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You are on page 1of 83

A PROJECT REPORT

On

CONCRETE COLUMN UNDER AXIAL LOAD

A dissertation submitted to the Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belgaum. In

partial fulfillment of the requisites for the award of the degree of

MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY

in

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING

For the academic year

2013-2014

Submitted by

TEJASWINI H S

USN: 4AI12CSE14

Under the Guidance of

Assistant Professor

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

AIT, Chikmagalur

ADICHUNCHANAGIRI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

(Affiliated to Visvesvaraya Technological University)

Accredited by NBA, New Delhi

CHIKMAGALUR-577102

2013-2014

ABSTRACT

Theoretical analysis has been carried out for different column sections with jacket

thickness of 100mm and varying outer stirrups to plot the design curves for jacketed

reinforced concrete columns subjected to axial load. Linear static finite element analysis has

also been carried out for the jacketed reinforced concrete columns to compare the confined

concrete strength of finite element analysis with that of theoretical analysis, to plot the

variation of stresses at the central core concrete and at the interface of old and new concrete

along the length of column is also analyzed and also comparing with the result of having

same stirrup spacing of both inner and outer jacket with present study of varying in outer

stirrup spacing in longitudinal direction. Consideration is given to variations in the properties

of the different concretes used in the reinforced concrete jacket and the original column.

Theoretical analysis for jacketed columns has been carried out based on the sheikh

and uzumeris confined concrete model.

Theoretical analysis for jacketed columns has been carried out and compare with the

results of having same stirrup spacing of both inner and outer jacket with present study of

varying in outer stirrup spacing in longitudinal direction.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The satisfaction and euphoria that accompany the successful completion of any task

would be incomplete without mention of people who made it possible and whose constant

guidance and encouragement crowned my efforts with success. I consider my privilege to

express the voice of gratitude and respect to all those who helped me and inspired me in the

completion of this Project work.

I express my sincere and humble pranamas to his holiness divine SRI SRI SRI

PADMABUSHANA Dr. BALAGANGADHARANATHA MAHA SWAMIJI and his

holiness SRI SRI SRI NIRMALANANDANATHA MAHASWAMIJI and seek his blessings.

I express my deepest sense of gratitude to my internal guide Mr. VIJAYA KUMAR

Y.M, Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, AIT, Chikmagalur, for his valuable

guidance, critical comments and constant encouragement to complete this project work.

I am also thankful to our professor and Head of the Department Dr. M. RAME

GOWDA Department of Civil Engineering, AIT Chikmagalur for his kind suggestions

throughout the completion of this project work.

I am thankful to Dr. C.K SUBBARAYA our beloved Principal, AIT, Chikmagalur for

his great care and custody bestowed on me.

I am thankful to entire faculty in the Department of Civil Engineering, AIT,

Chikmagalur, for their constant support. I would like to thank my family and friends for their

moral support. Last but not least, I would like to thank those, whose name may not have been

appeared but their efforts have not gone unnoticed.

TEJASWINI H S

4AI12CSE14

ii

CONTENTS

ABSTRACT

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ii

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF TABLES

vii

LIST OF NOTATIONS

viii

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 General

10

1.4.1

10

1.4.2

Advantages of RC jacketing

10

1.4.3

Disadvantages of RC jacketing

11

1.4.4

12

1.6 Format and organization of report

13

14

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

15

CHAPTER 3

OBJECTIVES OF THE PRESENT STUDY

CHAPTER 4

METHODOLOGY

iii

14

axial load

21

4.1.1 Introduction

21

21

23

4.2.1 Introduction

23

24

25

29

CHAPTER 5

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

5.1 Theoretical results and discussions

30

30

33

for Constant width

34

38

40

5.2.2 Discussions

42

42

CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSIONS & SCOPE FOR FUTURE STUDY

6.1 Conclusions

61

62

REFERENCES

63

APPENDIX A

64

iv

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1

Jacketing of RC columns

Figure 1.2

Figure 2.1

16

Figure 2.2

17

and Uzumeri

Figure 2.3

18

Figure 2.4

19

Figure 4.1

26

Figure 4.2

27

Figure 4.3

29

Figure 5.3

34

for jacket concrete strengths of 25MPa & 30MPa and jacket thickness of

75mm and 100mm (450mmx450mm original column)

Figure 5.4

Comparison of strength gain factor for different core concrete and jacket

36

Figure 5.5

Comparison of strength gain factor for different core concrete and jacket

37

Figure 5.6

38

Figure 5.7

39

Figure 5.8

Plan view of normal stress distribution in the jacketed RC column (at Free

39

end)

Figure 5.9

40

bottom)

Figure 5.10

43

Figure 5.11

The variation of normal stresses in the central core of column and interface

46

of the jacket and original column along the direction parallel to applied

load for (450x450)mm column section with 75mm jacket(C1 Column).

Figure 5.12

The variation of normal stresses in the central core of column and interface

of the jacket and original column along the direction parallel to applied

v

48

Figure 5.13

The variation of normal stresses in the central core of column and interface

51

of the jacket and original column along the direction parallel to applied

load for (450x450)mm column section with 75mm jacket(C3 Column).

Figure 5.14

The variation of normal stresses in the central core of column and interface

54

of the jacket and original column along the direction parallel to applied

load for (450x450)mm column section with 100mm jacket(C4 Column).

Figure 5.15

The variation of normal stresses in the central core of column and interface

57

of the jacket and original column along the direction parallel to applied

load for (450x450)mm column section with 75mm jacket(C5 Column).

Figure 5.16

The variation of normal stresses in the central core of column and interface

of the jacket and original column along the direction parallel to applied

load for (450x450)mm column section with 100mm jacket(C6 Column).

vi

60

LIST OF TABLES

Table1.1

13

Table2.2

13

Table4.1

28

Table5.1

inner and outer Stirrups in longitudinal direction and having

fci=25MPa and fco=30MPa (16#25mm)

Table5.2

30

inner and outer Stirrups in longitudinal direction and having

fci=25MPa and fco=30MPa (12#25mm)

Table5.2

31

inner and outer Stirrups in longitudinal direction and having

fci=25MPa and fco=30MPa (12#12mm)

Table5.2

31

inner and outer Stirrups in longitudinal direction and having

fci=25MPa and fco=30MPa (16#25mm)

Table5.2

32

inner and outer Stirrups in longitudinal direction and having

fci=25MPa and fco=30MPa (4#16mm and 8#12mm)

Table5.2

33

inner and outer Stirrups in longitudinal direction and having

fci=25MPa and fco=30MPa (12#12mm)

Table5.7

33

columns having different spacing of inner and outer stirrups in

longitudinal direction.

Table5.8

33

element analysis and percentage errors with columns having

different spacing of inner and outer stirrups in longitudinal direction.

vii

41

LIST OF NOTATIONS

Notation Definition

Acr

Aic

Aij

Alcr

Alj

Amcr

Aoj

Ascr

Asj

Bcr

Ci

The base of the curve representing the area which is not effectively

Confined

Ccr

Cj

Dcr

fcc

fci

fco

fco

fcon

fcr

fic

fij

fj

foj

fscr

fsj

fycr

viii

fyj

confined

Pcon

Puncon

Pcon(org)

ix

Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 GENERAL

Reinforced concrete is concrete in which reinforcement bars ("rebars"), reinforcement

grids, plates or fibers have been incorporated to strengthen the concrete in tension. It was

invented by French garden joseph Monier in 1849 and patented in 1867. The term Ferro

Concrete refers only to concrete that is reinforced with iron or steel. Other materials used to

reinforce concrete can be organic and inorganic fibers as well as composites in different

forms. Concrete is strong in compression, but weak in tension, thus adding reinforcement

increases the strength in tension. In addition, the failure strain of concrete in tension is so low

that the reinforcement has to hold the cracked sections together.

