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VISVESVARAYA TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY

Jnana Sangama, Belgaum-590018

A PROJECT REPORT
On

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF JACKETED REINFORCED


CONCRETE COLUMN UNDER AXIAL LOAD
A dissertation submitted to the Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belgaum. In
partial fulfillment of the requisites for the award of the degree of

MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY
in
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING
For the academic year
2013-2014
Submitted by
TEJASWINI H S

USN: 4AI12CSE14
Under the Guidance of

Mr. VIJAYA KUMAR Y.M


Assistant Professor
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
AIT, Chikmagalur

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING


ADICHUNCHANAGIRI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
(Affiliated to Visvesvaraya Technological University)
Accredited by NBA, New Delhi
CHIKMAGALUR-577102
2013-2014

ABSTRACT
Theoretical analysis has been carried out for different column sections with jacket
thickness of 100mm and varying outer stirrups to plot the design curves for jacketed
reinforced concrete columns subjected to axial load. Linear static finite element analysis has
also been carried out for the jacketed reinforced concrete columns to compare the confined
concrete strength of finite element analysis with that of theoretical analysis, to plot the
variation of stresses at the central core concrete and at the interface of old and new concrete
along the length of column is also analyzed and also comparing with the result of having
same stirrup spacing of both inner and outer jacket with present study of varying in outer
stirrup spacing in longitudinal direction. Consideration is given to variations in the properties
of the different concretes used in the reinforced concrete jacket and the original column.
Theoretical analysis for jacketed columns has been carried out based on the sheikh
and uzumeris confined concrete model.
Theoretical analysis for jacketed columns has been carried out and compare with the
results of having same stirrup spacing of both inner and outer jacket with present study of
varying in outer stirrup spacing in longitudinal direction.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The satisfaction and euphoria that accompany the successful completion of any task
would be incomplete without mention of people who made it possible and whose constant
guidance and encouragement crowned my efforts with success. I consider my privilege to
express the voice of gratitude and respect to all those who helped me and inspired me in the
completion of this Project work.
I express my sincere and humble pranamas to his holiness divine SRI SRI SRI
PADMABUSHANA Dr. BALAGANGADHARANATHA MAHA SWAMIJI and his
holiness SRI SRI SRI NIRMALANANDANATHA MAHASWAMIJI and seek his blessings.
I express my deepest sense of gratitude to my internal guide Mr. VIJAYA KUMAR
Y.M, Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, AIT, Chikmagalur, for his valuable
guidance, critical comments and constant encouragement to complete this project work.
I am also thankful to our professor and Head of the Department Dr. M. RAME
GOWDA Department of Civil Engineering, AIT Chikmagalur for his kind suggestions
throughout the completion of this project work.
I am thankful to Dr. C.K SUBBARAYA our beloved Principal, AIT, Chikmagalur for
his great care and custody bestowed on me.
I am thankful to entire faculty in the Department of Civil Engineering, AIT,
Chikmagalur, for their constant support. I would like to thank my family and friends for their
moral support. Last but not least, I would like to thank those, whose name may not have been
appeared but their efforts have not gone unnoticed.
TEJASWINI H S
4AI12CSE14

ii

CONTENTS
ABSTRACT

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ii

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF TABLES

vii

LIST OF NOTATIONS

viii

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 General

1.2 Historical Note

1.3 Repair and Strengthening Methods of Damaged RC Columns

1.3.1 Steel jacketing

1.3.2 Composite jacketing

1.3.3 Ferro - cement jacketing

1.3.4 Reinforced concrete jacketing

1.4 Reinforced concrete jacketing

10

1.4.1

Need for Reinforced Concrete Jacketing

10

1.4.2

Advantages of RC jacketing

10

1.4.3

Disadvantages of RC jacketing

11

1.4.4

Fundamental Structural Behavior of RC Jacketing

12

1.5 Column and Reinforcement details of present study


1.6 Format and organization of report

13
14

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction

15

CHAPTER 3
OBJECTIVES OF THE PRESENT STUDY

CHAPTER 4
METHODOLOGY
iii

14

4.1 Theoretical analysis of jacketed RC columns subjected to


axial load

21

4.1.1 Introduction

21

4.1.2 Strength Gain Factor (K)

21

4.2 Finite Element Method

23

4.2.1 Introduction

23

4.2.2 History of FEA

24

4.2.3 Finite Element Modeling

25

4.2.4 Finite Element Analysis

29

CHAPTER 5
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
5.1 Theoretical results and discussions

30

5.1.1 Strength gain factor (k)

30

5.1.2 Design curves for jacketed RC columns

33

5.1.3 Variation of K with respect to depth of original column


for Constant width

34

5.2 Finite element analysis results and discussions

38

5.2.1 Comparison of theoretical and finite element results

40

5.2.2 Discussions

42

5.2.3 Variation of the normal stresses in jacketed RC columns

42

CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSIONS & SCOPE FOR FUTURE STUDY
6.1 Conclusions

61

6.2 Scope for Future Study

62

REFERENCES

63

APPENDIX A

64

iv

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1

Jacketing of RC columns

Figure 1.2

RC column strengthened by RC jacketing

Figure 2.1

Effectively Confined Concrete Area

16

Figure 2.2

Schematic stress strain curve for confined concrete proposed by Sheikh

17

and Uzumeri
Figure 2.3

Design curves for jacketed RC columns

18

Figure 2.4

Original column and general description of original column.

19

Figure 4.1

3D solid element, NKTP = 4, NORDR = 1

26

Figure 4.2

3D Beam element, NKTP = 12, NORDR = 1

27

Figure 4.3

Modeling of jacketed RC column

29

Figure 5.3

Load carrying capacity without confinement versus core concrete strength

34

for jacket concrete strengths of 25MPa & 30MPa and jacket thickness of
75mm and 100mm (450mmx450mm original column)
Figure 5.4

Comparison of strength gain factor for different core concrete and jacket

36

concrete strengths with columns having different spacing


Figure 5.5

Comparison of strength gain factor for different core concrete and jacket

37

Concrete strengths with columns having different stirrup spacing


Figure 5.6

Modeling of jacketed RC column

38

Figure 5.7

Isometric view of normal stress distribution in the jacketed RC column

39

Figure 5.8

Plan view of normal stress distribution in the jacketed RC column (at Free

39

end)
Figure 5.9

Plan view of normal stress distribution in the jacketed RC column (at

40

bottom)
Figure 5.10

C/S of jacketed column

43

Figure 5.11

The variation of normal stresses in the central core of column and interface

46

of the jacket and original column along the direction parallel to applied
load for (450x450)mm column section with 75mm jacket(C1 Column).
Figure 5.12

The variation of normal stresses in the central core of column and interface
of the jacket and original column along the direction parallel to applied
v

48

load for (450x450)mm column section with 100mm jacket(C2 Column).


Figure 5.13

The variation of normal stresses in the central core of column and interface

51

of the jacket and original column along the direction parallel to applied
load for (450x450)mm column section with 75mm jacket(C3 Column).
Figure 5.14

The variation of normal stresses in the central core of column and interface

54

of the jacket and original column along the direction parallel to applied
load for (450x450)mm column section with 100mm jacket(C4 Column).
Figure 5.15

The variation of normal stresses in the central core of column and interface

57

of the jacket and original column along the direction parallel to applied
load for (450x450)mm column section with 75mm jacket(C5 Column).
Figure 5.16

The variation of normal stresses in the central core of column and interface
of the jacket and original column along the direction parallel to applied
load for (450x450)mm column section with 100mm jacket(C6 Column).

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60

LIST OF TABLES
Table1.1

Details of the original and jacketed RC columns

13

Table2.2

Reinforcement details of original and jacketed column

13

Table4.1

Geometrical and material properties

28

Table5.1

Strength gain factor for columns having different spacing of


inner and outer Stirrups in longitudinal direction and having
fci=25MPa and fco=30MPa (16#25mm)

Table5.2

30

Strength gain factor for columns having different spacing of


inner and outer Stirrups in longitudinal direction and having
fci=25MPa and fco=30MPa (12#25mm)

Table5.2

31

Strength gain factor for columns having different spacing of


inner and outer Stirrups in longitudinal direction and having
fci=25MPa and fco=30MPa (12#12mm)

Table5.2

31

Strength gain factor for columns having different spacing of


inner and outer Stirrups in longitudinal direction and having
fci=25MPa and fco=30MPa (16#25mm)

Table5.2

32

Strength gain factor for columns having different spacing of


inner and outer Stirrups in longitudinal direction and having
fci=25MPa and fco=30MPa (4#16mm and 8#12mm)

Table5.2

33

Strength gain factor for columns having different spacing of


inner and outer Stirrups in longitudinal direction and having
fci=25MPa and fco=30MPa (12#12mm)

Table5.7

33

Confined concrete strength (fcc) from theoretical analysis with


columns having different spacing of inner and outer stirrups in
longitudinal direction.

