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the magazine of the electroindustry

er

Published by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association | www.NEMA.org | May 2015 | Vol. 20 No. 5
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2014 Herm

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Are You Grounded?


Safeguarding Electricity
from Plant to Plug

Also inside:
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National Electrical Safety Month:


Driving a Proactive Culture
Advancing Safety and Innovation through Building Codes
Fire SafetyApplying Science and Technology
Harmonized Standards Streamline Certification,
Facilitate Safety

CONTENTS

FEATURES
Promoting Safety and Innovation through Up-to-Date Building Codes......................................................8
Life Safety Benefits Tied to Adoption of 2012 IFC and IBC.........................................................................9
Safety is Not for Sale............................................................................................................................10
Hidden Hazards Call for Expert Evaluations............................................................................................11
Newer Codes Mean Better Safety in Photovoltaic Systems......................................................................12
Should It Take a Disaster to Make a Change?..........................................................................................14
Using Unlisted Products Poses Safety Risks............................................................................................16
Securing Safety in Energy Storage Systems...........................................................................................17
Total Systems Approach to Electrical Grounding Safeguards Emergency Response Centers.......................18
Grounding Systems Only as Good as Weakest Link..................................................................................20
Fire SafetyApplying Science + Technology ........................................................................................23
Outfitting Women with Flame-Resistant Garments Ensures Safety .........................................................24
The Future of Fire Safety: Are We Doing Enough?...................................................................................25
Research Unveils Dangers of Electric Shock Drowning.............................................................................26
Patient SafetyImproved Patient Outcomes.......................................................................................27

Save the Date


Board of Governors Annual Meeting
Thursday, November 5, through
Friday, November 6, 2015
Ritz-Carlton, Washington, D.C.

the magazine of the electroindustry


er

Published by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association | www.NEMA.org | May 2015 | Vol. 20 No. 5
i
W

nn

2014 Hermes

a
Aw

rd

Are You Grounded?

ECO BOX

Safeguarding Electricity
from Plant to Plug

Also inside:
n

n
n
n

National Electrical Safety Month:


Driving a Proactive Culture
Advancing Safety and Innovation through Building Codes
Fire SafetyApplying Science and Technology
Harmonized Standards Streamline Certification,
Facilitate Safety

Electroindustry text and cover pages are printed using SFI-certified Anthem paper using soy ink.
SFI fiber sourcing requirements promote responsible forest
management on all suppliers lands.
SFI works with environmental, social and industry partners to
improve forest practices in North America.
The SFI certified sourcing label is proof Electroindustry is using
fiber from responsible and legal sources.

Available on the App Store

electroindustry

Publisher / Editor in Chief | Pat Walsh


Contributing Editors | Chrissy L. S. George
William E. Green III
Economic Spotlight | Tim Gill
Codes & Standardization Trends | Vince Baclawski
Government Relations Update | Kyle Pitsor
Art Director | Jennifer Tillmann
National Advertising Representative | Bill Mambert

electroindustry (ISSN 1066-2464) is published monthly by NEMA, the Association of Electrical Equipment and Medical Imaging
Manufacturers, 1300 N. 17th Street, Suite 900, Rosslyn, VA 22209; 703.841.3200. FAX: 703.841.5900. Periodicals postage paid at
Rosslyn, VA, and York, PA, and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to NEMA, 1300 N. 17th Street,
Suite 900, Rosslyn, VA 22209. The opinions or views expressed in electroindustry do not necessarily reflect the positions of NEMA
or any of its subdivisions.
Subscribe to ei, the magazine of the electroindustry, at www.nema.org/subscribe2ei
Contact us at comm@nema.org
Follow NEMA:

Newsmakers

NOTES
NEMA Officers........................................................................................................................................................................................3
Comments from the C-Suite..................................................................................................................................................................3
View from the Top..................................................................................................................................................................................4
Ask the Expert......................................................................................................................................................................................36
Listen to the Expert..............................................................................................................................................................................36
I Am NEMA...........................................................................................................................................................................................36

Bill Perry, OSHA Director of Standards and Guidance,


is confident that revised standards guarantee safety
to people who work on or near electrical power lines.

DEPARTMENTS
Government Relations Update................................................................................................................6
Atlanta City Council Considers Benchmarking and Disclosure.............................................................................................................6
Historic Legislation Results in Continued Access to Imaging...............................................................................................................6
NEMA Welcomes Push for Trade Legislation.........................................................................................................................................6
Electroindustry News...........................................................................................................................28
Golden Omega Award Bestowed on Susan Graham, PhD.................................................................................................................28
Kite & Key Recipient Tim McNeive Retires...........................................................................................................................................28
Bruce Schopp Bids Farewell.................................................................................................................................................................29

Susan Graham, PhD, President and CEO


of ELANTAS PDG, Inc., and a member of
the NEMA Board of Governors, will be
awarded IEEEs Golden Omega Award for her
contributions to technological progress.

26

John Caskey Reappointed to DOE Committee.....................................................................................................................................29


ACEEE Summer Study 2015 Conference Names Hoyt Co-Chair.........................................................................................................29
Code Actions/Standardization Trends....................................................................................................32
Smart Fire Protection Continues under Fire Pump Subcommittee.....................................................................................................32
Recently Published Standards.............................................................................................................................................................32
International Roundup........................................................................................................................33
Harmonizing Fire Alarm Standards Streamlines Certification, Facilitates Safety...............................................................................33
Economic Spotlight..............................................................................................................................34
Available from NEMA/BIS The Electroindustry Economic Outlook.................................................................................................34

Todd Lathrop is all about safety.

36

Officers
Chairman
Don Hendler
President & CEO
Leviton Manufacturing Co., Inc.
First Vice Chairwoman
Maryrose Sylvester
President & CEO
GE Lighting
Second Vice Chairman
Michael Pessina
President
Lutron Electronics Company, Inc.
Treasurer
Thomas S. Gross
Vice Chairman & COO
Eaton Corporation
Immediate Past Chairman
John Selldorff
President and CEO
Legrand North America
President & CEO
Kevin J. Cosgriff
Secretary
Clark R. Silcox

From the President


Electricity. Whether we use it to charge a smart phone, plug in a hair dryer, or powerup a machine at work, we all typically take its availabilityand probably its safetyfor
granted. But safety is never automatic, so as we do every year, NEMA focuses on electrical
safety this month. In essence, we want to be grounded in safety.
Think for a moment of the tremendous electrical power that flows from generating plants
through transmission networks to substations and ultimately to customers at workplaces
and homes. NEMA member companies work hard to ensure that power lines, conductors,
insulators, transformers, circuit breakers, switches, conduits, and other equipment
meet the highest standard so that the electricity that powers our country is delivered
as efficiently and safely as possibleand all of this through every kind of terrain and
weather, and an almost limitless array of end uses.
According to OSHA, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, workplace
injuries related to electric power generation, transmission, and distribution installations
led to revised manufacturing industry and construction standards. These updated
standards, as well as those for electrical protective equipment, provide a layer of
protection that helps keep workers from getting dangerously close to energized lines
and equipment.
But our industry has a history of going beyond good enough, so techniques like
proper grounding and other basic procedures addressed in the National Electrical Code
and other national building, electrical, fire/life safety, and energy codes tend to be
starting places. For instance, NEMAs Strategic Initiative for Advancing Safety and New
Technologies through Code Adoption is built on the notion that the same high standards
of safety that exist in the workplace need to be adapted to apply to residential and other
settings where people gather as families and communities.
Devices such as tamper-resistant receptacles, arc-fault circuit interrupters, and groundfault circuit interruptersto name just a fewprotect us from the power of electricity
even while ensuring its availability. This is fundamental to quality of life.
Electrical safety is only as good as its weakest link. From power plant to wall plug, NEMA
members manufacture safety into every link they make. Nevertheless, we all have a
major role in the safety equation. So please read and share this issue of ei. When it comes
to electrical safety, we want an affirmative answer to the question, Am I grounded? ei

Kevin J. Cosgriff
President and CEO

NEMA electroindustry May 2015

Views
National Electrical Safety Month: Driving a Proactive Culture
Dave Tallman, Chairman of Electrical Safety Foundation International (ESFI)
Senior Vice President and General Manager, Control and Power Conversion Division, Eaton

In February 1984,
the Consumer
Product Safety
Commission
(CPSC) recognized
the need for greater
electrical safety
awareness and
launched what
was then known as Electrical Safety
Awareness Month. The following year
the initiative was honored in May, and
the longstanding tradition of promoting
electrical safety during this month began.
The growing support of this event
demonstrated the need for promoting
electrical safety awareness, which led to
the creation of the National Electrical
Safety Foundation in 1994, through a
cooperative effort by CPSC, NEMA,
and Underwriters Laboratories. The
organization later became the Electrical
Safety Foundation International (ESFI),
and has proudly sponsored National
Electrical Safety Month (NESM) each
May since 1998.
With the support of electroindustry
leaders, ESFI recently celebrated its
20th anniversary. In addition, NESM is
celebrating more than 30 years of helping
consumers and industry via a universal
focus during May.
This New Update
Notable fact: the average American home
is older than 30 years. According to the
U.S. Census Bureau, 44 percent of the
nations housing stock was built before
1970. To address this, the theme of this
years NESM campaign is That Old
House, This New Update. ESFI released
the second edition of Electrical Safety
Illustrated, which informs readers about
common hazards posed by Americas
aging housing stock, and also features a
variety of updates that can improve the
safety and efficiency of homes of any age.

NEMA electroindustry May 2015

Virtually every industry and business is


challenged by an aging infrastructure and
increasingly more complex safety needs
among its workforce. Improving electrical
safety is fundamentally important in
promoting a culture of safety within the
workplace. ESFI continues to respond to
the changing workplace safety landscape
through the development of assessments,
trainings, and educational tools for a
wide audience.
Having served on ESFIs Board of
Directors since 2001, and later appointed
chairman in 2006, I have watched
ESFI grow exponentially in reach
and influence. Thanks to NESM and
ESFIs other campaigns, the foundation
achieves more than one billion media
impressions each year, and that number
continues to steadily grow.
The foundations NESM efforts provided
the opportunity for all sectors of the
electrical industry to advocate the
importance of electrical safety during
the month of May and beyond. It has
been a pleasure to work alongside other
industry leaders committed to advancing
electrical safety, and I attribute a
great deal of ESFIs success to their
participation.
My association with ESFI and helping
the international community drive
improved electrical safety has been
one of the most fulfilling aspects of
my career. ESFIs leadership in driving

NESM continues to elevate critical safety


issues to the forefront of public attention,
including programs addressing the
dangers of counterfeit electrical products
and those that promote the use of home
electrical safety devices, such as tamper
resistant receptacles, arc-fault circuit
interrupters, and ground-fault circuit
interrupters.
There is no doubt that ESFI has made
significant contributions to public health
and safety.
As the electrical industry continues to
evolve, so does the need for electrical
safety awareness. ESFI offers a
great opportunity for you and your
organization to impact public safety and
guide program activities. I encourage
you to do your part to promote safe
electrical practices not just in May, but
throughout the year.
Lastly, I would like to thank those who
have supported ESFI. Without your
contributions, these lifesaving awareness
campaigns would not be possible.
Driving a culture of electrical safety is
imperative. We are encouraged by the
progress we have made and excited for
what lies ahead.
For information on how you can get
involved, visit www.esfi.org. ei

ESFI Thanks Dave Tallman


for his extensive service to the organization through his service on the Board of Directors
and Executive Committee.
ESFI can attribute much of its success to his strong leadership and forward thinking.
Brett Brenner, President, ESFI

Views
OSHA Updates Standards for Electric Power Generation, Transmission, Distribution Work
Bill Perry, Director of Standards and Guidance, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