For a strong, ductile and durable construction the reinforcement shall have the

following properties:

High strength

Thermal compatibility

In most cases reinforced concrete uses steel rebars that have been inserted to add strength.

Reinforced concrete (RC) columns are critical elements, whose failure can cause the

collapse of a structure. Therefore, their repairing and strengthening are frequent in order to

guarantee or increase their ultimate load. Rehabilitation and strengthening of reinforced

concrete structures is a dynamically growing division of structural engineering. In recent

years an increased application of new repair and strengthening systems of reinforced concrete

load-carrying structures has been noted. The problem of strengthening the reinforced

concrete structures appeared for the first time when their proper function was modified or

they were used in a different manner than previously planned. Assumptions made in the

design are closely connected with a specific function of the structure. The designers of the

existing reinforced load-carrying structures constructed many years ago could not predict

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

their use in practice and determine all deterioration effects produced by external factors

during their service. In most cases the increased dead and live loading that should be safely

carried by the structures, as well as their poor technical condition necessitate strengthening

procedures. One of the challenges in strengthening of concrete structures is selection of a

strengthening method that will enhance the strength and serviceability of the structure while

addressing limitations such as constructability, building operations, and budget. Structural

strengthening may be required due to many different situations.

Additional strength may be needed to allow for higher loads to be placed on the

structure. This is often required when the use of the structure changes and a higher

load carrying capacity is needed. This can also occur if additional mechanical

equipment, filing systems, planters, or other items are being added to a structure.

Strengthening may be needed to allow the structure to resist loads that were not

anticipated in the original design. This may be encountered when structural

strengthening is required for loads resulting from wind seismic forces or to improve

resistance to blast loading.

Multi storied buildings are often constructed with provision for vertical extension in

future. Before carrying out vertical extension, it is sometimes noticed that the existing

structure may not be adequate to take the additional vertical and/ or lateral loads on

account of the additional storeys. This may be due to several reasons, chief amongst

which are described below.

a. The codal requirements may have changed during the intervening years;

hence, what was considered adequate at the time of original constructionnmay

not be adequate as per the standards prevalent at the time of vertical extension.

b. The procedure for the original structural design may not be acceptable at the

time of

c. The quality of construction actually achieved may be lower than what was

originally planned, and thus rendering the structure as unsafe for additional

storeys.

d. The materials used in construction may have deteriorated over the years, (for

example, due to corrosion of reinforcement) or the structure may have

undergone significant alterations.

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

Strengthening of the reinforced concrete structures is one of the most difficult and

important tasks of civil engineering. Individual approach to the problem is a necessity since

any ready-made solution can be applied. One of the prime objectives is to provide detailed

technical and cost-effective analyses. Structures must be carefully examined in order to

determine their technical condition, to find reasons for deterioration and strengthening as

well as to establish service requirements of the reinforced structures. It is also essential to

analyze their technical design, dig out open pits and carry out suitable measurements. Costeffectiveness of each of the proposed strengthening techniques should be considered and

compared to the cost of a new structure. The strengthening methods applied should ensure

the required safety margin and guarantee a sufficient reliability over time.

However, since a suitable strengthening technique depends on many factors such as

the type of construction and the professional environment, what is suitable for one country

may not be suitable for another country. Thus, while we can draw benefit from the

experiences of many other countries, we must evolve methodologies suitable to our own

conditions. Considering the severe seismic risk that many parts of our country are prone to

experience on seismic strengthening needs to be accumulated by carefully documenting

individual case histories. Since cost is a very important consideration, we also need to study

cost aspects of different strengthening schemes for such buildings. Professional engineers

involved in design and constructions in the country need to accept the challenge that is posed

by seismically deficient buildings.

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

Historical proof of concretes importance and durability can be found in the Pantheon

at Rome which was built about 117-124 B.C. over 2,000 years ago. This ancient structure

was built with circular walls about 20 feet thick and a hemispherical dome spanning 142-feet.

The concrete used was a mixture of lime, an aggregate of soft volcanic rock, and a local earth

or clay called puzzalona found in the vicinity of Rome.

Until a decade ago, concrete repair was an artisan work. The general decrease in the

construction activity forced the concrete repair and rehabilitation. Current repair and

rehabilitation of deteriorated structures have been derived largely from methods used in new

construction. However, new construction and rehabilitation differ from each other in several

important aspects including project scale, accessibility of the area being repaired and control

of ambient conditions during the repair and interactive processes that arise as a result of the

repair.

The American Concrete Institutes (ACIs) committee 364 on Rehabilitation of

Concrete Structures for a poss+-96-5*ible co-operation at global level. The committee has

made efforts to present information on various aspects of rehabilitation, the most recent

report being on guidelines and procedures for evaluating concrete structure. Along with a

summary of this report planned activities and benefit in the future. Recently, international

symposia have been held with the sponsorship of ACI or its chapters in the far East. This

brings the global interest and the need to have a better communication and co-operation for

the benefit of humankind. Another step in this direction was also taken when International

Association of Concrete Repairs Specialists (IACRS) was established in 1988, with a bulk of

its membership (over 60 percent) from rehabilitation contractors and engineers.

ACI 364 works with other ACI committees related to rehabilitation. These include:

ACI 365 (Service Life Protection); ACI 369 (Seismic Repairs and Rehabilitation); ACI 546

(Repairs) and ACI 437 (Evaluation).

Some of the rehabilitated structures are shown in the figures below:

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

(Department of Housing Preservation and Development, New York)

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

DAMAGED RC COLUMNS

Over the years, engineers have used different methods and techniques to strengthen

existing structures by providing external confining stresses. For the past few years, the

concept of jacketing has been investigated to provide such forces. Externally applied jackets

have been used as a reinforcement to contain concrete for different reasons. Engineers have

used traditional materials such as wood, steel, and concrete to confine and improve the

structural behavior of concrete members.

Some of the most widely used methods for repair / strengthening of RC columns

include:

Jacketing of part or the entire member: In this method, the damaged column is usually

temporarily supported during the intervention. Any disintegrated concrete is removed

and the steel reinforcement is uncovered at appropriate places. Surface preparation

methods, like roughening of the existing concrete surface and removing

contamination materials such as dirt, dust or oil, follow. Additional reinforcement

bars are welded onto the existing reinforcement bars, Welding is done either through

intermediate bars or through bend-down bars

Heat tensioning of full thin steel plates or tie plates: This technique is based on fixing

thin steel full plates (h/d 3) or tie plates (h/d > 4) around the whole of the column.

Steel angles are placed at each of the corners of the column and are clamped onto the

concrete.

Glueing of thin steel sheets on damaged members by using epoxy resin laid onto the

steel sheets and concrete surfaces. The steel sheet is placed in position and fastened

using clamps for at least 24 hours.