Table5.8

33

Comparison of confined concrete strength of theoretical & finite


element analysis and percentage errors with columns having
different spacing of inner and outer stirrups in longitudinal direction.
vii

41

LIST OF NOTATIONS
Notation Definition
Acr

Area of core (mm2)

Aic

Area of inner cover (mm2)

Aij

Area of inner jacket (mm2)

Alcr

Area of longitudinal reinforcement in core (mm2)

Alj

Area of longitudinal reinforcement in jacket (mm2)

Amcr

Area of confined core area at critical section (mm2)

Aoj

Area of outer jacket (mm2)

Ascr

Area of single leg of stirrup in core (mm2)

Asj

Area of single leg of stirrup in jacket (mm2)

Bcr

Breadth of core (mm)

Ci

The base of the curve representing the area which is not effectively
Confined

Ccr

Distance between adjacent braced longitudinal bars on core (mm)

Cj

Distance between adjacent braced longitudinal bars in jacket (mm)

Dcr

Width of core (mm)

fcc

Compressive stress in core concrete (MPa)

fci

Unconfined compressive strength of concrete in core (MPa)

fco

Unconfined compressive strength of concrete in jacket (MPa)

fco

Cylinder compressive strength of concrete in jacket (MPa)

fcon

Compressive strength of confined concrete (MPa)

fcr

Yield strength of stirrups in core (MPa)

fic

Compressive stress in concrete in inner cover (MPa)

fij

Compressive stress in concrete in inner jacket (MPa)

fj

Yield strength of stirrups in jacket (MPa)

foj

Compressive stress in concrete in outer jacket (MPa)

fscr

Stress in longitudinal reinforcement in core (MPa)

fsj

Stress in longitudinal reinforcement in jacket (MPa)

fycr

Yield strength of longitudinal reinforcement in core (MPa)


viii

fyj

Yield strength of longitudinal reinforcement in jacket (MPa)

Total strength gain factor

Spacing of the sets of ties

Distance between in the laterally supported longitudinal bars

Number of curves representing the area which is not effectively


confined

Pcon

Confined capacity of jacketed column (kN)

Puncon

Unconfined capacity of jacketed column (kN)

Pcon(org)

Confined capacity of original column (kN)

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
1.1 GENERAL
Reinforced concrete is concrete in which reinforcement bars ("rebars"), reinforcement
grids, plates or fibers have been incorporated to strengthen the concrete in tension. It was
invented by French garden joseph Monier in 1849 and patented in 1867. The term Ferro
Concrete refers only to concrete that is reinforced with iron or steel. Other materials used to
reinforce concrete can be organic and inorganic fibers as well as composites in different
forms. Concrete is strong in compression, but weak in tension, thus adding reinforcement
increases the strength in tension. In addition, the failure strain of concrete in tension is so low
that the reinforcement has to hold the cracked sections together.
For a strong, ductile and durable construction the reinforcement shall have the
following properties:

High strength

High tensile strain

Good bond to the concrete

Thermal compatibility

Durability in the concrete environment

In most cases reinforced concrete uses steel rebars that have been inserted to add strength.
Reinforced concrete (RC) columns are critical elements, whose failure can cause the
collapse of a structure. Therefore, their repairing and strengthening are frequent in order to
guarantee or increase their ultimate load. Rehabilitation and strengthening of reinforced
concrete structures is a dynamically growing division of structural engineering. In recent
years an increased application of new repair and strengthening systems of reinforced concrete
load-carrying structures has been noted. The problem of strengthening the reinforced
concrete structures appeared for the first time when their proper function was modified or
they were used in a different manner than previously planned. Assumptions made in the
design are closely connected with a specific function of the structure. The designers of the
existing reinforced load-carrying structures constructed many years ago could not predict
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their use in practice and determine all deterioration effects produced by external factors
during their service. In most cases the increased dead and live loading that should be safely
carried by the structures, as well as their poor technical condition necessitate strengthening
procedures. One of the challenges in strengthening of concrete structures is selection of a
strengthening method that will enhance the strength and serviceability of the structure while
addressing limitations such as constructability, building operations, and budget. Structural
strengthening may be required due to many different situations.

Additional strength may be needed to allow for higher loads to be placed on the
structure. This is often required when the use of the structure changes and a higher
load carrying capacity is needed. This can also occur if additional mechanical
equipment, filing systems, planters, or other items are being added to a structure.

Strengthening may be needed to allow the structure to resist loads that were not
anticipated in the original design. This may be encountered when structural
strengthening is required for loads resulting from wind seismic forces or to improve
resistance to blast loading.

Multi storied buildings are often constructed with provision for vertical extension in
future. Before carrying out vertical extension, it is sometimes noticed that the existing
structure may not be adequate to take the additional vertical and/ or lateral loads on
account of the additional storeys. This may be due to several reasons, chief amongst
which are described below.
a. The codal requirements may have changed during the intervening years;
hence, what was considered adequate at the time of original constructionnmay
not be adequate as per the standards prevalent at the time of vertical extension.
b. The procedure for the original structural design may not be acceptable at the
time of

extension. This may be partly due to lack of understanding of the

design principles on the part of original design engineers.


c. The quality of construction actually achieved may be lower than what was
originally planned, and thus rendering the structure as unsafe for additional
storeys.
d. The materials used in construction may have deteriorated over the years, (for
example, due to corrosion of reinforcement) or the structure may have
undergone significant alterations.
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Strengthening of the reinforced concrete structures is one of the most difficult and
important tasks of civil engineering. Individual approach to the problem is a necessity since
any ready-made solution can be applied. One of the prime objectives is to provide detailed
technical and cost-effective analyses. Structures must be carefully examined in order to
determine their technical condition, to find reasons for deterioration and strengthening as
well as to establish service requirements of the reinforced structures. It is also essential to
analyze their technical design, dig out open pits and carry out suitable measurements. Costeffectiveness of each of the proposed strengthening techniques should be considered and
compared to the cost of a new structure. The strengthening methods applied should ensure
the required safety margin and guarantee a sufficient reliability over time.
However, since a suitable strengthening technique depends on many factors such as
the type of construction and the professional environment, what is suitable for one country
may not be suitable for another country. Thus, while we can draw benefit from the
experiences of many other countries, we must evolve methodologies suitable to our own
conditions. Considering the severe seismic risk that many parts of our country are prone to
experience on seismic strengthening needs to be accumulated by carefully documenting
individual case histories. Since cost is a very important consideration, we also need to study
cost aspects of different strengthening schemes for such buildings. Professional engineers
involved in design and constructions in the country need to accept the challenge that is posed
by seismically deficient buildings.