Electric utilities,
electrical
contractors, and
labor organizations
persistently
championed muchneeded measures
to better protect
the men and
women who work on or near electrical
power lines. We heard their concerns
and took action.
OSHA recently revised its 20-yearold general industry and 40-year-old
construction standards for work on
electric power generation, transmission,
and distribution installations; and for
electrical protective equipment. The
changes became effective on July 11, 2014.
Workers in these professions are exposed
to a variety of significant hazards that
can and sometimes do cause serious
injury and death. Until last July,
inconsistencies between the construction
and general industry standards could
create difficulties for employers
attempting to develop appropriate work
practices for their employees.
For example, an employer replacing
a switch on a transmission and
distribution system is performing
construction work if it is upgrading
the cutout, but general industry work
if it is simply replacing the cutout
with the same model. Under the old
standards, different requirements applied
depending upon whether the work was
construction or general industry work.
Now, the requirements are the same.
The updated standards for general
industry and construction include
new or revised provisions for host and

contract employers to share safetyrelated information with each other


and with employees, as well as for
improved fall protection for employees
working from aerial lifts and on
overhead line structures. In addition,
the standards adopt revised approachdistance requirements to better ensure
that unprotected workers do not get
dangerously close to energized lines and
equipment. The new standards also add
new requirements to protect workers
from electric arcs.
General industry and construction
standards for electrical protective
equipment were also revised. The
new standard for electrical protective
equipment applies to all construction
work. It also replaces the old
construction standard, which was based
on out-of-date information, with a set
of performance-oriented requirements
consistent with the latest revisions of
the relevant consensus standards. The
new standards address the safe use and
care of electrical protective equipment,
including new requirements that
equipment made of materials other than
rubber provide adequate protection from
electrical hazards.
IMPACT OF THE REVISED STANDARDS
This long-overdue update will save nearly
20 lives and prevent 118 serious injuries
annually. At an average monetary value
of $62,000 per prevented injury and
$8.7 million per prevented fatality, the
estimated monetized savings are $179
million annually. But the financial
benefits dont end there.
Workplace fatalities, injuries, and
illnesses can hamper the ability of many
working families to realize the American
Dream. The financial and social impacts

are often huge, with workers and


their families and taxpayer-supported
programs paying most of the associated
costs. In fact, workers and their families
bear more than half the cost of injuries
and illnesses63 percent when
accounting for out-of-pocket and private
insurance expenses.
Workplace injuries and illnesses
contribute to the pressing issue of income
inequality: they force working families
out of the middle class and into poverty,
and keep the families of lower-wage
workers from ever entering the middle
class. The most effective solution to this
problem is to prevent workplace injuries
and illnesses from occurring.

OSHA standards ... ensure


that employers put effective
protections in place to see that
each and every worker goes
home safe and healthy at the
end of every shift.
Thats exactly what OSHA standards are
designed to doensure that employers
put effective protections in place to see
that each and every worker goes home
safe and healthy at the end of every shift.
We are confident the changes we have
made for electric power generation,
transmission, and distribution work
will do just that.
More on the updated standard
can be found at
www.osha.gov/dsg/power_generation

ei

NEMA electroindustry May 2015

Government Relations Update


Atlanta Passes Energy Benchmarking and Disclosure Ordinance
On April 20, the Atlanta City Council
unanimously passed a building energy
benchmarking and disclosure ordinance
that would make energy and water
consumption in Atlantas commercial and
municipal buildings more transparent.
Cities with similar policies have shown
marked improvements in energy
performance; in its most recent progress
report, New York City announced a
median energy use intensity reduction
of 13 percent for office buildings and 12

percent for multifamily buildings over the


three years for which New York has data.
Patrick Hughes of NEMA and Bob Smith
of Eaton testified in favor of Atlantas
proposed ordinance, while other Atlantabased NEMA members submitted letters
of support. In his testimony, Mr. Hughes
explained that, No one would buy a
car without first knowing its miles-pergallon rating, or buy a food product
without consulting the nutrition facts
label. This ordinance would fill that

information gap, allowing prospective


buyers and renters to understand the full
cost of operating the buildings in which
they work, live, learn, and play.
NEMA will continue work with the City
of Atlanta and local building owners to
implement the policy and to make sure
that building owners have the support
and information they need to improve the
energy performance of their facilities. ei
Patrick Hughes, Director, Government
Relations | patrick.hughes@nema.org

Historic Legislation Results in Continued Access to Imaging


The Senate passed historic legislation
on April 14 to repeal the Sustainable
Growth Rate (SGR), the formula used
to reimburse providers under Medicare.
The measure, commonly known as the
doc fix, passed 92-8 in the Senate and
comes weeks after the House passed the
bill, 392-37. The president is expected to
sign the legislation into law.
In recent years, Congress routinely
stepped in to patch scheduled SGRtriggered cuts to reimbursement rates
with a freeze or small update, but
because each patch required an offset

in the federal budget, cuts to medical


imaging services were always a threat.
During the 113th Congress, the House
Energy and Commerce, Ways and
Means, and Senate Finance committees
produced a bipartisan plan to replace
SGR with a system that reimburses
physicians on how effectively they meet
quality measures. Although it did not
advance, it was revived in the 114th
Congress. House Speaker John Boehner
(R-OH) and Minority Leader Nancy
Pelosi (D-CA) negotiated an agreement
to offset a portion of the bills cost.
Because the bipartisan legislation was

NEMA Welcomes Push for Trade Legislation


Early in the 114th Congress, President
Obama and Senate Majority Leader
Mitch McConnell (R-KY) identified
international trade policy as an area for
bipartisan cooperation. After months of
negotiations, NEMA welcomed legislation
by Sen. Orrin Hatch (R-UT), Sen. Ron
Wyden (D-OR), and Rep. Paul Ryan
(R-OH) to provide market-opening
objectives for U.S. international trade
negotiations. It also establishes a structure
and process for Congress to consider
implementation of any trade agreements
negotiated by July 1, 2018. The legislation
is known as Trade Promotion Authority
(TPA) or fast track.

NEMA electroindustry May 2015

The Bipartisan Congressional Trade


Priorities and Accountability Act of 2015
sets out negotiating objectives for the
administration to achieve in the pending
Trans-Pacific Partnership agreement
with 11 other countries. It establishes
a framework under which members
of Congress continually advise the
administration on how to best achieve
negotiating objectives, and provides for
timely consideration of implementing
legislation with an up-or-down vote.
The legislation also sets out U.S.
priorities in other trade negotiating
forums, including the Trans-Atlantic

crafted with input from a broad group


of stakeholders, little opposition was
mounted when it was introduced.
MITA has urged Congress to repeal SGR,
citing the 15 cuts to medical imaging
since 2006 that have hurt patient access
and undercut the benefits of early
detection. Additional reimbursement
cuts will create more barriers to
lifesaving medical imaging services.
MITA commends Congress for repealing
the SGR and protecting accesses to
medical imaging services. ei
Andy Dhokai, MITA Director of Federal
Relations | adhokai@medicalimaging.org
Trade and Investment Partnership with
the 28-nation European Union, global
negotiations to liberalize trade in services,
and the World Trade Organizations
Environmental Goods Agreement.
NEMA is a member of the Trade Benefits
America coalition, which has been
meeting with Congressional offices on
the importance of foreign markets access
to NEMA companies and on the need for
TPA legislation. ei
Craig Updyke, Manager,
Trade and Commercial Affairs |
craig.updyke@nema.org

Promoting Safety and Innovation


through Up-to-Date Building Codes
Deana M. Dennis, NEMA Manager of State Government Affairs

odes and standards pave the way to market creation for new, improved,
and certified technology, including electrical products manufactured by
NEMA members. Those markets cannot be fully realized, however, until they
are adopted and actively enforced by state and local jurisdictions.
For the last several decades, this has been a relatively easy lift.
But, in recent years due, in part, to the housing market collapse
in 20082009 and a growing anti-regulatory climate, we have
seen pushback on the incorporation of building safety codes
from political, not technical, circles. In the past, codes had
been updated without much attention, and through building
commissions and councils which also received little attention
by politicians.
That has now changed. Many politicians at the state level
have been sympathetic to the concerns of homebuilders and
others, and as such, have acted to support a repeal or delay
of code updates while not fully realizing the consequences
to public safety, as well as economic competitiveness in their
manufacturing sectors.
In response to these efforts, the NEMA Board of Governors
acted in July 2012 to create the Promote Safety and Innovation
through Up-to-Date Building Codes strategic initiative. This
effort is led by the NEMA Task Force on State Code Adoptions,
which is open to all NEMA members. The objectives of the
initiative are two-fold:
Oppose legislative and regulatory efforts aimed at lengthening
the de facto three-year code adoption cycle; and

Support legislative and regulatory efforts aimed at promoting


the timely adoption of the most recent editions of the national
model building, electrical, fire/life safety, and energy codes.
NEMA does this with the help of its member companies in key
states, as well as through the Coalition for Current Safety Codes
and the Electrical Code Coalition.
This year was no exception to the continuing trend of state
activity in the building code realm. This flurry of activity
has posed both challenge and opportunity for NEMA and its
members to promote safety and innovation through timely
adoption of building codes. As a result of our strong messaging
and coordinated effort and outreach, we have garnered support
from politicians in states who, in the past, had previously been
nonchalant or opposed to our issue. We hope to continue this
momentum as the state legislative sessions continue this year.
Separately, we have been very successful at working with
coalition partners to educate stakeholders and support adoption
of the 2014 National Electrical Code (NEC). As of January 1, 24
states have adopted the 2014 NECa record in cycles past. We
hope to build on that success with the recent publication of the
International Code Council (ICC) set of building codes.
The work and accomplishments could not be done without
the support and engagement of NEMA members; coalition
partners; and standards development organizations ASHRAE,
ICC, IAPMO, National Fire Protection Association, and
Underwriters Laboratories.
Ms. Dennis (deana.dennis@nema.org) manages NEMAs
strategic outreach to state stakeholder groups. ei

Update: Advancing Safety and New Technologies through Code Adoption


NEMAs Strategic Initiative for Advancing Safety and
New Technologies through Code Adoption was formed
in 2012 in response to a handful of states attempts to
extend the adoption cycle for building codes. Through
the NEMA Codes & Standards Committee, the Task

NEMA electroindustry May 2015

Force on State Code Adoptions was created to be the


driving vehicle of the Strategic Initiative.
NEMA supports a three-year adoption cycle by
states and local jurisdictions for national model
building codesincluding electrical, life safety, and

energyto coincide with the national revision cycles.


We believe this is the best way to ensure an even
standard for safety and performance in the home and
workplace, and in schools and healthcare facilities.
Learn more at www.nema.org/Code-Adoption-Initiative

ELECTRICAL SAFETYSafety & Innovation through Building Codes

Life Safety Benefits Tied to


Adoption of 2012 IFC and IBC
Richard Roberts, Industry Affairs Manager, Honeywell Fire Safety

everal noteworthy changes to the 2012 edition of the International


Fire Code (IFC) and International Building Code (IBC) will enhance public
life safety. These codes protect the public by incorporating the latest
advancements in technology and techniques. They are updated every three
years to align with new technologies and techniques.

It is essential that jurisdictions adopt the 2012 model fire and


building codes. Consequential changes will be substantial to
public life safety.
Schools
In recent years, there has been an increase in acts of violence
against students and staff in kindergarten through grade 12
schools. Fire alarm systems installed in newly-constructed
schools will be required to use an emergency voice/alarm
communication (EVAC) system for occupant notification. Using
an EVAC system as the occupant notification system has several
benefits over an audible tone.
Improved Communications
An EVAC system provides pre-recorded and live voice
instructions throughout the schools during emergencies
whereas horns are only capable of providing the tone.
Reduced Costs
An EVAC system is capable of being used for fire alarm
evacuation and other signaling purposes such as general
paging, daily class changes, severe weather alerts, and acts of
violence. This reduces installations costs by eliminating the
need for a separate public address system.
Improved Reliability
Public address systems do not have secondary power supplies,
and they typically do not monitor the integrity (supervise)
of the power supplies and circuit wiring. EVAC systems are
required to have a secondary power supply and supervise all
critical system functions for opens, shorts, and grounds.
Lodging and Healthcare
According to a CDC (Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention) report, more than 400 people die every year in the
U.S. from accidental carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, and
more than 20,000 individuals are injured due to CO poisoning
each year. In recent years, there have been numerous deaths
occurring in hotels and motels.