Tying of the damaged parts of the column using steel ties : Steel ties in the form of

collars are placed around the column, densely spaced through the damaged length,

and are tightened up by means of screws, the column edges being protected by steel

angles. A light wire mesh is placed on all four edges of the column. Finally a gunite

jacket of at least 50 mm thick is applied.

Jacketing is one of the most frequently used techniques to strengthen reinforced concrete

(RC) columns. With this method, axial strength, bending strength, and stiffness of the

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

original column. Generally there are three different techniques are available for strengthening

of RC columns such as RC jacketing, steel jacketing and composite jacketing.

The main purposes of jacketing are:

cross sectional columns,

anchored at critical sections,

Steel jacketing has been proven to be an effective technique to enhance the seismic

performance of old columns. Steel caging is a variant of the steel jacketing and is known to

be an easily applied and economical strengthening technique. The method involves the use of

longitudinal angle sections fixed to the corners of the column, to which transverse steel strips

are welded. The space between cage and column is filled with cement epoxy mortar.

However, this method requires difficult welding work and, in a long term, the potential

problem of corrosion remains unsolved.

Composite means a combination of two or more materials (reinforcement, resin,

filler, etc.) differing in form or composition on a macro scale. Composite jacketing (either

glass fiber reinforced polymer or carbon fiber reinforced polymer) is wrapped around the

column with a two component epoxy resin. Advanced FRP composite materials have only

recently been recognized as reliable confinement devices for reinforced concrete elements.

Interesting in the use of flexible fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) sheets for the external

wrapping of concrete compressed members is today a very popular theme, especially as

regards estimating the effectiveness of this reinforcing technique in increasing the strength

and ductility of members in seismic areas. However, this method requires highly skilled

labors.

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

Recent research works by the authors have shown that Ferro-cement jacket could be

used as an alternative and effective technique to strengthen RC column with inadequate shear

strength. The availability of its materials in most developing countries, and no skilled labour

required and it being suitable for both pre-fabrication and self-help construction could lead

Ferro-cement to become one of the most inexpensive and attractive alternative techniques for

strengthening and rehabilitation of existing and damage concrete columns. It should be noted,

however, that Ferro-cement is not aimed as a replacement for other strengthening methods

such as steel jacket or composite base materials jacket sometimes it may coexist with

others or be used in areas where steel or composite base material is expensive or not suitable.

The authors investigated the use of circular Ferro-cement jackets for strengthening RC

columns with inadequate shear strength. It was found that by providing circular Ferro-cement

jacket that contained three layers of wire mesh, the brittle shear failure that occurs on the

control specimen can be prevented, and the strengthened column shows extremely well in

strength and ductility performance. It was also found that circular Ferro-cement jackets

containing six layers of wire mesh can be used for repair damaged RC columns that have

failed in shear.

Jacketing is one of the most frequently used techniques to strengthen reinforced

concrete (RC) columns. RC jacketing consists of added concrete with longitudinal and

transverse reinforcement around the existing columns. With this method, axial strength,

bending strength, stiffness of the original column and durability of the original column is also

improved, in contrast to the corrosion and fire protection needs of other techniques where

steel is exposed or where epoxy resins are used are increased. It is well known that the

success of this procedure is dependent on the monolithic behaviour of the composite element.

To achieve this purpose, the treatment of the interface must be carefully chosen.

The common practice consists of increasing the roughness of the interface surface and

applying a bonding agent, normally an epoxy resin. Steel connectors are also occasionally

applied. These steps involve s pecialized workmanship, time, and cost.However, reinforced

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

concrete jacketing enjoys advantages in the form of economy, compatibility with the original

concrete substrate, and the ability to enhance durability and impart fire protection.

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

1.4.1 Need for Reinforced Concrete Jacketing

The need to rehabilitate a structure may arise at anytime from the beginning of the

construction phase until the end of the service life. During the construction phase, it may

occur because of

Design errors,

Strengthening of the reinforced concrete structures is one of the most difficult and

important tasks of civil engineering. Individual approach to the problem is a necessity since

any ready-made solution can be applied.

Main reasons of structural strengthening are:

The advantage of RC jacketing strengthening is the fact that the increased stiffness of

the structure is uniformly distributed, in contrast to the addition of shear walls or steel

bracing.

ductility of the strengthened column increased significantly if proper external

confinement by mean of jacketing was provided.

The concrete jacketing improves resistance against seismic loads and enhances the

durability of the element also, and it can be applied to any type of RC structures such

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

as residential blocks, industrial structures, and bridges that may be damaged due to

earthquakes.

This strengthening technique, unlike other methods where steel elements are used,

does not have a specialized work demand. Its simplicity of execution makes any

construction company, capable of building with quality new RC structures, also

competent to execute structural rehabilitation using RC jacketing.

The durability of the original column is also improved, in contrast to the corrosion

and fire protection needs of other techniques where steel is exposed or where epoxy

resins are used.

With this strengthening method, a significant increase of strength and/or ductility can

be achieved. This technique is not only used to achieve these objectives, but also to

correct the overall behaviour of the structure.

Due to increase of the column size the structural concept from a strong beam - weak

column will be changed to a strong column weak beam.

Reinforced concrete jackets are comparatively cheap and do not require special

design and construction techniques.

The main disadvantages of RC jacketing include the loss of floor space due to

enlargement of the column section, and difficulties that may be experienced in casting

and compacting the jackets.

Reinforced Concrete (RC) columns deteriorate with age and are damaged by the

overloads, mainly from earthquake.

The increase in the column size obtained after the jacket is constructed and the need

to construct a new formwork.

somewhat uneconomical and even impractical since it will involve work in most areas

of the building.

0In some cases the presence of beams may require majority of new longitudinal bars

to be bundled into the corners of the jacket.

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

With the presence of the existing column it is difficult to provide cross ties for new

longitudinal bars which are not at the corners of the jacket.

However, their longer construction period due to curing requirement and the

enlargement of column size are major disadvantages.

Reinforced concrete columns are repaired or strengthened by introducing a new

reinforced concrete layer surrounding the existing column. The method is known as

jacketing. With this rehabilitation method, a significant increase of strength and/or ductility

can be achieved. This technique is not only used to achieve these objectives, but also to

correct the overall behavior of the structure. The RC jacketing strengthening method, unlike

other techniques, leads to a uniformly distributed increase in strength and stiffness of

columns. The durability of the original column is also improved, in contrast to the corrosion

and fire protection needs of other techniques where steel is exposed or where epoxy resins

are used. Finally, this rehabilitation procedure does not require specialized workmanship. All

those reasons make RC jacketing an extremely valuable choice in structural rehabilitation.

The structural behavior of a building rehabilitated by RC jacketing of the columns, like any

other strengthening technique, is highly influenced by details.

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

PRESENT STUDY

This detail will collect in Himalaya Drugs Company, Makali, Bangalore for the present

study.

Table1.1: Details of the original and jacketed RC columns

Original column

Dimension (mm)

Jacketed column

Dimension (200mm

& 150mm jacketing)

Percentage of steel

In Original

column

In Jacketed

column

Stirrup

spacing

(mm)

100

450*450

600*600

2% of gross area

of

original column

150

1% of

gross area

of Jacketed

column

200

250

300

SL

NO

Original column

dimension (mm)

Jacketed column

dimension (mm)

Original column

Jacketd column

450*450

650*650

8#20

16#25

450*450

650*650

8#20

12#25

450*450

650*650

8#20

12#12

450*450

600*600

8#20

8#16

450*450

600*600

8#20

4#16+8#12

450*450

600*600

8#20

12#12

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

The first chapter briefly deals with the introduction and needs for strengthening of RC

columns, methods of jacketing, repair and strengthening methods, structural behavior of

jacketed columns Column and Reinforcement details.