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

1.2 HISTORICAL NOTE


Historical proof of concretes importance and durability can be found in the Pantheon
at Rome which was built about 117-124 B.C. over 2,000 years ago. This ancient structure
was built with circular walls about 20 feet thick and a hemispherical dome spanning 142-feet.
The concrete used was a mixture of lime, an aggregate of soft volcanic rock, and a local earth
or clay called puzzalona found in the vicinity of Rome.
Until a decade ago, concrete repair was an artisan work. The general decrease in the
construction activity forced the concrete repair and rehabilitation. Current repair and
rehabilitation of deteriorated structures have been derived largely from methods used in new
construction. However, new construction and rehabilitation differ from each other in several
important aspects including project scale, accessibility of the area being repaired and control
of ambient conditions during the repair and interactive processes that arise as a result of the
repair.
The American Concrete Institutes (ACIs) committee 364 on Rehabilitation of
Concrete Structures for a poss+-96-5*ible co-operation at global level. The committee has
made efforts to present information on various aspects of rehabilitation, the most recent
report being on guidelines and procedures for evaluating concrete structure. Along with a
summary of this report planned activities and benefit in the future. Recently, international
symposia have been held with the sponsorship of ACI or its chapters in the far East. This
brings the global interest and the need to have a better communication and co-operation for
the benefit of humankind. Another step in this direction was also taken when International
Association of Concrete Repairs Specialists (IACRS) was established in 1988, with a bulk of
its membership (over 60 percent) from rehabilitation contractors and engineers.
ACI 364 works with other ACI committees related to rehabilitation. These include:
ACI 365 (Service Life Protection); ACI 369 (Seismic Repairs and Rehabilitation); ACI 546
(Repairs) and ACI 437 (Evaluation).
Some of the rehabilitated structures are shown in the figures below:

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

Harlem building Before/After rehabilitation


(Department of Housing Preservation and Development, New York)

Repair of deteriorated sand stone building using cement repair mortar

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

1.3 REPAIR AND STRENGTHENING METHODS OF


DAMAGED RC COLUMNS
Over the years, engineers have used different methods and techniques to strengthen
existing structures by providing external confining stresses. For the past few years, the
concept of jacketing has been investigated to provide such forces. Externally applied jackets
have been used as a reinforcement to contain concrete for different reasons. Engineers have
used traditional materials such as wood, steel, and concrete to confine and improve the
structural behavior of concrete members.
Some of the most widely used methods for repair / strengthening of RC columns
include:

Jacketing of part or the entire member: In this method, the damaged column is usually
temporarily supported during the intervention. Any disintegrated concrete is removed
and the steel reinforcement is uncovered at appropriate places. Surface preparation
methods, like roughening of the existing concrete surface and removing
contamination materials such as dirt, dust or oil, follow. Additional reinforcement
bars are welded onto the existing reinforcement bars, Welding is done either through
intermediate bars or through bend-down bars

Heat tensioning of full thin steel plates or tie plates: This technique is based on fixing
thin steel full plates (h/d 3) or tie plates (h/d > 4) around the whole of the column.
Steel angles are placed at each of the corners of the column and are clamped onto the
concrete.

Glueing of thin steel sheets on damaged members by using epoxy resin laid onto the
steel sheets and concrete surfaces. The steel sheet is placed in position and fastened
using clamps for at least 24 hours.

Tying of the damaged parts of the column using steel ties : Steel ties in the form of
collars are placed around the column, densely spaced through the damaged length,
and are tightened up by means of screws, the column edges being protected by steel
angles. A light wire mesh is placed on all four edges of the column. Finally a gunite
jacket of at least 50 mm thick is applied.

Jacketing is one of the most frequently used techniques to strengthen reinforced concrete
(RC) columns. With this method, axial strength, bending strength, and stiffness of the
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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

original column. Generally there are three different techniques are available for strengthening
of RC columns such as RC jacketing, steel jacketing and composite jacketing.
The main purposes of jacketing are:

To increase concrete confinement by transverse reinforcement, especially for circular


cross sectional columns,

To increase flexural strength by longitudinal reinforcement provided they are well


anchored at critical sections,

To increase shear strength by transverse reinforcement,

To Increase the local capacity of structural elements,

Reduction of the seismic demand by means of supplementary damping.

1.3.1 Steel jacketing


Steel jacketing has been proven to be an effective technique to enhance the seismic
performance of old columns. Steel caging is a variant of the steel jacketing and is known to
be an easily applied and economical strengthening technique. The method involves the use of
longitudinal angle sections fixed to the corners of the column, to which transverse steel strips
are welded. The space between cage and column is filled with cement epoxy mortar.
However, this method requires difficult welding work and, in a long term, the potential
problem of corrosion remains unsolved.

1.3.2 Composite jacketing


Composite means a combination of two or more materials (reinforcement, resin,
filler, etc.) differing in form or composition on a macro scale. Composite jacketing (either
glass fiber reinforced polymer or carbon fiber reinforced polymer) is wrapped around the
column with a two component epoxy resin. Advanced FRP composite materials have only
recently been recognized as reliable confinement devices for reinforced concrete elements.
Interesting in the use of flexible fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) sheets for the external
wrapping of concrete compressed members is today a very popular theme, especially as
regards estimating the effectiveness of this reinforcing technique in increasing the strength
and ductility of members in seismic areas. However, this method requires highly skilled
labors.
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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

1.3.3 Ferro - cement jacketing


Recent research works by the authors have shown that Ferro-cement jacket could be
used as an alternative and effective technique to strengthen RC column with inadequate shear
strength. The availability of its materials in most developing countries, and no skilled labour
required and it being suitable for both pre-fabrication and self-help construction could lead
Ferro-cement to become one of the most inexpensive and attractive alternative techniques for
strengthening and rehabilitation of existing and damage concrete columns. It should be noted,
however, that Ferro-cement is not aimed as a replacement for other strengthening methods
such as steel jacket or composite base materials jacket sometimes it may coexist with
others or be used in areas where steel or composite base material is expensive or not suitable.
The authors investigated the use of circular Ferro-cement jackets for strengthening RC
columns with inadequate shear strength. It was found that by providing circular Ferro-cement
jacket that contained three layers of wire mesh, the brittle shear failure that occurs on the
control specimen can be prevented, and the strengthened column shows extremely well in
strength and ductility performance. It was also found that circular Ferro-cement jackets
containing six layers of wire mesh can be used for repair damaged RC columns that have
failed in shear.

1.3.4 Reinforced concrete jacketing


Jacketing is one of the most frequently used techniques to strengthen reinforced
concrete (RC) columns. RC jacketing consists of added concrete with longitudinal and
transverse reinforcement around the existing columns. With this method, axial strength,
bending strength, stiffness of the original column and durability of the original column is also
improved, in contrast to the corrosion and fire protection needs of other techniques where
steel is exposed or where epoxy resins are used are increased. It is well known that the
success of this procedure is dependent on the monolithic behaviour of the composite element.
To achieve this purpose, the treatment of the interface must be carefully chosen.
The common practice consists of increasing the roughness of the interface surface and
applying a bonding agent, normally an epoxy resin. Steel connectors are also occasionally
applied. These steps involve s pecialized workmanship, time, and cost.However, reinforced

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

concrete jacketing enjoys advantages in the form of economy, compatibility with the original
concrete substrate, and the ability to enhance durability and impart fire protection.

Fig 1.1 Jacketing of RC columns

Fig 1.2 RC column strengthened by RC jacketing

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

1.4 REINFORCED CONCRETE JACKETING


1.4.1 Need for Reinforced Concrete Jacketing
The need to rehabilitate a structure may arise at anytime from the beginning of the
construction phase until the end of the service life. During the construction phase, it may
occur because of

Design errors,

Insufficient concrete production,

Bad execution processes during the service life,

It may arise on account of an earthquake,

An accident, such as collisions, fire, explosions,

Situations involving changes in the structure functionality.

Strengthening of the reinforced concrete structures is one of the most difficult and
important tasks of civil engineering. Individual approach to the problem is a necessity since
any ready-made solution can be applied.
Main reasons of structural strengthening are:

Increase of dead and live loading, Reduction of strain limits,

Material aging and corrosion, Mechanical damage,

Decrease of stress in steel reinforcement, Decrease of crack width,

Modification of structure static scheme, Construction failures.

1.4.2 Advantages of RC jacketing

The advantage of RC jacketing strengthening is the fact that the increased stiffness of
the structure is uniformly distributed, in contrast to the addition of shear walls or steel
bracing.

Compressive strength of core concrete, ultimate concrete compression strain and


ductility of the strengthened column increased significantly if proper external
confinement by mean of jacketing was provided.

The concrete jacketing improves resistance against seismic loads and enhances the
durability of the element also, and it can be applied to any type of RC structures such

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

as residential blocks, industrial structures, and bridges that may be damaged due to
earthquakes.

This strengthening technique, unlike other methods where steel elements are used,
does not have a specialized work demand. Its simplicity of execution makes any
construction company, capable of building with quality new RC structures, also
competent to execute structural rehabilitation using RC jacketing.

The durability of the original column is also improved, in contrast to the corrosion
and fire protection needs of other techniques where steel is exposed or where epoxy
resins are used.

With this strengthening method, a significant increase of strength and/or ductility can
be achieved. This technique is not only used to achieve these objectives, but also to
correct the overall behaviour of the structure.

Due to increase of the column size the structural concept from a strong beam - weak
column will be changed to a strong column weak beam.

Reinforced concrete jackets are comparatively cheap and do not require special
design and construction techniques.