One of the most effective ways to reduce the incidence of CO


poisoning is to ensure that CO-detection devices are installed
where people live, work, sleep, and study. To reduce CO
poisonings, newly-constructed hotels, apartment buildings,
dormitories, nursing homes, and hospitals are required to install
CO detectors or CO alarms.
New IFC/IBC requirements are consistent with the requirements
in the 2009 edition of the International Residential Code for CO
detection in all newly constructed one- and two-family dwellings.
Dormitories
According to a 2011 National Fire Protection Association
report, U.S. fire departments responded to an estimated annual
average of 3,840 structure fires in dormitories, fraternities, and
sororities in 20052009. These fires caused an annual average of
three civilian deaths and 38 civilian fire injuries.
To reduce property damage and civilian casualties, an automatic
smoke detection system is now required in common spaces outside
of dwelling/sleeping units of college and university buildings.
Improved Waking Effectiveness
Most fire alarm horns and integral sounders in smoke alarms/
detector produce an audible tone in the 3 KHz frequency range.
Findings from numerous research studies have concluded the
3 KHz audible signal is not as effective at waking high-risk
segments of the populationsuch as people with hearing loss,
school aged children, and the elderlyas a low frequency 520
Hz tone.
To improve the waking effectiveness for high-risk segments of
the population, fire alarm systems are required to produce the
low frequency audible alarm signal in all sleeping areas. Several
examples are hotel and dormitory sleeping rooms, as well as
dwelling unit bedrooms within apartment buildings. ei
With more than 20 years in the fire alarm and security markets,
Mr. Roberts has experience in the installation, sales, and system
design/commissioning of code-compliant commercial fire alarm
systems, as well as the development and distribution of fire alarm,
carbon monoxide, and security equipment.

NEMA electroindustry May 2015

Bryan P. Holland, NEMA Southern Region Field Representative

ne of the earliest of human interactionsthe trade of goods and


servicesremains the cornerstone of the worlds economy. One of the
largest sectors of the U.S. economy is the sale of new homes. An essential
part of the home building industry is the codes and standards that regulate
construction. A home built to the most current codes and standards ensures
that the building and systems are safe for occupancy.

One technique a builder uses to attract more buyers is offering


options and upgrades such as flooring, kitchen countertops,
or landscaping. Common electrical upgrades include lighting
packages, lighting controls, specialty wiring for home
entertainment and audio systems, intercom systems, and other
wiring systems.
A growing trend in the homebuilding industry is offering
electrical safety devices and components as an option and
not as standard installation. These include essential electrical
devices such as arc-fault circuit interrupters (AFCIs), groundfault circuit interrupters (GFCIs), tamper-resistant receptacles
(TRRs), and other lifesaving products.

Wake-Up Call

One source of this problem is code adoption at the state


or local jurisdiction level. A small group of individuals is

10

pushing to delay the code adoption process to every six years,


thus preventing the most current safety products from being
required. Another problem is attempts to amend currently
adopted codes and standards by removing the provisions related
to lifesaving products. This allows a home builder to offer
new products as options even when the product is nationallyrecognized as a minimum requirement for electrical safety.
Safety cannot be for sale as an option or upgrade. Minimum
safety provisions of codes and standards should not be
manipulated for the purposes of gain and profit. A home buyers
choice of carpet over tile is not likely to result in a fire, injury,
or death. But a home built without essential electrical devices
such as AFCIs, GFCIs, and TRRs can result in the loss of life
and property.
A primary responsibility of the NEMA Field Representative
Program is tracking state code adoption and future trends in
state code adoption. This work is reported to the Codes and
Standards Task Force on State Code Adoption and to coalition
partners. We are taking a proactive stance to prevent the delay in
code adoption and code adoption amendments, and counteract
other tactics that reduce the electrical safety of a home.
While we have been extremely successful in many states,
the battle is far from over. NEMA member companies are
an essential part of the solution. Their efforts on code team
meetings, at code hearings, and during the code development
process have resulted in big wins around the nation.
Lets not let safety be for sale.

ei

Don Iverson, NEMA Midwest Field Representative

I recently presented a program on the benefits


of community adoption of current building
safety codes to a group of electrical inspectors
and contractors. We discussed technologies,
safety, and economics and how they related to
infrastructure advancements, personal safety,
property loss reductions, and reinvestment
in a community. During the discussion on the
economic benefits of new codes, the program
came to screeching halt. I had one of those wakeup-call moments.
An electrical contractor commented that every
time the state adopts a new electrical code, it

NEMA electroindustry May 2015

costs his company money. I instantly thought how


quickly he forgets! We had just discussed how
safety protects life and property. Because it is vital
to the wellbeing of our communities, safety should
always be the highest priority to any electrical
contractor in his day-to-day installations.
As I was listening to this gentleman, my mind
wandered back to the days when I was in his shoes,
and how I looked at new, expanded safety codes as
a way to educate my customers. For example, after
a job was completed, I would always meet with the
homeowner to explain what was installed. I used this
opportunity to not only explain the safety provisions

that were installed, but also to promote myself as a


safety-conscience contractor and advocate.
This mind-set separated me from the competition.
Instead of pushing back at new safety codes,
electrical contractors should embrace them as a
way to elevate their work and trade by having the
reputation as a safety-minded contractor.
After explaining my experiences as a contractor,
the idea of promoting safety instead of pushing
back was a wake-up call for him, too. After the
program, he said, I have never looked at safety
codes in that context before. It was a wake-up
call for both of us. ei

ELECTRICAL SAFETYSafety & Innovation through Building Codes

Hidden Hazards Call for Expert Evaluations


Jack Lyons, NEMA Northeast Field Representative

ith the proliferation of home improvement stores, electrical products


are being sold to homeowners and installation training is being
offered by Big Box Stores. Books are available and online videos offer ondemand learning experiences. There is a sense that even a caveman can
do this, which is a misunderstanding of the importance of training that
professionals in the electrical industry undergo. This training provides for
safe electrical installations for the consumer.

As more homeowners work on residential


electrical systems, it is important to understand
how different systems work together to ensure
safe operation. Proper electrical training
prepares qualified individuals with the
knowledge and vigilance to identify visual
hazards. What are obvious indicators of
electrical hazards to a trained individual may
be overlooked by an untrained homeowner.
Replacing aging products, properly installing
and using electrical products, and properly
inspecting electrical systems are a few ways
to ensure electrical safety, but there are many
other things a homeowner can do to mitigate
electrical hazards.
Test all ground-fault circuit interrupters (GFCIs), arc-fault
circuit interrupter (AFCI) receptacles and breakers on a
monthly basis as recommended by the manufacturer to
ensure proper functionality for the internal circuitry.
Visually inspect all cords that are plugged into the receptacles
and outlets throughout the house. Look for broken cords
and loose connections. Confirm that the grounding terminal
is intact.
Identify damage to exposed wiring and enclosures. Look
for broken insulation, insufficient support, and improper
connections to boxes.
Verify circuit breaker identification in the dwelling
panelboard. This is the required directory that needs to be
updated every time work is performed on a panel and circuit
arrangement changes. This helps verify that the proper
breaker is reset upon overload or short circuit.
Visually inspect for water damage and signs of rust or
corrosion on interior and exterior products. These are signs
of internal damage that may prevent proper protection from
electrical hazards.

Although these suggestions may be obvious to the homeowner,


the proper repair for many electrical systems does not always
rely on product replacement; it may require additional
knowledge of the underlying problem. The National Electrical
Code (NEC), a National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
standard, outlines specific requirements for replacing some
products, those of which require installation by professionals.
Installing tamper resistant receptacles, GFCIs, and AFCIs are a
few specific technologies that should be installed by a qualified
electrical contractor.
Electrical inspections are also a critical
component of a safe installation. Electrical
inspectors work closely with contractors to
verify that the local adopted NEC is followed.
This verifies that the job is current in providing
the most code compliant and safe installation.
Water-damaged electrical equipment and
wiring may seem less obvious to the untrained
eye, but contractors who are aware of NEMAs
publication Evaluating Water-Damaged
Electrical Equipment understand that products
that have been affected by water will be
compromised and do not provide the electrical
safety they were listed for. The UL listing of electrical products
provides the end-user proper installation methods as part of
the listing requirement. Trained professionals understand these
listing requirements, but also understand the limitations of use
under the product safety standard. Evaluating the damage and
providing the proper action for repair is essential for continued
safety. Water behind the service panel cover has rendered many
breakers inoperable, thereby reducing overload and short circuit
protection for branch circuits in a home.
Replacing the breakers, however, may not be the solution. The
water may be a sign of aging electrical products, which may be
allowing water to migrate into the service cable or meter socket.
Once inside a cable, the water will find its way into the service
panel in the basement. A qualified electrical contractor should
be consulted for these repairs because they know safe electrical
work practices involving energized service conductors, which
may not have a fault protection device. These work requirements
come from another NFPA standard: NFPA 70E Electrical Safety
in the Workplace.
As we celebrate National Electrical Safety Month, let industry
experts help provide the expertise in the continued safe use of
electricity through safe installations, inspections, and ensuring
the right products are used for the right applications in the
households across the country. ei
NEMA electroindustry May 2015

11

Newer Codes Mean Better Safety in


Photovoltaic Systems

Mike Stone, NEMA West Coast Field Representative

s technology advances, codes and standards are updated to make sure


that we are safe where we live and work. The National Electrical Code
(NEC), which is highlighted during National Electrical Safety Month, is a
prime example of how codes keep up with technology. The 2017 NEC is
now under development.
One technology that has seen considerable advancement in
recent years is solar photovoltaicsoften referred to simply as
PV. Although PV technology has existed for many years, it has
begun to see widespread usage in the last ten to 15 years. As PV
technology advances, safety requirements in the NEC and other
codes are updated to keep pace with the changes. Three areas
in which significant changes related to PV have been made are
rooftop access, rapid shutdown of PV panels, and fire ratings of
roof panels.
Rooftop access has been a major concern of firefighters since
the installation of PV systems, especially on residential homes.
Access to the rooftop is necessary during firefighting activities
so that the holes can be cut into the attic for venting purposes.
Firefighters also need an access path on the rooftop to maneuver
and escape if necessary. On larger buildings, solar arrays are
limited in size and pathways between the arrays to allow access
to fight the fire. In 2011, the California State Fire Marshals
office worked with the solar industry to develop guidelines
that have now been adopted by model codes, such as the 2015
International Fire Code.
For firefighter safety, PV panels need a shut-down method for
PV circuits. When the sun shines on a PV panel, electricity is
generated and there is generally no way to shut off the voltage,
making fighting a fire that involves PV panels risky business.
The 2014 NEC includes a provision that a PV array have the

12

NEMA electroindustry May 2015

capability to shut down remotely from the ground within ten


seconds; this gives firefighters some degree of safety before
they climb to the rooftop. The 2017 NEC, which is still under
development, received public input to require shutoff at each
individual panel of a PV arraynot just the entire array. This
would give fire personnel a much greater degree of safety,
although it would require a shutoff device on each individual PV
panel. This NEC public input will be considered later this year
during development hearings.
Another serious concern with PV systems is the fire rating
of rooftop PV panels. Building codes generally require roofs,
especially in areas subject to wildfire, to have varying levels of
fire resistance. When a PV array is installed on a fire-rated roof,
the rating of the roof is often compromised. Leaves and other
debris can collect in the space between the panels and the roof,
causing an excessive fire load. The limited space between the
panels and the roof can also trap heat during a fire. Additionally,
the PV panels themselves, although noncombustible, can be
burned through by flaming embers that are scattered during a
wild fire. New standards recently developed by Underwriters
Laboratories will ensure that PV panels listed to these standards
will not compromise the integrity of roof fire ratings.
New technologies bring with them new challenges in making sure
they are safely used and installed. Fire marshals and code officials
across the country have worked with PV industry stakeholders
to keep up with these challenges. Innovation seems to advance
at a breathless pace. Electric vehicle chargers, energy storage,
light-emitting diodes, building automation, energy management
systems, alternative energy, and microgrids are just a few
examples. All of these will need to be installed safely, and thats
a big reason why its so important to use the newest codes. ei

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Should It Take a Disaster to Make a Change?


