibrahim lived until he reached the age of
eighteen months. Muhammad (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) loved him very much, and sometimes
he even mounted the hill to have a glance at him, when
Ibrahim was under the care of a blacksmith's wife. The
Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His blessings be
upon him) kissed his son and played with him and was pleased
by him heartedly, as he was blessed with him in his old age.
67Al-Isabah

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It is noteworthy that the Prophet of Allah (May peace of
Allah and His blessings be upon him) had no male child
except for Ibrahim, and he even saw Ibrahim leave this world
before him. That is why his eyes were filled with tears at that
painful moment. In spite of that agony, he uttered merely these
wise words, “Verily the eyes bursts into tears, and the heart
breaks down with pain, and we should not utter but whatever
pleases our Sustainer. Indeed we are in a severe grief and
sorrow upon your separation, O Ibrahim!”68
And it happened that the sun, too, was eclipsed at the
same time. So the Muslims who witnessed the grief of their
Prophet (May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him)
interpreted this by saying, “Indeed the sun has been eclipsed
due to Ibrahim's death, therefore the Prophet of Allah (May
peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him) hurried to his
pulpit (to correct his follower's misunderstanding) fearing the
evil temptation spreading among his followers, and addressed
his companions. He said, “Indeed the sun and the moon are
the signs of Allah they don't get eclipsed for any one's death
nor any one's birth”.
Muhammad (May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon
him) was sent by Allah to call us to dignity and glory.
Therefore, we have to choose either to live with respect and
68Al-Bidayah Wn-Nihayah

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honor with other nations, exercising our rights with freedom,
standing up for our rights, or to die as martyrs protecting our
religion and homelands. In this way we can remain always
givers not takers, and we have to believe here that dignity is in
our country and in our religion.

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Muhammad (May peace of Allah and His blessings be
upon him) The Gifted Mercy
The extremely gentle nature of the Prophet Muhammad (May
peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him), which
endeared him to all, is the nature of mercy: one of the
Prophet's titles in the Glorious Qur’an is “The Mercy of
Allah.”
In this regard, the companion Abu–Maso'od Al–Badri
(May Allah be pleased with him)narrated a story: Once I was
striking my slave with a whip, and just then I heard a voice
from behind saying, “O Abu–Maso'od hear!” Because of my
anger I could not recognize the voice at first, but when the
person came nearerI saw that it was the Prophet of Allah (May
peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him) who called
upon me, saying, “O Abu–Maso'od! You must know that Allah
(Exalted be He) is Mightier upon you than you upon this
slave.” Then I told to him, “O Prophet of Allah ! He is free for
Allah (Exalted be He)”.
The Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) then said to me, “If you had not freed
him, indeed you would have remained near to be burned in
Hellfire.”69
Reported by Muslim and Abu Dawood

69

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This mercy was even reflected in the general life of the
Muslims, in that golden period. as would be seen in this
tradition which illustrated the manner of the companion Abu –
Zarr (May Allah be pleased with him), with his slave. Abu
Zarr (May Allah be pleased with him) clothed his slave the
same kind of clothes that he wore himself, and gave him the
same garment he would put on.
And when he was questioned about his good conduct, he
answered saying, “I heard the Prophet of Allah (May peace of
Allah and His blessings be upon him) saying: ‘Your servants
are your brothers, feed them the same food that you eat, and
cloth them the same clothes that you wear.’ ”70
The Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) has said, “He is not among us who has
no mercy upon our young, and does not respect our old, and
does not enjoin what is right and does not forbid what is
wrong”71.
This is Islam, and that is our Prophet (May peace of
Allah and His blessings be upon him), and those are his
followers. But the enemies deform the facts and place upon

Reported by Abdur – Razzaq in his book by the name “Musannaf”

70

Reported by Tirmizi

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the Muslims false accusations like terrorism, extremism,
severity, violence, and intolerance.
The Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) ordered the companion Moa’az (May
Allah be pleased with him) not to deny the truthful, not to
follow the wrongdoer, not to disobey the just governor, and
not to spoil the land. Even the Prophet of Allah (May peace of
Allah and His blessings be upon him) commended Moa’az
(May Allah be pleased with him) to fear Allah, even in stones,
trees, and lands, and he ordered him not to cut a tree, not to
harm a donkey, and to be merciful upon every thing.
Undoubtedly, the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah
and His blessings be upon him) was sent by the Lord as a
mercy for all creations. He is the Gift of Mercy for all: men,
jinn, plants, trees, and even for the inanimate things, Allah
(Exalted be He) described him, saying, “We sent thee not, but
as a mercy for all creation”72.

Sura 21, Al – Anbia: 107

72

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His Patience and Tolerance
Allah the Most Merciful (Exalted be He) gave the nature of
patience and forgiveness to the Prophet of Allah (May peace
of Allah and His blessings be upon him) so that he would be
able to fulfill the tremendous task of guiding people whom
gone astray from the path of Allah (Exalted be He). The
patience of the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) knew no limit or boundary. even it
took under its wings, his bitter enemies of the infidels and
polytheists who fought against him, wounded him, even his
blessed face was injured and was bleeding on the Day of
Uhud, When his companions were saddened because of his
severe injuries, they asked him to pray to Allah against his
enemies, but the Prophet calmed them, saying, “Indeed I am
sent as a preacher, and mercy for all not as a curser. O Allah!
Guide my people to the right path, as they do not know the
reality.”73
It was narrated by the scholar Al Hakim, about Zaid the son of
S’oana. He was a famous Jewsih rabbi that embraced Islam.
He explained why what led him to Islam: No signs of
prophesy escaped from my notice, and I found everyone of
those indications which are mentioned in our books on his
face except for these two signs which I could find. The first is
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that his tolerance precedes his wrath, the second is that if the
mistreatment of his people increases, his tolerance and
patience surpasses their misconduct. So I secretly mingled
with him, so that I could examine his tolerance and his
forgiveness. Thus I purchased from him some dates. I paid the
price at that time, and we fixed a date on which he has to pay
the dates. When the appointed time came near, which was only
two or three days, I came to him, held his robe, and glanced at
him with eyes filled with anger, and told rudely: “O
Muhammad! Would you not pay my due? O sons of Abdul
Muttalib! By Allah you are very reluctant to pay your dues.”
Then Omar (May Allah be pleased with him) scolded him,
saying, “O enemy of Allah! How dare you address the Prophet
of Allah (May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him)
in such a manner? By Allah if I would not expect what I fear, I
would chop off your head with my sword.”
However, the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) remained calm and patient, and he
even smiled and advised Omar, “O Omar we are in a greater
need of other than this, you have to order me to pay his due
with good manner, and to order him to demand his needs from
me kindly. Go, O Omar, and pay his dates with an addition of
20 Sa’a (An old Arabic measure) as the compensation for your
frightening him.” After that Zaid addressed Omar, saying, “O
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Omar now I have examined the two final signs of
prophethood. Be witness that I have accepted Allah (Exalted
be He) as my Lord and Islam as my religion and Muhammad
(May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him) as my
Prophet”.74
Even the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) has forgiven the Jew Labeed, the son
of Aasam, who had bewitched him. He also forgave the Jewish
woman who had poisoned the meat of which the Prophet of
Allah (May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him)
took a bite once.75
The Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) was ordered by Allah (Exalted be He)
to forgive. As He said in the Glorious Qur'an:“Hold to
forgiveness. Command what is right. But turn away from the
ignorant.”76
The companion Anas, the son of Malik (May Allah be pleased
with him), narrated: Once we were in the mosque with the
Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His blessings be
upon him), and a Bedouin entered the mosque and began
urinating in the mosque. The companions of the Prophet (May
74At-Tabrani
75Al-Bukhari
Surah 7 Al – A'raf: 199

76

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Allah be pleased with them) tried to hold him back by saying,
“Stop, Stop.” But the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah
and His blessings be upon him) calmed them, saying, “Do not
disturb him–let him carry on”.
So they remained patient, until he finished his urination. Then
the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His blessings be
upon him) called him near and advised him, saying, “These
are the sacred mosques which are not the places for urination
or any other filth. But mosques are only for the glorification of
Allah, for prayer and for reciting the Holy Qur'an.” Then the
Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His blessings be
upon him) ordered one of his companions to bring a bucket of
water and to wash away the urine.77
Furthermore, when the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah
and His blessings be upon him) entered Makkah and
conquered the polytheists, he addressed the tribesmen there,
saying, “O group of Quraish! What are you expecting from
me? And what am I going to do with you?”
They answered him, saying, “We hope from you the
good because you are a noble brother and the son of a noble
brother.”

(Reported by Muslim).

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However, they were the same people who had expelled
him and his companions from their own houses; they inflicted
on them all kinds of torment and tortured them severely. They
insulted and humiliated the Muslims in the worst possible
ways.
In spite of that, the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah
and His blessings be upon him) freed them, saying, “There is
no blame upon you today go you are free.”78
Jabir, the son of Abdullah (May Allah be pleased with them),
said, “Once we were accompanied by the Prophet of Allah
(May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him) in a
journey to face a war, in the middle of the day. We reached in
a valley with many trees. Therefore, the people went in
different directions in order to rest for a while under the
shades of those trees. The Prophet of Allah (May peace of
Allah and His blessings be upon him) also camped under a
tree and hung his sword on a branch of the tree, and slept.
When he got up, he found a person carrying his sword
standing upon his head. Then the person addressed him
saying, ‘Who will protect you now from me?’
“The Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) answered him calmly, ’Allah!’
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(al – Bidayah Wa al Nihayah

71

“After hearing, this, the sword fell down from his hand.
Then the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) held the sword in his hand and
addressed him, saying, ‘Who will protect you from me?’
“He answered, trembling in fear, ‘Be kind with me!’
Then the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) forgave him and did not punish him.”79
And the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) never chided any of his servants. The
companion Anas (May Allah be pleased with him) said, “I
have served the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) for ten years. Never did he mutter
against me. He never objected to what I did wrong, nor did he
say to me, ‘Why have you not done this?’ This was not only
with me, but it was his common conduct with all of his
servants, male and female servants alike. He never struck any
of them.”80
Undoubtedly, this type of sublime and lofty manner can
not be adhered to by anyone without the special support of
Allah.

(Narrated by Al – Bukhari and Muslim).

79

80Al-Bukhari

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In another tradition narrated by Muslim, Anas (May
Allah be pleased with him) said, “I never saw a person more
kindhearted with his family than the Prophet of Allah (May
peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him)”.81
Once Aisha (May Allah be pleased with her), the
honored wife of the Prophet, was questioned: “How was the
manner of the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) in his house with his family
members?”.
She answered, describing him this way: “He was the
most softhearted of all and the most smiling person. He was
never seen stretching his blessed legs among his people.”82
Furthermore, she said, “No one was better mannered
than the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him). No one invited him but that he
accepted the invitation happily.”
The Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) has commanded the people, saying,
“Whoever believes in Allah and in the Last Day must respect
his neighbor. Whoever believes in Allah and in the Last Day

81Muslim
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must respect his guest. Whoever believes in Allah and the Last
Day must speak rightly or remain silent.”83
And he has instructed the people, saying, “None of you
could be a true believer until he does not choose for others
what he chooses for himself”.84 Furthermore, he said: “Fear
Allah wherever you might be. After any evil deed; follow it
with a good deed, so it will be erased. And deal with people in
good conduct.”85
At-Tabari mentioned that the Prophet of Allah (May
peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him) once was on a
journey. During the journey, he ordered his companions to
slaughter a goat.
One of them said to him, “O Prophet of Allah (May
peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him)! I undertake
the duty of slaughtering it.
The second said, “I shall take the skin off of it.”
The third of them said “Leave the duty of cooking upon
me.”
Then the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) also said: “To gather the firewood is
my duty”.
Al-Bukhari

83

84Muslim
85Ibn-Katheer

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The companions said, “O Prophet of Allah (May peace
of Allah and His blessings be upon him)! We will suffice for
your duty”.
Then the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) said: “I knew well that you will suffice
for my work, but I dislike being distinct among you. Indeed
Allah also hates his servant if he makes himself distinct
among his friends.”86
Moreover, it was narrated by Abu Qatadah that when the
delegation of Abyssinian King Najashi came to him, the
Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His blessings be
upon him) himself began to serve them. This time also his
companions said to him, “We will suffice for you.”
However, he said to them, “They were hospitable with our
companions, and, in return, I like to compensate them”.87

86At-Tabari
87Sho'ab Al Iman

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The Mercy of the Prophet (May peace and blessings be
upon him) when He Taught
Muhammad (May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon
him) was the best teacher. His whole life was full of mercy
kindness pity and generosity in all aspects. Here are some
examples that explain his merciful nature, especially when he
taught the ignorant.
Imam Al-Byhaqi narrated in his book, namely Sho-abulIiman, that a youth came to the Prophet (May peace of Allah
and His blessings be upon him) and said, “O Prophet of
Allah, please permit me to commit adultery.”
The people turned to him and rebuked him and said, “Stop it.”
But the Prophet (May peace of Allah and His blessings be
upon him) said, “Please come close to me.” Then the youth
came near to him.
He said:” Sit down.”
He sat there.
Then the Prophet (May peace of Allah and His blessings be
upon him) asked him, “Do you accept adultery from your
mother?”
The youth answered, “No by God! May Allah make me a
protection for you!”
Then the Prophet explained, saying, “Likewise no one accepts
it with their mothers.”
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Furthermore, the Prophet (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) questioned the youth, saying, “Do you
accept adultery from your daughter?”
The youth denied this and said, “No, may Allah make me
redemption for you.”
Then the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) said, “Similarly, no one accepts
adultery from their daughters.”
Then the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) argued again, saying, “Do you agree
to it from your sister?”
The youth expressed his disapproval and said, “No! May
Allah make me ransom for you!”
Then the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) asserted,; “And no one agrees to it
from their sisters.”
The Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) continued, “Do you accept it with
your maternal aunt?”
His answer was in negative as previous. He said; “No,
may Allah make me sacrifice for you!
Then he said;” and no one accepts it with their maternal
aunts.”