1.4.3 Disadvantages of RC jacketing

The main disadvantages of RC jacketing include the loss of floor space due to
enlargement of the column section, and difficulties that may be experienced in casting
and compacting the jackets.

Reinforced Concrete (RC) columns deteriorate with age and are damaged by the
overloads, mainly from earthquake.

The increase in the column size obtained after the jacket is constructed and the need
to construct a new formwork.

However, as a means to provide the overall strengthening to a building, it is


somewhat uneconomical and even impractical since it will involve work in most areas
of the building.

0In some cases the presence of beams may require majority of new longitudinal bars
to be bundled into the corners of the jacket.

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

With the presence of the existing column it is difficult to provide cross ties for new
longitudinal bars which are not at the corners of the jacket.

However, their longer construction period due to curing requirement and the
enlargement of column size are major disadvantages.

1.4.4 Fundamental structural behavior of reinforced column jacketing


Reinforced concrete columns are repaired or strengthened by introducing a new
reinforced concrete layer surrounding the existing column. The method is known as
jacketing. With this rehabilitation method, a significant increase of strength and/or ductility
can be achieved. This technique is not only used to achieve these objectives, but also to
correct the overall behavior of the structure. The RC jacketing strengthening method, unlike
other techniques, leads to a uniformly distributed increase in strength and stiffness of
columns. The durability of the original column is also improved, in contrast to the corrosion
and fire protection needs of other techniques where steel is exposed or where epoxy resins
are used. Finally, this rehabilitation procedure does not require specialized workmanship. All
those reasons make RC jacketing an extremely valuable choice in structural rehabilitation.
The structural behavior of a building rehabilitated by RC jacketing of the columns, like any
other strengthening technique, is highly influenced by details.

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

1.5 COLUMN AND REINFORCEMENT DETAILS OF


PRESENT STUDY
This detail will collect in Himalaya Drugs Company, Makali, Bangalore for the present
study.
Table1.1: Details of the original and jacketed RC columns
Original column
Dimension (mm)

Jacketed column
Dimension (200mm
& 150mm jacketing)

Percentage of steel
In Original
column

In Jacketed
column

Stirrup
spacing
(mm)
100

450*450

600*600

2% of gross area
of
original column

150

1% of
gross area
of Jacketed
column

200
250
300

Table4.2: Reinforcement details of original and jacketed column


SL
NO

Original column
dimension (mm)

Jacketed column
dimension (mm)

Longitudinal steel provided


Original column

Jacketd column

450*450

650*650

8#20

16#25

450*450

650*650

8#20

12#25

450*450

650*650

8#20

12#12

450*450

600*600

8#20

8#16

450*450

600*600

8#20

4#16+8#12

450*450

600*600

8#20

12#12

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

1.6 FORMAT AND ORGANIZATION OF REPORT


The first chapter briefly deals with the introduction and needs for strengthening of RC
columns, methods of jacketing, repair and strengthening methods, structural behavior of
jacketed columns Column and Reinforcement details.
The second chapter briefly deals with the literature review and objectives of the
present study. The relevance of carrying out studies on jacketed columns and original
columns has also been discussed.
The third chapter deals with the Objectives of the present study.
The fourth chapter deals theoretical analysis of jacketed RC columns subjected to
axial load using the method based on Shiekh and Uzumeris model. Using the analysis results
the design curves for original and different jacketed RC columns has been plotted by varying
the parameters such as grade of original column and jacket concrete and jacket thickness.
The analysis of jacketed RC columns subjected to axial load using finite element
analysis. A finite element model of the jacketed RC columns has been generated with the
simulation of the boundary conditions and loadings. Stress variations for different jacketed
columns have been studied at central core concrete, at interface between old and new
concrete and at column surface by varying the parameters such as grade of original column
and jacket concrete and jacket thickness. In order to validate the theoretical results of fcc for
jacketed RC columns the same has been compared with that of the finite element analysis
results.
The thesis ends with the chapter five which summaries the various results and
provides concluding remarks. Scope for future research has been indicated.

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 INTRODUCTION
When reinforced concrete sections are subjected to large deformations typical of
seismic motions, their ability to carry load depends primarily on the behavior of confined
concrete within the core. The spiral reinforcements or rectilinear ties in reinforced concrete
columns play an important role in enhancing the strength and ductility. Under axial loads,
concrete pressure in the lateral direction of the column section acts on the lateral ties and the
resistance of the ties may restrain the core concrete to a degree. With the increase of axial
loads, initial cracks are propagated in the parallel direction with longitudinal bars at the
corners of the column section. Around the yielding of longitudinal bars, the concrete cover
spalls off and begins to unload. The confined columns exhibit a little more load carrying
capacity after the spelling. When the maximum axial load is exceeded, the longitudinal bars
buckle and the hook of ties is open. The mechanical behavior of confined concrete is
characterized by the increase in strength and ductility. The magnitude of the increase is
established by various confinement parameters.
However, it is not easy to explicitly characterize the mechanical behavior of confined
concrete because of various parameter variables, such as the confinement type of rectilinear
ties, the compressive strength of concrete, and the volumetric ratio and strength of rectilinear
ties, etc.
Circular spirals confine concrete much more effectively than rectilinear stirrups, and
the mechanism of confinement afforded for circular spirals is well understood than for ties.
But their relative ease in detailing makes the use of ties more attractive than spirals. In the
case of non-circular stirrups, the confining pressure afforded varies in three dimensions, and
the challenge lies in accurately estimating this variation. Researchers have used different
approaches to estimate the strength increase arising from the provision of stirrups. Numerous
studies have been reported on the behaviour of concrete confined by rectilinear ties. Several
analytical models with various degrees of sophistication have been proposed. All most all the
analytical models for confinement are based on experimental results. Most experimental data
were obtained from small scale tests on simple tie configurations. Some of the researchers
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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

who proposed the analytical models for confinement are Sheikh and Uzumeri model (1982)
Bett et al (1988), K.C.G. Ong, Y.C. Kog, C.H. Yu and A.P.V Sreekanth (2002), Elwood and
Moehle (2003), Eduardo et al (2005), Konstantinos G. Vandoros, Stephanos E.
Dritsos(2006), Yuce et al (2007).
1

Sheikh and Uzumeri model (1982), Jacketing of reinforced concrete columns

subjected to axial load: is one of the several analytical models. In this model the increase
in concrete strength due to confinement by rectilinear ties is calculated on the basis of an
effectively confined concrete area, which is less than the core concrete enclosed by the center
line of the perimeter tie.

Fig 2.1 Effectively Confined Concrete Area


Closer spacing of both longitudinal and lateral reinforcement results in a higher
proportion of the effectively confined area as shown in figure 1.3.The confined strength of
concrete is given by,

fcc= Ks fci
Where fcc= strength of confined concrete, fci= unconfined compressive strength of
concrete in core and

Ks1= 1+
Where, B is the core size measured to the center line of the perimeter tie; C is the
distance between the laterally supported longitudinal bars; s is the spacing of the sets of ties;
n is

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

the number of laterally supported longitudinal bars; cr is the volumetric ratio, and fcr is the
strength of the stirrups; and Pcr = Acr fci where Acr is the area of concrete in the core.

Fig 2.2 Schematic stress strain curve for confined concrete proposed by Sheikh
and Uzumeri
2

Bett et al (1988), studied the effectiveness of three different repair and/ or

strengthening techniques in enhancing the lateral load response of reinforced concrete


short columns: A single lateral displacement history and constant axial load were used for
all tests. It was found that both the repaired and strengthened columns performed better than
the original column. Columns strengthened by jacketing, both with and without cross ties,
were much stiffer and stronger laterally than the original unstrengthened column.
3

K.C.G. Ong, Y.C. Kog, C.H. Yu and A.P.V Sreekanth (2002), Jacketing of reinforced

concrete columns subjected to axial load: extended the concept of Sheikh and Uzumeris
model to jacketed RC columns subjected to axial loads, to predict the behaviour of jacketed
columns when subjected to axial loads. This model then used to analyze the three columns
tested to failure by Aksan. Sheikh and Uzumeri model was able to predict peak axial loads
that agree within 10% of the experimental results. Also they have developed design curves
for jacketed RC column of column size (300mmx300mm). Using this design curves we can
calculate the axial load carrying capacity of jacketed RC columns. In this work they have
calculated the strength gain factor K for different volumetric ratios to find out the effect of
stirrups spacing on the factor K.