Tony Campbell, Director of Brand Management, Dual-Lite

ost people find it disconcerting that it often takes a tragedy or the loss
of life before significant changes occur in our society. Unfortunately,
and in the same fashion, the development and evolution of the National Fire
Protection Associations (NFPA) Life Safety Code (NFPA 101) is attributable to
some of this nations largest tragedies in terms of loss of life.

Building Fires
In December 1903, the Iroquois Theatre caught fire in Chicago,
Illinois. It is the deadliest single-building fire in U.S. historyat
least 605 people died. Subsequently, a committee on the Safety
to Life began development of the Life Safety Code. Theaters
throughout the country were closed for retrofitting. All exits
were to be clearly marked and doors configured so that even if
they could not be pulled open from the outside, they could be
pushed open from the inside. The mayor ordered all theaters in
Chicago closed for six weeks after the fire.
In November 1942, 492 people died because they could not
get out of the burning Cocoanut Grove night club in Boston,
Massachusetts. The club had only one operational doora
turnstile door. If you pushed from the left side and the right side
at the same time, the door would not open. As a result of this
tragedy, the NFPA, with help from NEMA, rewrote much of the
Life Safety Code to be suitable for adoption into local, state, and
federal law.

14

NEMA electroindustry May 2015

But did we learn anything from those tragedies in the first half
of the 20th century? Would technology and adoption of new
laws stemming from the development of an expanding Life
Safety Code prevent future loss of life or is there another factor
to consider?
In 1977, the Beverly Hills Supper Club in Southgate, Kentucky,
became the third deadliest nightclub fire in U.S. history when
165 people died. It was cited as having an inadequate number of
fire escape exits. And as recently as 2003, the fourth deadliest
nightclub fire in U.S. history occurred at The Station Night
Club in Warwick, Rhode Island. One hundred people died,
and although there were four operational exits, most people
naturally proceeded toward the front door (the same through
which they had entered). The ensuing stampede filled the
narrow passageway to the door and quickly blocked the exit
completely. Patrons and staff were among those killed. Many
suffered significant crush injuries. After the fire, the NFPA
enacted strict, new code provisions for fire sprinklers and crowd
management. The owner and tour manager each received a 15year prison sentence for various code violations.

Explosions, Natural Disasters


Fires arent the only reason emergency egress from a building must
take place. Industrial disasters including the massive chemical
explosion at the West Fertilizer Company in West, Texas, and the

ELECTRICAL SAFETYSafety & Innovation through Building Codes


dust explosion at the Imperial Sugar Refinery in Port Wentworth,
Georgia, made headlines within the past ten years.
Natural disasters that can cause building damage and the need
for emergency egresshurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes,
and floodsare also responsible for unnecessary injuries and
deaths. Certainly the events of September 11, 2001, and other
unimaginable tragedies including those of Columbine, Aurora,
Sandy Hook, and too many others, need to be remembered
when discussing safety.
But the question must be asked, why is it that during any
emergency where people must quickly exit a public building,
there is occasionally a significant loss of life? Could that tragedy
have been prevented?

Saving Lives
While the root cause for each
emergency varies, one thing that
remains consistent is that if the
building owners had followed the
Life Safety Code to the letter of the
law, more lives may have been saved.
NEMAs efforts to continually clarify
and update the Life Safety Code save
more lives every day, but even the
loss of one life due to improperly
functioning life safety equipment
should be unacceptable. The Life
Safety Code is only as effective as it is
applied and enforced.
Every day, fire marshals and
building inspectors throughout the country inspect thousands
of buildings to ensure Life Safety Code compliance. During an
inspection, a fire marshal notes the condition of sprinklers,
alarms, emergency elevator controls, and fire extinguishers. The
fire marshal also inspects for proper containment of flammable
materials, overloaded electrical wiring, and adequate exit
signage and discharge areas for proper egress capacity. If the
inspector identifies a problem, such as a blocked fire exit, the
marshal can issue a warning or fine, and explain to the building
owner how to remedy the situation.
However, one aspect of life safety systems that often gets
overlooked is emergency lighting. According to the Life Safety
Code, functional testing of emergency lighting equipment must
be conducted every 30 days for no less than 30 seconds, and
once annually for no less than 90 minutes. The building owner
must keep available written records of the monthly visual
inspections for review by the Authority Having Jurisdiction
(AHJ). Most life safety system components do not rely on a
battery to operate, but the emergency lighting portion almost
always draws power from a battery supply. Batteries need

exercising to maximize their performance and they have a finite


lifecycle, so monthly tests and inspections are needed. Of all the
life safety system components to inspect, emergency lighting is
one of the most critical, yet most often overlooked.
The Life Safety Code is clear: the burden to comply with the
code is on the shoulders of the building owner. But the code is
just thata code and not the law. In some cases, local, state and
federal laws may not adopt all aspects or the latest versions of the
Life Safety Code. Therefore, the AHJ is there only to inspect and
ensure compliance with the latest applicable version of the law.
Although ignorance is never an excuse to violate the law, many
building owners are unaware that they are responsible for
keeping such records, so a continual education process is needed
before the nation experiences another mass casualty. For those
owners who do know, they are faced with the choice of paying to
install, maintain, and test the emergency
lighting system; or save money and risk
getting caught. Unfortunately, some
owners choose to save the money. This is
a result, in part, of building owners not
always being held accountable until after
an accident occurs.
Fire marshals and building inspectors
require special training, and have an
increasing number of buildings to
inspect each year with resources that
seem to get cut annually. Some buildings
get overlooked altogether, and to save
time, some fire marshals do not ask for
written records and assume the owner is
responsible. For the most part, building owners are responsible,
but more often than wed like to know, they take the risk since
there are few (if any) consequences until its too late.
Yes, its disconcerting that it often takes a tragedy or death before
significant changes occur in our society. From the tragedies
experienced in the 20th century, NEMA has helped formulate
a robust life safety code that is updated every three years and
written to be easily adapted into law. Even more disheartening
is the lack of code compliance. As lighting professionals, it is
not only our privilege to help develop the most meaningful and
comprehensive emergency lighting standard and products, but
our duty to promote the importance of complying with the Life
Safety Code and continue the conversation about improving
safety options in emergency situations. ei
Mr. Campbell currently serves as chairman of the NEMA
Emergency Lighting Section and works as director of brand
management for Dual-Lite, a division of Hubbell Lighting, Inc.,
which manufactures emergency and life safety products for the
lighting industry.

NEMA electroindustry May 2015

15

Using Unlisted Products


Poses Safety Risks
Aaron Brandt, Vice President, Engineering, Hypertherm Inc.
Derek Silva, Director, Global Products Marketing, Intertek

.S. manufacturers have a long history of working with nationally


recognized testing laboratories (NRTLs) to ensure that their products
meet performance and safety standards. This partnership of industry,
standards organizations, testing laboratories, and government results in
products that deliver excellent performance combined with some of the
safest working environments in the world.

One example of this partnership is exemplified in the producers


of arc-welding and plasma-cutting products, which have long
had a strong focus on safety, performance, and reliability. In
some applications, these products deliver their performance
by producing plasma arcs with temperatures above 20,000C
(36,032F) and voltages exceeding 20,000 volts, making the
need to take a safety-first view of product design abundantly
clear. Similar to other NEMA product sections, the Arc Welding
Section has developed strong standards to ensure a common
level of safety of arc-welding and plasma-cutting products.
In the U.S., arc-welding and plasma-cutting power sources listed
by a NRTL to ANSI, CSA, and UL standards are subjected to
numerous tests and requirements such as insulation resistance,
enclosure strength, drop testing, dielectric strength, fault
testing, and specific operator instructions and safety markings.
One reason the welding industry has a good product safety
record is that the ANSI/NEMA/IEC technical committees
have continuously invested in standards development for
more 25 years. These committees show a great track record
of collaboration between business, regulatory bodies, and
government agencies with a common goal of safety for the
buying public.
As most U.S. manufacturers also have strong global export
businesses, designs must meet or exceed international
regulations. In many cases these regulations are harmonized,
but often there are unique regional requirements for specific
design considerations. It shouldnt be a surprise that verifying
that arc-welding and plasma-cutting products meet these
regulations is usually required prior to offering products for
sale in these regions. However, what might be a surprise is that
the U.S. does not have a similar requirementarc-welding
and plasma-cutting products can be offered for sale on the
open market even if they have not been determined to meet a
minimum level of safety and performance.

16

NEMA electroindustry May 2015

Due to this lack of regulation, products that have not been


evaluated to ANSI, CSA, or UL safety requirements are
currently available on the U.S. market. NEMA member
companies have evaluated some of these non-listed products
and found significant deficiencies that could result in safety
concerns and hazards for the end-user. These same products
that have gaps against U.S. code requirements are coming from
various regions of the world, many of which have more stringent
standards if the same products were sold locally. Therefore, the
use of these products can result in injury or property damage.
Arc-welding and plasma-cutting products are not alone in
this situation. Other products that can be found in the U.S. or
Canada without a listing include A/V amplifiers and high-end
home audio amplifiers. Although not as inherently dangerous
as arc-weldings high voltages and temperatures, electrical/
electronic products could pose safety risks if there is no
minimum assurance of safety and performance.
The standard that applies to audio products (IEC/UL/CSA
60065 Audio, Video and Similar Electronic Apparatus)
specifies electronic apparatus designed to be fed from a
main power supply, a supply apparatus, battery, or remote
power feed. Examples of tests conducted on such products
include durability and markings, temperature, dielectric
withstand, insulation resistance, fault conditions,creepage,
and clearance. Manufacturers sellingor attempting to sell
unlisted products in the U.S. and Canada potentially put people
and property in harms way by not showing compliance to these
baseline safety tests.
With global supply chains reaching unknown vendors and
component manufacturers, accountability is often difficult to
maintain. Third-party testing and certification to prescribed
standards is the best way to ensure safe products. The theme of
safety is one that NEMA product sections take very seriously.
These efforts continue the long history of our member
companies identifying how we can continuously improve our
approach to ensure the safety of the U.S. marketplace. ei
Mr. Brandt focuses on delivering on Hypertherms product and
technology roadmap while fostering creativity and innovation
across engineering teams. Mr. Silva works with manufacturers,
AHJs, industry associations and media to promote product
safety certification and quality.

ELECTRICAL SAFETYAre You Grounded?