The second chapter briefly deals with the literature review and objectives of the

present study. The relevance of carrying out studies on jacketed columns and original

columns has also been discussed.

The third chapter deals with the Objectives of the present study.

The fourth chapter deals theoretical analysis of jacketed RC columns subjected to

axial load using the method based on Shiekh and Uzumeris model. Using the analysis results

the design curves for original and different jacketed RC columns has been plotted by varying

the parameters such as grade of original column and jacket concrete and jacket thickness.

The analysis of jacketed RC columns subjected to axial load using finite element

analysis. A finite element model of the jacketed RC columns has been generated with the

simulation of the boundary conditions and loadings. Stress variations for different jacketed

columns have been studied at central core concrete, at interface between old and new

concrete and at column surface by varying the parameters such as grade of original column

and jacket concrete and jacket thickness. In order to validate the theoretical results of fcc for

jacketed RC columns the same has been compared with that of the finite element analysis

results.

The thesis ends with the chapter five which summaries the various results and

provides concluding remarks. Scope for future research has been indicated.

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 INTRODUCTION

When reinforced concrete sections are subjected to large deformations typical of

seismic motions, their ability to carry load depends primarily on the behavior of confined

concrete within the core. The spiral reinforcements or rectilinear ties in reinforced concrete

columns play an important role in enhancing the strength and ductility. Under axial loads,

concrete pressure in the lateral direction of the column section acts on the lateral ties and the

resistance of the ties may restrain the core concrete to a degree. With the increase of axial

loads, initial cracks are propagated in the parallel direction with longitudinal bars at the

corners of the column section. Around the yielding of longitudinal bars, the concrete cover

spalls off and begins to unload. The confined columns exhibit a little more load carrying

capacity after the spelling. When the maximum axial load is exceeded, the longitudinal bars

buckle and the hook of ties is open. The mechanical behavior of confined concrete is

characterized by the increase in strength and ductility. The magnitude of the increase is

established by various confinement parameters.

However, it is not easy to explicitly characterize the mechanical behavior of confined

concrete because of various parameter variables, such as the confinement type of rectilinear

ties, the compressive strength of concrete, and the volumetric ratio and strength of rectilinear

ties, etc.

Circular spirals confine concrete much more effectively than rectilinear stirrups, and

the mechanism of confinement afforded for circular spirals is well understood than for ties.

But their relative ease in detailing makes the use of ties more attractive than spirals. In the

case of non-circular stirrups, the confining pressure afforded varies in three dimensions, and

the challenge lies in accurately estimating this variation. Researchers have used different

approaches to estimate the strength increase arising from the provision of stirrups. Numerous

studies have been reported on the behaviour of concrete confined by rectilinear ties. Several

analytical models with various degrees of sophistication have been proposed. All most all the

analytical models for confinement are based on experimental results. Most experimental data

were obtained from small scale tests on simple tie configurations. Some of the researchers

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

who proposed the analytical models for confinement are Sheikh and Uzumeri model (1982)

Bett et al (1988), K.C.G. Ong, Y.C. Kog, C.H. Yu and A.P.V Sreekanth (2002), Elwood and

Moehle (2003), Eduardo et al (2005), Konstantinos G. Vandoros, Stephanos E.

Dritsos(2006), Yuce et al (2007).

1

subjected to axial load: is one of the several analytical models. In this model the increase

in concrete strength due to confinement by rectilinear ties is calculated on the basis of an

effectively confined concrete area, which is less than the core concrete enclosed by the center

line of the perimeter tie.

Closer spacing of both longitudinal and lateral reinforcement results in a higher

proportion of the effectively confined area as shown in figure 1.3.The confined strength of

concrete is given by,

fcc= Ks fci

Where fcc= strength of confined concrete, fci= unconfined compressive strength of

concrete in core and

Ks1= 1+

Where, B is the core size measured to the center line of the perimeter tie; C is the

distance between the laterally supported longitudinal bars; s is the spacing of the sets of ties;

n is

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

the number of laterally supported longitudinal bars; cr is the volumetric ratio, and fcr is the

strength of the stirrups; and Pcr = Acr fci where Acr is the area of concrete in the core.

Fig 2.2 Schematic stress strain curve for confined concrete proposed by Sheikh

and Uzumeri

2

short columns: A single lateral displacement history and constant axial load were used for

all tests. It was found that both the repaired and strengthened columns performed better than

the original column. Columns strengthened by jacketing, both with and without cross ties,

were much stiffer and stronger laterally than the original unstrengthened column.

3

K.C.G. Ong, Y.C. Kog, C.H. Yu and A.P.V Sreekanth (2002), Jacketing of reinforced

concrete columns subjected to axial load: extended the concept of Sheikh and Uzumeris

model to jacketed RC columns subjected to axial loads, to predict the behaviour of jacketed

columns when subjected to axial loads. This model then used to analyze the three columns

tested to failure by Aksan. Sheikh and Uzumeri model was able to predict peak axial loads

that agree within 10% of the experimental results. Also they have developed design curves

for jacketed RC column of column size (300mmx300mm). Using this design curves we can

calculate the axial load carrying capacity of jacketed RC columns. In this work they have

calculated the strength gain factor K for different volumetric ratios to find out the effect of

stirrups spacing on the factor K.

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

4

Elwood and Moehle (2003), Observed that the lateral displacement or drift of a

reinforced concrete column at axial failure: was dependent upon and directly

proportional to the spacing of transverse reinforcement and the axial stress developed within

the column. It was noted that the lateral drift experienced by the columns at axial failure was

dependent upon and inversely proportional to the amount of axial load exerted on the

column. The performance of columns under seismic loading is also influenced by the

secondary moment due to drift.

5

jacketing: Seven column footing full scale models were built and later the columns were

strengthened by RC jacketing after different surface treatments and then tested under

monotonic loading. It was concluded that for undamaged columns, a monolithic behavior of

composite element can be achieved even without increasing their surface roughness, using

bonding agents, or by applying steel connectors before strengthening it by RC jacketing.

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

6

concrete columns by placing concrete jackets: Three alternative methods of concrete

jacketing are investigated and results are compared with results from an original unstrengthened specimen and a monolithic specimen. The three techniques were: welding the

jacket stirrup ends together (denoted as N), placing dowels and jacket stirrup end welding

(denoted as E) and placing bent down steel connector bars welded to the original column

longitudinal reinforcement bars and the respective bars of the jacket (denoted as W). The

effectiveness of properly constructing concrete jackets has been proved, as it was found that,

under special conditions, an almost monolithic behavior could be achieved.

7

Yuce et al (2007), Investigated the behavior of local thin jacketing for the retrofitting

of reinforced concrete columns: In the first series, four full scale RC columns with of

square cross section were tested under constant axial load and reversed cyclic lateral

displacements. Self compacting concrete was used for jacketing. In the second series,

retrofitted columns were re tested with same axial load and displacement history. It was

found that the applied local thin jacketing made from SCC increased the lateral stiffness

strength properties of heavily damaged columns and also observed that more energy is

dissipated with increasing jacketing height.