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In last, he (May peace of Allah and His blessings be
upon him) asked him, “Do you accept it with your paternal
aunt?”
The young man denied and said,“No may Allah make
me sacrifice for your sake!” Then he said, “And no one
accepts it with their paternal aunts.”
Then the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) put his blessed hand upon him and
prayed:” O Allah forgive his sin and purify his heart and
safeguard his private.”
The narrator stated that the young man never turned to
such things at all afterward.88
At-Tabarani narrated from Al-Hareth the son of AlHareth he said, “I asked my father (when he was against the
Prophet) about a gathering around a person, my father
answered, “These people are gathered around a nonbeliever
person of them then we stayed at that place suddenly it was
the messenger of Allah (May peace of Allah and His blessings
be upon him) inviting the people to the monotheism and faith
of Islam but they were rejecting and hurting him. It continued
till midday only that time the people were away from him.
Then a woman came to him carrying a vessel of water and a
handkerchief.
88At-Tirmizi

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Then he took the water and drank it and performed the
ablution then he said:” O my beloved daughter! Cover your
neck and do not worry about your father.” We asked:” Who
was she?” They answered:” She is his daughter Zainab.”89
Abu Noyem narrated in his book namely Ad_Dalyel
from the companion Anas (May Allah be pleased with him) he
said, “The messenger of Allah (May Allah's blessings and His
mercy be upon him) was the most kindhearted of all people,
by God he doesn't refuse at all in a cold morning for a male or
female slave or a child if they bring water to him then he
washed his blessed face and his blessed hands with it and he
never was asked by a person but he turned his ear to him to
listen and doesn't turn away from him until the person turned
away from him, if a person would intend to catch his blessed
hand he would stretch it happily towards him and would not
pull it until the person would be the first to pull it from him.90
Imam Malek narrated from Ata the son of Yasir that a person
came to the Prophet (May peace of Allah His blessings be
upon him) while his hairs and beard were uncombed and
scattered then the Prophet (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) pointed to his hairs, as if he ordered
him to comb and dress his hairs.
89At-Tabarani
90Dalayel An-Nubuwwah

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However, he left, and after a while he returned and did what
he was ordered to do.
Then the Prophet (May peace of Allah and His blessings be
upon him) asked him, “Isn't it better than that? It is not good
to come out uncombed, scattered like a Satan.”91
The authorized book of Al-Bukhari narrates that the Prophet
of Allah (May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him)
once searched out about a black man and questioned saying:”
What happened to that man?” They answered:” He has died O
Prophet of Allah!” Then he said:” Why have you not informed
me about his death?”
They told, “His life story was such and such.” Thus, they
degraded him. “Then he asked them to guide him to his grave
and he came to his grave and prayed for him.”92
Imam Malek and Nasae narrated from Abu-Qatadah that I
asked:” O Prophet of Allah! (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) I have a scalp then would I have to
comb it.” He answered:” Of course! Comb and coiffure it.”93

91Malik
92Al-Bukhari
93An-Nasa'e

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The Rays of Mercy in His Farewell Sermon
During his pilgrimage, Muhammad–peace and blessings be
upon him) mounted his camel to deliver his last major sermon
to a sea of his companions, nearly one lakh twenty thousand
who had gathered in the plain of Arafat (located in Mecca) to
listen to him. After giving praise to God, he said:” O people!
Listen carefully to my words for I may not be among you next
year, nor I hope to address you again on this place.
O people! Just as you regard this time, this day, this place, and
this month, as sacred, so regard the life and the property of
every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to
you to their rightful owners. Hurt no one as no one may hurt
you. From today onwards, usury is forbidden and I am the first
person to forgive my uncle's due. Satan has despaired of
leading you astray in big things, so beware of obeying him in
small things.
O people! Women have rights over you just as you have rights
over them .By God's words you have made them permissible
for you Be kind to them and fear Allah in their matters. “O
people! No prophet or apostle will come after me and no new
faith will be born. You may soon have to appear before God
and answer your deeds. So beware! Do not go astray after I
am gone.

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Listen to me carefully! Worship your God; perform your
prayers, fast during the month of Ramadan and give of your
wealth in charity. All Muslims, whether free or slaves have the
same rights and the same duties .None is higher than the other
unless he is higher in virtue. “Feed your slaves as you feed
yourselves, clothe them as you clothe yourselves. Do not
oppress them nor loot their rights.
“O people! Your God is one God, and your father is one father
i.e. Adam .All mankind is the progeny of Adam and Adam
was fashioned out of clay. Verily, in the sight of Allah, the
most honored amongst you is the one who is most Godfearing, and Allah has full knowledge, and is well acquainted
with all things. There is no superiority for an Arab over a nonArab except in God's fearing.” After these blessed words he
turned his face to the sky and said:” Be my witness. O God!
that I have conveyed Your message to Your people.”
Hearing this, the sea of his followers responded with one
voice “Yes, O Prophet of Allah! We witness that you have
conveyed to us the message of God.”94
Indeed, we together have witnessed the fundamentals of
human rights, which have declared 14 centuries before by the
Mercy Prophet of Allah (May peace, and blessings be upon
him.
94Al-Bedayah Wn-Nihayah

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This is a brief and concise introduction which displays the
sublime and lofty ethics of the Prophet Muhammad (May
peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him) aimed at
guiding the people to the right and correct knowledges about
the Last Messenger of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) and to explain the God – gifted glory
and dignity of his perfection.
Verily, writing about the Prophet of Allah (May peace of
Allah and His blessings be upon him) will never come to an
end. Since his greatness and splendor are unlimited, because
he was educated and brought up under special care of his
Lord.
The Arabic poet is true when he described him saying:
“The highest degree of knowledge about him is that he is a
human being, (not an angel or god). And he is the best one
among all the creation of Allah.”
We pray to Allah that He guides the people towards the
love of the Prophet Muhammad and to follow his foot steps
(May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him) who
called the people to believe in all prophets and messengers
of Allah (May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon
them) and to respect them all, from Adam to Jesus (May
peace of Allah and His blessings be upon them) as well as
we ask Allah to bless us through this humble effort.
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Features of Mercy in Qur’an and Sunnah

Chapter Second
Features of Mercy in Qur’an and Sunnah
 The Word of Mercy in Islam
 The Word of Peace in Islam

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 The Mercy of Islam upon the Child
 The Mercy of Islam upon the Orphan
 The Mercy of Islam upon the Woman
 The Mercy of Islam upon the Old
 The Mercy of Islam upon the Needy and Helpless
 The Mercy of Islam upon the Slave and Servant
The Mercy of Islam upon the Neighbor

 The Mercy of Islam upon the Living Thing
 The Mercy of Islam upon non-Muslim
 The Mercy and Jihad
 The Mercy and Islamic Punishments
 The Mercy of Islam upon the Sinner
 The Mercy and Main Objectives of Islam
 The Mercy and Flexibility in Islamic Sharia'h

The Word of Mercy “Ar-Rahmah” in Islam
The word “Ar-Rahmah” (the mercy) and its derivations are
used very frequently in the Glorious Qur’an and the traditions
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of the Prophet Muhammad (May peace and blessings be uponand are repeated in daily prayers several times.
The blessed words of “In the Name of Allah the Most
Gracious the Most Merciful” is must for every Muslim to
recite before every common permitted work like eating,
drinking, sleeping, driving, talking, reading, writing etc.
As the Prophet (May peace and blessings be upon him has
said:” Any important matter which has not been begun with
Allah's blessed name or His glorification is incomplete.”95
And the first word in the Glorious Qur’an is” In the Name of
Allah the Most Gracious the Most Merciful” as well as every
chapter (Surah)of Qur’an has been begun with these merciful
words.
Moreover, the first chapter (Surah) of the Glorious Qur’an and
second Verse of it is “Ar-Rahman Ar-Raheem”(The Most
Gracious The Most Merciful) both blessed words are literally
derived from “Ar-Ramah” which denotes to mercy, and
kindness.
Allah-Glorified be He-has attributed Him Self with these
noble descriptions in the Glorious Qur’an several times.

Abu-Dawood

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In addition, every Muslim has to recite the first chapter of the
Glorious Qur’an in every prayer of daily five prayers, from
two to four times.
And the Prophet (May peace and blessings be upon him) has
been attributed by Allah-Exalted be He- in the Glorious Quran
as the mercy for the whole universe” He-Glorified be Hesays:” We sent you not, but as a mercy for all creatures.96“
Even the Prophet (May peace and blessings be upon him has
said:” Indeed I am a gifted mercy.97“
And whoever has no mercy was warned by the Prophet (May
peace and blessings be upon him) as he said:” No one is
deprived of mercy but an unlucky.98“ Allah-Glorified be Hehas reminded His slaves this word in order to be adorned with
mercy.
Thus, we can conclude confidently that Islam encourages
every person to be merciful and kind, so that Allah-Glorified
be He- would bless him in reward with His special mercy and
kindness as reward comes always according to the works.
The Word of “Salam”(Peace) in Islam
Surah, 21, Al-Anbiya'107)

96

Ibn-Katheer))

9788

Abu-Dawood)

98

87

88

Among the manifest religious titles of a Muslim is “AlMomin” which has been derived literally from the origin of
the Arabic word “Amn “which means actually the peace and
security.
It is also among the ninety-nine blessed attributes of AllahGlorified be He- He says In the Glorious Qur’an: “Allah is He
except Whom there is no other god the Sovereign the Holy
One the Source of peace, the Guardian of faith the Preserver
of safety.”99
And the common title of a Muslim is the word “Muslim”
which is also derived from the original Arabic word “Salam”
which means “Peace”.
When a Muslim greets his brother he says; “As-Salmu Alikum
Wa Rahmatullah” which means “May peace and Allah's mercy
be upon you!”
Even a Muslim has been permitted to greet a non-Muslim by
the word of peace and say:” May peace upon those who
follow the right path.”100
These are the words with which a Muslim has to end his
prayer as he says turning his face towards his right side “May
peace and Allah's mercy be upon you all” and turning his face
.(Surah,59,Al-Hashr,23

99

100yousuf alQarzawi

88

)

89

to his left, repeats the same blessed words. Thus, he repeats
these words two times after every prayer of daily five prayers.
Furthermore, a Muslim has to greet during his prayer itself the
Prophet Muhammad (May peace and blessings be upon him)
and to all righteous creations in universe by these words:
“Peace be upon you O Prophet! And upon us and upon all
pious servants of Him.”101
Islam(The particular name of the Islamic faith) itself is an
Arabic word which means to avail others with peace and
security.
Thus, it became very clear that the allegations of Terrorism
and Extremism are contradictory to Islam's pure and noble
nature. It is very clear that Islam reminds its followers and
draws their attention to mercy and peace in such repeatedly
manner!
The Mercy of Islam upon the Child
The mercy of Islam upon the child begins very earlier even
before his birth, as Islam has ordered the proposed parents to
select a good character and a good looking life partner, so that
the child would be good looking and would find a healthy
atmosphere and sound climate to grow his abilities and
endowments. Since the house is the first school for a child.
101Al-Bukhari

89

90

If we study in deep the teachings of the Prophet (May peace
and blessings be upon him) we would find that no aspect of
human life has escaped it's wise teachings, every thing has
been explained with such detail and depth that is sufficient and
enough for the suffering humankind of the World to lead them
to a safe and peaceful coast till there is life on this earth.
The child is a gift from Allah, and the natural desire of every
healthy person as it is the continuation and remembrance of
the parents even after they die. The decoration of human life
will be incomplete without a child. Ask a person who is
deprived of this valuable favor!
That is why we find Allah-Glorified be He-also regarded the
child as the adornment of the human life. He says:” Wealth
and sons are allurements of the life of this world, but the
things that endure, good deeds are the best in the sight of your
Lord as rewards, and best as (the foundation for)hopes.102“
Even Islam has instructed the parents to recite these words
before having intercourse so that the proposed child would be
unharmed and safe from satanic temptations in his life. The
Prophet (May peace and blessings be upon him) said:” When
one of you intends to be near to his wife and recite (before
it)”In the name of Allah! O Allah! Protect us and protect what
Surah, 18, Al-Kahf.46)

102

90

91

You have blessed us with. Then Satan can never harm the
child if they were blessed with a baby.103“
And the Prophet (May peace of Allah and His blessings be
upon him) said:” Select for your sperm,(a good mate) marry
the suitable and give them in marriage”.104
Undoubtedly, this Hadith illustrates the mercy of Islam upon a
child as well as the care of Islam for a child even before his
birth. A child through Islamic point of view is regarded as the
shield and protection against calamities and misfortunes. As
we may refer here to the following tradition.”
“If Allah-Glorified be He-wants to send down any calamity on
His servants then Firstly, he captures the souls of childrens,
and sterilize the wombs, and then He sends down the
punishments upon them when there remains no one deserving
His mercy.”105
At-Tabarani narrated from As-Saeb son of Yazeed (May
Allah be pleased with him) that once the Prophet (May peace
of Allah and his blessings be upon him) kissed his grand son
Hasan when Al-Aqra son of Habes saw it said” I have been
blessed with ten sons but never kissed nor hugged any of them
Al-Bukhari

103

(Ibn-Majah)

104

(Dylami

105

91

92

then the Prophet (May peace of Allah and His blessings be
upon him) warned him saying:” Whoever has no mercy upon
the people deserves no mercy from Allah.”106
As well as Islam has protected the child's life when he begins
his initial stages of life in his mother's womb.
Only when he gains the first feature of life as an” fetus” he
enjoys the full care and protection under the shade of Islamic
teachings in order to be born healthy and live his life. Any
kind of harm or negligence is regarded as a heinous crime in
Islam. That is why; Islam has prohibited abortion and any
other action, which may cause his death or may harm him.
Allah-Glorified be He-says in the Glorious Qur’an:” And don't
take life which Allah has made sacred-except for just cause.107“
There are some exceptional cases in which an embryo is
permitted to be aborted with some strict terms.
If his mother's life is in danger and there is no option to save
her life without abortion, then only, it has been permitted to
abort it, as mother's life is an origin for the fetus, so it is
logical to be preferred the life of the origin firstly.
As well, as mother's life is complete and present but the fetus
is proposed to get a complete life after its birth.
At-Tabarani

106

(Surah17, Al-Isra' 33),

107

92

93

It is also the mercy of Islam upon an embryo that if a pregnant
woman committed a murder crime intentionally then it
becomes obligatory to delay the punishment until she gives
the birth in order to save the life of the embryo.
It is noteworthy that Islam ordains that an intentionally
murderer must be murdered if the guardians of the murdered
will not forgive.
As the Prophet (May peace and blessings be upon him) has
said:” If a (pregnant) woman kills (a person intentionally) then
she would not be killed (in penalty) until she puts whatever is
in her womb and until she has nursed her child.”108
The historians have mentioned that Arabic tribes differentiated
between male and female child and to prefer a male to female,
even they buried a female alive escaping the social shame and
tribal dishonor according to their old tradition as the Glorious
Qur’an illustrates the psychological collapse and nervous
breakdown of a person when he comes to know that he was
blessed with a female.
Allah-Glorified be He-says:” And when news is brought to
one of them, of (the birth of)female(child),his face darkens,
and he is filled with inward grief, with shame does he hide
himself from his people, because of the bad news he has had,
(Ibn-Majah)

108

93

94

shall he retain it on(suffering and)contempt, or bury it in the
dust. Ah! What an evil (choice) they decide on.”109
However, Islam has equated between male and female, and
appreciated a person who has brought up the females and
adorned them with good character. And encouraged to treat
them kindly, as they are those who will generate in future
thinkers, philosophers, rulers, and they were those who had
given the birth of prophets and messengers and great
personalities of the history.
The Prophet (May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon
him) says:” Whoever has a female (child) but neither he
buried her nor dishonored her nor preferred on her (the males)
then Allah will admit him in Paradise.”110And the Prophet
(May peace and blessings be upon him) has said:” Whoever
has three daughters, or three sisters, or two daughters or two
sisters then he treated them with kindness and feared Allah
about them, then Allah will admit him in Paradise.”111 The
mercy of the Prophet-peace and blessings be upon him) upon a
child also reflects in his care for giving name to the newborn,