Securing Safety in Energy Storage Systems


Imre Gyuk, PhD, Program Manager for Energy Storage Research, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Electricity
Dr. Stan Atcitty, PhD, Energy Storage Systems Researcher, Sandia National Laboratories

nergy storage (ES) is being accepted as an integral part of the electric


grid. The Department of Energys (DOE) Global Energy Storage Database
now has some 1,200 entries, and the number of installations is growing
rapidly. With increasing deployment and a growing number of market
participants from the U.S. and abroad, validated safety is becoming a crucial
issue. While there are a considerable number of codes and standards for
batteries, however, no such standards are available for storage systems. DOE
is pursuing a program of actively and systematically addressing ES safety.
In order to consider the issues involved in validating ES systems,
stakeholders assembled at the DOE Energy Storage Safety
Workshop in February 2014. They included manufacturers,
scientists, utility representatives, firefighters, and members of
the insurance industry. They identified the following needs:
Manufacturers of ES systems are increasing system and
component level production, and must be confident in the
safety of their products.
Regulators must review the system installations in terms of
application space, ownership, risk, and potential litigation.
Insurers must develop applicable risk assessment
methodologies.
First responders must be able to safely and successfully
respond to any incidents involving the systems.
DOEs Office of Electricity (DOE-OE) took the lead and
developed a Grid Energy Storage Safety Strategic Plan, which
was released in December 2014. It provides a roadmap for
stakeholders to address the challenges they face related to ES
safety and reliability. The plan identified four areas of focus:
Research into improved safety technologies is vital to
making batteries less vulnerable to abuse conditions, and
to make certain that safety systems such as fire suppression,
ventilation, and battery management are effective.
Development of tools for risk assessment and management is
crucial to securing appropriate financial insurance of large
deployments of ES.
Work with first responders on incident preparedness to ensure
an incident response plan is in place and communicated to
first responders as part of the permitting process.
Update codes, standards, and regulations surrounding energy
storage so that deployment requirements are consistent and
the highest degree of system safety is codified.

An example of work being done is a project by Sandia


National Laboratory to analyze ES system safety holistically.
Based on complex systems theory, these tools provide a
procedure to evaluate hazards and engineer safer systems.
The procedure identifies a systems safety-critical control
actions, such as an over-temperature alarm, and then explores
all logical permutations on how these actions could produce
hazards. Each permutation is analyzed for systematic causal
factors, accounting for changes over time and operational
environments. Controls can then be engineered to remove or
account for causal factors, eliminating potential issues as close
to their source as possible. This approach is gaining acceptance
in industries such as aviation and nuclear power generation, and
is well suited for technologies like ES.
Another project addresses the development of a new article
covering ES systems in the National Electrical Code (NEC).It
has involved NEMA, DOE-OE, DOEs national laboratories,
and the National Fire Protection Association. The new Article
706 combines criteria for batteries located in various articles
and sections of NEC, and creates a single location to address ES
safety that can grow as technology evolves. It is expected to be
published in the 2017 NEC.
In order to further facilitate the agenda of the safety strategic
plan, DOE established an Energy Storage Safety Working
Group, which includes NEMA, EPRI (Electric Power Research
Institute), ESA (Energy Storage Association), and others. It
will identify and prioritize knowledge gaps associated with
ES system safety. Subgroups will address identified issues and
translate them into activities.
ES system safety must be addressed if energy storage is to
develop into a full-fledged industry.
Dr. Gyuk develops a portfolio of storage technologies for a
broad spectrum of applications. Dr. Atcitty was a winner of
the Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers
in 2011. ei

Learn more at:

www.energystorageexchange.org
and
energy.gov/oe/services/technology-development/energy-storage

NEMA electroindustry May 2015

17

Total Systems Approach to Electrical Grounding


Safeguards Emergency Response Centers
David Brender, National Program Manager, Copper Development Association (CDA)

everal factors can cause a facility to experience a power outage or


equipment failuresome caused by human error and others triggered
by Mother Nature. However, whether its a broadcast communications tower,
data center, or 911 emergency response system, even the slightest hiccup in
service can be detrimental for the people it serves.

In Florida, two individual facilities were struck by lightning.


Both agencies 911 emergency response systems went offline
temporarily and cost millions in damages as a result.
The Sumter County Sheriffs Department opened its new offices
in a former department store after Hurricane Charley in 2004.
The aging electrical system wasnt equipped to handle the needs
or workload of a critical communications and public safety
facility. The office didnt want a repeat of a lightning storm when
the 911 system failed, leaving county residents without police,
fire, or ambulance response.
A similar situation occurred in another community where
the Orange County Public Safety office operates nine tower
sites and 11 emergency response centers. Being in the heart of
Floridas Lightning Alley, the several approximately 300-foot
communication towers were easy and frequent targets during
storms. Damage to transmitters and other lost equipment cost
the county nearly $1 million per year.
In both cases, electrical upgrades were made to the power
quality infrastructure to prevent service disruption and to
mitigate equipment breakdown. When safety is compromised,
the installation of proper electrical grounding and lightning
protection systems should be paramount.
There are a variety of techniques that can help prevent or
alleviate the effects of poor power quality. Most importantly,
they involve better electrical design and installation of
additional wiring and grounding. These techniques are usually
inexpensive to install, especially when a building is undergoing
construction, and may also be cost effective during retrofits.
The recommended practice 911 facilities are generally found in
IEEE literature, NFPA 780, and Motorola R56 standards, with
the caveat that grounding and surge protection are even more
critical in a communications environment.

18

NEMA electroindustry May 2015

In Sumter County, inspection of the existing electrical system at


what had been a department store showed flaws, mainly because
of poor bonding and grounding. The communications tower, for
example, had its own independent and inadequate grounding,
and was not bonded to any other element. The emergency
generators and building structure were all independently
groundedeach with its own ground rodexposing its poor
design. The main grounding electrode consisted of a single
galvanized steel rod from the 1970s, with very high resistance to
earth. Building steel was not connected.
To work effectively, an entire grounding system needs to be
properly designed, using listed connectors and corrosionresistant materials. Copper and its alloys are the most common
materials in use for this application because they provide
reliability, excellent electrical conductivity, and superior
corrosion resistance. The retrofit system was designed and
installed for under $40,000a minimal cost considering the
value of the equipment protected, and improved public safety it
brought to the residents of Sumter County.
On the other hand, grounding systems at the Orange County
facilities were not designed or installed by the same contractor,
which led to inconsistencies. Employing a total systems
approach led to installation of robust grounding systems that
help protect property from future lightning damage. Deep earth
electrodes, ring grounds, proper bonding, and importantly,
exceeding code minimums (especially in resistance to earth)
all integral to the success of a lightning protection system
were incorporated into new layouts.
Simply put, if the path of least resistance to the ground for
lightning is through wiring or equipment, then that is where
the electric charge flows. Lightning produces very high currents
in short-time intervals, but they are long enough to cause
fires or to destroy microcircuits even miles away. For 911 and
communication facilities, a lightning protection system is
almost always required for safety and equipment protection.
For more information, visit www.copper.org/PQ.

ei

Mr. Brender directs and manages electrical programs at CDA,


including its energy efficiency and power quality initiatives,
building wire program, telecommunications wire, and other work.

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Grounding Systems Only as


Good as Weakest Link
James Lund, Director of Sales & Marketing, Galvan Industries, Inc.

hat assurance do you have that a ground rod and connector provide a
reliable and compliant grounding system path for current to earth?

Any bonding and grounding system is only as good as its


weakest link. If you use a compliant ground rod with a noncompliant grounding conductor or connector in your grounding
system, you may have created a liability issue. Thus, there is
the need for a system that is fully compliant with product
specifications, certified by a nationally recognized testing
laboratory (NRTL), installed in accordance with national and
local codes as well as manufacturers instructions, and a final
inspection by the local Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ),
which cannot be over-emphasized.
Proper grounding is important for equipment protection,
system reliability, and (of course) personnel protection and
safety. Non-compliant counterfeit products, which have
been used in electrical systems for decades, not only raises
safety concerns but also penalizes those manufacturers and
distributors who strive to provide the highest quality products
for electrical systems. Counterfeit products are often sold at
lower prices; this exacerbates problems in assuring system
quality and safety.
Contractors and distributors expect manufacturers to follow
standards to ensure interchangeability with equivalent products
and provide product quality to at least the minimum allowable
level. In the case of ground rod electrodes, NEMAs GR1
manufacturing specification represents minimum performance
guidelines. Without it, there is no standard. This leaves the door
open for products to be installed incorrectly or in a way that
compromises safety.

20

NEMA electroindustry May 2015

Three Steps to Compliance


Many manufacturers of electrical products employ the services
of an independent NRTL such as CSA, ETL, and UL. The
presence of a listing symbol confirms that products meet the
highest standards. The lack of a listing symbol on any electrical
product, including ground rods and connectors, should raise a
red flag.
Electrical contractors purchase various components in
preparation to assemble and install at a site. Code compliance is
paramount to a line-in-the-sand. It allows a quality product,
which is distributed by a reputable supplier and purchased by an
electrical contractor, to be integrated into a quality installation.
The final step is inspection. Without a certified and qualified
electrical inspector (the AHJ, having knowledge of various
codes and final approval authority prior to power being applied
to the system), an opportunity remains to violate the National
Electrical Code or other applicable local or state codes.
Education is critical to code compliance. Installation practices
and codes change periodically. Unless you stay up-to-date with
each part of the process, you may find yourself out-of-date in
terms of code compliance.
Attention to standards throughout the process from the
manufacturers raw material selection to final inspection is what
assures grounding system reliability and personnel safety. ei
Mr. Lund has been with Galvan Industries Inc., for 12 years.
He is a member of NEMA 8CC and IAEI.

ELECTRICAL SAFETYAre You Grounded?

NEMA electroindustry May 2015

21

Fire Safety
T

he Department of Fire Protection Engineering (FPE) at the University


of Maryland is the only academic department offering undergraduate
and graduate degrees in fire engineering, and offers the only accredited
undergraduate FPE program in the U.S. The departments faculty actively
conducts fire safety research.
Founded in 1956 by Professor John L. Bryan, the department
has grown to include seven full-time professors, an enrollment
of about 200 students, and annual research expenditures of
$2 million.
Undergraduate courses give students a broad background in the
discipline, building on a set of fundamental math, science, and
basic engineering courses. The curriculum features a mixture of
theory, design, experiments, and computer simulations.

Understanding the Structure of Fire


Fire protection engineering courses focus on two areas: fire
hazards and the means by which to mitigate them. Fire behavior
is studied in depth, beginning with understanding the structure
of a flame. This leads to a discussion of the generation of heat
and combustion products. This is followed by an assessment
of thermal and smoke conditions developed in spaces where
fires occur.
The net result of this study is to assess the damage potential
to people, contents, and the environment exposed to fire. One
interesting phenomenon explored in the lab is the development
of fire whirls (also referred to as fire tornados). These occur in
many wildland fires and in urban settings if multiple buildings
are involved. The fire whirl develops as air is channeled in a
circular pattern toward the fire, resulting in greatly increased
burning rates and heat release rates as compared to a fire that
does not develop a fire whirl.
Other courses address the design of fire suppression, fire
alarm, smoke control, and evacuation systems, as well as
protection methods for structural members of buildings.
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) installation
standards are discussed in all coursework involving the design
of fire protection systems, with emphasis on the fundamental
principles underlying these requirements.

Fire tornado created in laboratory depicts the whirl that develops as air is channeled in a circular
pattern toward the fire. Photo courtesy of Faye Levine, FPE

22

NEMA electroindustry May 2015

Core assignments expose students to the design of fire


suppression and fire safety systems for real-world applications.
For example, this spring FPEs senior capstone design course
challenges students to develop a system for a local museum that
achieves specified fire safety goals.

ELECTRICAL SAFETYFire Protection

Applying

Science + Technology

Jim Milke, PhD, PE, Professor and Chair, Department of Fire Protection Engineering, University of Maryland

The graduate program is offered on campus and online, and


explores many of the same topics, but at a higher level to
address situations with increased complexity. The graduate
program also includes courses that explore the fundamental
theories associated with topics such as fire behavior, material
flammability, and suppression with water sprays.

Educating the Public


Department faculty and students are involved in outreach
and developing public service announcements. These efforts
have included recent collaborations with the Maryland State
Fire Marshals Office concerning fire pots, a partnership with
FM Global to promote campus fire safety, and an internallyfunded activity that assessed the fire hazard associated with live
Christmas trees.

