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2.

Cz
druga

PERSONAL PRONOUNS.
POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS.
PRESENT TENSE OF VERBS.
REPORTING VERBS.
QUESTION WORDS.
Mini-lekcja: PLURAL PRESENT TENSE;
INTRODUCTION TO THE IMPERATIVE

dwa (m. or n.), dwie (f.) two.


drugi, druga, drugie second


waga weight. wagi scale(s). Libra. wrzesie September. we wrzeniu in September. padziernik
November. w padzierniku in November

2.A. Warszawa, Krakw
Finding out names and information about someone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51

2.B. Jak masz na imi?
Discussing first names. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

2.C. Nie rozumiem
Speaking foreign languages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71

2.D. Jeste pewien?
Appliances, and how well they work. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82

2.E. Co to znaczy?
Asking for the meaning of a word. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91
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2. LEKCJA DRUGA
Warszawa: Paac Kultury i Nauki Warsaw: Palace of Culture and Science.



Paac Kultury i Nauki w Warszawie (The Palace of Culture and Science in Warsaw, PKiN).
Originally named after Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, at 42 stories and 231 meters high, it is still
the tallest building in Poland. An observation point on the 30th floor provides a fine view of the
city. The PKiN was built on the cleared-out ruins of bombed-out downtown Warsaw in 1952-
1955 by Soviet architects and some 3500 Russian laborers, the gift of the Soviet people" to the
people of Poland. It is an example of the Soviet Gothic style (reaching for the sky), and its
exterior boasts monumental examples of socialist-realist sculpture. The building houses
theaters, cinemas, restaurants, bookstores, restaurants, public institutions, and many private
offices. Older Poles resent the building as a reminder of past Soviet oppression, while it finds
more acceptance among the younger generation who grew up with it.

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2. LEKCJA DRUGA


2.A. Warszawa, Krakw. W pocigu.
In a train. Formal style. Trying to find out information about someone.


Pan X: -Dzikuj za mie towarzystwo.
Pani Y: -Ja rwnie dzikuj.
Pan X: Czy pani mieszka w Warszawie?
Pani Y: Nie, mieszkam i studiuj <pracuj>
w Krakowie.
Pan X: A jak si pani nazywa?
Pani Y: Nazywam si Maria Zieliska.
Dlaczego pan pyta?
Pan X: Po prostu jestem ciekawy. Czy pani
jest zamna?
Pani Y: To jest tylko moja sprawa, prosz
pana.
Pan X: Czy mog poprosi o pani adres
<numer telefonu, adres emailowy>?
Pani Y: Raczej nie.

Thanks for the pleasant company.


I likewise thank you.

Do you live in Warsaw?
No, I live and study <work> in Krakw.

And what's your name?

My name is Maria Zieliska. Why do you ask?

I'm simply curious. Are you married?

That is only my business, sir.

May I ask for your address <phone number,
email address>?

Rather not.


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2. LEKCJA DRUGA

Czy mog prosi o pani (pana) adres?
Czy pan jest onaty?
Czy pani jest zamna?
Dlaczego pan(i) pyta?
Dzikuj za mie towarzystwo.
Gdzie pan(i) mieszka?
Ja rwnie dzikuj.
Jak si pan(i) nazywa?

Do zapamitania:
Mieszkam w Warszawie.
Nazywam si Maria Zieliska (Marian
Zieliski).
Po prostu jestem ciekawy (ciekawa).
Pracuj i studiuj w Krakowie.
Raczej nie.
To jest tylko moja sprawa.


Uwagi


bye (bya) you were, you have been (past
tense of by)
Krakw Cracow. w Krakowie in Krakw
mieszka -am -asz live, reside
moe maybe, perhaps
myle -l, -lisz think. jak mylisz what do you
think?
najpierw av first
nazywa si am asz be called, call oneself.
The verb implies both first and last name.
pan X "pan iks", pani Y "pani igrek"
po prostu simply, merely. From prosty simple.
pocig mi train. w pocigu in/on a train

podr f journey
pracowa -cuj -cujesz work
prosz pana if you please, sir. prosz pani if
you please, madam
przyjemny aj pleasant
pyta -am -asz ask (a question). o+A ask about
studiowa -diuj, -diujesz study (as a main
subject)
Warszawa Warsaw. w Warszawie in Warsaw
widziae (widziaa) you saw, you have seen
(past tense of widzie see)
zamna aj married (of a woman)
onaty asj married (of a man)


Pytania

Answer questions beginning with dlaczego why with bo because or, more formally, with
dlatego, e for the reason that or poniewa since.
Dlaczego on pyta? Why does he ask?
Bo on jest ciekawy (bo ona jest ciekawa). Because he (she) is curious.
For some questions, you may want to answer nie wiem I don't know. or nie wiemy we
don't know.
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2. LEKCJA DRUGA
1. Gdzie jest pocig? Kto jest w pocigu?
2. O co najpierw* (first) pyta ten pan?
3. Gdzie mieszka ta pani? Czy ona tam pracuje? Czy ona tam studiuje? Co ona studiuje?
4. Dlaczego ta pani jedzie (is travelling) do Warszawy?
5. Jak ta pani si nazywa? Dlaczego ten pan pyta?
6. Dlaczego on pyta, czy ona jest zamna?
7. Czy ta pani jest zamna? Jak mylisz, czy ten pan jest onaty?
8. Dlaczego ta pani mwi raczej nie, kiedy on pyta o jej adres i numer telefonu?