(Surah,16;An-Nahl;58,59)

109

(Abu-Dawood)

110

(Tirmizi)

111

94

95

as he loved good names and disliked bad names even he has
changed some bad names with other good ones.
The Prophet (May peace and blessings be upon him) has
explained:” It is a due right of a child on his father to select for
him a good name, honor him and educate him good
manners.”112
And it is narrated by Ali (May Allah be pleased with him)
(The son-in law of the Prophet (May peace and blessings be
upon him) ) that when I was blessed with Hasan(The grand
son of the Prophet (May Allah be pleased with him) )the
Prophet (May peace and blessings be upon him) asked” show
me my son what have you named him?” I answered
“Harb”(The war) then the Prophet (May peace and blessings
be upon him) said” But he is Hasan( The good manner and
good looking).Again, when I was blessed with Husain (The
second grand son of the Prophet (May peace and blessings be
upon him) ) he asked me” Show my son. What have you
named him?” I told: “Harb” Then he said:” But he is Husain
(The little and good manner and good looking).
And the same happened in third time, when I was blessed with
third child the Prophet (May peace and blessings be upon him)
came and asked me as before: “Show me my son, what have
(Al-Baihaqi)

112

95

96

you named him? Then I answered him: “Harb”(The war)then
he said:” But he is “Muhsan” that who was beautified by
Allah-Glorified be He-.Then I loved to name my other sons by
“Bishr”(The smiling)and “Basheer” the bringer of good
tidings” and “Mubashshar”(The receiving of the good
tidings).113
This Hadith explains the concern of the Prophet (May peace
and blessings be upon him) of child's names, on the other
hand it presents the merciful nature and soft and tender
feelings of the Prophet (May peace and blessings be upon
him) even in the matter of names as he changed the name
“Harb”(War) three times because this word gives a feeling of
harshness and leaves a meaning of roughness in the mind.
However, Arabs named such kinds of names to denote a
meaning of bravery and boldness, nevertheless the kind nature
of the Prophet (May peace and blessings be upon him) never
accepted such names.
It is also narrated by Sa'eed son of Musayyab that his grand
father came to the Prophet Muhammad (May peace and
blessings be upon him) then he asked his name, he answered
“Hazan” (the hard) then the Prophet (May peace and blessings

(Abu-Dawood)

113

96

97

be upon him said:” You are(Sahl) the soft “ Then he said: “I
can not change my name which I got from my father.”
Sa'eed stated that due to this, we are suffering from the harsh
till now. 114
Furthermore, as a child has been surrounded in Islam with
social, moral, and educational care, his physical and financial
rights also have been properly guaranteed in Islamic
Jurisprudence.
The necessary expenditure of a child is upon father's shoulder
until he becomes able to earn in case of a male, or she gets
married in case of a female, as after her marriage the
responsibility would be transformed to her husband.
If his father is not, alive or unable to earn then the nearest
relative has to afford his expenses. If there is no one of his
relatives to fulfill this duty then the treasury house is full
responsible of his necessities.
Islam has encouraged a breadwinner to spend on his family
and appreciated his efforts for their livelihood.
The Prophet (May peace and blessings be upon him) said:”
Whatever you spend on your self is a charity for you and
whatever you spend on your children is a charity for you and

114

97

(Al-Bukhari)

98

whatever you spend on your wife is a charity for you and
whatever you spend on your servant is a charity for you.”115
Once a person passed by the Prophet (May peace and
blessings be upon him) when the companions of the Prophet
saw his spirit and activity they said, “O Prophet of Allah! If
only it was in the way of Allah!” Then the Prophet (May peace
and blessings be upon him) said:” If he is going to strive to
feed his youngs, then he is in the way of Allah, and If he is
going to work hard for his old, aged parents, even then he is in
the way of Allah, and if he is going to labor for himself to
abstain himself (from sin), then he is in the way of Allah too.
But if he is going to show off (the people) or boasting then he
is in the way of Satan.” 116
Undoubtedly, it is a manifest feature of mercy upon a helpless
child. And as long as these wise teachings were practically
applied, there was no problem of homeless or astray childs in
human society
This is Omar the Second Caliph of Islam who is regarded a
role model in ruling with justice and equity. It is narrated
that.” “Once he was watching over a caravan of traders, who
camped down at night in Medina, and then he heard crying of
115

An-Nasa'e)

(At-Tabarani).

116

98

99

a child then he came out to pursue it and when he found out,
he told his mother “Fear Allah! and treat him with kindness.”
And returned to his place. Again he heard the cries of the child
from the same house, then he returned to her, and told her”:
Woe unto you! I think you are a bad mother! Why I see your
son is not calm tonight?” She answered: “O servant of Allah!
He has disturbed me tonight, I am forcing him to wean but he
is persistent not to wean, Omar (May Allah be pleased with
him) asked:” But why? She answered, “Because Caliph Omar
does not grant sustenance but only for the weaned child.”
Then he asked her:” How many years old is he? She
answered:” Such and such.” Then Omar (May Allah be
pleased with him) condemned her saying:” Woe unto you! Do
not hasten!”
Then Omar performed dawn prayer and due to his severe grief
the people were unable to hear clearly his recitation of the
Glorious Qur’an in the prayer (It is must for a Muslim to
recite some part of the Glorious Qur’an in prayer loudly
especially in three prayers: the sunset, the evening and the
dawn prayers) and when he has completed the prayer, he
expressed his deep sadness and said” May Omar perish! How
many children of Muslims he has killed!” Then he ordered a
speaker to announce,” Do not hasten in weaning, we have

99

100

granted sustenance for every newly born in Islam” and this
decision has been written to every country under his reign.117
The Prophet (May peace and blessings be upon him) has
directed the people to let their children to play and to practice
on exercises which strengthen the body and active the thinking
power. There were some kinds of exercises well-known
amongst the Arabs like horse riding, arrow throwing and
swimming.
In the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad (May peace and
blessings be upon him) we find that he encouraged his
companion's children to learn horse riding, arrow throwing
and swimming, as he disliked a child to be isolated from
enjoying their hobbies so that a child would learn how to
exchange knowledge and deal with his colleagues and fellows.
In this regard, it is narrated that the Prophet (May peace of
Allah and His blessings be upon him) ordered every child who
meets him on his way “O lad! Go and play.”118
Moreover, he directed the parents by saying,” Educate your
childs to swim and to target with arrows, and to ride an
animal.”119
117At-Tabaqat Al-Kubra Ibn-Sa'd
(Al-Adab Al-Mufrad)

118

(Lisanul-Mizan)

119

100

101

Thus we have seen that how a child in the merciful teachings
of Islam has been bounded with all possible kinds of care and
attention.

The Mercy of Islam upon the Orphan
Undoubtedly, Islam has given a special care towards the
orphans. They were honored, justified, and cared.
The Glorious Qur’an has condemned the persons who neglect
the rights of orphans, Allah-Glorified be He says:” Then such
is the man who repulses the orphan (with harshness), and
encourages not the feeding of the indigence.”120
The Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His blessings
be upon him) said: “Whoever wipes his hand upon an orphan's
head (with kindness and mercy) he intends nothing from this
merciful act except the pleasure of Allah, then he would be
bestowed for each hair that was touched by his hand a lot of
rewards, and whoever treats with kindness and mercy a female
or male orphan under his guardianship, then he and I would be

(Surah,107,Al-Maun:2,3.)

120

101

102

in Paradise like this. (as he held his index and middle
fingers).”121
In another tradition, the Prophet -peace and blessings be upon
him) advised a person when he complained to the Prophet
Muhammad- peace and blessings be upon him that he was
suffering with harshness in his heart .So Muhammad -peace
and blessings be upon him) said to him “Do you like to be
soft hearted and your needs to be fulfilled”? Then be merciful
to orphans, wipe over their head in kindness and gentleness
and give them charity, then you are going to get a soft heart
and your needs to be fulfilled.”
It is narrated by Abu Hurairah that the Prophet-peace and
blessings be upon him) said: “The best house among Muslims
is that, in which an orphan is treated with mercy and kindness
and the worst house in a Muslim society is that, where an
orphan is humiliated and ill treated.”122
Furthermore, Islam remained very careful about the property
of an orphan and laid down some strict regulations in order to
protect his wealth from being lost. Allah-Glorified and Exalted
be He-said:” To orphans restore their property (when they
reach their age), nor substitute (your) worthless things for
(Musnad Ahmad)

121

Ibn-Majah

122

102

103

(their) good ones; and devour not their substance (by mixing it
up) with your own .For this is indeed a great sin.” 123
The prophetic traditions also were very strict in this regard. It
is narrated by Abu Huraira the Prophet -peace and blessings be
upon him) expressed his anxiety and said, “I am fearing about
the right of two weak groups among you; the orphan and the
woman.”124
As well as the guardian of an orphan is ordered to
merchandise with the property of an orphan so that, his
property would be in growth constantly and would not be
decreased by Zakat.
In this regard, it is narrated that the Prophet-peace and
blessings be upon him) delivered a sermon, and warned by
saying “Beware! of an orphan's wealth, if he is under the care
of one of you and he posses some wealth then it should be put
in the merchandise, so that, the Zakat (giving alms) could not
lessen his money.” 125From the above evidences it is obvious
that how an orphan got social and economical care from the
Muslim society, which has been guaranteed for them by AllahGlorified and Exalted be He-and the Prophet -peace and
(Surah,4,An-Nisa'2)

123

(Al-Hakim)

124

(Tirmizi)

125

103

104

blessings be upon him) as well as through these wise
teachings the society as a whole has been protected from the
bad results of homeless and astray children which is amongst
the biggest problems of our society in modern age. Everyday,
we watch the bad news of thefts, robberies, murders, sexual
harassments etc, which has made our society as unsafe,
insecure repressive place to live.
Sometimes those astray homeless children would turn in to the
groups of terrorist or the gang of extremists and dacoits who
use all kinds of sources to get money for their illegal activities.
The Mercy of Islam upon the Woman
Islam has honored the woman and secured her rights, restored
her freedom.
Nevertheless, during the pre-Islamic days, they had no rights
even a newly born female were buried alive, and a woman
would be distributed in Arabic Peninsula among the inheritors
of a deceased person besides his property and wealth.
As well as the woman was suffering from all kinds of tyranny,
humiliation and degradation in other parts of the world and
under other religions too. However, Islam has secured for
them all due rights as a human being and regarded them equal
to men.
Allah- Glorified be He- says in the Glorious Qur’an:” O
mankind! Reverence your Guardian-Lord Who created you
104

105

from a single person, created of like nature his mate, and from
them twain scattered (like seeds) countless men and women.”
126

The woman in Islam has given a reward equal to a man in
return of a good deed Allah-Glorified be He- says: “And their
Lord has accepted of them, and answered them: Never will I
suffer to be lost the work of any of you, be he male or female,
you are members, one of another.”127
Islam has honored the women when it named a chapter
(Surah) of the Glorious Qur’an by the word “An-Nisa” The
Women” as their rights and duties were explained in this
Surah in detail.
Furthermore, the Glorious Qur’an has explained that the rights
and duties of both male and female are equal, Allah-Glorified
be He-says:” And women shall have rights similar to their to
the rights against them, according to what is equitable.”128
However, Islam remained very careful when it took into its
account the natural distinctions of both sexes, and fixed the
rights and duties according to their varied natures.

(Surah, 4; An-Nisa; 1)

126

(Surh,3:Ali-Imran;195)

127

(Surah,2;Al-Baqarah;228)

128

105

106

The woman in a few cases gets the half of the male, because
Islam has put the responsibility of whole family expenditure
upon the man, while woman in Islam has no burden of this
kind.
It is also a feature of Islam's mercy upon the woman when it
has stopped her to travel alone a long distance(About three
days and nights by riding an animal), it is not in order to
deprive her of her freedom of journey but to protect her and
her honor from possible dangers during her journey since it is
permissible if she is accompanied by a man who can protect
and help her during journey.
Therefore She must be accompanied by one of her Mahram
(Who is not permitted to marry her. Like father, brother, son
etc.)
The Prophet (May peace and blessings be upon him) said:” It
is unlawful for a woman who believes in Allah and the Last
Day to travel a distance of three nights, but if she is
accompanied by an unmarriageable man.”129
It is clear that this condition is not against her freedom but it is a real mercy
of the Prophet (May peace and blessings be upon him) on the
woman, as he has safeguarded her chastity and honor.

(Al-Bukhari)

129

106

107

Even the Prophet (May peace and blessings be upon him) has cared for the
kind feelings of a mother towards her child during his prayers.
As it has been narrated by Anas (May Allah be pleased with him) that the
Prophet (May peace and blessings be upon him) said:” Indeed I enter
in the prayer and like to make it longer nevertheless, I hear a child's
screaming, due to this I use to shorten my prayer because I know the
compassionate feelings of a mother towards her child.”130
How softhearted was the Prophet Muhammad! (May peace and blessings be
upon him) who even took in his mind the longings of a mother to her
child during the worship itself, is this not a merciful act!
Imam Al-Bukhari has mentioned in his book namely Al-Adab Al-Mufrad
from Abut-Tufail (May Allah be pleased with him) he stated;” I saw
the Prophet (May peace of Allah and His blessing be upon him)
while he was distributing some meat among the people at AlJeyerranah(A place in Arabian peninsula) when I was a child and I
was carrying a part of a slaughtered camel.
Then a woman came to him, and he spread his shawl for her to sit upon it. I
asked: “Who was she?” They answered:” She was his foster mother
who had fed him.”131
It is noteworthy that the Prophet (May peace of Allah and His blessings be
upon him) has always equated among sons and daughters in gifts.
(Al-Bukhari)

130

Al-Adab Al-Mufrad

131

107

108

In this connection a tradition has been narrated that the Prophet (May peace
and blessings be upon him) ordered the parents saying:” Equate
among your children in gifts! If I had a choice to give priority one on
another then indeed, I had preferred the women on the men.”
An-Nasae narrated from Aaisha'h (May Allah be pleased with her-that a
young woman complained to the Prophet Muhammad (May peace of
Allah and His blessings be upon him) that my father has married me
to his nephew to wash his infamy, but I am not satisfied with him,
then the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His blessings be
upon him) sent out to her father, and very soon he was there, the
young woman has been permitted to chose, however she said:” O
Prophet of God! (May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him)
I have permitted this marriage now and I intended nothing (from this
objection) but to announce that fathers have no right to compel their
daughters in such matters.”132
The Prophet (May peace and blessings be upon him) stopped the Muslims
from disliking the daughters.
Oqbah-Ibn-Amir Narrated that the Prophet (May peace and blessings be
upon him) said: “Do not dislike the daughters, indeed they are
amusements and precious”133