Current support for the project includes seed funding from


the A. James Clark School of Engineering and funding from
Bentley Software through the Chief Donald J. Burns Memorial
Grant administered by the Society of Fire Protection Engineers.
As a part of the grant, Bentleys BIM software is coupled with
integrated sensor and fire modeling tools for fire size and
location determination and visualization. Figure1 includes a
photo and BIM depiction of a burn tower at the Maryland Fire
and Rescue Institute (MFRI), which is used for the experiments.

FPEs faculty members are engaged in a wide variety of research


studies. Examples of some recent efforts include:
assessing the performance of smoke detectors in a wide
variety of occupancies (in two projects supported by NEMA)
identifying precursors to cooking-related fires in order to
detect cooktop fires before they happen;
using sensor arrays for a smart, networked infrastructure
(see below)
assessing the fire risk of R-32 refrigerants modeling smoke
transport in green buildings and the limits of make-up air in
atrium smoke control systems
measuring the characteristics of sprinkler sprays and
modeling the interaction of sprinkler sprays with fire plumes
understanding the structure of flames (including in microgravity situations) and the generation of combustion products
predicting the development and spread of wild land fires

Demonstrating Viability
The sensor array projects goal is to demonstrate the viability of
real-time fire information for critical decision-making through
connected, commercially-available sensors (e.g., security, fire
protection, energy management) and computer models (e.g., fire
analysis software and CAD/BIM1 software) in a well-controlled
building fire test.

MFRI burn tower (left) and a BIM depiction are used in sensor array experiments. Images by
Rosalie Wills and Andre Marshall, FPE, University of Maryland, with support from Bentley,
Siemens, and MFRI

Siemens donated the fire alarm and sensor components needed


for this research project, including a control unit, 30 multicriteria photoelectric smoke/CO/temperature sensors, and 15
supervising modules with occupancy monitor sensors and
contact sensors located on windows and doorways. Results from
computer modeling of the fires are depicted via BIM software.
Dr. Milke has served as a Research Fire Prevention Engineer at
the Center for Fire Research, National Institute of Standards
and Technology; Fire Protection Engineer for Fairfax County,
Virginia; Research Assistant for the University of Maryland; and
consultant to several organizations.

Want to pursue a career in fire protection engineering?


Visit fpe.umd.edu
or contact nlholly@umd.edu

computer-aided design and building information model

NEMA electroindustry May 2015

23

Outfitting Women with Flame-Resistant


Garments Ensures Safety
Sherryl Stoner, Customer Service Manager for Inside Sales and Quality Assurance, TECGEN FR Garments

lame-resistant (FR) garments are traditionally designed for a mans


proportions or unisex proportions. Today though, women are entering
this mans world, taking on jobs that require constant FR wear. Here is a
guide of key considerations when specifying FR garments to help ensure
women are outfitted safely and comfortably in the workplace.

Coveralls should be fitted for hip and waist sizes so excess fabric
does not get caught on equipment handles or affect mobility.

Safety First
Rosie the Riveter may have rocked the look, but rolling up
sleeves in a workplace where FR apparel is required is not an
option. When women wear unisex or mens FR garments,
personal modifications are often made for a better fit. This can
increase the likelihood of an accident in the workplace, such as
oversized clothing getting caught in machinery or coveralls with
long bodies causing trip hazards.

Comfort Means Productivity


An uncomfortable worker may have discomfort on her mind
rather than the job at hand. Further, a misfit uniform could
preclude a worker from bending, lifting, or moving fluidly.
Women need the right tools for the jobincluding FR garments
that are fitted appropriately.

This can be avoided by selecting womens FR garments that


are designed in a range of sizes (extra-small to plus size) to
accommodate different body types.
Shirtsleeves should be short enough that they do not need to
be rolled or cuffed.
Shirttails should be long enough to tuck in, but short enough
to eliminate bunching when tucked into pants.

The body of coveralls should fit the wearer, not just the sleeveand pant-lengths.
Shirts should have adjustable cuffs to keep shirtsleeves from
riding up.

In addition to size and cut, garments should be suitable for the


temperature to ensure comfort. In fact, a recent study1 found FR
garment wearers consider light weight and breathability two of
the most important aspects of comfort in FR garments.
Examine the fabric quality and traits of FR garments to ensure
they are engineered for moisture-wicking and breathability.
Consider garments where the FR technology is inherent
(woven into the fabric). This eliminates any heavy FR coatings
that could make garments uncomfortable or stiff.
Provide specific instructions as to what is acceptable on-site
for extreme temperatures.
Uniformity for Men and Women
Todays FR garment programs must include options for women,
which should align with the garments selected for men. When
sourcing FR garments, ensure the manufacturer offers the same
fabric and features in garments for both women and men fits.
Womens garments may differ from mens in the sizing, cut, and
details like smaller buttons, but to ensure workforce consistency,
ensure that logo, color, and style remain consistent with other
garments in the workplace.
A womens FR program is about equipping women with the
right tools to help improve performance, comfort, and safety.
Women should feel comfortable, functional, and safe from
head-to-toe. ei
Ms. Stoner specializes in FR garment programs.

Photo courtesy of TECGEN FR Garments

24

NEMA electroindustry May 2015

FR Market Research Study, Bainbridge Strategy Consulting. June 2014.

ELECTRICAL SAFETYFire Protection

The Future of Fire Safety:

Are We Doing Enough?


Daniel P. Finnegan, CFPS, Manager Industry AffairsNorth America, Siemens

hile we are grateful for the experiences and quality of life that the
firefighters, the fire safety industry, and NEMA efforts have provided
to our lives, I ask, Are we doing enough to support and continue the future
of fire safety?

I started in the fire service in 1970the first full-time person


hired in a developing suburban fire district that operated a paidon-call process. As fire inspector, my role was to do review, code
development/enforcement, and fire prevention inspections in all
non-single, family structures in the district.
In the 70s and 80s, I witnessed an explosion of serious lossof-life fires in the U.S., the publication of America Burning,1
and the development of fire safety codes and standards that
are the foundation of todays fire safety programs. It was an
exciting time. There were advancements in early-warning smoke
detection and fire sprinklers as well as in firefighting operations
with a focus on firefighter safety and property protection. The
industry grew with young professionals making a career in
fire safety.
NEMA was very involved during this period and brought
together fire alarm manufacturers to develop a common
platform to advance smoke detection technology and fire
alarm systems. It was the industry go-to source for training
manuals on fire alarm systems.
While it may be true that mature and experienced members of
our industry are now well-suited to participate in organizations
such as NEMA, it is this operating model that has gotten us to
where we are todayparticipation and membership in industry
organizations has declined. As the Baby Boomer generation
sunsets, we need to align our organization to attract leadership
among the Gen X-ers and Millennials.
The next chapter of our industry will look very different.
We are already seeing terms like IoT (Internet of Things) and
CPS (Cyber Physical Systems) entering research and academics.
Fire and smoke sensors not only have achieved intelligence,
smart sensors and intelligent buildings will be the norm.
The fire alarm system in 20 years may be a building master
control system that will handle all building operational

functions including fire, security, environment, energy, and


occupant control.
We need the best new and young minds in NEMA to guide and
align with the changing elements of our society and technology.
We must encourage university students, interns, or entry-level
manufacturing members to participate in NEMA sections. We
need the next generation of members involved in our lifesaving
programs and processes. ei
Mr. Finnegan is second vice chair of the NEMA Signaling
Protection and Communication Section.

America Burning is a 1973 report written by the National Commission on Fire Prevention
and Control to evaluate fire loss in the U.S. and to make recommendations to reduce loss and
increase safety.

NEMA electroindustry May 2015

25

Research Unveils Dangers of Electric


Shock Drowning
John Caskey, NEMA Assistant Vice President, Operations

f you swim in freshwater anywhere near a marina and you havent heard
about electric shock drowning (ESD), you should read this.

In July 2012, four children and one young adult were killed in
separate ESD incidents at docks on freshwater lakes in just one
week. Although it is hard to distinguish other forms of drowning
from ESDs, one report attributed ESDs to more than 100 deaths.
In most cases, ESD occurs when a broken ground wire or fault in
an electrical system generates an electrical current in fresh water.
When a swimmer travels through the area, he becomes the best
conductor of the electric current and becomes paralyzed.
According to the Boat Owners Association of the United States
(BoatUS), the American Boat and Yacht Council (ABYC)
adopted standards in 2010 requiring an equipment leakage
circuit interrupter (ELCI) be installed on new boats. However,
not all boat manufacturers follow ABYC voluntary standards,
and there is no requirement to retrofit ELCIs on older boats.
Owners of docks and marinas for which electrical power is
supplied need to make sure wiring meets the requirements in
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) standards NFPA
303 Fire Protection Standard for Marinas and Boatyards and
NFPA 70 National Electric Code (NEC), Article 555.
NEMAs Electrical Connector Section contributed funds to
sponsor a study by the Fire Protection Research Foundation, a
research affiliate of NFPA, titled Hazardous Voltage/Current
in Marinas, Boatyards and Floating Buildings. The primary
purposes were to collect credible data, determine the likely
cause of drowning deaths, and identify the most appropriate
mitigation measures. John Caskey represented NEMA on the
project, while NEMA members Eaton, Hubbell, and Leviton also
contributed. Casey Grant, PE, of the research foundation, served
as project leader.
The study was conducted by ABYC, and the draft report was
completed in late 2014. According to the study, ESD is seen
principally in fresh water environments. ESD begins with an
electric fault on the dock or onboard a boat when a voltage
source comes into contact with water. As little as 10 mA of
current through the human body can cause loss of muscular
control, which may result in drowning. ESD can be fairly
insidious since the victim may not be exposed to the stray
voltage field upon initially entering the water. Further, the
voltage source may be intermittent.

26

NEMA electroindustry May 2015

ABYC investigated various electronic devices that can be used


to mitigate ESD, and categorized them by function: monitoring,
sense and trip, or neutral blocker. These devices can be installed
at the power feed to the marina, at the head of a pier, or on
individual slips. The study evaluated many products in these
three categories using ten grading criteria such as effectiveness,
customer acceptance, and cost. Only the sense and trip
technology offered verifiable protection. Of these technologies,
pedestal orientation produced the highest total scores.
Other approaches have also been recommended in the study
including, but not limited to disallowing swimming in areas of
docks with electric service; ensuring all electrical equipment
on docks are installed according to NFPA 303 and NFPA 70,
Article 555; inspecting electrical systems at least once a year by a
qualified electrician; and having a qualified electrician install an
ELCI on the boat.
Research participants agreed that more research is needed, and
will conduct a one-day research planning meeting in August
to identify technical gaps and determine the best approaches to
address them. ei
Mr. Caskey (john.caskey@nema.org) is a member of the Board of
Directors and secretary of the Smart Grid Interoperability Panel
(SGIP) and is a senior member of the Institute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

Patient SafetyImproved Patient Outcomes


Kathleen Hampton, MITA Communications and Operations

atient safety is as important to imaging technology manufacturers as


electrical safety is to electrical equipment manufacturers. A safe and
healthy future is the number one priority for doctors and patients alike.
MITA member companies are committed to not only improving imaging
technology, but also to developing the standards that ensure these
technologies are as safe as possible for patients. With this in mind, the
imaging community is united in the goal of improving health outcomes
for everyone.
Advanced Imaging Creates Better Health Outcomes
Recent advancements in image resolution and quality, for
example, allow physicians an unprecedented window into the
human body that provides faster, more accurate diagnoses.
It also allows them to predict which individuals are at risk of
future injury. Rather than going in blind to place a catheter,
for instance, physicians today use ultrasound to guide them
precisely to the right position to place a probe. This technique
helps avoid common complications such as punctures, infection,
or blocked blood vessels.

first by stipulating key scanner attributes that should be installed


and operational on every CT scanner. Published in 2013, MITA
Smart Dose CT bundles four dose optimization features to
ensure that CT equipment produces high-quality diagnostic
images while supporting patient safety. This standard offers
important tools to optimize and manage radiation dose delivery.
MITA Smart Dose CT is part of the larger MITA initiative to
improve patient safety by establishing and promoting safetyrelated standards for medical imaging equipment. Medical
imaging manufacturers created MITA Smart as an integral part
of the industrys ongoing dedication to putting patients first.
Ms. Hampton now works in the Office of the Assistant
Secretary for Public Affairs in the U.S. Department of Health
and Human Services.