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

CHAPTER 3

The primary objectives of the present study are:

To find the confined and unconfined capacity of the jacketed RC columns subjected

to axial load using the method based on Shiekh and Uzumeris model.

To obtain the strength gain factor K using the confined and unconfined capacity.

Where, K is the ratio of the load carrying of a jacketed RC column with confinement

affects to that of one without.

To compare the confined concrete strength fcc of both theoretical and finite element

analysis.

To plot the variation of normal stresses at the central core concrete and at the

interface of the old and new concrete.

CHAPTER 4

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

METHODOLOGY

Following are the methods conducted in this present study

COLUMNS SUBJECTED TO AXIAL LOAD

4.1.1 Introduction

The reinforced concrete columns are repaired or strengthened by introducing a new

reinforced concrete layer surrounding the existing column. The method is known as

jacketing. Reinforced concrete (RC) columns are critical elements, whose failure can cause

the collapse of a structure. Therefore, their repairing and strengthening are frequent in order

to guarantee or increase their ultimate load.

The percentage of published articles concerning RC jacketing is very small. These

data clearly indicate that there is a need for research into the behavior of RC columns

strengthened by RC jacketing, since, this is very economical and also does not require highly

skilled labours when compare to other techniques available for strengthening purpose The

grade of the original column concrete considered is 25MPa and that of jacket concrete are

30MPa.

The method based on Sheikh and Uzumeris models has been used for the theoretical

analysis of jacketed RC column subjected to axial load. The main purpose of this analysis is

to construct the design curves for jacketed RC columns subjected to axial load.

Strength gain factor K is the ratio of the load carrying capacity of a jacketed RC

column with confinement effects to that of one without confinement. In this work strength

gain factor K has been calculated for different column sections by varying the parameters

such as cylinder compressive strength of both original and jacket concrete and jacket

thickness. Typical results for jacketed RC columns with different parameters such as, jacket

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

thickness, core size and grades of original concrete and jacket concrete are given in tables 5.1

to5.6.

The Strength gain factor (K) for the R.C. jacketed column was theoretically

calculated using the method based on Sheikh and Uzumeris model [2]. Then, they compared

the theoretical results with the experimental results done by the Aksan. Both the experimental

and theoretical work was carried out by them is only for the square column sections. In the

theoretical study they have mentioned that, this proposed model can also be used for the

analysis of rectangular column section. So in this work, theoretical analysis has been carried

out for rectangular columns.

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

4.2.1 Introduction

The finite element analysis (FEA) or finite element method (FEM) involves solution

of engineering problems using computers. Engineering structures that have complex

geometry and loads, are either very difficult to analyze or have no theoretical solution. The

finite element method was developed as an extension of matrix method of the analysis of

structural engineering problems. Finite element method has been recognized as a most

powerful method for analyzing problems in fields of engineering, such as fluid mechanics,

soil mechanics, rock mechanics, heat flow, etc. The basic philosophy of this method is to

replace the structure or the continuum having an unlimited or infinite number of unknowns

by a mathematical model which has a limited of finite number of unknowns at certain chosen

discrete points. FEA solution of engineering problems, such as finding deflections and

stresses in a structure, requires three steps:

Analysis

Post processing

a mathematical model which is an assembly of subdivisions of discrete elements. These

discrete elements known as finite elements, these finite elements are assumed to be

interconnected only at the joints called nodes. Simple functions, such as polynomials, are

chosen in terms of unknown displacements (and/or their derivatives) at the nodes to

approximate the variation of the actual displacements over each finite element. The external

loading is also transformed into equivalent forces applied at the nodes. The behavior of each

element independently and later as an assembly of these elements is obtained by relating their

response to that of the nodes in such a way that the following conditions should satisfied at

each node.

The equation of equilibrium

The compatibility of displacements

The material constitutive relationship

The equations, which are obtained using the above conditions, are in the form of forcedisplacement relationship. Finally, the force-displacement equations are modified to

incorporate the given boundary conditions and then these modified equations are solved to

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

obtain displacements at the nodes which are the basic unknowns in the finite element

method.

In the present study 3D Finite Element analysis has been carried out on the reinforced

concrete columns subjected to axial load to predict the behavior of such columns before and

after RC jacketing. The normal stress (SZZ) distribution at the core center and at the interface

between old and new concrete under axial compression have been studied by varying

different parameters such as modulus of elasticity of concrete both in jacket and in original

column, size of column, thickness of jacket and spacing of stirrups. The geometrical and

material properties of the jacketed RC columns considered for analysis are given in table 4.1.

Engineering applications of finite element analysis is approximately 40 years old.

Evolution of FEA is tied with the development in computer technology. With the

enhancement in computer speed and storage capacity, FEA has become a very valuable

engineering tool. NASA is credited with developing comprehensive FEA software in 1960s,

known as NASTRAN. Rights of the software were purchased by McNeal Schwendler

Corporation, who refined it and commercially marketed it under the name, MSC-NASTRAN.

The first college course in FEA was offered in 1970. In the early 1970s, application of FEA

was limited to large corporations, who can afford expensive mainframe computers. However,

in 1980s, with the introduction of desktop computers, application of FEA became popular

and indispensable engineering tool. In late 80s, almost all the major FEA vendors introduced

their software that can run on a PC.

Several significant developments in recent years include:

Introduction of p-elements.

Availability of faster and cheaper desktop computers to run FEA software that

previously required mainframe computers.

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

terms of a finite number of elements and nodes, which are the building blocks of the

numerical representation of the model. In addition to information about elements and nodes,

model also contains information about material and other properties, loading and boundary

conditions.

The most important step in the finite element method of structural analysis is to

generate, using finite number of discrete elements, a mathematical model which should be as

near as possible equivalent to the actual continuum. Such a formation of a model is referred

to as structural idealization or discretization. The finite element model was developed using

NISA (Numerically Integrated elements for system Analysis) (1995), a general purpose finite

element program.

This program has the advantage of a pre processor for mesh generation and post

processor for graphical representation of results. General purpose finite element software

provides the necessary tools to perform such analysis for a wide variety of problems without

compromising accuracy. The general purpose program NISA developed and marketed by

Engineering Mechanical Research Corporation (EMRC) is one of the most comprehensive

and versatile program in the world today. The NISA family of design/analysis program offers

the largest number of finite element application programs which are completely integrated

through an interactive graphical interface 'DISPLAY IV. NISA optimization programs are

revolutionary and well supersede the scope of other commercial programs.

Display IV is a three dimensional interactive color graphics program for geometric and

finite element modeling. The program is extremely user friendly with CAD like features.

Representation of geometries is done with the aid of points, lines, surfaces and solids and is

created using the numerous options available within the program. Automatic mesh generation

is available and all boundary conditions and loads can be prescribed graphically. The

program then verifies the model and directly creates input file for the various solvers. The

program can provide animation, shading, hidden line and boundary line plots with option for

window, pan and zooming.

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

In the present study two finite elements have been used to model the reinforced

concrete columns. They are: 3D Solid element and 3D Beam element.