An-Nasa'i

132

Kashf Al Khifa

133

108

109

This is the mercy of the Prophet (May peace and blessings be upon him)
upon the women be they daughters, wives, mothers, sisters. Is there
any resemblance between it and what the people claim today of
preserving human rights? Here the difference becomes manifest
between what has been explained by Islam concerning kind treatment
and what is called by the positive law.
The woman in Islam has equal rights of a man, the Prophet (May peace and
blessings be upon him) says:” Verily, women are the similar to men.”
134

There are numerous manifest evidences in Islamic literature, which are
enough to refute the baseless claims of the modern age. A woman is
completely free in Islam to exercise her rights in elections and to
participate in the political gatherings with modesty and decency.
The woman participated like a man during the early days of Islam in what
is called “Al-Bai'ah” the ceremony of “Allegiance Pledge” with the
Prophet Muhammad (May peace and blessings be upon him) and
this event has been mentioned in the Glorious Qur’an, Allah
Glorified be He- says: “O Prophet! When believing women come to
you to take the oath of fealty to you that they will not associate in
worship any other thing whatever with Allah, that they will not steal,
that they will not commit adultery, that they will not kill their
children, that they will not utter slander, intentionally forging
falsehood, and that they will not disobey you in any matter, then
(Ahmad)

134

109

110

receive their fealty, and pray to Allah for their forgiveness, for Allah
is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” 135Like that it is permitted for a
woman to attend the congregational worships, like daily prayers, the
weekly prayers of Friday(Jumo'ah) and the prayer of annual Islamic
festival ( the festival of Al-Fitr in the end of Ramadan, and the
festival of sacrifice).
The Prophet (May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him) said:” Let
the chaste, covering, young women to come out, in order to attend
the good deed and to watch prayer of the believers, but the
menstruating should be far from the prayer place.” 136
The women also had participated in the receiving ceremony of the Prophet
Muhammad (May peace and blessings be upon him) and his intimate
companion Abu-Bakr- may Allah be pleased with him) when they
arrived at Medina after migration from Mecca. As Abu-Bakr- may
Allah be pleased with him) has described the scene in his words:”
When we arrived at Medina on the day of migration, the men and
women mounted their houses, singing: “O Muhammad! Prophet of
Allah!” 137

135

(Surah 60:Al-Mumtahinah,12)

(Al-Bukhari)

136

(Al-Bukhari)

137

110

111

Their rights of learning are also reserved in Islam same as for the men. In
this connection it is narrated by Abu-Sa'id, he said:” A woman came
to the Prophet (May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him)
and said:” O Prophet of Allah! Men have preceded us in collecting
your Hadith (teachings) so fix for us too a day, we will come to you
so that you will teach us from the knowledge you have been taught
by Allah, the Prophet (May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon
him) agreed and told them.” Gather in such and such day in so and so
place.” 138
In Islam, a woman has been permitted to work, to merchandise, to buy and
sell, there are some examples of working woman during the early
days of Islam.
It is narrated by Jabir Ibn-Abdullah (May Allah be pleased with him) he
said:” My maternal aunt was a divorcée, and she intended to pluck
the dates from her palm tree(during her waiting period,(as in Islam
there is a fixed period about three months or three menses for a
divorcee to remarry) but a person stopped her from leaving her home
for work, then she came to the Prophet (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) then he permitted her by saying:” Of course!
pluck the dates from the tree, so that you may spend it in the way of
Allah, or may do with it a good deed.”139
(Muslim)

138

(Abu-Dawood)

139

111

112

The woman in general earned during the lifetime of the
Prophet (May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him)
as it is narrated that wife of Abdullah Ibn-Masood (May Allah
be pleased with him) was an skillful woman in handworks,
once she said to the Prophet:” O Prophet of Allah! I am a
woman expert at handicrafts, and I sell my products, however
my husband and my children have nothing to do.” Then the
Prophet (May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him)
promised me saying” You will get reward for whatever you
spend upon them”140
In addition it is also narrated by Ar-Rabi'a daughter of
Mo'awwaz, she said: “I entered in a gathering of women from
Al-Ansar (the people of Medina who supported the Prophet in
his mission) around a woman namely, “Asma'a (it happened
during the caliphate of Omar son of Al-Khattab (May Allah be
pleased with him) her son would send some perfume to her
from Yemen and she sold it to Al-Aatiyah, and we purchaseed
it from her.”141
As well as a woman in Islam has been given her right of
expression and objection.

(Al-Bukhari)

140

( Al Bukhari)

141

112

113

As it is narrated that one day Omar delivered a public address and he
wanted to fix women's bridal moneys, then a woman rejected his
decision and objected by arguing:” Why are you depriving the
women from their due right which has been given to them by Allah,
and she recited the following Verses;” But if ye decide to take one
wife in place of another, even if ye had given the latter whole
treasure for dower, take not the least bit of it back; would ye take it
by slander and a manifest wrong?” 142He accepted her critique, and
said:” A woman thought rightly but, Omar went wrong.” 143
It is note-worthy here that Omar was the caliph of Muslims in Arabian
peninsula and Syria and Iraq, In spite of that he announced his fault
in front of his people with modesty. However Omar was that hard
hearted person who has buried his young daughter alive in preIslamic days and who has injured his sister, when he was informed
about her embracing Islam, but it is Islam that softened his heart and
melted him and reshaped him in the frame of merciful teachings of
the Prophet Muhammad–may peace of Allah and His blessings be
upon him.

(Surah 4 :An-Nisa'20)

142

(Ibn Katheer)

143

113

114

The Mercy of Islam upon the Old
It is obvious that the old and aged people are in a great need of kind
treatment and proper care from their children, relatives and from
their society as well. Because they have spent their youth and gave
their age of strength in the service of them. That is why Islam has
appreciated their endeavors and respected them.
And invited all people to treat them with sympathy, and politeness.
It is a religious and ethical duty of every person to support them when they
need all types of soft heartedness and sweet words.
Allah-Glorified be He-instructed the sons and daughters to be merciful
upon parents, He-Glorified be He-says: “And your Lord has decreed
that you worship none but Him, and that you be kind to parents,
whether one or both of them attain old age in your life, say not to
them a word of contempt nor repel them, but address them in the
terms of honor. And out of kindness, lower to them the wing of
humility, and supplicate My Lord! Bestow on them Your mercy as
they cherished me in my childhood.” 144
We note here that Allah-Glorified be He-has mentioned in this Verse two
important matters, one of them is His worship and the other is to
serve and offer polite treat to the old parents, thus the rights of old
(Surah: 17, Al-Isra'23, 24)

144

114

115

parents have been joined to the sacred duty of worship, which means
that both duties are important and sacred in the sight of Allah.
The Prophet (May peace and blessings be upon him) also has insisted on
the rights of old people in many occasions, once he (May peace of
Allah and His blessings be upon him) said: “Indeed it is a feature of
Allah's glorifying, to honor a white-headed Muslim, and to honor a
person who has memorized the Qur’an, then did not exceed its
proper limitation, nor left it behind, and to honor a fair commander.”
145

As well as he (May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him) has
given a good news to a youth who honors an old, as he (May peace
of Allah and His blessings be upon him) says: “None of a young
honors an old man due to his elderness but Allah sends to him(in
return) a person who would honor him in his old-age.” 146
Moreover, a person who is decorated with good conduct, sympathy, and
mercy with weak, parents and slaves such man has been promised to
get Allah's special help.
The Prophet of Allah (May peace and blessings be upon him) said:
“Whoever has three qualities, then Allah shall cover him with His
mercy, and admits him in His Paradise ;those qualities are: to be

(Abu-Dawood)

145

Tirmizi)

146(

115

116

merciful upon the weak, and to be polite with parents and to treat the
slaves with good conduct.”147
These teachings were applied in the Muslim society on both levels
individual and community that is why there were no neglected
parents and no old-aged persons felt loneliness.
The Mercy of Islam upon the Needy and Helpless
The human societies of our age are merely based on selfish
causes. Every one lives for himself. Material motives are
prevailing on every aspects of human life that is why, the poor
and needy are left to fight their own battles. However, the
brotherhood among Al-Ansar and emigrants of Medina after
the manifest of Islam remained a significant historical event of
unity. When they shared their properties and they divorced
their wives to be married with their Muslim emigrant brothers
and instead of scarcity of food, they preferred their brothers to
their own families, which may be regarded a unique example
of co-operation in human history.
Thus, Islam has assured a due right for the needy, helpless,
and deprived people. That is called “Zakat” or alms payment.
In the Glorious Qur’an Allah says: “To believe in Allah,
the Last Day, the Angels, the Book, and the Messengers; To
spend of your substance, out of love for Him, for your kin, for
(At-Tirmizi)

147

116

117

the orphans, for the needy for the wayfarer, for those who ask,
and for the ransom of slaves; to be stead fast in prayer, and
practice regular charity.” 148
Furthermore there are other rights besides Zakat like the
un- obligatory charity, and the charity that should be offered
after committing some specific wrong doings, (just like if a
person breaks his fast during the daytime in the month of
Ramadan without any lawful excuse).
In Islamic Jurisprudence, we find some important
opinions about social solidarity, and equality among the
people, in the writings of Ibn-Hazam, and Ibn Tymyyah the
eminent Muslim scholars.
Ibn-Tymyyah wrote “Suppose if there was an emergency
in a society that obliged the people to take refuge in a certain
house then it is obligatory upon the house owner to give them
his home as a shelter, similarly if they needed to a person who
possess some cloth and the other people did not get cloths to
wear or protect themselves against a severe cold then he must
give them out of his usage.”
Moreover, this Islamic rule is applicable in other similar
cases like cooking utensils, drinking cups etc.

(Al Baqarah 2; 177)

148

117

118

And Ibn-Hazam wrote: “If a person was in a severe thirst
that may cause his death, then it is obligatory upon him to take
the water from any one if a person having water refuses to
give them. Then it is permitted for the thirsty to take the water
forcibly.”
These opinions are based upon firm Islamic evidence
from the Glorious Qur’an and Ahadith (The sayings of the
Prophet Muhammad (May peace of Allah and His blessings be
upon Him) )
Allah-Glorified be He-has condemned the person who
refuses to supply with the common neighborly needs, which
cost little but mean much, see the Verse of Surah, 107Al-Maun
(The neighborly assistance)
And the Prophet (May peace of Allah and His blessings
be upon him said:” Whoever has some remained sustenance
then he should give it to his brother who did not get, and
whoever has some remained supper then he should donate it to
his brother who was in need. The companions stated that the
Prophet (May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him)
has asserted to help others such an extent level that we thought
no one among us has any right in his leftover food.149

(Muslim)

149

118

119

And Islam has founded very wise regulation in this
regard, However Islam did not fix a limitation for property,
but it has laid down some rules and regulations to collect
money from the wealthy in order to safeguard economic
balance in the society the regulations might be explained as
follows:
1) Islam has prohibited all kinds of monopoly system,
because it causes dangerous financial problems among the
people, like the rise in prices, and shortage of goods in the
market, and exploitation of needy etc.
2) As well as it has prohibited all kinds of usury system
to secure the human society from its negative results upon
economic life.
3) Islam has established the public treasury house to
collect the due money from the rich persons and distribute it
among the needy people in order to insure for every one the
basic needs of daily life.
4) If the source of Zakat and other sources of Islamic
States fail to cover the needs of the needy then it is incumbent
upon the fortunate of the society to fulfill their needs from
their own properties, as a person can not be a true Muslim if
he is full stomach while his neighbor is hungry as narrated in
the sayings of the Prophet (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) The Prophet (May peace of Allah and
119

120

His blessings be upon him) said” “There are other rights in the
property of a Muslim besides of Zakat.”150.
5) Islam disliked a Muslim to be extravagant as the
Prophet (May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him)
instructed his companion Sa'ad (May Allah be pleased with
him) ”It is better to leave your inheritors in wealth than you
leave them poor begging the people.” 151
It is also narrated that Abu-Bakr said: “I dislike a person
who eats the sustenance of many days in one day.”
These sayings should be understood in its wider meaning
as it is not directed to an individual only but it includes the
societies and generations, so we have to use the natural
resources(like water, gas, petrol, coal, etc.) in a reasonable
limit, so that the coming generations would not be destroyed.
But it does not mean that Islam did not acknowledge the
difference in wealth and personal property.
Indeed Islam has admitted the fact of variety between
the human being in intelligence, beauty, strength, and ability,
then how Islam can neglect the differences in those matters
which may be gained by human endeavor, Allah-Glorified be
(At-Tirmizi)

150

(Al-Bukhari)

151

120

121

he-says in the Glorious Qur’an: “ Allah has bestowed His gifts
of sustenance more freely on some of you than others.”152
In another Surah, He-Glorified be He-says: “Is it they
who would portion out the mercy of your Lord, it is We Who
portion out between them their livelihood in the life of this
world, and We raise some of them above others in ranks, so
that some may command work from others.”153
6) Islam has established a complete system of
inheritance, and fixed for the inheritors specific and right
shares in order to pass the money from hand to hand and rotate
it among the people.
Thus, it became clear that Islam has confirmed the
principle of difference in wealth, but it invited to help each
other, so that no one could be deprived of his necessary needs.