In modern healthcare, imaging provides


certainty for patients awaiting a diagnosis,
so they can begin the road to recovery. Early
detection is essential to preventing diseases
from progressing and maximizing treatment
options. Today, countless lives are saved
thanks to early detection through advanced
imaging. According to The National Breast
Cancer Foundation, 98 percent1 of breast cancer
patients survive if detection occurs early. For
some womenlike those with dense breast
tissuestandard mammography can miss
tumors. Breast imaging innovation has led to
many lifesaving technologiessuch as magnetic
resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound and
positron emission mammography and molecular
breast imaging (MBI)that detect cancer earlier,
leading to higher survival rates.
Improving Patient Safety
with Standards
The MITA Smart Dose CT standard (XR 29
Standard Attributes on Computed Tomography
Equipment Related to Dose Optimization and
Management) is the first in a line of planned
patient safety standards. It puts patient safety
seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/breast.html

NEMA electroindustry May 2015

27

Electroindustry News
Golden Omega Award Bestowed on Susan Graham, PhD
Susan Graham, PhD, President and CEO of ELANTAS PDG, Inc. (EPDG), will
be awarded the Golden Omega Award by Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers (IEEE) at the Electrical Insulation Conference June 9, in Seattle,
Washington. It is presented biannually to an outstanding person of science,
engineering, education, or industry who has made important contributions to
technological progress. She is a member of the NEMA Board of Governors and
the St. Louis Regional Business Council. In 2008, Dr. Graham was awarded the
Distinguished Alumni Award from the University of Pittsburgh.
Under her influence, EPDG has strengthened its commitment to the companys
four guiding principles of safety, service, quality, and innovation. On the
NEMA Board of Governors, she serves as an advocate for small- and mediumsized enterprises.
She is the fourth NEMA board member and the first woman to receive
this award. ei

Kite & Key Recipient Tim McNeive Retires


Tim McNeive, ManagerTechnical Liaison at Thomas & Betts, a member of the
ABB Group, retires this month after 42 years with the company.
Mr. McNeive, a 2011 NEMA Kite & Key award recipient, has been active in
association activities for 25 years. A passionate advocate for standards, he
participated in numerous NEMA product sections and policy committees,
as well as international standards committees. He held many leadership roles
through the years and served with distinction. His passion, intelligence, and
integrity will be missed. The institutional knowledge will be difficult, if not
impossible, to replace.
In his Kite & Key acceptance speech, he spoke of his view of the importance of
standards, and much of the work he was involved in with NEMA:
Our electrical industry is largely self-regulated. We need to continually remind
ourselves of this. Weve earned it. But we have to sustain effective resources to keep
it that way. When were proactive and responsible with regard to maintaining the
infrastructure that supports and defines our markets, I believe we achieve greater
return on our investment in market development activities
Participation in industry activities through NEMA offers many opportunities for
up and coming talent in our companies to gain firsthand leadership experience. In
doing so, theyll gain a different perspective on the markets we serve, and theyll
benefit our industry while becoming more experienced and valued employees.
The message still resonates today.

28

NEMA electroindustry May 2015

ei

Bruce Schopp Bids Farewell


Joking that he had voted himself off the island, NEMA Manager of
Transportation Systems Bruce Schopp bid farewell to his colleagues at a
retirement party last month at the NEMA Conference Center.
Mr. Schopp, a communications systems engineer, joined NEMA in 1996 in
support of NEMAs role in the National Transportation Communications for
Intelligent Transportation Systems Protocol (NTCIP) standards project. He
served as its coordinator at NEMA, supporting the NTCIP Joint Committee,
multiple working groups, and the family of NTCIP standards. His role expanded
to include support for the NEMA Transportation Section, as well as the
Advanced Transportation Controller standards project. ei

John Caskey Reappointed to DOE Committee


NEMA Assistant Vice President of Operations John Caskey was appointed by U.S.
Secretary of Energy Ernest J. Moniz to serve on the Department of Energy Appliance
Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee (ASRAC). This is Mr.
Caskeys second two-year term on this committee.
The advisory committee encompasses a broad range of technologies including, but
not limited to distribution transformers, motors, lighting, heating systems, cooling
systems, pumps, fans, blowers, and manufactured housing. Most recently, Mr. Caskey
served as the ASRAC representative on the Manufactured Housing Working Group that
developed stakeholder-wide consensus around cost-effective efficiency improvements
for the manufactured housing industry. During the first meeting of the newly appointed
ASRAC, the committee approved new, short-term working groups for Miscellaneous
Refrigeration Products, Fans and Blowers, and Commercial Packaged Air Conditioners
and Commercial Furnaces. It also identified other topics for further study including
commercial labeling, test procedures, scheduling test procedures reviews before
efficiency rulemakings, and systems efficiency vs. product efficiency regulations. ei

ACEEE Summer Study 2015 Conference Names Hoyt Co-Chair


NEMA Industry Director William Hoyt has been named co-chair of the
American Council for Energy Efficient Economy (ACEEE) Summer Study
on Energy Efficiency in Industry. Joining him as co-chair is Kim Crossman,
The Energy Trust of Oregon. The conference will be held August 46, 2015, in
Buffalo, New York.
Panels with concurrent sessions include Strategic Energy Management,
Sustainability, Smart Manufacturing, Beyond Best Practices, Policy and
Resource Planning, and Delivering Results. The program brings together
selected experts from research, policy, manufacturing, and utilities. Participants
will debate global strategies and actions to overcome barriers to widespread
market transformation opportunities.
For more information, visit aceee.org/conferences/2015/ssi.

NEMA electroindustry May 2015

29

Code Actions/Standardization Trends


IEC Updates
[Excerpts from IEC e-tech www.iec.ch/tcnews/2015/tcnews_0115.htm]
Motors Moving to IE Codes
Electric motor systems account for
46 percent of global electricity use.
Converting electrical energy to
mechanical energy, they rotate pumps;
drive compressors; move materials; and
run fans, blowers, drills, or mixers. The
IEC has put in place energy efficiency
classes for electric motors, known as the
IE code, which are summarized in IEC
60034-30-1.
Dependable Systems for
All Sectors
Dependability is a crucial consideration
in the development and application of
technological systems. In todays global
business environment, dependability
is a key decision-making factor in the
evaluation and acceptance of system
performance. Dependability is essential
in electrotechnology and in many
other domains.
Connecting Down the Line
The scope of IEC Technical Committees
57: Power systems management and
associated information exchange
has significantly expanded since its
establishment in 1964. It addresses the
urgent need to produce international
standards for communications between
equipment and systems for the electric
power process.
Staving Off DIY Dangers
In an age of innovation and constant
technological evolution, the availability
of a wide variety of affordable and easyto-use power tools enables many people
to maintain their homes and gardens
rather than calling in the professionals.
Have You Been Shocked?
Who among you hasnt at least once in
your life received an electric shock, for
example while changing a light bulb? In
most cases you dont feel much and it has
no serious consequences. Thats where

30

NEMA electroindustry May 2015

the problem starts. An electric shock


is a first sign that something may be
defective in the electrical installation of
the building.
Containing Explosions
More than a century ago, the
introduction of electrical apparatus for
signaling and lighting in coal mines
provoked many electrically-induced
explosions of flammable gases and
dust. Consequentially, specific types of
protection were developed to prevent
explosions by eliminating contact
between an explosive atmosphere and
an ignition source.
Seven Whove Made A
Difference
On International Womens Day,
the IEC celebrated the outstanding
leadership shown by some key women
in electrotechnical standardization
and conformity assessment. At the
same time, it called for moves to
encourage more women into STEM
(science, technology, engineering and
mathematics) careers.
Powering the Planet with Water
Sustained economic, social, and
environmental well-being is not possible
without water and its inextricable link
to energy.
New Standards to Enhance
Dependability
Dependability, the ability to perform
as and when required, applies to any
physical item such as a system, product,
process, or service. It is now central
to our lives as it is difficult to imagine
a world where things do not work as
expected. IEC Technical Committee 56:
Dependability has recently published two
additional international standards that
will contribute to enhance dependability.

Effective IEC Participation


Did you know that to participate in
standards development or maintenance
in the IEC, you have to be nominated
by a national committee that is a
participating member of the parent
technical or subcommittee? While
there are more than 160 countries
involved in some fashion with the IEC,
only 60 are full members. Only full
members may participate in all aspects
of IEC standards development and
management. Of course, these countries
also bear the brunt of the dues payments
that provide a significant portion of the
operating budget for the IEC.
Did you also know that a national
committee participating in an IEC
technical or subcommittee may
nominate an unspecified number of
experts as members of working groups,
maintenance teams, and project teams?
The only time the number of experts
from one country is limited is when the
participating members of that committee
vote to approve a specific maximum
number of experts in any one groupthe
chair and secretary may not make this
decision on their own.
Where some IEC technical or
subcommittees spend time at the
detailed technical level of standards
development, most assign the work of
drafting appropriate requirements to one
of the subgroups. In the U.S. National
Committee, the Technical Advisory
Groups are responsible for submitting
the expert nomination. ei
Ken Gettman, International Standards
Director | ken.gettman@nema.org

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Code Actions/Standardization Trends


Smart Fire Protection Continues under Fire Pump Subcommittee
The electrical world is undergoing
significant changes that are
predominantly enhancements in
equipment and system reliability via
increasing the smarts and sophistication
of various electrical products. Nowhere
are the benefits of these changes more
important than in fire protection.
The U.S. possesses the preeminent
standards for fire protection developed
and maintained under the National
Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
banner, to which the NEMA Industrial
Controls Product and Systems Section
(1IS) lends technical expertise through
its Technical Subcommittee on Fire
Pump Controllers (SC10).
NEMA 1IS members are longstanding
and proactive participants holding
memberships in various NFPA code
making panels (CMPs) of the National
Electrical Code (NFPA 70). In addition
to NFPA 70, SC10 members also
participate on NFPA 20 Standard for the
Installation of Stationary Pumps for Fire
Protection, which includes performance
requirements of various types of
electrical equipment such as fire pump
controllers for electric drives and diesel
engines that drive fire pumps. Expertise

in this area ensures the availability of


reliable electric power.
NFPA 20 has been adopted by local
and regional bodies throughout North
America, and was influential in the
development of the harmonized UL 218
Fire Pump Controllers standard developed
under CANENA1 as well as IEC 62091,
which was published in 2006 and is
scheduled for maintenance in 2017.
For the first time, the 2016 edition of
NFPA 20 will include the subject of
connectivity in an informative annex
as a solicitation for public comment.
It purports to eventually mandate the
addition of significant computer capacity
to fire pump controllers (both electric
and diesel engine types) to store original
pump room equipment performance
data and continually collect, process,
display, and issue alerts based on
electrical current data. This enhances the
entire systems reliability by providing
early warning indications prior to the
actual manifestation of a fire.
The NFPA 20 committee recently
appointed NEMA 1IS SC10 member
Doug Stephens, PE, ASCO Power
Council for Harmonization of Electrotechnical Standardization
of the Nations of the Americas

Technologies, to assume the


chairmanship of its Connectivity Task
Force for the next code cycle. Significant
contributions to the connectivity
concepts have also been provided by
SC10 member Bill Stelter, PE, Master
Control Systems, Inc.
In addition to NFPA codes, SC10
members developed and maintain:
NEMA ICS 14 Application Guide for
Electric Fire Pump Controllers
NEMA ICS 15 Instructions for the
Handling, Installation, Operation, and
Maintenance for Electric Fire Pump
Controllers Rated Not More than 600V
NEMA ICS 15.1 Instructions for the
Handling, Installation, Operation,
and Maintenance of Medium Voltage
Electric Fire Pump Controllers Rated
not more than 7200V
NEMA 1IS SC10 appreciates the
continued attendance and proactive
participation of the permanently invited
representatives of CSA Group, Factory
Mutual, and Underwriters Laboratories
for their contributions and counsel. ei
William Buckson, Program Manager |
bil_buckson@nema.org

Recently Published Standards


The following standards are available on
the NEMA website.
ANSI C12.9-2014 Standard for Test
Switches and Plugs for TransformerRated Meters
This standard encompasses the
dimensions and functions of meter test
switches used with transformer-rated
watthour meters in conjunction with
instrument transformers and test plugs
used in conjunction with the test switch.
It may be downloaded or purchased in
hard copy for $65.