3D Solid element: This element is based on a general 3-D state of stress and is suited for

modeling 3-D solid structure under 3-D loading. The element has three degrees of freedom

per node (UX, UY, and UZ). The state of stress is characterized by six components (SXX,

SYY, SZZ, SXY, SYZ, and SXZ). The element can be shaped as an 8 or 20 node hexahedron

(brick) element, a 6 or 15 node wedge, a 4 or 10 node tetrahedron element, or a 5 or 13 node

pyramid element depending on the selected NORDR value. The element configuration, node

locations and face numbering convention are shown in Figure 4.1.

3D Beam element: This element is a 2-node prismatic 3-D beam element. The formulation

includes stretching, bending and torsion effects. The transverse shear deformation effect is

included as an option. The beam vertices may be offset from the corresponding nodal points

and the centroid may be offset from the shear center. The deformation is characterized by

three translations (UX, UY, UZ) and three rotations (ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ). The local xaxis of the beam is along the centroidal axis. The local y and z axes are user defined and are

not necessary principal axes of the cross section. The element configuration, node locations

and face numbering convention are shown in Figure 4.2.

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

(a) Element configuration and orientation, (b) face numbering for pressure Loading

The accuracy of the structural analysis using numerical methods depends on the

representation of the behavior of material under different state of stresses and loading

conditions. The details of the properties employed for finite element modeling are given in

table 4.1.

Table 4.1 Geometrical and material properties

Original column dimensions(mm)

450*450

200, 150

Modulus of Elasticity(MPa)

[Type text]

25000

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

Poissons ratio

0.15

Jacketing concrete

Modulus of Elasticity(MPa)

27386

Poissons ratio

0.15

Longitudinal Reinforcement

Modulus of Elasticity(MPa)

200000

Poissons ratio

0.3

Stirrups

Modulus of Elasticity(MPa)

200000

Poissons ratio

0.3

The columns are modeled as one end free and other end hinged. In this study purely

axial load has been applied on the column. The details of the material properties and loads

are tabulated in the table 5.7 to 5.8. Modeling of RC jacketed using NISA DISPLAY IV

software is has shown in figure 4.3.

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

CHAPTER 5

5.1 THEORETICAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

5.1.1 Strength gain factor (k)

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

Strength gain factor K is the ratio of the load carrying capacity of a jacketed RC

column with confinement effects to that of one without confinement. In this work strength

gain factor K has been calculated for different column sections by varying the parameters

such as compressive strength of both original and jacket concrete and jacket thickness.

Typical results for jacketed RC columns with different parameters such as, jacket thickness,

core size and grades of original concrete and jacket concrete are given in tables 5.1 to 5.6.

The Strength gain factor (K) for the R.C. jacketed column was theoretically

calculated using the method based on Sheikh and Uzumeris model [1]. Then, they compared

the theoretical results with the experimental results done by the Aksan. Both the experimental

and theoretical work was carried out by them is only for the square column sections. In the

theoretical study they have mentioned that, this proposed model can also be used for the

analysis of square column section. So in this work, theoretical analysis has been carried out

for Square columns.

Table5.1: Strength gain factor for columns having different spacing of inner and outer

Stirrups in longitudinal direction and having fci=25MPa and fco=30MPa (16#25mm)

Column

dimension

100mm jacket

Spacing

confined

capacity of

jacketed

column

(KN)

Unconfined

capacity of

jacketed

column

(KN)

Strength

gain

factor

(K)

Confined

concrete

strength

(fcc) in

MPa

450450

100

17549.15

11364.05

1.544

41.15

450450

150

17519.56

11364.05

1.542

40.94

450450

200

17485.28

11364.05

1.538

40.70

450450

250

17443.95

11364.05

1.535

40.41

450450

300

17392.99

11364.05

1.530

40.05

Table5.2: Strength gain factor for columns having different spacing of inner and outer

Stirrups in longitudinal direction and having fci=25MPa and fco=30MPa (12#25mm)

Column

[Type text]

Spacing

100mm jacket

Confined

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

dimension

Confined

capacity of

jacketed

column

(KN)

Unconfined

capacity of

jacketed

column

(KN)

Strength

gain

factor

(K)

concrete

strength

(fcc) in

MPa

450450

100

16734.44

11422.95

1.465

41.15

450450

150

16704.85

11422.95

1.462

40.94

450450

200

16670.56

11422.95

1.459

40.70

450450

250

16629.24

11422.95

1.456

40.41

450450

300

16578.28

11422.95

1.451

40.05

Table5.3: Strength gain factor for columns having different spacing of inner and outer

Stirrups in longitudinal direction and having fci=25MPa and fco=30MPa (12#12mm)

Column

Dimension

Spacing

450450

100mm jacket

Confined

concrete

strength

(fcc) in

MPa

Confined

capacity of

jacketed

column

(KN)

Unconfined

capacity of

jacketed

column

(KN)

Strength

gain

factor

(K)

100

14883.30

11558.94

1.288

41.15

450450

150

14853.70

11558.94

1.285

40.94

450450

200

14819.43

11558.94

1.282

40.70

450450

250

14778.10

11558.94

1.278

40.41

450450

300

14727.14

11558.94

1.274

40.05

Table5.4: Strength gain factor for columns having different spacing of inner and outer

Stirrups in longitudinal direction and having fci=25MPa and fco=30MPa(8 #16mm)

Column

[Type text]

Spacing

75mm jacket

Confined

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

dimension

Confined

capacity of

jacketed

column

(KN)

Unconfined

capacity of

jacketed

column

(KN)

Strength

gain

factor

(K)

concrete

strength

(fcc) in

MPa

450450

100

13340.93

9676.41

1.378

41.15

450450

150

13311.34

9676.41

1.375

40.94

450450

200

13277.05

9676.41

1.372

40.70

450450

250

13235.73

9676.41

1.367

40.41

450450

300

13184.77

9676.41

1.362

40.05

Table5.5: Strength gain factor for columns having different spacing of inner and outer

Stirrups in longitudinal direction and having fci=25MPa and fco=30MPa(4 #16mm and

8 #12mm)

Column

dimension

Spacing

450450

75mm jacket

Confined

concrete

strength

(fcc) in

MPa

Confined

capacity of

jacketed

column

(KN)

Unconfined

capacity of

jacketed

column

(KN)

Strength

gain

factor

(K)

100

13382.51

9673.4

1.383

41.15

450450

150

13352.92

9673.4

1.380

40.94

450450

200

13318.64

9673.4

1.377

40.70

450450

250

13277.31

9673.4

1.372

40.41

450450

300

13226.35

9673.4

1.367

40.05

Table5.6: Strength gain factor for columns having different spacing of inner and outer

Stirrups in longitudinal direction and having fci=25MPa and fco=30MPa(12 #12mm)

Column

[Type text]

Spacing

75mm jacket

Confined

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

dimension

Confined

capacity of

jacketed

column

(KN)

Unconfined

capacity of

jacketed

column

(KN)

Strength

gain

factor

(K)

concrete

strength

(fcc) in

MPa

450450

100

13245.56

9683.95

1.367

41.15

450450

150

13215.97

9673.4

1.365

40.94

450450

200

13181.69

9673.4

1.361

40.70

450450

250

13140.36

9673.4

1.357

40.41

450450

300

13089.40

9673.4

1.352

40.05

Design curve involves two graphs they are capacity without considering confinement

versus fci and strength gain factor K versus fci. Using these curves it is possible to calculate

the axial load of the jacketed RC columns subjected to axial load.