(Surah,16,An-Nhl:71)

152

(Surah,43:Az-Zukhruf,32

153

121

122

The Mercy of Islam upon the Slave and the Servant
The slaves and servants in general were treated badly before
Islam. They were regarded as trading goods, which were
bought and purchased same as animals. However, when Islam
came in power it gave them honor and tried to free them from
their slavery by all possible means.
Bilal the Abyssinian slave has the post of calling the Muslims
for prayer by the Prophet Muhammad (May peace of Allah
and His blessings be upon him.
It is narrated by son of Abbas (May Allah be pleased with
them- That the Prophet (May peace of Allah and His blessings
be upon- saw a draper then he bought a shirt from him by four
dirham, then he went out while he was wearing it, on his way
he met a person of Al-Ansar asking him his shirt:” O Prophet
of Allah! Give me the shirt, may Allah cover you with a
garment of Paradise, then he took off his shirt and gave him.
And he came back to the cloth merchant and purchased
another one by four dirhams and two dirham were remained
with him then he passed in his way by a slave girl crying he
asked saying:” What made you cry?” she answered” O
prophet of Allah! Actually, my owner gave me two dirhams to
purchase some food but the dirhams were lost by me” he gave
her the remaining two dirhams and took his way and when he
returned he found her weeping still, “What made you cry
122

123

again? After you have taken the two dirham.” The Prophet
asked her. She answered:” Of course! but I am so late and I
feared of their beating.” Then he accompanied her and went to
her owner and greeted them they recognized his voice and
asked:” What has brought you here? O Prophet of Allah!-my
father and my mother are sacrificed for your sake- He
answered:” This girl was afraid of your beating.”
The owner said:” She is free for Allah's pleasure and your
blessed accompanying her. Then the Prophet of Allah gave
them the good news of blessing and Paradise. Furthermore the
Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His blessings be
upon him) said:” Indeed Allah-exalted be He-has blessed those
ten dirhams as Allah-exalted be He-has clothed His Prophet a
shirt and a man of Al-Ansar a shirt and Allah-exalted be He
has freed a slave. Thanks for Allah upon this favor; He is the
Merciful who has bestowed upon me by His might.” 154
Moa'awiah son of Sowed stated that: “We -the sons of
Maqran-did not possess but only one slave girl, this event
returns to the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad (May peace
of Allah and His blessings be upon him) one of amongst us
slapped her, when the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah
and His blessings be upon him) was informed about this
(At-Tabarani)

154

123

124

unpleasing event he instructed us saying:” Let her free.” We
apologized and said:” we have none except her.”
Then the Prophet (May peace of Allah and His blessings be
upon him) suggested at last saying:” Then employ her, but
whenever you would not need her, free her very soon.” 155
And Omar (May Allah be pleased with him rodethe animal by
turn with his servant, it happened when he was traveling to
Syria with his servant, as he neared to Syria, the turn of the
servant came to ride the camel, Omar ordered him to ride and
himself came down, but the servant apologized as it was
unacceptable by him, how a servant would ride! While the
caliph of whole Muslims is walking on his foot! But Omar
remained insistent until the servant rode it, thus they entered
Syria, the caliph is walking and his servant is riding, when the
people of Syria saw them they were extremely surprised.156
Once when Omar was addressing his people and during his
speech he said:” If you find me deviating from the right path
then correct me! Then one of the attendants stood up and
said;” If we see any deviation in you then we shall amend it by
our swords.”
Then Omar said:” All praise be to Allah who has made in my
people who dare to set Omar upright.”
(Muslim)

155

156Tarikh-Al Khulafa'

124

125

Once the Muslims gained some booty (Yemenite cloths)
when it has been distributed among the people by Omar, then
Abdullah son of Omar also got a piece of that cloth, but he
gifted his share to his father (Omar), then he made a robe with
both of them, once he addressed the people while he was
wearing it, he said in his speech:” O my people! Listen me!
And obey! then Salman (May Allah be pleased with him) rose
and said:” No listening of you, and no obedience for you.”
Omar asked the reason and said:” Why?”Then Salman asked
him:” How did you get this loose robe? You are a tall man and
your share was like others only one cloth?”
Then Omar called out his son Abdullah, he responded to
him saying:” O commander of Muslims! I am here.” Omar
said:” I swear you by God! Tell isn't it your cloth that you
gifted me?” He answered “Of course! It was mine that I have
gifted you.” then Salman said:” Now order us we shall listen
and obey your order” Nevertheless, there is no wonder if we
imagine his modesty, justice and his mercy upon his nation,
and influence of prophet's teachings upon him.
Islam has made to free the slaves from their slavery in
many cases as a ransom, such as to salvage a slave from
slavery is amongst the ransoms of breaking fast knowingly, to
perjure etc.

125

126

These neglected groups of human society never got their
rights, honors, and respect as they enjoyed in Islam.

126

127

The Mercy of Islam upon the Neighbour
In Islam a neighbour has very important place though they
have no relation of blood nor brotherhood of faith neither
.fellowship of job
Allah-Glorified be He-has mentioned the due right of the
neighbour in the Glorious Qur’an itself, and has ordered to
.fulfill this duty and to worship Him in the same context
Allah-Glorified be He says, “Worship Allah and join not
any partners with Him;and do good to parents, kinsfolk,
orphans, those in need, neighbours who are near, neighbours
who are strangers, the companion by your side, the wayfarer
157

”.(and what your right hand possess(slaves

As well as to desecrate the honor of him once, has been
.regarded in Islam as many as ten times with others
The Prophet-peace and blessings be upon him) said, “it
is not allowable for a Muslim to abandon his brother for more
than three days, he turns away and the other turns away, The
better of the two is the one who begins first the greeting of
158

”.peace

The Prophet (May peace of Allah and His blessings be
upon him) said, “To commit an adultery with neighbour's wife
is worse than to commit it with ten women else, and to steal
157(Surah,4,An-Nisa',36)
158Al-Bukhari

127

128

some thing from his neighbour is worse than to steal from ten
159

”.houses else

The Prophet (May peace of Allah and His blessings be
upon him) said:”Gabreil remained reminding me about the
rights of the neighbour such constantly as I thought that he
160

”.would make him among the inheritors

In this connection it is narrated by Mujahid he stated
that:” Once we were with Omar (May Allah be pleased with
him) at an evening, while one of his servant was taking off the
skin of a slaughtred goat, then Omar said:”Begin with our Jew
neighbour(Give the meat to the Jew first)! “He repeated it
many times.Then someone asked him in surprize:” How many
times will you remember the Jew?”Then Omar (May Allah be
.pleased with him) mentioned the above written Hadith
Islam has ordered its followers to treat kindly with
neighbours irrespective of religion as we have seen in Omar's
.act
There is a tradition which has explained the due rights of
a neighbour in such detail that should be regarded as the key
.legislation for all rights related to a neighbour in Islam

(Ahmad)

159

160Abu-Dawood

128

129

The Prophet (May peace of Allah and his blessings be
upon him) said:”The right of your neighbor is to visit him
when he falls ill,to escort him when he dies,to loan him when
he is in need, to cover him when he becomes poor,to
congratulate him when he gets a bliss,to console him when he
faces any misfortune.And do not build higher than his
building so that you would not interfere between him and his
(open) air.And do not annoy him by your cooking smell, but
when you intended to give him out of your food.”161How lofty
are these principles!And how merciful are these fundamentals!
There is no place for selfishness nor self-seeking. Indeed there
is co-operation, to help each other,to share good and bad,to
exchange good behaviour regardless of faith, language, skin
.color, religion, nation, tribe, generation, and caste

161(At-Tabarani)

129

130

The Mercy of Islam upon the Living Thing
The common living things also got a part from overflowing
mercy of Islam.
In Islam, it is prohibited to torture an animal or to over
load it, as well as to goal the birds as hobby.
Islam encourages giving the cattle fodder regularly, yet if
any bird eats from a field or tree then it has been regarded as a
charity for the farmer as was explained in the traditions of the
Prophet Muhammad (May peace of Allah and His blessings be
upon him.
It is narrated by Aamer Ar-Ram he stated:” Once we
were with the Prophet (May peace of Allah and His blessings
be upon him - a man came to us with his robe folded upon
some thing under it, he said;” O Prophet of Allah! I passed by
a jungle of trees and heard there the chirps of some young
birds. Then I caught them and put them under my shawl then
their mother came and flew round my head then I uncovered
them to show them their mother and the mother also swept
down under it, and I folded the shawl upon them with their
mother. See! Those are here under it.”
Then the Prophet (May peace of Allah and His blessings
be upon him) ordered him to return, then I returned them.
Afterward, their mother remained with them without
leaving them alone.
130

131

Then the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) stated; “Are you surprised by the
longing of the mothers for their youngs, by Whom who has
sent me with the truth indeed Allah is more Merciful upon His
servants than these mother birds upon their youngs .Go back
and return them to the nests you have caught from with their
mothers! The man returned them back to their nests”.162
The Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) entered a garden of Al-Ansar and then
he saw a camel, when the camel saw the Prophet of Allah
(May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him) it gargled
and his two eyes flowed with tears, then the Prophet (May
peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him) neared to it
and passed his blessed hand on its hump and mouth then the
camel became quiet.
Then he asked: “Who is the owner of this camel or to
whom belongs this camel?”
Then a young man came near to him and said: “It's
mine, O Prophet of Allah!”
Then he scolded him by saying, “Do you not fear Allah
about these animals which Allah has made in your possession?
(Abu-Dawood).

162

131

132

It is complaining to me that you keep it hungry and starve it
continuously.”163
It is also his kindness to animals that he would turn the
container of water for pussy and would not lift it up until it
had quenched its thirst he did so to show a mercy upon it.
Once he (May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon
him) saw a village of ants which has been burnt by some
people.
Then he asked, “Who has burnt it?” They answered”
We.”
Then he stopped them from this kind of merciless acts
by saying:” No one deserves to torture with fire but only The
Lord of fire.”164
Likewise, once he saw a donkey while it had been
branded upon its face. Then he prayed saying:” May Allah
curse him who has branded it.”165
And he (May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon
him) said:” A woman has been tortured because of a cat as
she had imprisoned it until it died, due to it she entered

Ab u-Dawood)

163

(Abu-Dawood)

164

(Muslim)

165

132

133

Hellfire. Neither she had given her food nor water nor did she
let it to eat the vermin of the earth.”166
Once son of Omar (May Allah be pleased with thempassed by some adolescents from Qureish tribe, while they
had set a bird to goal upon it with arrows, they had agreed
previously that the wronged arrows would be given to the
owner of the bird. When they saw son of Omar they took their
ways in fear. Then son of Omar asked:” Who has done it? May
Allah deprive them of His mercy!” The Prophet of Allah also
has cursed whoever targets upon a living thing.”167
It is narrated by son of Mas'ood (May Allah be pleased
with him) he said:” Once we accompanied the Prophet of
Allah (May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him)
while he went out to answer the call of nature. This time we
saw a sparrow with its two youngs then we caught them. After
a moment the mother sparrow came back to its nest .When the
Prophet (May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him)
saw it, said;” Who has grieved it with its youngs, return them
back to their mother.”168

(Al-Bukhari)

166

(Muslim)

167

Ahmad

168

133

134

Among the commandments of the Prophet Muhammad
(May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him) to the
collectors of charities was the following advice;” Do not
separate the baby camel from its mother(During collecting the
animal charities), do not keep it away from its mother's milk,
do not starve it by riding upon it continuously, and give equal
rights among its coevals, and give them their rest, and let
them to graze in pastures and grasslands.”
The Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) narrated “Once a person was walking
and felt a severe thirst, so he came down in a well and drank
from it, then he climbed out of the well, at that moment he
found a dog gasping and licking wet soil due to its thirst, then
he said to himself:” It has been stricken with the same that I
had stricken with, then came down the well again and filled up
his leather shoes with the water and climbed up holding it with
his mouth then he quenched its thirst.
Then Allah thanked his kind deed, and forgave him.”
They asked:” O Prophet of Allah! Is there a reward for
us in these animals?” He answered:” Yes” Of course! in every
living thing there is a reward.”169
Ahmad)

169(

134

135

135

136

The Mercy of Islam upon non-Muslim
In Islam, all nations have enjoyed their rights, freedom of
faith, expression the right of exercising their religious rituals.
And Islam has given the Jews and the Christians a
special importance and an honorable position, since early days
of its appearance. The special importance of Islam towards
them might be exhibited as follows:
1)The Honorable Title: They got a name of” The
People of the Book” which means that they are related to
some revealed religions however they lost their purity and has
gone through some deviations over time.
It was only to express that they have a distinguished
position in Islam as well as non-Muslims living under Islamic
Rule were named “Ahl-Az-Zimmah” which means the people
whose rights were assured by Allah-Glorified be He- and by
the Prophet Muhammad (May peace of Allah and His
blessings be upon him) .
2) Their Slaughtered: As well as their food is permitted
for Muslims, if it is good and pure.
3)The Marriage Contract: A Muslim man is permitted
to marry a woman from their ranks on the same terms as he
would marry a Muslim, he must give her an economic and
moral status, and must not be actuated merely by motives of
lust or physical desires.
136

137

Allah Almighty says in the Glorious Qur’an: “This day
are (all) things good and pure made lawful unto you. The food
of the People of the Book is lawful unto you .And yours is
lawful unto them.(Lawful unto you in marriage)Are (not
only)chaste women who are believers, but chaste women
among the People of the Book revealed before your time,
when you give them their due dowers, and desire chastity not
lewdness, nor secret intrigues.” 170
This means that Islam accepts them as grand fathers,
grand mothers, and brothers in law and sisters in law, fathers
in law, mothers in law, for a Muslim individual when he marry
a woman among them.
Indeed, it is a leniency, and kindness in Islam with the
Jews and Christian nations. Is there any leniency left behind,
after it?
4) Their Religious Freedom; Undoubtedly Islam was
the first that has founded the firm bases of justice and
leniency, in order to deal with the followers of other religions
and faiths besides of Jews and Christians.
They were in Islamic States totally free in excising their
religious rituals, and expressing their faiths, they never were
compelled to accept Islam nor to abandon their ideology, even
(Surah;5 Al-Ma'idah;5)

170

137

138

their church and synagogue remained safe, through centuries
after centuries, if they were compelled to abandon their faiths
then there would not exist their sacred places in Islamic
countries today.
Their rights were reserved for them by the Glorious
Qur’an itself, Allah- Glorified be He- says:” Let there be no
compulsion in religion; The truth has become distinguished
from the error.” 171
5)To Treat Them with kindness: Similarly Islam has
assured for them the kindness from Muslims; Allah-Glorified
be He- says: “Allah does not forbid you from dealing kindly
and justly with regard to those who do not fight you for your
religion nor drive you out of your homes, for Allah loves those
who are just.” 172
6) The Freedom of Knowledge and Work: They have
enjoyed the freedom of knowledge, and they practiced their
professions with complete freedom in Islamic States side by
side with Muslims.
As well as Islamic State was full responsible of
protecting their properties and belongings.

(Surah; 2: Al-Baqarah; 256)

171

(Surah:60:Al-Mumtahinah;8)

172

138

139

In addition, they have occupied important posts in the
administrative sections of Islamic Government.
7) To Exchange Gifts: Some Muslim Jurists have
permitted even to exchange visiting and gifts with them, and
to visit their sick.
8) Business Freedom: A groups of Muslim scholars
have permitted the Non-Muslims to trade in wine and swine
among them, on the condition that they would not transfer it to
the Muslim population, as it has been regarded as prohibited
goods in Islam.
Undoubtedly, it is the mercy and leniency of Islam, those
could not be seen anywhere but in Islam.
9) Freedom of Judgment: As well as they had a free
choice to judge among them in their personal cases like the
marriage, divorce, and inheritance, according to their own
personal law, or according to Islamic law if they wished.
Furthermore, they have been exempted from the
almsgiving (Zakat) and from participating in the fight against
the enemies, though Islamic Jihad is not concerning them but
a military service, and almsgiving (Zakat) is not but a property
tax.
They were bound only to pay some taxes in return to
their protection and civil service, which was named “Al-

139

140

Jizyah” or the tribute, but the women, children, poor, and
needy were exempted from this tax.
So no differentiation should be imagined here between
them and Muslim citizens, as the Muslims were obliged to pay
Zakat (alms).
It is noteworthy here that, how Islam was careful
towards the followers of other faiths when it exempted them
from paying Zakat so that no one can claim that they were
compelled to participate in a basic element of Islamic faith as
there are five rituals in Islam which have been regarded as the
“Five Pillars Of Islam” one of them is Zakat.
That is why their taxes were named”Al-Jizyah” and they
were excluded from Zakat.
As well as Islam has permitted a Muslim to treat
Polytheist with kindness the if they are peace lovers.
In this regard, it is narrated by Asma'a daughter of AbuBakr (The first caliph of Islam) (May Allah be pleased with
them-she said ;”Once my mother came to me while she was a
polytheist during the lifetime of the Prophet of Allah (May
peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him) then I went to
the Prophet of Allah (May peace of Allah and His blessings be
upon him) and asked him: “My mother has visited me, and
she loves me then would I join her?”