32

NEMA electroindustry May 2015

ANSI C136.14-2014 American National


Standard for Roadway and Area Lighting
EquipmentElliptically Shaped, Enclosed
Side-mounted Luminaires

specifications, and test procedures for the


manufacture and packaging of magnet
wire. It may be downloaded or purchased
in hard copy for $145.

This standard covers dimensional,


maintenance, and light distribution
features that permit the interchange of
enclosed, side-mounted luminaires for
horizontal-burning HID lamps and other
light sources used in roadway and area
lighting equipment. It may be downloaded
or purchased in hard copy for $38.

Distribution Automation and the


Modernized Grid

ANSI/NEMA MW 1000-2015
Magnet Wire
MW 1000 is the premier publication
for general requirements, product

This whitepaper includes topics


associated with smart distribution
equipment such as the benefits,
the steps utilities should consider
when implementing distribution
automation systems equipment, NEMA
recommendations, and case studies
highlighting utility experiences. It may
be downloaded at no cost.

International Roundup
Harmonizing Fire Alarm Standards Streamlines Certification, Facilitates Safety

Dan Finnegan, Siemens Industry, Inc. (U.S.), Fred Leber, LRI Engineering (Canada), Don Boynowski, Siemens Canada Limited,
and Dennis Rock, Edwards, a UTC Fire and Security Company (U.S.)
Certification agency approvals and
listings of products are a significant
expense for manufacturers. To
reduce this cost, the NEMA Fire,
Life Safety, Security and Emergency
Communications Section (3SB) facilitates
meetings to harmonize product
standards for use in Canada and the U.S.

Each certification test program for a fire


alarm device may have up to 50 separate
tests. UL and ULC standards may be
close in requirements, but still require
two tests for each separate function.
Bottom line: each device needs to be
tested twice for the same basic function
and requirement.

Although Canada and the U.S.


are connected geographically and
economically, they have cultural
differences and different legislative
frameworks. This often requires
manufacturers to make separate
products for compliance with Canadian
and American standards, such as those
for smoke detection and notification
devices. Country differences in technical
product standards were identified
by NEMA members as a major issue
with respect to product development,
approvals, and listings. In addition,
NAFTA (North American Free Trade
Agreement) has provisions aimed at
preventing product standards from
presenting non-tariff barriers to trade.

NEMA assembled a group of industry


stakeholders to address this concern,
and created a process with the goal of
achieving single bi-national documents
for various areas of the fire alarm life
safety industry. Three major working
groups were formedone each for
notification, detection, and control panels.

In response, 3SB created a program


to harmonize standards for fire alarm
equipment. Harmonization adjusts
differences and inconsistencies among
different measurements, methods,
specifications, systems, etc., to make
them compatible.
The programs overall goals in
harmonizing UL and UL Canada (ULC)
standards are to:
allow one manufactured product to be
acceptable in both countries,
have standards allow one series of tests
for certification in Canada and the
U.S., and
review all new proposed changes
in technologies and standards for
harmonization.

The goal of the UL/ULC Technical


Harmonization Committee (THC)
Notification Working Group (NWG)
is to harmonize product standards
between the U.S. and Canada. Currently,
each country has separate standards for
emergency communication speakers,
visual signaling devices (strobes), and
audible signaling devices. There are a
total of six standards that a manufacturer
needs to comply with for overall
notification devices.
THC and each of the working groups
have two co-chairsone from each
country. Industry members in each
working group include NEMA members,
other manufacturers, engineering
consultants, testing labs, and standards
developing organizations. The working
group creates bi-national documents.
Each of the three pairs of country
documents were reviewed section
by sectionin some cases, clause by
clauseto determine similarities and
differences and where requirements
could be harmonized. This is a complex
task that deals with emotions, culture,
and comfort levels.

Since the legislative framework is


different in each country, two different
model building and fire codes impact
the standards. These often result in
country-specific requirements that
are difficult to harmonize. Ideally,
technical requirements should be
harmonized, leaving the country-specific
requirements to legislation.
Next Steps
An important milestone has been
accomplished over the past six months.
The NWG developed a proposed
set of three bi-national documents
for notification appliances. They
were reviewed by relevant standards
committees in both countries and made
available for public comment. Comments
were addressed, ballots submitted,
and consensus achieved for all three.
Formal acceptance is needed by the
UL Standards Technical Panel and the
ULC Committee on Fire Alarm and
Life Safety Equipment in order to legally
affect the changes.
Now the work begins for UL and
ULC. They must take the harmonized
documents through the official
procedures for standard approval and
have them published and issued as
bi-national standards. There are some
country-specific requirements and
some new technologies that need to be
investigated by the NWG in preparation
for the next edition.
The UL/ULC harmonization program
will continue to build and improve the
standards that help save the lives of our
families and friends, as well as protect
property and business missions. ei
The NWG is co-chaired by Mr. Boynowski
and Mr. Rock. Mr. Finnegan and Mr.
Leber co-chair the UL/ULC THC.

NEMA electroindustry May 2015

33

Economic Spotlight
Coming in June

Available from NEMA/BIS


The Electroindustry Economic Outlook
Based on popular demand for current
data and forward-looking analysis of
the electroindustry and the economic
fundamentals that drive it, NEMA/
BIS offers a subscription-based,
regularly updated compendium
of the information that industry
professionals and executives most
often request.
The Electroindustry Economic
Outlook is the preferred source for
timely, comprehensive coverage of the
economic trends and events shaping
the U.S. electroindustry.

Many manufacturers are challenged by


government regulatory activities relevant to
energy efficiency and product performance.

Extensive Coverage
Frequently Updated

The June issue of ei looks at the government


as customer in:

Affordably Priced
To find out how the Electroindustry
Economic Outlook can help your
business, contact tim_gill@nema.org
(703-841-3298). ei

Energy Savings Performance Contracts


Federal Energy Management Program
procurement recommendations
Microgrids
Transportation acquisitions
Breaking down barriers to trade

Visit www.nema.org/ebci
for the May 2015
Electroindustry Business Conditions
Index (EBCI) for current conditions
in North America.

and more!

advanced
heating
solutions
How can electric
resistance heating
help your home or
business?

100% Efficient
Source Independent
Zonal Control
Supports Smart Grid
Technologies
Point-of-Use Applications
Supplemental Uses
Low Cost of Install and
Maintenance
Advancedheat.org

34

ei-AdvancedHeat-AD-7.5x4.875.indd
NEMA electroindustry May
2015
1

11/21/2013 11:22:00 AM

Energizing a working
smart grid to power an
even smarter tomorrow.

Follow the Charge


Satisfying the worlds evergrowing need for power requires
going beyond todays answers.
Our grid has to be smarter and
more reliable. We need to raise
our collective energy IQ.
Portland General Electric is
already there. Their new Salem
Smart Power Center opens all
of our eyes to the possibilities
of tomorrow. The 5-megawatt
facility is a test bed for advanced
energy intelligence.
The energy storage system
and power management solution
supporting it are a tribute to
Eaton expertise and vision.
Our innovative designs leverage
customized Power Xpert Storage

Eaton.com/followthecharge
2015 Eaton. All rights reserved.

inverters to enable bi-directional


energy current operation.
Maximizing harvested renewable
energy resources efficiently and
cost effectively.
With Eatons sophisticated control
interface, the storage system
can intelligently coordinate
inverter operation and demand
across the battery blocks. It
addresses both real-time and
reactive power commands.
Seamless power support is
achieved. Reliability delivered.
Tomorrows world demands
powerful solutions. PGE proves we
can be smarter, faster. We simply
need to look beyond the now.
Follow the charge with Eaton.

We Are NEMA

Expert
Q
Ask The

I am

NEMA

What will be the impact to end users and OEMs of


the recently amended Section 431 of the Federal
Energy Code, which takes effect on June 1, 2016?

Robert B. Boteler,
Nidec Motor Corporation

John Malinowski, Baldor Electric,


A Member of the ABB Group

The U.S. Department of Energy


recently amended Section
431 of the federal energy code
covering the efficiency of electric
motors, and this new regulation
takes effect on June 1, 2016. In
response, the NEMA Motor &
Generator Section developed
an informative presentation,
which they will offer via webinar.
Learn more at www.nema.org/
Motor-Efficiency-RegulationWebinars-Series

Got a question? Ask the experts at ei@nema.org

Expert
Listen to the

What is a surge and how does


it damage equipment?
Listen to Northeast Field Rep Jack Lyons talk
about the importance of surge protection in
non-residential settings. Listen in at
www.nema.org/surge-protective-devices-pt2

Stock art Credits


Cover, 1 : iStockphoto.com/teptong
9: iStockphoto.com/Paul Velgos
11: iStockphoto.com/tunaly
12: iStockphoto.com/zstockphotos
14: iStockphoto.com/htjostheim
15: iStockphoto.com/dbvirago

36

NEMA electroindustry May 2015

16-21: iStockphoto.com/jgroup
16: iStockphoto.com/VladimirFLoyd
20: iStockphoto.com/teptong
22-27: iStockphoto.com/ imagedepotpro
25: iStockphoto.com/DigtialStorm
26: iStockphoto.com/infospeed

GFCIs with
Self-Test
Increase
Personnel
Safety
Its that time of
the year. Spring
has sprung and Todd Lathrop, Program
Manager, Codes and Standards,
people find
Residential & Wiring Devices
themselves
Division, Eaton Corporation
working in the
garden, building
that new swing set, and cleaning up the
pool. Many of these activities involve
plugging in electrical tools and devices.
Now is the time to make sure that your
outdoor (and indoor) power outlets,
with ground-fault circuit interrupters
(GFCIs) are properly functioning.
These are the devices that have test
and reset buttons. By pressing the
test buttons, you are verifying that the
brain of the GFCI is fully functional,
and will protect you from an electrical
shock due to a ground fault.
Working through the NEMA GFCI
Section, manufacturers and standards
developing organizations created
requirements in the UL 943 GroundFault Circuit-Interrupters standard for
the automatic self-testing of GFCIs that
resulted in an even safer product.
As a result, starting in July all 5mA
GFCI people protectors will have a
built-in self-test feature. This means
that the GFCI will be monitoring itself
to make sure its ground-fault detection
brain is properly functioning. NEMA
is about safety, GFCIs are about safety,
and I am about safety. This is why I
am NEMA!

MARKET READY.

Customers accept products with confidence when they see CSA marks. They are among the leading marks
in North America, appearing on billions of products every year. We are an OSHA Nationally Recognized Testing
Laboratory (NRTL), accredited by the Standards Council of Canada (SCC), and fully qualified to confirm
products meet U.S. and Canadian national standards for safety or performance. CSA Group tests and
certifies a wide range of electrical products to standards written by ANSI, UL, CSA and more. We also verify
energy efficiency to ENERGY STAR, NRCan and CEC requirements. Our one-stop capabilities combine
testing in a single, seamless program that helps meet your goals for speed, efficiency and global market
access. Contact the experts at CSA Group to discuss your next project.
1.866.797.4272 | certinfo@csagroup.org

North America I Europe I Asia

www.csagroup.org