In the referred paper [1] they have constructed the design curves for jacketed RC

column of core size 200mm with 50mm jacket by varying the parameter such as volumetric

ratio and cylinder compressive strength of both original and jacket concrete. In this work the

design curves has been constructed for rectangular column sections by varying the parameter

such as cylinder compressive strength of both original and jacket concrete.

Typical results for jacketed RC columns with different parameters such as jacket

thickness, core size and grades of original concrete and jacket concrete are plotted in Figures.

From the analysis results obtained the effects of the column size, jacket thickness and

grade of concrete used for original column and jacketed column. The fallowing observations

are made in this theoretical analysis study.

Varying the stirrups of outer jackets, the load carrying capacity of column will

increase when stirrups spacing are kept little closer compared to inner stirrups of

column in vertical direction.

unconfined compressive strength of concrete in core. The unconfined capacity

depends on many factors such as size of original columns jacket thickness,

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

reinforcement area present in both original column and jacketed column and cylinder

compressive strength of original column and jacket.

original columns is increased (this can be visualized from the figures 4.3 to 4.5).

Figures show the variation if strength gain factor K with unconfined compressive

strength of concrete in core. From these figures it can be observed that for the same

dimension in the original column with decreasing the spacing of stirrups, K decreases

with increases concrete strength in the original column. K increases with an increase

in the size of the original column when other parameters are kept constant.

.

width

From the theoretical study it can be visualized that higher the spacing of original

column lower will be the strength gain factor. Whereas strength gain factor is decreases with

decreasing the spacing of stirrups for same dimensions of original columns.

Fig 5.3 Load carrying capacity without confinement versus core concrete strength for

jacket concrete strengths of 25MPa & 30MPa and jacket thickness of 75mm and

100mm (450mmx450mm original column)

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Strength gain

factor(K)

Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

450*450mm

Jacket concrete

30MPa

75mm jacket

SS=100mm

1.4

1.38

1.36

1.34

Strength gain

factor(K)

15

20

25 ) 30

fci(MPa

35

450*450mm

Jacket

concrete 30MPa

75mm jacket

SS=250mm

1.38

1.37

1.36

1.35

1.34

15

20

25

30

35

fci(MPa)

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

Fig5.4: Comparison of strength gain factor for different core concrete and jacket

concrete strengths with columns having different spacing

[Type text]

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

Fig5.5: Comparison of strength gain factor for different core concrete and jacket

Concrete strengths with columns having different stirrup spacing

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

DISCUSSIONS

5.2.1 Finite element analysis

The columns are modeled as one end free and other end hinged. In this study purely

axial load has been applied on the column. The details of the material properties and loads

are tabulated in the table 5.1 to 5.3. Modeling of RC jacketed using NISA DISPLAY IV

software is has shown in figure 5.3, Isometric view of normal stress distribution in the

jacketed RC column is has shown in fig 5.4 and plan view of normal stress distribution in

jacketed RC column at top and at bottom along the direction parallel to applied load is has

shown in figure 5.5 to 5.6.

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

Fig 5.7: Isometric view of normal stress distribution in the jacketed RC column

Fig 5.8: Plan view of normal stress distribution in the jacketed RC column (At free end)

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

Fig 5.9: Plan view of normal stress distribution in the jacketed RC column (At bottom)

Table 5.7: Confined concrete strength (fcc) from theoretical analysis with columns

having different spacing of inner and outer stirrups in longitudinal direction

Column

Spacing

Section

C1

C2

C3

C4

C5

C6

450450

100

41.15

41.15

41.15

41.15

41.15

41.15

450450

150

40.94

40.94

40.94

40.94

40.94

40.94

450450

200

40.70

40.70

40.70

40.70

40.70

40.70

450450

250

40.41

40.41

40.41

40.41

40.41

40.41

450450

300

40.05

40.05

40.05

40.05

40.05

40.05

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

Table 5.8: Comparison of confined concrete strength of theoretical & finite element

analysis and percentage errors with columns having different spacing of inner and

outer stirrups in longitudinal direction

Column

Spaci

Section

ng

C1

C2

error

Theoretical

fci=20MPa

fco=30MPa

error

Theoretical FEM

fci=20MPa fci=20MP

fco=30MPa a

fco=30M

FEM

fci=20MPa

fco=30MPa

Pa

450450 100

41.15

31.22

-24.13

41.15

30.97

-24.74

450450 150

40.94

35.89

-12.33

40.94

34.53

-15.66

450450 200

40.70

38.82

-4.62

40.70

36.62

-10.02

450450 250

40.41

40.85

1.09

40.41

37.30

-1.21

450450 300

40.05

42.36

5.77

40.05

36.63

-10.86

C4

Column

Spaci

Section

ng

C3

%

error

error

450450

100

41.15

30.19

-26.63

Theoretic

al

fci=20MP

a

fco=30M

Pa

41.15

450450

150

40.94

34.87

-14.83

40.94

33.86

-17.29

450450

200

40.70

37.85

-7.00

40.70

35.57

-12.60

450450

250

40.41

39.92

-1.21

40.41

36.54

-9.58

450450

300

40.05

35.70

-1086

40.05

35.70

-10.86

Theoretical

fci=20MPa

fco=30MPa

FEM

fci=20MP

a

fco=30M

Pa

[Type text]

FEM

fci=20MP

a

fco=30M

Pa

30.66

-25.49

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

Column

Spaci

Section

ng

C5

C6

error

Theoretical

fci=20MPa

fco=30MPa

FEM

fci=20MP

a

fco=30M

error

450450

100

41.15

34.05

-17.25

Theoretic

al

fci=20MP

a

fco=30M

Pa

41.15

450450

150

40.94

37.46

-8.50

40.94

33.62

-17.88

450450

200

40.70

39.53

-2.87

40.70

35.34

-13.16

450450

250

40.41

40.84

1.06

40.41

36.37

-10.00

450450

300

40.05

41.68

4.07

40.05

35.49

-11.38

Pa

FEM

fci=20MP

a

fco=30M

Pa

30.72

-25.35

5.2.3 Discussions

Due to confinement of core concrete by both inner and outer sets of stirrups, its

original strength gets increased. In order to validate the theoretical results, the same has been

compared with that of the finite element analysis results. The theoretical and finite element

results obtained for the same column sections, grades of concrete and 100mm and 75mm

jacket thickness are as shown in the tables 5.7, has been taken up for the comparison. The

theoretical results obtained from the analysis of jacketed column of varying concrete strength

have been considered. It can be observed from the table 5.3 that the results of theoretical and

finite element analysis are approximately matching with some percentage of errors. The

comparative errors are -4.62% to-24.13 % and 1.09% to 5.77% for the column jacketed with

30MPa concrete strength with respect to theoretical analysis. Here negative sign indicates

that theoretical confined strength is more than the FEM confined strength.

In order to know the behavior of jacketed RC columns under the applied confined

load in NISA the normal stress SZZ has been extracted at the points as shown in the figure

5.8. The stress at the point 1 is at the centre core and stress at point is at the interface of the

old and new concrete and stress at point 3 is at core center (x-axis).

[Type text]

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

2-Normal stress SZZ at the interface between the old and new column

Fig 5.10: C/S of jacketed column

The figures show the normal stress variation along the length of the column in

loading direction at the central core and at the interface of the column for column sections

450x450 with 100mm and 75mm jacket thickness for different grade of original and jacket

concrete subjected to the axial load as shown in the tables 5.8. The axial load is applied in the

NISA/DISPLAY-4 for analysis. The stress at the point 1 is at the centre core and stresses at

point 2 are at the interface of the original column and jacketed column concrete.