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

Fig 2.3 Design curves for jacketed RC columns


4

Elwood and Moehle (2003), Observed that the lateral displacement or drift of a

reinforced concrete column at axial failure: was dependent upon and directly
proportional to the spacing of transverse reinforcement and the axial stress developed within
the column. It was noted that the lateral drift experienced by the columns at axial failure was
dependent upon and inversely proportional to the amount of axial load exerted on the
column. The performance of columns under seismic loading is also influenced by the
secondary moment due to drift.
5

Eduardo et al (2005): performed an experimental study to analyze the influence of

interface influence on the structural behavior of columns strengthened by RC


jacketing: Seven column footing full scale models were built and later the columns were
strengthened by RC jacketing after different surface treatments and then tested under
monotonic loading. It was concluded that for undamaged columns, a monolithic behavior of
composite element can be achieved even without increasing their surface roughness, using
bonding agents, or by applying steel connectors before strengthening it by RC jacketing.

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load
6

Konstantinos G. Vandoros, Stephanos E. Dritsos(2006), This paper presents an

experimental investigation of the effectiveness of strengthening half height full size


concrete columns by placing concrete jackets: Three alternative methods of concrete
jacketing are investigated and results are compared with results from an original unstrengthened specimen and a monolithic specimen. The three techniques were: welding the
jacket stirrup ends together (denoted as N), placing dowels and jacket stirrup end welding
(denoted as E) and placing bent down steel connector bars welded to the original column
longitudinal reinforcement bars and the respective bars of the jacket (denoted as W). The
effectiveness of properly constructing concrete jackets has been proved, as it was found that,
under special conditions, an almost monolithic behavior could be achieved.

Fig 2.4: Original column and general description of original column.


7

Yuce et al (2007), Investigated the behavior of local thin jacketing for the retrofitting

of reinforced concrete columns: In the first series, four full scale RC columns with of
square cross section were tested under constant axial load and reversed cyclic lateral
displacements. Self compacting concrete was used for jacketing. In the second series,
retrofitted columns were re tested with same axial load and displacement history. It was
found that the applied local thin jacketing made from SCC increased the lateral stiffness
strength properties of heavily damaged columns and also observed that more energy is
dissipated with increasing jacketing height.

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

CHAPTER 3

OBJECTIVES OF THE PRESENT STUDY


The primary objectives of the present study are:

To find the confined and unconfined capacity of the jacketed RC columns subjected
to axial load using the method based on Shiekh and Uzumeris model.

To obtain the strength gain factor K using the confined and unconfined capacity.
Where, K is the ratio of the load carrying of a jacketed RC column with confinement
affects to that of one without.

To construct the design curves for jacketed RC columns.

To compare the confined concrete strength fcc of both theoretical and finite element
analysis.

To plot the variation of normal stresses at the central core concrete and at the
interface of the old and new concrete.

CHAPTER 4
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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

METHODOLOGY
Following are the methods conducted in this present study

Theoretical analysis of jacketed RC columns subjected to axial load

Finite Element method

4.1 THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF JACKETED RC


COLUMNS SUBJECTED TO AXIAL LOAD
4.1.1 Introduction
The reinforced concrete columns are repaired or strengthened by introducing a new
reinforced concrete layer surrounding the existing column. The method is known as
jacketing. Reinforced concrete (RC) columns are critical elements, whose failure can cause
the collapse of a structure. Therefore, their repairing and strengthening are frequent in order
to guarantee or increase their ultimate load.
The percentage of published articles concerning RC jacketing is very small. These
data clearly indicate that there is a need for research into the behavior of RC columns
strengthened by RC jacketing, since, this is very economical and also does not require highly
skilled labours when compare to other techniques available for strengthening purpose The
grade of the original column concrete considered is 25MPa and that of jacket concrete are
30MPa.
The method based on Sheikh and Uzumeris models has been used for the theoretical
analysis of jacketed RC column subjected to axial load. The main purpose of this analysis is
to construct the design curves for jacketed RC columns subjected to axial load.

4.1.2 Strength gain factor (k)


Strength gain factor K is the ratio of the load carrying capacity of a jacketed RC
column with confinement effects to that of one without confinement. In this work strength
gain factor K has been calculated for different column sections by varying the parameters
such as cylinder compressive strength of both original and jacket concrete and jacket
thickness. Typical results for jacketed RC columns with different parameters such as, jacket
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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

thickness, core size and grades of original concrete and jacket concrete are given in tables 5.1
to5.6.
The Strength gain factor (K) for the R.C. jacketed column was theoretically
calculated using the method based on Sheikh and Uzumeris model [2]. Then, they compared
the theoretical results with the experimental results done by the Aksan. Both the experimental
and theoretical work was carried out by them is only for the square column sections. In the
theoretical study they have mentioned that, this proposed model can also be used for the
analysis of rectangular column section. So in this work, theoretical analysis has been carried
out for rectangular columns.

4.2 FINITE ELEMENT METHOD


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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

4.2.1 Introduction
The finite element analysis (FEA) or finite element method (FEM) involves solution
of engineering problems using computers. Engineering structures that have complex
geometry and loads, are either very difficult to analyze or have no theoretical solution. The
finite element method was developed as an extension of matrix method of the analysis of
structural engineering problems. Finite element method has been recognized as a most
powerful method for analyzing problems in fields of engineering, such as fluid mechanics,
soil mechanics, rock mechanics, heat flow, etc. The basic philosophy of this method is to
replace the structure or the continuum having an unlimited or infinite number of unknowns
by a mathematical model which has a limited of finite number of unknowns at certain chosen
discrete points. FEA solution of engineering problems, such as finding deflections and
stresses in a structure, requires three steps:

Pre-processing or modeling the structure

Analysis

Post processing

In finite element method, a structure or a continuum is discretized and idealized by using


a mathematical model which is an assembly of subdivisions of discrete elements. These
discrete elements known as finite elements, these finite elements are assumed to be
interconnected only at the joints called nodes. Simple functions, such as polynomials, are
chosen in terms of unknown displacements (and/or their derivatives) at the nodes to
approximate the variation of the actual displacements over each finite element. The external
loading is also transformed into equivalent forces applied at the nodes. The behavior of each
element independently and later as an assembly of these elements is obtained by relating their
response to that of the nodes in such a way that the following conditions should satisfied at
each node.
 The equation of equilibrium
 The compatibility of displacements
 The material constitutive relationship
The equations, which are obtained using the above conditions, are in the form of forcedisplacement relationship. Finally, the force-displacement equations are modified to
incorporate the given boundary conditions and then these modified equations are solved to
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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

obtain displacements at the nodes which are the basic unknowns in the finite element
method.
In the present study 3D Finite Element analysis has been carried out on the reinforced
concrete columns subjected to axial load to predict the behavior of such columns before and
after RC jacketing. The normal stress (SZZ) distribution at the core center and at the interface
between old and new concrete under axial compression have been studied by varying
different parameters such as modulus of elasticity of concrete both in jacket and in original
column, size of column, thickness of jacket and spacing of stirrups. The geometrical and
material properties of the jacketed RC columns considered for analysis are given in table 4.1.

4.2.2 History of FEA


Engineering applications of finite element analysis is approximately 40 years old.
Evolution of FEA is tied with the development in computer technology. With the
enhancement in computer speed and storage capacity, FEA has become a very valuable
engineering tool. NASA is credited with developing comprehensive FEA software in 1960s,
known as NASTRAN. Rights of the software were purchased by McNeal Schwendler
Corporation, who refined it and commercially marketed it under the name, MSC-NASTRAN.
The first college course in FEA was offered in 1970. In the early 1970s, application of FEA
was limited to large corporations, who can afford expensive mainframe computers. However,
in 1980s, with the introduction of desktop computers, application of FEA became popular
and indispensable engineering tool. In late 80s, almost all the major FEA vendors introduced
their software that can run on a PC.
Several significant developments in recent years include:

Introduction of p-elements.

Integration of sensitivity analysis and optimization capabilities.

Availability of faster and cheaper desktop computers to run FEA software that
previously required mainframe computers.

Development of powerful CAD programs for modeling complex structures.

Making software user-friendly.