140

141

He answered: “Yes! Treat her with kindness.” 173
And the story of an Egyptian Coptic who raced with son
of Amr-Ibn-Al-Aas the conqueror and governor of Egypt is
well-known in Islamic history.
When the Coptic preceded son of Amr, then son of Amr
slapped him in anger.
The Coptic complained to Omar the second caliph of
Islam, and Omar made the Coptic to take his retaliation from
Amar during the pilgrimage season in front of the crowds.
Furthermore, the Prophet of Allah has warned:
“Whoever hurts a free non-Muslim under Islamic protection
then I would be the opponent against him on the Day of
Judgment. “
And he said on another occasion:” Be ware! Whoever
oppressed a free non-Muslim under Islamic protection or
burdened him more than his afford or collected from him
forcibly out of his pleasure, then I would be his opponent
against him on the Day of Judgment.” 174
And once Omar (the second caliph of Islam) saw an old
man of non-Muslims is begging, then he asked him:” What is
the matter with you?” He answered, “I am begging due to my
(Muslim)

173

(Abu-Dawood)

174

141

142

poverty.” Then Omar felt severe sadness and grief and took
with him the director of Islamic treasury and showed him the
beggar, and told him:” We have not treated with justice if we
do not care the old-aged and needy, and ordered him not only
to exempt him from the tribute but he should be granted
pension from Islamic treasury.”175
And when he traveled to Damascus he passed by some
Christians stricken with barrenness, then he ordered to give
him from the treasure house. 176
The story of Hormuz the commander of Persian troops
with Omar denotes clearly to the fact that Islam only wants the
good with every one irrespective of race, color, faith, origin,
or nationality.
When Hormuz was brought to Omar, Hormuz was clad
in his silk garment and his crown was adorned with ruby,
when Omar saw him said:” Thanks to Allah who has
conquered him and his similars by Islam. “And asked him:”
Tell me what has motivated you for the betrayal with us
repeatedly, what was the reason behind it?” He answered I am
afraid that you will kill me before I could complete my

(Yousuf Al-Qardawi)

175

(Yousuf AlQardawi)

176

142

143

explanation.” Omar guaranteed his security and said: “Do not
fear!”
Then Hormuz asked him some water, his demand was
fulfilled, he said:” I am sure that you will kill me before I will
drink the water.” Omar reassured him, and then he spelt the
water on earth and said: “There was no need of water, only I
intended to seek your assurance.”
Then Hormuz was granted his safety and was forgiven.
Although he had suffered the Muslims with a lot of
damages and killed a numbers of them and broke the promise
several times.177
When he saw the unlimited mercy of Islam upon him, he
embraced Islam with full conviction.
The Mercy and Jihad
The word of “Jihad” is an Arabic word, which has been
derived from the origin “Jahad.” Actually this word means to
strive and to spend the possible power to achieve some goal,
or gain any purpose in any field, thus the word “Jihad” bears
a meaning wider than to” fight”. There is a common
misunderstanding related to Jihad in Islam. When some
scholars thought that the word of Jihad is a synonym to the
word of 'War', but this concept is absolutely contrary to the
real meaning of Jihad as Islam has regarded to strive for the
177Al-Bidayah W An-Nihayah

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144

livelihood a kind of jihad .likewise to declare the truth in front
of an unjust ruler is the best kind of Jihad .” 178
As well as to convey the message of Qur’an to the
people is another kind of Jihad.
This explanation refers to the Verse:
“52 ‫الية‬25 ‫ فل تطع الكافرين وجاهدهم به جهادا كبيرا )الفرقان‬Which
means: Therefore listen not to the unbelievers, but strive
against them with the utmost endeavor, with the Qur'an.179“
In other words Allah -Glorified be He-addresses His
Prophet Muhammad-peace be him) O Muhammad We have
sent down upon you the Glorious Qur'an which contains the
lights which distinguish between the right and the wrong, so
you should be guided by it, and should not obey the
unbelievers in their own desires, and do your best and strive to
convey the message which has been revealed to you by your
Lord, and continue your mission with the Glorious Qur'an.
And this “Jihad” has been regarded by the Qur’an itself as the
greatest “Jihad”.
Muslim scholars have divided “Jihad” into three
categories, the definitions of every one are as follows: 1) “To
Strive against the Soul”: It means to spend the utmost power
(Ahmad)

178

( Surah:25 Al-Furqan 52)

179

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145

to safeguard the soul from doing what Allah has prohibited us
to do, and strive to perform what Allah has ordered us to do,
Allah the Almighty says:” By the soul and the proportion and
order given to it, truly its enlightenment as to its wrong and its
right, truly he succeeds that purifies it and he fails that
corrupts it.”180
2)”To Strive against the Satan”: It means to try hard to
disobey the Satan and his decorated temptations and bad
orders, and to strive for the salvation from his misleading in
every moment. As the Prophet (May peace and blessings be
upon him) said: “The true Mujahid (militant) is he who fights
his own inclinations.”181
(3) To Strive against the Unjust: It is permitted only to
stop the aggression of oppressors to end their tyrannies.
In addition, there is no fight in Islam through out its
history but were fought only against the transgressors. The
following background must be taken in mind when we study
the history of Islam or Wars in Islam.
Take for example the battle of Badr(which was fought
between Muslims and polytheists of Mecca during the earliest
period of Islam)the fight happened after about 14 years of
(Surah91:Al-Furqan;7,8,9,10)

180

Ahmad

181

145

)

146

continuous harassment, abuse and killing of Muslims only
because of their faith, Muslims had to leave their dwellings
escaping from the torture by the non-believers that was not
enough for the polytheists who prepared them to attack the
Muslims in their new land.
Allah-Glorified be He-says:” Fight in the cause of Allah
those who fight you but do not transgress limits for Allah does
not love transgressors182.
As well as the Prophet (May peace and blessings be
upon him) has stopped his followers from aspiring to fight he
said:” Do not aspire to meet the enemy in war and ask Allah to
prevent you from this, but if you meet them be patient and
learn that Paradise is under the shade of swords.”183
Islam regards war as a harsh trial, this has been
permitted only in exceptional conditions however; the
common nature of Islam is to spread peace among the people
by all possible means. Allah-Glorified be He-says: “To those
against whom War is made, permission is given (to fight),
because they are wronged- and verily, Allah is Most Powerful
For their aid-Those who have been expelled from their homes
Surah, 2, Al-Baqarah190)

182

Al-Bukhari)

183

146

147

in defiance of right- (for no cause) except they say, Our Lord
is Allah .” 184
In general, Islam is the religion of peace, goodwill, good
faith. Nevertheless, it does not accept wrong doing, and the
Muslims will agree to give their lives in defense of honor,
justice and the religion which they aspire to be sacred.
Mercy and Islamic Punishments
A question may be raised here, concerning to Islamic
punishments, by saying that Islam has imposed some severe
and merciless punishments upon those individuals who exceed
the limitations of Islamic Law, such as the thief supposed to be
cut off his hand, and a drinker has to be lashed 80 times, as
well as an adulterer has to be lashed 100 times if he/she is
unmarried and to be stoned till death if he/she is married, and
the murderer intentionally has to be murdered as well.
Are not these severe punishments contrary to the mercy
and kindheartedness that you are attributing to Islam and its
laws?
First of all we would like to confirm that these
punishments are proved in Islamic Sharia, and there is neither
disagreement nor controversy about these matters among
Muslim scholars.
(Sura 22, Al Hajj,39-40).

184

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148

There is no doubt that God-Glorified be He- wants the
goodness for all humanity, and He wants a peaceful and
tranquil society that is why, He prohibited every thing that
may cause any trouble or disturbance in human society and
revealed a complete system of life which guarantees the peace
and security to whole mankind.
How can you imagine a peace or tranquility in our
society if there is theft, looting, adultery, narcotics and all
kinds of wine, and how can we imagine a balanced society! if
there is usury, and bribery, and all kinds of scandals.
Take wine for example and pursue its negative results
upon the drinker's health, mind, wealth, family, friends,
parents, children and follow the bad influences of his
drunkenness upon the society financially and ethically.
Furthermore, it causes many of diseases (As the experts
have proved).
As well as it weakens his thinking power and working
capability, thus he weakens his society because he is a unit of
this society.
Likewise, let’s take the example of theft and imagine if
you have kept some money for a necessity and a thief has
stolen it, what will be your reaction? Perhaps you may kill
him in anger! If you catch the thief.

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149

But in Islam before this punishment the judge has to
investigate if the thief has reached the legal age, and if he has
the complete sense and understanding as well as if the stolen
wealth was safe and secure and if it was valuable thing(As
there is no punishment in a needle or in a piece of thread).
If all these conditions were fulfilled and there was no
famine in the society, then the punishment of theft would be
implemented, the punishment must be observed by the people
so that no one will dare to commit this kind of crime in future
and the society will remain secure and peaceful.
In the same context we can analyze the punishment of
the murderer in Islam, applying of this punishment also
requires some important conditions it needs to be investigated
that whether murderer has killed intentionally or by mistake,
the guardians of the killed have three options: if they want to
forgive the murderer then it is their right, if they wish to take
the blood money then there is no prohibition in Islamic Shari
a.
But if the guardians of the slain like that the murderer
has to be killed, then Allah has permitted the commander of
the Muslims to give their due right, but the capital punishment
is not valid if the murder was due to a mistake or an accident.

149

150

It is noteworthy here that when the Glorious Qur’an
talked about the capital punishment it has invited to the option
of forgiveness in a unique style and gentle way.
As the Glorious Qur’an used the word of “Brother” for
the party of slain which softens their anger and creates an
atmosphere of fraternity between both parties.
Read the Verse:”(O ye who believe! the law of equality
is prescribed to you in cases of murder, the free for the free,
the slave for the slave, the woman for the woman, but if any
remission is made by his brother(the guardians of slain) then
grant any reasonable demand and compensate him with
handsome gratitude185.” )
The punishment of adultery also has been ordained by
Allah-Glorified be-in order to protect the honor, when Islam
has prohibited the adultery on the other hand it has permitted
marriage and encouraged the able to marry as soon as he can.
This punishment also has many strict conditions if a
person confess his crime before the judge in clear words and
frankly that he has committed this sin, or there were four eye
witnesses who state that they saw this crime with their naked
eyes, if any one of them withdraws or failed to bring four
witnesses then the launcher would be lashed 80 lashes and
Al-Barah178 179

185

150

151

their witness would be rejected forever Allah-Glorified be Hesays:” And those who launch a charge against chaste women
and produced not four witnesses (to support their
allegations)flog them with eighty stripes, and reject their
evidence ever after, for such men are wicked transgressors”186
These strict terms make the punishment rare to be
inflicted, as well as it frightens a person to allege any person
with such charges.
And there is no example in whole Islamic history which
proves that this punishment had been inflicted due to a proof
or witness, there are only two examples of this punishment
which were based upon the self confession.
In both cases, the Prophet (May peace and blessings be
upon him tried with them to withdraw from their confessions,
but they remained persisting upon their attitude only then this
punishment has been inflicted.
Even the Prophet (May peace and blessings be upon
him) has instructed about such case and said:” Drive away the
punishment as long as you can, if you see an exit from this
then let them free, if a judge forgives (the alleged) by fault
then it is better than to punish by fault” 187
(Surah,24,An-Nur,4)

186

(Tirmizi).

187

151

152

Thus, it has become manifest that Islamic Punishments
are not but a feature of unlimited mercy of Allah upon the
society of His servants, the peace and security of society is
more important than the life of an astray individual who has
deviated from the pure the nature upon which Allah has
created him.
And I would like to explain this matter in the light of a
medical fact; What would you say when a physician
suggests for a cancer patient to cut off his hand or leg so that
the cancer could not be communicated in other parts of his
body, is it reasonable to attribute this valuable suggestion with
cruelty and severity?

152

153

The Mercy of Islam upon the Sinner
The mercy of Allah-Glorified be He-has explained in the
Glorious Qur’an and Prophet's sayings in such detail that may
be regarded as the most manifest characteristics of Islam.The
mercy of Allah-Glorified be He-has included every thing, be it
a living creature or non-living, human being or Jinni, sinner or
pious, Muslim or non-Muslim.
Allah Glorified be He-Himself has explained His
unlimited affection and wide mercy. He said:” But My mercy
is extended to all things.”188 Some commentators said that even
Satan aspired to be included in this universal mercy of Allah.
And Allah (Glorified be He) has addressed the sinners
directly and said:” Say O My servants, who have transgressed
against their souls! Despair not of the mercy of Allah; for
Allah forgives all sins, for He is Oft-Forgiving, MostMerciful.”189
Only if a sinner returns to Allah (Glorified be He) with
pure repentance and genuine penitence, then his all sins would
be washed out such as he had committed nothing, whatever
the sin may be, and how much the sins may be!
(Surah;7;Al-A'araf,156)

188

(Surah;39,Az-Zumar,53)

189

153

154

Furthermore Allah-Glorified be He-has promised a true
repentant to change his sins into the good deeds. AllahGlorified be He- says in the Glorious Qur’an: “Unless he
repents, believes and works righteous deeds, for Allah will
change the evil of such persons into good, and Allah is MostForgiving, Most Merciful.190“
Some scholars said that the change of wrong doings to
good implies the transforming of an unbeliever to a pious
person and an obstinate to an obedient servant of Allah, and
He opens the doors of mercy and goodness in front of him.
Indeed, there is no match for Allah's love for His
creation. Nevertheless Allah-Glorified be He-is the Supreme
Being who is not answerable to His creation.
There is a wonderful and interesting story about a sinner
who had committed the capital crime of murder, not one but
ninety nine murders, I think if such a person will come to one
of us, then he will get all types of condemns and severe
punishments but let us see the merciful attitude of the Creator
towards His sinner servant who longed to His mercy and
aspired to His forgiveness.
It is narrated by Abu-Sa'eed Al-Khudri (May Allah be
pleased with him) that the Prophet (May peace of Allah and
Surah;25;Al-Furqan,70)

190

154

155

His blessings be upon him) has mentioned: “There was a
person -among the nations who preceded you- who had
murdered ninety nine souls, then he searched out about the
wisest person on this globe, he was informed about a monk,
then he came to him and asked:” I have murdered ninety nine
souls then have I any repentance? He answered:” No.”
Then he completed the century with him.
Furthermore, he asked about the most qualified person
on earth, then he was guided to a real savant then he came to
him and confessed that he has murdered ninety-nine souls then
is there any kind of repentance for him? The monk answered
“Of course! And who is to intervene between a sinner and his
repentance? Depart to such and such place there are some
persons worshipping Allah-exalted be He- go there and
worship with them, and do not return to your homeland
because that is a land of bads.”
He started his departure as he has covered the half
distance, the Angel of death came down to him, the Angels of
mercy and Angels of torment quarreled with each other about
his fate, the Angels of mercy argued:” He came repenting,
turning to Allah-exalted be He- with his whole heart.”
However the Angels of punishment protested that he
never did any good deed, and then an Angel neared to them
155