[Type text]

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

[Type text]

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

Fig5.11: The variation of normal stresses in the central core of column and interface of

the jacket and original column along the direction parallel to applied load for

(450x450)mm column section with 75mm jacket(C1 Column).

[Type text]

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

[Type text]

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

[Type text]

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

Fig5.12: The variation of normal stresses in the central core of column and interface of

the jacket and original column along the direction parallel to applied load for

(450x450)mm column section with 100mm jacket(C2 Column).

[Type text]

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

[Type text]

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

[Type text]

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

Fig5.13: The variation of normal stresses in the central core of column and interface of

the jacket and original column along the direction parallel to applied load for

(450x450)mm column section with 75mm jacket(C3 Column).

[Type text]

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

[Type text]

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

[Type text]

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

Fig5.14: The variation of normal stresses in the central core of column and interface of

the jacket and original column along the direction parallel to applied load for

(450x450)mm column section with 100mm jacket(C4 Column).

[Type text]

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

[Type text]

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

[Type text]

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

Fig5.15: The variation of normal stresses in the central core of column and interface of

the jacket and original column along the direction parallel to applied load for

(450x450)mm column section with 75mm jacket(C5 Column).

[Type text]

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

[Type text]

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

[Type text]

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

Fig5.16: The variation of normal stresses in the central core of column and interface of

the jacket and original column along the direction parallel to applied load for

(450x450)mm column section with 100mm jacket(C6 Colomn).

[Type text]

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

CHAPTER 6

6.1 CONCLUSIONS

The present work is concerned with the theoretical study of jacketed columns based

on the Sheikh and Uzumeris model and also finite element analysis carried out for jacketed

RC columns with a commercially available finite element analysis package NISA/DISPLAYIV. Based on the theoretical and finite element analysis study carried out, the following

conclusions have been drawn.

1. Varying the stirrups of outer jackets the load carrying capacity of column will

increase.

2. Unconfined capacity of jacketed columns increases when the concrete strength of

original columns is increased.

3. It can be observed that for the same dimension in the original column with decreasing

the spacing of stirrups, K decreases with increases concrete strength in the original

column.

4. It may be concluded that the theoretical results are comparable with finite element

results with are -4.62% to-24.13 % and 1.09% to 5.77% percentage of errors.

[Type text]

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

This work is fully concentrated about the theoretical and FE analysis which can be

further studied by experimental means.

This study mainly concentrated on square jacketed columns which can be further

studied for jacketed circular.

steel and fiber reinforced polymer jacketing.

In the present study the column has been modeled as one end free and the other end is

restrained in all three directions. In future the boundary conditions can be changed

and the stress variations can be studied.

In the present study both theoretical and FE analysis has been carried out for the

columns subjected to axial loads alone which can be further extended to eccentric

loaded columns.

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

REFERENCES

1. Sheikh,S.A., and Uzumeri,S.M.(1982)."Analytical model for concrete confinement in

tied columns. Journal of the Structural Division.ASCE, 108(12), PP. 2703-2722.

2. Bett et al (1988) The effectiveness of three different repair and/ or strengthening

techniques in enhancing the lateral load response of reinforced concrete short

columns.

3. K.C.G. Ong, Y. C. Kog, C. H. Yu and A. P. V. Sreekanth(2002), Jacketing of

reinforced concrete columns subjected to axial load. National University of

Singapore; CPG Consultants.

4. Elwood and Moehle (2003) lateral displacement of a reinforced concrete column at

axial failure

5. Eduardo et al (2005) Performed an experimental study to analyze the influence of

interface influence on the structural behavior of columns strengthened by RC

jacketing.

6. Konstantinos G. Vandoros, Stephanos E. Dritsos,(2006) Concrete jacket

construction detail effectiveness when strengthening RC columns, University of

Patras, Department of Civil Engineering, 26500, Patras, Greece,; accepted 30 August

2006,

7. Yuce et al (2007) The behavior of local thin jacketing for the retrofitting of

reinforced concrete columns.

8. ACI Committee 549 (ACI 549.1R - 93), Guide for the Design, Construction, and

Repair of Ferrocement, American Concrete Institute, Detroit, 30 p.

9. AIJ (1994), Structural Design Guidelines For Reinforced Concrete Building,

Architectural Institute of Japan, 207 p.

10. Indian standard Code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete (fourth revision),

IS 456-2000, Bureau of Indian standard, July 2000, New Delhi.

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

APPENDIX

ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE

ANALYSIS FOR COLUMN DESIGN STRENGTH

Appendices A: Illustrated Example on Analysis of RC Columns Subjected to Axial Load

based on Sheikh and Uzumeris Model.

Jacket thickness: 75mm

Unconfined concrete strength of the original column, fci: 25MPa

Unconfined concrete strength of the jacket, fco: 30MPa

Longitudinal steel in the original column: 2% of gross area

Longitudinal steel in the jacket: 1% of jacket area

Area of core:

[Type text]

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

Acr=Bcr x Dcr

= 378 x 378 = 59724 mm2

Breadth of core:

Bcr= 450-40-40+ (8/2) + (8/2) = 378 mm

Width of core:

Dcr= 450-40-40+ (8/2) + (8/2) = 378 mm

Pcr = fci x Acr = 3572.1 kN

Where, fci = Unconfined compressive strength of concrete in core (MPa)

Ccr = Distance b/w adjacent braced longitudinal bars in core (mm)

Si = spacing of inner stirrups = (200mm)

So = spacing of outer stirupps = (200mm)

cr = volumetric ratio of stirrups in core

cr = vol of stirrups in core / vol of core = 0.00450

[Type text]

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

Ks = 1 +

Ks1 =16.97

Where, = ratio of effectively confined core to total core area at level of stirrups

= 1 = 0.943

[Type text]

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

Amcr =83773.56

= 17 + 1 = 18

Where, ks1 = strength gain factor for the core arising from inner stirrups

ks2 = strength gain factor for the core arising from outer stirrups

=

=40.7 N/mm2

The stress strain relation for concrete in the unconfined outer jacket equation can be

taken from the model proposed by the desayi & Krishnan,

f oj = 25.21N/mm2

[Type text]

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

Pcon= (fcc Acr+fic Aic+fij Aij+foj Aoj+fscr Alcr+fsj Alj)

=13270 kN

The unconfined load for an imposed strain is given by,

Puncon = 20(230*480-2060) +30[(380*600)-(230*450)-1250]

= 9700 kN

K = 1.36

[Type text]

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

PROJECT GUIDE

Name:

Education Qualification:

M.Tech (CADS Structures), Year-2010, University VTU,

Affiliation:

Adichunchanagiri Institute of Technology,

Chikmagalur, INDIA.

M-+919663330893

Teaching experience:

4 Years

Permanent Address:

Y.yarahalli (P), Mandya (T) & (D)

PIN-571402

E-mail:

vijay.kumarym@gmail.com

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strive hard to make our college AIT as a top institute in the

field of technical excellence.

Experience:

Chikmagalur, INDIA.

[Type text]

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Finite Element Analysis of Jacketed Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to axial Load

STUDENT

Name:

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Qualification:

Address:

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#79, Honnur,

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Contact Details:

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Email:

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