4.2.3 Finite Element Modeling


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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

Finite element modeling is described as the representative of the geometrical model in


terms of a finite number of elements and nodes, which are the building blocks of the
numerical representation of the model. In addition to information about elements and nodes,
model also contains information about material and other properties, loading and boundary
conditions.
The most important step in the finite element method of structural analysis is to
generate, using finite number of discrete elements, a mathematical model which should be as
near as possible equivalent to the actual continuum. Such a formation of a model is referred
to as structural idealization or discretization. The finite element model was developed using
NISA (Numerically Integrated elements for system Analysis) (1995), a general purpose finite
element program.
This program has the advantage of a pre processor for mesh generation and post
processor for graphical representation of results. General purpose finite element software
provides the necessary tools to perform such analysis for a wide variety of problems without
compromising accuracy. The general purpose program NISA developed and marketed by
Engineering Mechanical Research Corporation (EMRC) is one of the most comprehensive
and versatile program in the world today. The NISA family of design/analysis program offers
the largest number of finite element application programs which are completely integrated
through an interactive graphical interface 'DISPLAY IV. NISA optimization programs are
revolutionary and well supersede the scope of other commercial programs.
Display IV is a three dimensional interactive color graphics program for geometric and
finite element modeling. The program is extremely user friendly with CAD like features.
Representation of geometries is done with the aid of points, lines, surfaces and solids and is
created using the numerous options available within the program. Automatic mesh generation
is available and all boundary conditions and loads can be prescribed graphically. The
program then verifies the model and directly creates input file for the various solvers. The
program can provide animation, shading, hidden line and boundary line plots with option for
window, pan and zooming.

4.2.3.1 Description of the finite elements used

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

In the present study two finite elements have been used to model the reinforced
concrete columns. They are: 3D Solid element and 3D Beam element.
3D Solid element: This element is based on a general 3-D state of stress and is suited for
modeling 3-D solid structure under 3-D loading. The element has three degrees of freedom
per node (UX, UY, and UZ). The state of stress is characterized by six components (SXX,
SYY, SZZ, SXY, SYZ, and SXZ). The element can be shaped as an 8 or 20 node hexahedron
(brick) element, a 6 or 15 node wedge, a 4 or 10 node tetrahedron element, or a 5 or 13 node
pyramid element depending on the selected NORDR value. The element configuration, node
locations and face numbering convention are shown in Figure 4.1.

Fig 4.1 3D solid element, NKTP = 4, NORDR = 1


3D Beam element: This element is a 2-node prismatic 3-D beam element. The formulation
includes stretching, bending and torsion effects. The transverse shear deformation effect is
included as an option. The beam vertices may be offset from the corresponding nodal points
and the centroid may be offset from the shear center. The deformation is characterized by
three translations (UX, UY, UZ) and three rotations (ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ). The local xaxis of the beam is along the centroidal axis. The local y and z axes are user defined and are
not necessary principal axes of the cross section. The element configuration, node locations
and face numbering convention are shown in Figure 4.2.

Fig 4.2: 3D Beam element, NKTP = 12, NORDR = 1


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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

(a) Element configuration and orientation, (b) face numbering for pressure Loading

4.2.3.2 Description of geometrical and material properties used


The accuracy of the structural analysis using numerical methods depends on the
representation of the behavior of material under different state of stresses and loading
conditions. The details of the properties employed for finite element modeling are given in
table 4.1.
Table 4.1 Geometrical and material properties
Original column dimensions(mm)

450*450

Column height (m)

Jacket thickness (mm)

200, 150

Original column concrete


Modulus of Elasticity(MPa)
[Type text]

25000
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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

Poissons ratio

0.15
Jacketing concrete

Modulus of Elasticity(MPa)

27386

Poissons ratio

0.15
Longitudinal Reinforcement

Modulus of Elasticity(MPa)

200000

Poissons ratio

0.3
Stirrups

Modulus of Elasticity(MPa)

200000

Poissons ratio

0.3

4.2.4 Finite Element Analysis


The columns are modeled as one end free and other end hinged. In this study purely
axial load has been applied on the column. The details of the material properties and loads
are tabulated in the table 5.7 to 5.8. Modeling of RC jacketed using NISA DISPLAY IV
software is has shown in figure 4.3.

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

Fig4.3: Modeling of jacketed RC column

CHAPTER 5

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


5.1 THEORETICAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
5.1.1 Strength gain factor (k)
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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

Strength gain factor K is the ratio of the load carrying capacity of a jacketed RC
column with confinement effects to that of one without confinement. In this work strength
gain factor K has been calculated for different column sections by varying the parameters
such as compressive strength of both original and jacket concrete and jacket thickness.
Typical results for jacketed RC columns with different parameters such as, jacket thickness,
core size and grades of original concrete and jacket concrete are given in tables 5.1 to 5.6.
The Strength gain factor (K) for the R.C. jacketed column was theoretically
calculated using the method based on Sheikh and Uzumeris model [1]. Then, they compared
the theoretical results with the experimental results done by the Aksan. Both the experimental
and theoretical work was carried out by them is only for the square column sections. In the
theoretical study they have mentioned that, this proposed model can also be used for the
analysis of square column section. So in this work, theoretical analysis has been carried out
for Square columns.
Table5.1: Strength gain factor for columns having different spacing of inner and outer
Stirrups in longitudinal direction and having fci=25MPa and fco=30MPa (16#25mm)
Column
dimension

100mm jacket

Spacing
confined
capacity of
jacketed
column
(KN)

Unconfined
capacity of
jacketed
column
(KN)

Strength
gain
factor
(K)

Confined
concrete
strength
(fcc) in
MPa

450450

100

17549.15

11364.05

1.544

41.15

450450

150

17519.56

11364.05

1.542

40.94

450450

200

17485.28

11364.05

1.538

40.70

450450

250

17443.95

11364.05

1.535

40.41

450450

300

17392.99

11364.05

1.530

40.05

Table5.2: Strength gain factor for columns having different spacing of inner and outer
Stirrups in longitudinal direction and having fci=25MPa and fco=30MPa (12#25mm)
Column

[Type text]

Spacing

100mm jacket

Confined

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

dimension

Confined
capacity of
jacketed
column
(KN)

Unconfined
capacity of
jacketed
column
(KN)

Strength
gain
factor
(K)

concrete
strength
(fcc) in
MPa

450450

100

16734.44

11422.95

1.465

41.15

450450

150

16704.85

11422.95

1.462

40.94

450450

200

16670.56

11422.95

1.459

40.70

450450

250

16629.24

11422.95

1.456

40.41

450450

300

16578.28

11422.95

1.451

40.05

Table5.3: Strength gain factor for columns having different spacing of inner and outer
Stirrups in longitudinal direction and having fci=25MPa and fco=30MPa (12#12mm)
Column
Dimension

Spacing

450450

100mm jacket

Confined
concrete
strength
(fcc) in
MPa

Confined
capacity of
jacketed
column
(KN)

Unconfined
capacity of
jacketed
column
(KN)

Strength
gain
factor
(K)

100

14883.30

11558.94

1.288

41.15

450450

150

14853.70

11558.94

1.285

40.94

450450

200

14819.43

11558.94

1.282

40.70

450450

250

14778.10

11558.94

1.278

40.41

450450

300

14727.14

11558.94

1.274

40.05

Table5.4: Strength gain factor for columns having different spacing of inner and outer
Stirrups in longitudinal direction and having fci=25MPa and fco=30MPa(8 #16mm)
Column

[Type text]

Spacing

75mm jacket

Confined

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

dimension

Confined
capacity of
jacketed
column
(KN)

Unconfined
capacity of
jacketed
column
(KN)

Strength
gain
factor
(K)

concrete
strength
(fcc) in
MPa

450450

100

13340.93

9676.41

1.378

41.15

450450

150

13311.34

9676.41

1.375

40.94

450450

200

13277.05

9676.41

1.372

40.70

450450

250

13235.73

9676.41

1.367

40.41

450450

300

13184.77

9676.41

1.362

40.05

Table5.5: Strength gain factor for columns having different spacing of inner and outer
Stirrups in longitudinal direction and having fci=25MPa and fco=30MPa(4 #16mm and
8 #12mm)
Column
dimension

Spacing

450450

75mm jacket

Confined
concrete
strength
(fcc) in
MPa

Confined
capacity of
jacketed
column
(KN)

Unconfined
capacity of
jacketed
column
(KN)

Strength
gain
factor
(K)