156

with a human feature, and they appointed him as a judge
between them, then he suggested:” Measure the distance
between the two lands whichever would be nearer, he would
be judged according to it.” When they measured, they found
him nearer to the land to which he intended, so that the Angels
of mercy took him to Paradise191.”
How great is His mercy! And how wide is His
forgiveness! Indeed He is the Most-Gracious the MostMerciful.
Through Islamic point of view only when a person
embraces Islam his all previous wrong doings are removed out
and he becomes as pure as a newly born baby who has done
no sin. The Prophet (May peace and blessings be upon him)
said” Islam chops down whatever was before it” in another
tradition he said:” Repentance chops down whatever was
before it192.”
Even Allah-Glorified be He-is pleased with a repentant
to such extent as one of is pleased when he gets his precious
and needed missing thing.
The most eminent scholar namely Muslim (May Allah's
mercy be upon him) has mentioned in his authorized book that
the Prophet (May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon
(Al-Bukhari)

191

192Ibn-Katheer

156

157

him) said: “Indeed Allah is more pleased with His servant's
repentance than a person who was riding a camel in a lonely
desert then it was lost by him, even his food and water were
upon it, then he came to a tree and fell asleep under its shade
in despair and when he awoke he found his camel back
standing in front of him then he caught its noseband and
uttered-due to his unlimited pleasure-O Allah! You are my
servant and I am your Lord! He has mistaken because of his
great happiness193.”
It is also narrated that the Prophet (May peace and
blessings be upon him) has explained Allah's boundless mercy
saying:” Allah has given all His creation 1/100th part of His
mercy by which we forgive, pardon, forget and show mercy
and compassion not only to human being but to all of His
creation. And He-Glorified be He- has reserved the other
99/100th part for the Day of Judgment to show us His absolute
mercy194.”
There is no fixed word, place, nor time for repentance in
Islam whenever a sinner returns to His Lord with true and

(Muslim)

193

(Bukhari)

194

157

158

pure intention then he finds his Most-Merciful Sustainer
waiting for him.
In this regard, the Prophet (May peace of Allah His
blessings be upon him) said: “Allah accepts repentance of His
servants as long as they repent before they die195.”
However, it is better to hasten to this good act as no one
knows his time of death or how long he will live sometimes
the death comes without previous warning.
It is also narrated that the Prophet (May peace of Allah
His blessings be upon him) said “Allah-Glorified be Hesaid:”O son of Adam! I will forgive for you whatever it may
be as long as you call Me and hope from Me, and I don't care
(of your sins) O son of Adam! If you bring me evils filling the
earth then you meet me, in a state that you were not
associating with Me any thing then I will bring you
forgiveness full of earth.196“
In Islam when a person intends to commit an evil but did
not implement he would be given one full reward, but if he
implements his intention then he would not be registered
against him but only one evil. And when a person intended to
( Ibn Katheer)

195

(At-Tirmizi)

196

158

159

do a good act but he could not do it, then Allah writes in his
balance one reward and if he did the good deed, then he gets
rewards from ten to seven hundreds.”197
It is also Allah's mercy upon His servants that He erases
the evils of a person by his good deeds.
The Prophet (May peace of Allah and His blessings be
upon him) said: “Do a good deed after every evil act then it
will remove the evil.”198
And it is narrated by Abu-Horairah (the most famous
companion of the Prophet Muhammad (May peace of Allah
and His blessings be upon him) in collecting his sayings)he
said:” Once a person was passing through a road, then he saw
a thorny branch on his way then he removed it from there, in
return Allah thanked his good act and forgave his evils.”199
As well as to remove a hurting object from the way also
regarded among a kind of charity.
The Glorious Qur'an itself gives a lot of good news and
sweet promises for the repentant that seeks Allah's
forgiveness, and feels sorry for Allah-Glorified be He-

(Abu-Dawood

197

(At-Tirmizi)

198

(Al-Bukhari)

199

159

160

Read for example, Allah-exalted be He says:” Ask
forgiveness from your Lord. for He is Oft-Forgiving He will
send rain to you in abundance, give you increase in wealth and
sons and bestow on you gardens and bestow on you rivers (of
waters).”200
These good promises are made by Allah who has created
the whole universe and whatever in this wide world, nothing is
impossible to Him and He has power over all things.
There is a tradition which asserts this fact the tradition
explains: “One of the previous prophets went to ask AllahGlorified be He- rain for his followers and when the people
have gathered Allah-Glorified be He sent down a message to
His prophet that there is a sinner among you so drive him back
then only you will get the rain then the prophet announced the
message among the people the sinner was helpless and
invoked in secret to Allah to protect him from this exposure
and promised with Allah that he will never return to any sin in
future and offered a true and genuine repentance then Allah
accepted his supplication immediately, and ordered the sky to
rain thus they got their need fulfilled by Allah at that moment
then the prophet asked Allah to show him the sinner then
Allah told him:” How would I show you My servant!
Surah,71,Nuh,10)

200(

160

161

Nevertheless you got not the rain but due to his genuine
repentance.”201
There is no place for despairing in Islam, there is no
inheritable evil in the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad
(May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him) no one is
answerable of other's evil.

Al-Durr Al-Manthoor)

201(

161

162

The Mercy and Main Objectives of Islam
The more important and common goals which have been
intended by Islam to achieve in order to avail the whole
human being are as follows:
1)To Protect the Soul; That is why, Islam has
prohibited murder and every thing which harms the human life
Allah-Glorified be He- says:” And don't take life which Allah
has made sacred except for just cause.”202 and says:” If anyone
slew a person unless it be for murder or for spreading mischief
in the land it would be as he slew the whole people and if
anyone saved a life it would be as if he saved the life of the
whole people.203“
2) To Protect the Mind; In Islam every thing that harms
the human mind or destroys it, has been regarded as unlawful
act, and Islam has encouraged to use this favor in positive way
and useful fields to find out the common law of nature in order
to utilize them for human purposes, as the earth the sun the
stars have been created by Allah for humankind AllahGlorified be He-says:” Do you not see that Allah has subjected
to your use all things in the heavens and on earth and has
made his bounties flow to you in exceeding measure
Surah,17,Al-Isra'33)

202

(Surah,5,Al-Ma'idah,32)

203

162

163

(both)seen and unseen?”204( And freedom of think, invention,
creation and to announce the results or to express opinions are
reserved in Islam Allah-Glorified be He-says:” Let there be no
compulsion in religion truth stands out clear from error205.”
As to impose, a religion or thought upon an unwilling
person or nation means to deprive them of their freedom of
thinking and to paralyze their thinking power, which is
absolutely contrary to this main objective of Islam.
3) To Protect the Religion; All human beings have been
created upon a natural instinct that obliges them to embrace a
religion whatsoever it may be, there is no nation has no
religious instinct, the need of religion is not only to fulfill a
natural need only, but also to be guided by a complete system
of life which explains how to base his ties with Allah and how
to communicate with the universe away from any sort of
confusion and doubt . Allah-Glorified be He-knows His
creation in a better way so the religion revealed by Him is
more suitable for the human being than the man-made;
“Allah-Glorified be He-says; Should He not know, He that

Surah,31,Luqman,20)

204

(Surah,2,Al-Baqarah,256)

205

163

164

created? He certainly has (full) knowledge of the secrets of
(all) hearts.”206
4) To Protect the Human Progeny: Islam has intended
through its legislations the continuation of human life that is
why it has protected the family in first. As family is the first
unit of a society as well as Islam aimed at the protection of the
family relations from mixing with each other in society by
unlawful relations like adultery etc.
The system of inheritance in Islam is based upon this
family relation, as well as a person in Islam is ordered to
prefer his close relatives in charity and help his kinsfolk
before others.
That is why Islam has safeguarded the family from any
kind of disorder in this regard and encouraged the relations
established on the legal marriage.
5)To Protect the Belongings; To protect the personal
property is also among the five main objectives of Islam that
is why Islam has prohibited theft, robbery, bribe, usury,
extravagance etc.
In addition, there is a complete and balanced system of
finance in Islamic Jurisprudence, which protects the wealth for
the owner from lose or waste...
(Surah, 67, Al-Mulk, 14

206

164

)

165

And if a person was killed in defending his property then
he has been regarded among the martyrs, the Prophet (May
peace and blessings be upon him) has said: “Whoever was
killed defending his wealth then he is a martyr.207“
It is obvious that every one of the above mentioned
goals, represents the common nature of Islam regarding
mankind's soul, property, freedom and explains its peaceful
and noble intention towards all nations irrespective of color,
faith or origin.
The Mercy and flexibility in Islamic Sharia'h
The mercy of Islam also reflects in this regard when it
divides its rituals in obligatory and non-obligatory
commandments in many cases.
The Prophet (May peace and blessings be upon him) has
ordered to avail the people with facility in general, he says:”
“Facilitate and do not make hard, and bring good tidings, and
do not alienate.208“ As well as he said:” “I have been sent with
the righteous and lenient religion.209“
And the Prophet (May peace and blessings be upon him)
has condemned and expressed his grief when he was informed
(Musnad Ahmad)

207

(Al-Lulu Wal-Marjan)

208

(Ahmad)

209

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166

that a wounded person has died after he took bath for
“Janabat”(In Islam it is obligatory on a person had intercourse
with his wife to wash his whole body)however such
conditions permit in Islam to make Tayammum(to wash with
dry sand or clean earth) only, but the person has been guided
wrongly to have bath, then the Prophet (May peace and
blessings be upon him) said in grief :”They have killed him,
may Allah kill them, why they did not ask if they did not had a
knowledge about it, indeed the remedy of an unknowing is to
ask, only it was enough for him to bind a bandage on his
wound and perform Tayammum.210“ Undoubtedly Islamic
Sharia'h is based upon flexibility and concession in its major
parts, it intends-in fact-to provide the people with all kinds of
spiritual, physical, mental peace and security, in general the
commandments of Islam have regarded the human nature as
the pivot upon which rotate its all verdicts and Islam gives a
facility according to changes in human life, like: sickness,
disability, obligatory circumstances.
In fact, the revealed verdict itself is a feature of Allah's
mercy upon His servants, as He has guided them to the right
path in every step of their life and left them not to wander in
confusions and darkness.
(Abu-Dawood)

210

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167

Allah-Glorified be He-narrates the words of inhabitants
of Paradise in the Glorious Qur’an:”And they shall say:
“Praise be to Allah who has guided us to this, never could we
have found guidance, had it not been for the guidance of
Allah.”211
And says in another Verse;” He has chosen you and has
imposed no difficulty on you in religion.” 212
And the Prophet (May peace and blessings be upon him)
said:” If I order you to do some thing then do whatever you
can do.” 213
There are some examples of such concession in Islamic
Sharia'h they are as follows:
1)Even in the case of ablution(Al-Wdu) before prayer if
a person does not get water or he is sick or on a journey then it
is made enough to wash with dry sand or clean earth (AtTayammum)Allah-Glorified be He-says:” If you are ill, or on
a journey or one of you comes from offices of nature or you
have been in contact with women and you find no water then
take yourselves clean sand or earth and rub therewith your

(Surah, 7, Al-A'raf, 43)

211

(Surah, 22, Al-Hajj, 78)

212

(Al-Lo'lo-wal-Murjan, 846)

213

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faces and hands. For Allah does blot out sins and forgive again
and again.” 214
If a person is far from mosque or he is on a journey then
he is permitted to perform the prayer anywhere. As the
Prophet (May peace and blessings be upon him) said:” The
whole earth has been made a mosque for me.” 215
If a person is unable to perform the prayer standing then
it is enough to perform sitting or as is easy for him.
As well as if a person is on journey then the prayers of
four prostrations (Rakat) have been lightened into two only.
As well as a woman during her menses and a child before he
reaches his legal age are exempted from this worship.
2) The fast of Ramadan (the Islamic ninth month in
lunar calendar) during which every able Muslim is ordered to
fast from eating, drinking and having intercourse with one’s
wife from early morning to sunset.
The worship of fast is among the common features of
worship, which has been shared by the nations before Islam,
Allah-Glorified be He-says: “O you believe! Fasting is
prescribed to you as it was prescribed to those before you, that
you may (learn) self-restraint.” 216
(Surah, 4, An-Nisa', 43)

214

(Al-Bukhari)

215

(Surah, 2, Al-Baqarah, 183)

216
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169

The fast has been ordained upon a Muslim by AllahGlorified be He-in order to purify his soul and develop his
spiritual strength as well as to share feeling of hunger with
poor and hungry, so that wealthy person would be merciful
towards his poor brother.
The whole month has been regarded for every person a
good opportunity for repentance and self-assessment, on both
levels, individual and social to avoid the negatives.
Yet this worship has some exceptions for the unable
Allah-Glorified be He-says:” “But if any of you is ill or on a
journey then the prescribed number (should be made up) from
days later, and for those who can do it (with hardship)is a
ransom the feeding of one that is indigent.” 217
As well as the woman during her menses, and a pregnant
and nursing woman has been exempted from this worship, if
they fear any harm upon her child's health, but should be made
up from later days.
If a person eats or drinks by fault or forgets then he
should continue his fast as usual and his fast would be
regarded in the sight of Allah complete in reward.
3)The worship of Hajj(pilgrimage journey to the sacred
Kabah) is obligatory once in life for every able Muslim man
(Surah, 2, Al-Baqarah, 184)

217

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170

and woman, who can afford it, Allah-Glorified be He-says:”
Pilgrimage thereto is a duty men owe to Allah those who can
afford the journey.” 218
The pilgrim has many benefits through this journey, he
gets a chance to meet other nations and exchange knowledges
and experiences with different people, besides many spiritual
advantages.
This worship also has exceptions in Islam, as a child,
poor and ill, are exempted from this journey as well as a
woman is exempted till she finds a companion of husband or
other unmarriageable person as has been explained in the
traditions of the Prophet (May peace and blessings be upon
him) in full detail
There is also concession in this annual worship as it is
obligatory only upon the able, healthy, wealthy who can afford
the expense of journey, yet it is only once in whole life.
4) Zakat (alms giving) is also regarded among the Five
Pillars of Islam and it is due right of poor in the property of
the wealthy which has been prescribed by Allah-Glorified be
He-and was stressed upon it by the Prophet (May peace and
blessings be upon him) .

(Surah, 3, A'l i-Imran, 97)

218

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The Glorious Quran says:” And be steadfast in prayer
and regular in charity and whatever good you send forth for
your souls before you, you shall find it with Allah, for Allah
sees well all that you do.”219
This Islamic ritual is also prescribed only upon those
who owns 85 grams of pure gold or other money equivalent to
it in value, free from all debts and extra from his basic needs
like house, car, daily expenses of him and who is under his
guardianship, as well as it is due to pay only when it remains
in his possession the whole year of lunar calendar. In addition,
the amount he has to pay is only 2.5%, in order to spend on
needy, helpless, etc. 220
Thus it became clear that Islam took in its consideration
the different circumstances of human being and never imposed
a single command contradicting to his nature and benefit, the
concession and the flexibility in Islamic shariah present a clear
evidence upon its merciful nature and conform its validity for
all nations and all periods.

