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Cohen-Tannoudji Problem 1.

6
Zachary Burell, Vibha Gill, Anthony Morgan
January 20, 2009

Problem. Consider a square well potential of width a and depth V0 . We intend


to study the properties of the bound state of a particle in this well when its width
a approaches zero.

a) Show that there indeed exists only one bound state and calculate its

energy E.

b) Show that 0and that A2 = A2 w


0

B1
. Deduce from this that,
2

in the bound state, the probability of nding the particle outside the well
approaches 1.
c) How can the preceding considerations be applied to a particle placed,
as in excercise 2, in the potential V (x) = (x)?

The nite square well, a quick review:


(
V (x) =

V0 , a/2 < x < a/2


0,
|x| > a/2

(1)

Where V0 is a positive constant. We consider the bound states (V0 < E < 0)
2 2

( with eigenenergies given by, Ek = ~2m


).
In region I the potential is zero so the S.E. is :
~2
xx = E
2m

or

where =
x < a/2)

(2)

xx = 2
2m|E|
is
~

real and positive. The general solution is ( in region I


0

I (x) = Ae x + Aex

but the rst term diverges as x so A = 0 Therefore the solution in


region I is :
I (x) = Aex
(3)
0

and

~2 2
= |E| > 0
2m
In region II ( a/2 < x < a/2 , V (x) = V0 ) S.E. is :

~2
xx V0 = E
2m

or

xx = k 2

(4)

II (x) = B cos (kx) + C sin(kx)

(5)

Solution in Region II :

where( k is real and positive ):


p
k=

2m (V0 |E|)
~

(6)

and
Region III ( x > a/2 and V0 = 0) Solution is :
(7)

III (x) = Dex

and
k

~2 2
= |E| > 0
2m

and obey the constraint:


2mV0
~2

k 2 + 2 =

(8)

The parity invariance of the potential allows us to choose the energy eigenstates
to be simmoultaneously eigenstates of parity, i.e. odd and even functions ( as
2

can be seen from the fact that ik


= e2ika has two possible solutions,
+ik
namely eika ). Thus, we have even solutions for
C=0
D=A

and odd solutions for


B=0
D = A

Imposing continuity at x =
derivatives yields:

a2

and x =

A = Be

a
2

cos

a
2

for the

ka
2

even

solutions and thier


(9)

tan

ka
= /k
2

(10)

Doing the same for the odd solutions gives:


A = Ce

tan

ka
2

ka
2

(11)

= k/

(12)

a
2

sin

The Energy eigenvalue conditions can be expressed in a more transparent form


if we introduce
ka/2
2

2mV0 a2 /~2

Then we have a =

p
2 2 and the conditions can be written as
s
2
1
tan =
2

(13)

for the even functions and


tan = p

(14)

for the odd solution.


For the even eigenstates, substituting the denitions of and given above
and putting V0 = g 2 /2a , we get in the limit a 0
s
=

2m
~2

g2
|E| a2
2

r
= tan

and

2
1=
2

mg 2 a
~2

mg 2 a
~2

|E| a2

2
g a/2 |E| a2

(15)
2a |E|
g2

(16)

Therefore, the eigenvalue equation gives


|E| =

mg 4
mV02 a2
'
2
2~
2~2

There is no solution for the odd eigenstate condition, therefore we get one ,
even, bound state.
This can also be seen graphically ( for a 0 , < 2 ) there is only one
intersection of the two curves ( see g. 2 )
3

Figure 1:

10

Figure 2:

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8
x

1.0

1.2

1.4