100

13382.51

9673.4

1.383

41.15

450450

150

13352.92

9673.4

1.380

40.94

450450

200

13318.64

9673.4

1.377

40.70

450450

250

13277.31

9673.4

1.372

40.41

450450

300

13226.35

9673.4

1.367

40.05

Table5.6: Strength gain factor for columns having different spacing of inner and outer
Stirrups in longitudinal direction and having fci=25MPa and fco=30MPa(12 #12mm)
Column

[Type text]

Spacing

75mm jacket

Confined

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

dimension

Confined
capacity of
jacketed
column
(KN)

Unconfined
capacity of
jacketed
column
(KN)

Strength
gain
factor
(K)

concrete
strength
(fcc) in
MPa

450450

100

13245.56

9683.95

1.367

41.15

450450

150

13215.97

9673.4

1.365

40.94

450450

200

13181.69

9673.4

1.361

40.70

450450

250

13140.36

9673.4

1.357

40.41

450450

300

13089.40

9673.4

1.352

40.05

5.1.2 Design curves for jacketed RC columns


Design curve involves two graphs they are capacity without considering confinement
versus fci and strength gain factor K versus fci. Using these curves it is possible to calculate
the axial load of the jacketed RC columns subjected to axial load.
In the referred paper [1] they have constructed the design curves for jacketed RC
column of core size 200mm with 50mm jacket by varying the parameter such as volumetric
ratio and cylinder compressive strength of both original and jacket concrete. In this work the
design curves has been constructed for rectangular column sections by varying the parameter
such as cylinder compressive strength of both original and jacket concrete.
Typical results for jacketed RC columns with different parameters such as jacket
thickness, core size and grades of original concrete and jacket concrete are plotted in Figures.
From the analysis results obtained the effects of the column size, jacket thickness and
grade of concrete used for original column and jacketed column. The fallowing observations
are made in this theoretical analysis study.

Varying the stirrups of outer jackets, the load carrying capacity of column will
increase when stirrups spacing are kept little closer compared to inner stirrups of
column in vertical direction.

Figures show the variation of capacity without considering confinement with


unconfined compressive strength of concrete in core. The unconfined capacity
depends on many factors such as size of original columns jacket thickness,

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

reinforcement area present in both original column and jacketed column and cylinder
compressive strength of original column and jacket.

Unconfined capacity of jacketed columns increases when the concrete strength of


original columns is increased (this can be visualized from the figures 4.3 to 4.5).
Figures show the variation if strength gain factor K with unconfined compressive
strength of concrete in core. From these figures it can be observed that for the same
dimension in the original column with decreasing the spacing of stirrups, K decreases
with increases concrete strength in the original column. K increases with an increase
in the size of the original column when other parameters are kept constant.
.

5.1.3 Variation of K with respect to depth of original column for Constant


width
From the theoretical study it can be visualized that higher the spacing of original
column lower will be the strength gain factor. Whereas strength gain factor is decreases with
decreasing the spacing of stirrups for same dimensions of original columns.

Fig 5.3 Load carrying capacity without confinement versus core concrete strength for
jacket concrete strengths of 25MPa & 30MPa and jacket thickness of 75mm and
100mm (450mmx450mm original column)

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Strength gain
factor(K)

Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

450*450mm
Jacket concrete
30MPa
75mm jacket
SS=100mm

1.4
1.38
1.36
1.34

Strength gain
factor(K)

15

20

25 ) 30
fci(MPa

35

450*450mm
Jacket
concrete 30MPa
75mm jacket
SS=250mm

1.38
1.37
1.36
1.35
1.34
15

20

25

30

35

fci(MPa)

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

Fig5.4: Comparison of strength gain factor for different core concrete and jacket
concrete strengths with columns having different spacing

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

Fig5.5: Comparison of strength gain factor for different core concrete and jacket
Concrete strengths with columns having different stirrup spacing

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

5.2 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS RESULTS AND


DISCUSSIONS
5.2.1 Finite element analysis
The columns are modeled as one end free and other end hinged. In this study purely
axial load has been applied on the column. The details of the material properties and loads
are tabulated in the table 5.1 to 5.3. Modeling of RC jacketed using NISA DISPLAY IV
software is has shown in figure 5.3, Isometric view of normal stress distribution in the
jacketed RC column is has shown in fig 5.4 and plan view of normal stress distribution in
jacketed RC column at top and at bottom along the direction parallel to applied load is has
shown in figure 5.5 to 5.6.

Fig5.6: Modeling of jacketed RC column

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

Fig 5.7: Isometric view of normal stress distribution in the jacketed RC column

Fig 5.8: Plan view of normal stress distribution in the jacketed RC column (At free end)

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

Fig 5.9: Plan view of normal stress distribution in the jacketed RC column (At bottom)

5.2.2 Comparison of theoretical and finite element results


Table 5.7: Confined concrete strength (fcc) from theoretical analysis with columns
having different spacing of inner and outer stirrups in longitudinal direction
Column

Confined concrete strength (fcc) in MPa values

Spacing

Section

C1

C2

C3

C4

C5

C6

450450

100

41.15

41.15

41.15

41.15

41.15

41.15

450450

150

40.94

40.94

40.94

40.94

40.94

40.94

450450

200

40.70

40.70

40.70

40.70

40.70

40.70

450450

250

40.41

40.41

40.41

40.41

40.41

40.41

450450

300

40.05

40.05

40.05

40.05

40.05

40.05

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

Table 5.8: Comparison of confined concrete strength of theoretical & finite element
analysis and percentage errors with columns having different spacing of inner and
outer stirrups in longitudinal direction
Column

Spaci

Section

ng

C1

C2

error
Theoretical
fci=20MPa
fco=30MPa

error
Theoretical FEM
fci=20MPa fci=20MP
fco=30MPa a
fco=30M

FEM
fci=20MPa
fco=30MPa

Pa
450450 100

41.15

31.22

-24.13

41.15

30.97

-24.74

450450 150

40.94

35.89

-12.33

40.94

34.53

-15.66

450450 200

40.70

38.82

-4.62

40.70

36.62

-10.02

450450 250

40.41

40.85

1.09

40.41

37.30

-1.21

450450 300

40.05

42.36

5.77

40.05

36.63

-10.86

C4

Column

Spaci

Section

ng

C3

%
error

error

450450

100

41.15

30.19

-26.63

Theoretic
al
fci=20MP
a
fco=30M
Pa
41.15

450450

150

40.94

34.87

-14.83

40.94

33.86

-17.29

450450

200

40.70

37.85

-7.00

40.70

35.57

-12.60

450450

250

40.41

39.92

-1.21

40.41

36.54

-9.58

450450

300

40.05

35.70

-1086

40.05

35.70

-10.86

Theoretical
fci=20MPa
fco=30MPa

FEM
fci=20MP
a
fco=30M
Pa

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FEM
fci=20MP
a
fco=30M
Pa
30.66

-25.49

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

Column

Spaci

Section

ng

C5

C6

error
Theoretical
fci=20MPa
fco=30MPa

FEM
fci=20MP
a
fco=30M

error

450450

100

41.15

34.05

-17.25

Theoretic
al
fci=20MP
a
fco=30M
Pa
41.15

450450

150

40.94

37.46

-8.50

40.94

33.62

-17.88

450450

200

40.70

39.53

-2.87

40.70

35.34

-13.16

450450

250

40.41

40.84

1.06

40.41

36.37

-10.00

450450

300

40.05

41.68

4.07

40.05

35.49

-11.38

Pa

FEM
fci=20MP
a
fco=30M
Pa
30.72

-25.35

5.2.3 Discussions
Due to confinement of core concrete by both inner and outer sets of stirrups, its
original strength gets increased. In order to validate the theoretical results, the same has been
compared with that of the finite element analysis results. The theoretical and finite element
results obtained for the same column sections, grades of concrete and 100mm and 75mm
jacket thickness are as shown in the tables 5.7, has been taken up for the comparison. The
theoretical results obtained from the analysis of jacketed column of varying concrete strength
have been considered. It can be observed from the table 5.3 that the results of theoretical and
finite element analysis are approximately matching with some percentage of errors. The
comparative errors are -4.62% to-24.13 % and 1.09% to 5.77% for the column jacketed with
30MPa concrete strength with respect to theoretical analysis. Here negative sign indicates
that theoretical confined strength is more than the FEM confined strength.