(Surah, 2, Al-Baqarh, 110

219

(Fatawa Al-Majlis Al-A'la. Egypt)

220

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172

172

173

Chapter Three
 Was Islam Spread by the Sword?
 Why Has Islam Forbidden a Muslim Woman to Marry
with a Non-Muslim Man?

Why Did the Prophet Muhammad-peace and blessings
?be upon him) Marry more than Four Women

 Why Does a Muslim Woman in Islam Get Half Share in
Inheritance Compared with a Man?
Why Is a Muslim Man Permitted to Marry more than
?One

173

174

Some False Accusations against Islam and Their Logical
Refutation
This chapter is intended to correct the confusions launched by
some scholars in East and West who are bigoted agaisnt Islam.
In fact, they have committed a serious mistake when they have
judged against Islam referring to some nonsense acts, which
may be committed by some so-called Muslims. However, it is
must to return to the Glorious Qur’an and Sunnah if we wish
to conclude rightly about any matter related to Islam, even a
Muslim has to judge his act in the light of above-mentioned
two sources. Whether the act is according to Islam or contrary
to its spirit, in later, the act would not be regarded as a
representative of Islam, rather it would be considered his own
act, and he would be answerable of it. However, Islam will
remain quite far from those evil acts.
These circumstances have imposed to refute these false
accusations and present the true nature of Islam in the light of
the Glorious Qur’an and traditions of the Prophet Muhammad
(May peace of Allah and His blessings be upon him).
There is no doubt that Islam has been targeted since its
manifest with all kinds of weapons, but when the physical
instruments (Author: Please provide examples here.) have
failed totally, then it has been targeted with false accusations

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175

and baseless labels. However, they fulfilled these purposes
with the limited instruments that were available at that time.
Now in our modern age, due to the revolution in the
world of technology, especially in the means of
communication, transportation, mass media, and electronic
networks, the whole world has turned into a small chat room.
These fast and latest means are extensively used against
Islam, the Prophet, (May peace and blessings be upon him),
Islamic doctrine, Sharia'h, Muslims, and to everything that is
related to Islam.
The answers to these accusations have been provided
herein indirectly, but these matters will be more clearly
focused upon here. These accusations may be shaped in a
scientific framework and/or presented in a scholarly style, but
in reality they are based on ignorance and enmity toward
Islam.
Islam has always regarded and believed in previously
revealed books, prophets, and messengers and it has always
honored them as the part of Islamic creed. The Holy Qur’an
and the Sunnah explain this honor and respect in the purest
way, and they show a high degree of respect toward every one
of them. In return, Muslims expect to be met with mutual
regard and respect and to be treated with the same leniency

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176

and respect. However, what has happened has been absolutely
contrary.
Nevertheless, our duty is merely to declare the real fact
and to leave the wise people to judge for themselves what is
right and what is wrong.
Among the allegations that have been promulgated
against Islam, one of the most destructive has been that Islam
was spread by sword and forcibly, as the recent Pope of The
Vatican mentioned in his lecture in German University a few
months ago (Author: Please provide date and source).

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Was Islam Spread by the Sword?
There is clear evidence from the Glorious Qur’an itself, the
first amongst the main sources of all Islamic faith, shariah, and
ethical principles that, no matter the historic manifestations,
Islam is not and never was intended to be spread by violence
in the least.
Allah (Glorified be He) says, “Let there be no
compulsion in religion truth has been distinguished from the
error.” 221
And said in another verse, “Say: “The truth is from your
Lord let him who will believe and let him who will reject it.”222
And Allah (Glorified be He) has explained the principles
of preaching in the Glorious Qur’an itself He says, “Invite to
the way of your Lord with wisdom and beautiful preaching
and argue with them in ways that are best and most gracious,
for your Lord knows best who has strayed from His path and
who received guidance.”223
And Allah (Glorified be He) has directed His Prophet
Muhammad (May peace and blessings be upon him) by
saying, “It is a part of the mercy of Allah that you dealt gently
(Surah, 2, Al-Baqarah, 256)

221

(Surah, 18, Al-Kahf, 29)

222

(Surah, 16, An-Nahl, 125)

223

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178

with them. Had you been severe or harsh-hearted, they would
have broken away from you.”224
These are the Quranic principles of the preaching which
were implemented completely by the Prophet (May peace and
blessings be upon him) in first. And were taught his
companions secondly, so no one has a right at all to compel a
person to accept Islam be it a Christian or Jew or a polytheist
because Allah (Glorified be He) has forbidden this act.
In Addition it is noteworthy here that any thing that
disseminated by sword and forcibly shall not last for long.
Forced faith never generates but hypocrites, on the contrary
when we search we find that whoever accepted Islam became
very soon a vital factor of Islamic Culture even they tried their
best to motivate others to share in the same sweetness of
Islamic faith.
Moreover, they have contributed to Islamic Culture by
their deeds and words and played an eminent role in defending
Islam.
Not all these achievements could be results of a forced
belief and a fruit of compelled faith.

(Surah, 3, Ali-Imran, 159)

224

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179

It is very clear that Islam spread during Omar's caliphate
to such a larger extent than at any other time in Islamic
history.
When Omar (May Allah be pleased with him) came to
Palestine from the blessed city of the Prophet Muhammad
(May peace and blessings be upon him) he entered the
defeated country with his exemplary modesty and humbly and
showed no pride of his victory at all.
And signed an agreement of security and peace with the
priests and Christian chiefs, that no one will hurt them, their
churches would not be destroyed, their crosses would not be
broken, their lives, property, honors would be protected
completely from internal disturbance and external attacks and
they will enjoy full freedom of faith and expression.
While Omar was in the church. And the time of prayer
neared the priests requested him to perform prayer anywhere
in the church, then Omar (May Allah be pleased with him)
said, “No” so that no one can claim later that our Caliph Omar
has performed prayer here and they may argue against you
about this church.”225

Yousuf Al-Qardawi

225

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180

It is not only Muslim scholar's opinions and explanation
but even the fair-minded orientalists also have confessed this
fact in their writings.
If we accept the claim that some Muslim governors have
oppressed some non-Muslims during their reign, then it is
clear that those selfish governors were astray, and their bad
deeds did not represent the pure Islamic principles, as well as
they have oppressed their Muslim fellows before they ill
treated other nations. In conclusion, they were fully
responsible of their bad doings and Islam has nothing to do
with their wrong doings.
Even in our recent days we find that a number of nonMuslims come every year to Al-Azhar Ash-Sharif from all
over the world to announce their Islam and none of them was
forced to embrace Islam but they only studied Islam in depth
by their own free will and discovered the reality on its pure
nature, then they became satisfied with Islamic faith and
declared their witness.
Even those unjust governors some times preferred and
gave priority some non-Muslims over their own Muslim
brothers.
Therefore, it is probable that these kinds of preference
might be angered some Muslims.

180

181

The most famous Egyptian Muslim scholar Ash-Sheikh
Dardeer, narrates by saying:”-”Indeed these commanders have
honored the non-Muslims more than they have honored us.”226
Even some times few Muslims desired to let them free,
as Jews and Christians, and they would pay tribute (Al-Jizyah)
like them because of the tyranny of their own co-religionist
rulers. 227
On the other hand, some Christians have collected a
huge property due to their approach to the Muslim
commanders.
Sir Thomas Arnold says, “On the contrary, there were
times when they (Christians) rose to positions of great
affluence and importance in the state. They filled the posts of
secretaries and scribes in the government offices, framed the
taxes, and in some cases amassed enormous wealth.” 228
Because of this it is possible that they may be hated or
that some unfortunate Muslims may be felt envy towards them
and tried to revenge as Sir Thomas Arnold himself has
concluded on page 420 of that book.
Yousuf Al-Qardawi

226

(Yousuf Al-Qardawi)

227

(THE PREACHING OF ISLAM)

228

181

182

Therefore, this kind of hatred could not be given a
religious mark or Islamic label but it is logic to be attributed
these kinds of acts as the class struggle, which happens among
the same nation.

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183

Why Has Islam Forbidden a Muslim Woman to Marry a
Non-Muslim Man?
First of all we have to confirm that Islam has permitted a
Muslim man to marry a woman amongst the Christians or
Jews,and forbade a Muslim woman to get married with a man
.amongst any of them rather other non-Muslims
We have to keep in our minds, that Islam desires to base
the marriage on firm base which guarantees its continuation,
and avails with biological and psychological peace and
comfort. Islam encourages to create an atmosphere of mutual
.love and intimacy between both sides
It is also noteworthy that Islam has regarded to believe
in all previous revealed books and to respect all previous
Prophets and Messengers an important factor of its creed,and
any kind of dishonor concerning to any Prophet or Messenger
.will expell him out of Islamic faith itself
Thus when a Muslim man would marry a Christian or
Jewish woman then he is bound to respect her faith and to
give her freedom of worship according to her faith and creed
thus the needed factors of peace and security would be
. available
But when a Muslim woman marries a Christian or Jew
or another non-Muslim man, it is possible that her religious
feelings would be injured intentionally or unknowingly since
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184

the man has no belief in the Islamic faith in his heart. Such
person might believe in false accusations against Islam and the
Prophet Muhammad (Peace and blessings be upon him) and
Islamic shari'ah, so it may be concluded here that Islam has
been cautious about this sensitive matter and has the goal of
.protecting a family from possible destruction

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185

Why Did the Prophet Muhammad (May peace and
?blessings be upon him) Marry More Than Four Women
Historical accounts have confirmed that Prophet Muhammad
(May peace and blessings be upon him) undoubtedly married
.more than four women
The prophet's first wife was Khadijah (May Allah be
pleased with her), a wealthy woman in Mecca. When the
Prophet (May peace and blessings be upon him) married her,
he was 25 years old and she was about 40 years old. She had
been married three times previously. If Prophet Muhammad
(May peace and blessings be upon him) would have married
for natural desires he would have selected a beautiful young
virgin of Mecca rather than a widow fifteen years his senior.
When she died during the eighth year of his prophethood he
remained single for about five years and served his children
himself. All of his later marriages began when he was 53 years
old when his missionary activities were at their peak and he
was absolutely absorbed in his preaching tasks. After these
clear evidences, how can a fair-minded scholar claim that he
?was self-indulgent
In addition, the initial biography of the Prophet's life
hows that he was pure and clean in all aspects of life. It is not
possible to imagine that he got married for natural desires. It is
not logical in that case that he would prefer widows or
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186

divorcees—the only virgin among his wives was ‘Aishah, the
daughter of the first caliph of Islam. He married her in order to
fortify his ties with her father who supported him in his
mission. Actually, he also married other women for noble
humanistic purposes and missionary goals. Every one of them
played an eminent role in the propogation of his teachings
among the Muslim women. Logically, women can discuss
personal matters with other women more freely and frankly
.than with men
Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) narrates that a ‘
woman came to the Prophet (May peace and blessings be up
.on him) and questioned about bathing after menses
The Prophet (May peace and blessings be upon him)
”!explained, saying, “Clean it with a perfumed piece of cotton
”?She asked, “How shall I clean it
”!Then he said again, “Clean with it
Still the woman could not understand well, and asked
”?again, “How to clean
Then the Prophet (May peace and blessings be up on
him) said, “Glory to Allah! Clean with it.” He was a very
.modest person; he could not exlain directly
Aishah stated, “Then he pulled me toward him and ‘
229

”!explained, “Wipe with it the marks of blood everywhere

229(Al-Bukhari).

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187

As well as the Prophet (May peace and blessings be
upon him) intended through these marriages to support them
as they have no one to vouch for them. That is why he selected
.the widows, the divorced, and the aged
As well as he was only to obey Allah's orders and every
moment of his life was practical translation of Allah's orders
and commandments. Allah (Glorified be He) says about
”.him:”Say”I but follow what is revealed to me from my Lord
230

So in the matter of marriage also he was merely guided
by Allah (Glorified be He) in order to achieve the humanistic
.and missionary goals

230(Surah,7,Al-A'raf,203)

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188

Why a Muslim Woman In Islam Gets Half Share in
?Inheritance when Compared with Man
It is also amongst the cases related to a woman in Islam which
have been dealt with misunderstanding by some people who
.studied Islamic rules superficially
So I would like to point out here that this issue should be
studied within the system of Islamic law and it's social life as
.whole
Allah (Glorified be He) has made it obligatory on a man
to support his family, his wife and his children, and his sisters
.if there is a need, and his aunts if there is a need
In Islam the man has to provide everything for his wife
.and to spend on all necessities
However, in Islam a woman has no resonsibility dor
spending on her husband nor her children nor on herself. It is
left to her free will as to whether she shares her husband’s
financial burden. And this is regarded as a chairty not an
.obiligatory duty
In terms of inheritance, a man receives the double share
.of a woman because it a man has to support the family
It should be also borne in mind that in some cases a
woman inherits a greater share or equal shares when compared
.with man

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189

It is important that Allah (Glorified be He) has
distributed the wealth of a deceased according to the needs
231

.and duties of every inheritors

231(Dr. Abu-laylah)

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190

Why a Muslim Man is Permitted to Marry more than
?One
This issue has been used as a vital mean to agitate women's
.anger feelings against Islamic Sharia'h
But they did not bear in their minds the complete picture
of this matter, nor did they studied the rules, regulations,
.conditions, and terms in detail
Allah (Glorified be He) says, “But if you fear that you
shall not be able to deal justly (with your wives) then keep to
only one or what your right hand possesses (a captive). That
232

”.will be more suitable to prevent you from doing injustice

In Islam, polygamy of up to four wives is permissible on
the condition that the man be just and fair to all—but this
condition is almost impossible to fulfill. The practical proof of
this difficulty is in the low number of Muslim men that marry
more than one wife. According to rough estimates, it is not
more than one percent. And the reason behind this is the
.strong condition of Islam to maintain justice among all wives
Among the reasons that a Muslim man is permitted to
have another wife is in case that the first wife is barren and he
longs for children. Then he should keep the first wife and treat
.her well and take a second to satisfy his natural desire
(Surah, An-Nisa'3)

190

232

191

On the other hand, if the man is sterile then the wife also
has a right to be divorced and to enter another marriage in
.order to have children
The same rule is applicable if the woman is so sick that
she cannot do her marital duties. In a time of war when the
women greatly outnumber the men it is the right of every
woman to enjoy the right of having a husband. In such cases,
polygamy is a logical solution, rather than leaving many
.women in misery and loneliness
It is very important here to distinguish between what is
unlawful under normal conditions and what is permissionable
only in emergencies so that we can conclude in the proper and
233

.right way

233(Dr. Abu-Laylah)

191