5.2.4 Variation of the normal stresses in jacketed RC columns


In order to know the behavior of jacketed RC columns under the applied confined
load in NISA the normal stress SZZ has been extracted at the points as shown in the figure
5.8. The stress at the point 1 is at the centre core and stress at point is at the interface of the
old and new concrete and stress at point 3 is at core center (x-axis).

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

1-Normal stress SZZ at the ore ccentre


2-Normal stress SZZ at the interface between the old and new column
Fig 5.10: C/S of jacketed column
The figures show the normal stress variation along the length of the column in
loading direction at the central core and at the interface of the column for column sections
450x450 with 100mm and 75mm jacket thickness for different grade of original and jacket
concrete subjected to the axial load as shown in the tables 5.8. The axial load is applied in the
NISA/DISPLAY-4 for analysis. The stress at the point 1 is at the centre core and stresses at
point 2 are at the interface of the original column and jacketed column concrete.

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

Fig5.11: The variation of normal stresses in the central core of column and interface of
the jacket and original column along the direction parallel to applied load for
(450x450)mm column section with 75mm jacket(C1 Column).

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

Fig5.12: The variation of normal stresses in the central core of column and interface of
the jacket and original column along the direction parallel to applied load for
(450x450)mm column section with 100mm jacket(C2 Column).

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

Fig5.13: The variation of normal stresses in the central core of column and interface of
the jacket and original column along the direction parallel to applied load for
(450x450)mm column section with 75mm jacket(C3 Column).

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

Fig5.14: The variation of normal stresses in the central core of column and interface of
the jacket and original column along the direction parallel to applied load for
(450x450)mm column section with 100mm jacket(C4 Column).

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

Fig5.15: The variation of normal stresses in the central core of column and interface of
the jacket and original column along the direction parallel to applied load for
(450x450)mm column section with 75mm jacket(C5 Column).

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

Fig5.16: The variation of normal stresses in the central core of column and interface of
the jacket and original column along the direction parallel to applied load for
(450x450)mm column section with 100mm jacket(C6 Colomn).

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSIONS & SCOPE FOR FUTURE STUDY


6.1 CONCLUSIONS
The present work is concerned with the theoretical study of jacketed columns based
on the Sheikh and Uzumeris model and also finite element analysis carried out for jacketed
RC columns with a commercially available finite element analysis package NISA/DISPLAYIV. Based on the theoretical and finite element analysis study carried out, the following
conclusions have been drawn.
1. Varying the stirrups of outer jackets the load carrying capacity of column will
increase.
2. Unconfined capacity of jacketed columns increases when the concrete strength of
original columns is increased.
3. It can be observed that for the same dimension in the original column with decreasing
the spacing of stirrups, K decreases with increases concrete strength in the original
column.
4. It may be concluded that the theoretical results are comparable with finite element
results with are -4.62% to-24.13 % and 1.09% to 5.77% percentage of errors.

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

6.2 SCOPE FOR FUTURE STUDY

This work is fully concentrated about the theoretical and FE analysis which can be
further studied by experimental means.

This study mainly concentrated on square jacketed columns which can be further
studied for jacketed circular.

This work is mainly concentrated on RC jacketing which can be further extended to


steel and fiber reinforced polymer jacketing.

In the present study the column has been modeled as one end free and the other end is
restrained in all three directions. In future the boundary conditions can be changed
and the stress variations can be studied.

In the present study both theoretical and FE analysis has been carried out for the
columns subjected to axial loads alone which can be further extended to eccentric
loaded columns.

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

REFERENCES
1. Sheikh,S.A., and Uzumeri,S.M.(1982)."Analytical model for concrete confinement in
tied columns. Journal of the Structural Division.ASCE, 108(12), PP. 2703-2722.
2. Bett et al (1988) The effectiveness of three different repair and/ or strengthening
techniques in enhancing the lateral load response of reinforced concrete short
columns.
3. K.C.G. Ong, Y. C. Kog, C. H. Yu and A. P. V. Sreekanth(2002), Jacketing of
reinforced concrete columns subjected to axial load. National University of
Singapore; CPG Consultants.
4. Elwood and Moehle (2003) lateral displacement of a reinforced concrete column at
axial failure
5. Eduardo et al (2005) Performed an experimental study to analyze the influence of
interface influence on the structural behavior of columns strengthened by RC
jacketing.
6. Konstantinos G. Vandoros, Stephanos E. Dritsos,(2006) Concrete jacket
construction detail effectiveness when strengthening RC columns, University of
Patras, Department of Civil Engineering, 26500, Patras, Greece,; accepted 30 August
2006,
7. Yuce et al (2007) The behavior of local thin jacketing for the retrofitting of
reinforced concrete columns.
8. ACI Committee 549 (ACI 549.1R - 93), Guide for the Design, Construction, and
Repair of Ferrocement, American Concrete Institute, Detroit, 30 p.
9. AIJ (1994), Structural Design Guidelines For Reinforced Concrete Building,
Architectural Institute of Japan, 207 p.
10. Indian standard Code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete (fourth revision),
IS 456-2000, Bureau of Indian standard, July 2000, New Delhi.

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

APPENDIX
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE
ANALYSIS FOR COLUMN DESIGN STRENGTH
Appendices A: Illustrated Example on Analysis of RC Columns Subjected to Axial Load
based on Sheikh and Uzumeris Model.

Column section: 450mmx450mm


Jacket thickness: 75mm
Unconfined concrete strength of the original column, fci: 25MPa
Unconfined concrete strength of the jacket, fco: 30MPa
Longitudinal steel in the original column: 2% of gross area
Longitudinal steel in the jacket: 1% of jacket area
Area of core:

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

Acr=Bcr x Dcr
= 378 x 378 = 59724 mm2
Breadth of core:
Bcr= 450-40-40+ (8/2) + (8/2) = 378 mm
Width of core:
Dcr= 450-40-40+ (8/2) + (8/2) = 378 mm

Unconfined capacity of core (Pcr):


Pcr = fci x Acr = 3572.1 kN
Where, fci = Unconfined compressive strength of concrete in core (MPa)
Ccr = Distance b/w adjacent braced longitudinal bars in core (mm)
Si = spacing of inner stirrups = (200mm)
So = spacing of outer stirupps = (200mm)
cr = volumetric ratio of stirrups in core
cr = vol of stirrups in core / vol of core = 0.00450

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

Ks = 1 +
Ks1 =16.97
Where, = ratio of effectively confined core to total core area at level of stirrups

To calculate effectively confined concrete area:

= 1 = 0.943

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

Effectively confined inner core area at the critical section,

Amcr =83773.56

Total strength gain factor for the core is,

Kcore = (ks1 + ks2)


= 17 + 1 = 18
Where, ks1 = strength gain factor for the core arising from inner stirrups
ks2 = strength gain factor for the core arising from outer stirrups

Stress developed in core concrete,

=
=40.7 N/mm2

The stress strain relation for concrete in the unconfined outer jacket equation can be
taken from the model proposed by the desayi & Krishnan,

f oj = 25.21N/mm2

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

Thus the load (P) for an imposed strain is given by,


Pcon= (fcc Acr+fic Aic+fij Aij+foj Aoj+fscr Alcr+fsj Alj)
=13270 kN
The unconfined load for an imposed strain is given by,
Puncon = 20(230*480-2060) +30[(380*600)-(230*450)-1250]
= 9700 kN

K = 1.36

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

RESUME OF GUIDE AND STUDENT


PROJECT GUIDE
Name:

Mr. Vijaya Kumar Y.M

Education Qualification:

B.E (Civil Engineering), Year-2008, University VTU


M.Tech (CADS Structures), Year-2010, University VTU,

Affiliation:

Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering,


Adichunchanagiri Institute of Technology,
Chikmagalur, INDIA.
M-+919663330893

Teaching experience:

4 Years

Permanent Address:

Vijaya kumar Y.M s/o Maridevegowda


Y.yarahalli (P), Mandya (T) & (D)
PIN-571402

E-mail:

vijay.kumarym@gmail.com

Objective:

My motto or goal is to make all students shall succeed and


strive hard to make our college AIT as a top institute in the
field of technical excellence.

Experience:

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Chikmagalur, INDIA.

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

STUDENT
Name:

Thejashwini H S

Qualification:

B.E (Civil Engineering), Year-2012, University VTU.

Address:

D/o Siddaraju H S
#79, Honnur,
Yelandur taluk,
Chamaraja Nagar dist-571303

Contact Details:

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