9. A ty jak si nazywasz? Czy studiujesz? Co? Gdzie? Czy pracujesz? Gdzie? Co robisz?
10. Czy jeste onaty? (zamna?) Czy mylisz, e to jest tylko twoja sprawa?
11. Bye (bya) w Warszawie? W Krakowie? [Nie, nie byem (byam) tam]. Widziae (widziaa)
Paac Kultury w Warszawie? Koci Mariacki w Krakowie? [Nie, nie widziaem (widziaam)].**

* Adverbs of sequence (for use in narration): najpierw first. potem then, after that.
nastpnie next, subsequently. przedtem before that. w kocu finally.

**For the time being, negative responses will occasionally be suggested following yes-no
questions. Negative responses containing direct objects require the Genitive case on the
object (Mini-Lesson 5 and Lesson 9). For the time being, give negative responses simply by
negating the verb and not giving an object, as illustrated.


Historia

Jestemy w pocigu. Pan X i Pani Y nie znaj si, ale siedz razem w pocigu do Warszawy i
rozmawiaj. Kiedy pocig ju jest w Warszawie, pan X dzikuj Pani Y za mie towarzystwo. On
pyta czy ona mieszka w Warszawie, i ona odpowiada, e nie mieszka tam. Ona mieszka i
studiuje w Krakowie, ona mwi. Potem Pan X pyta, jak Pani Y si nazywa. Ona odpowiada, e
nazywa si Maria Zieliska. Ona chce wiedzie dlaczego on pyta. On mwi, e jest po prostu
ciekawy. Kiedy Pan X pyta, czy ona jest zamna, ona odpowiada, e to jest tylko jej sprawa. On
prosi o jej adres w Krakowie, ale ona myli, e to te jest tylko jej sprawa. Nie wiemy, gdzie Pan
X mieszka, gdzie on pracuje, i czy jest onaty, i Pani Y nie jest ciekawa. Ona nie pyta.

X iks. Y igrek. pocig mi train. w pocigu in a train. do Warszawy to Warsaw. siedz are
sitting. razem together. rozmawia am asz converse. chce wiedzie wants to know. jej poss
pron her. onaty aj married (of a man).

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2. LEKCJA DRUGA
GRAMATYKA 2.A.

REVIEW OF POLISH VOWEL SOUNDS

There are six Polish plain-vowel sounds (a e y i o u/) and two nasal-vowel sounds ( ),
produced by adding nasality to the plain vowels o and e, respectively. The letters u and are
two ways of spelling the same sound. The plain vowels are always pronounced predictably the
same, wherever they occur. All plain vowels are pronounced short, achieved by not moving the
lips or tongue during pronunciation.

a. a is pronounced like a in English father, but shorter: adres address, tak yes, thus, pada
falls, ciao a-o body, zdania zda-a opinions.

b. e is pronounced like e in English get: echo echo, wtedy then, ten that-masc. In English the
sound "e" does not occur in final position; in Polish, it often does, and is pronounced there
clearly. Practice: dobre good-neut., adne pretty-neut., moe maybe.

c. The letter i before another vowel never goes with the vowel but always indicates that the
preceding consonant is soft. Final ie is pronounced the same as any e. Practice nie "e" no, not,
zdanie "ZDA-e" sentence, ludzie "LU-de" people, umie "U-m'e" (s)he knows how. Here are
some words containing both an internal and a word-final ie. Pronounce both instances of ie
identically, as "e" niesie "E-e" (s)he carries, wiezie "W'E-e" (s)he transports, wiedzie "W'E-
de" (s)he leads, u ciebie "u E-b'e" with you, at your place.

d. y is pronounced like i in English sit: czy whether, mydo soap, py dust. In English this
sound does not occur in final position; in Polish it often does, and is pronounced clearly there.
Practice: ty you- sg., adny pretty-masc., lody ice-cream.

e. i is pronounced like ee in English beet, but shorter: iga needle, miy nice-masc., tani "TA-
i" cheap.

f. o is pronounced like o in English coat, but shorter, without moving the lips: to that, okno
window, blisko close, motor motor.

g. u and are pronounced like oo in English toot, but shorter, without moving the lips: tu
here, nudny boring, po polsku in Polish, st "stu" table, wdka "wutka" vodka.


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2. LEKCJA DRUGA
The letter designates the vowel "u" when it alternates with o in other
forms of the same word. See mj "muj", moja, moje my (m./f./n.), st "stu" stoy table(s).

h. is pronounced like on in English tone, while keeping the nasal passage open and not
completely closing the n. This sound occurs in its pure state only in final position and before s,
, sz, z, , . Practice: s they are, t that-fem.sg.Inst, m "msz" husband, wski narrow.

Superficial appearances to the contrary, the letter has nothing to do with the sound of a
in, say, tam there; represents nasal o, not nasal a.

i. is pronounced like en in English tense, while keeping the nasal passages open and not
closing the n. Like , the sound occurs in its pure state only in final position and before s, , sz,
z, , . Its pronunciation in final position is optional and highly formal alongside pronunciation
as "e". Practice: g goose, wej more narrowly, ks hunk. In final position: id "ide or id" I
am going, robi "ro-be or ro-b" I am doing.


SINGULAR PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR USE
1st person sg. ja I
2nd person sg. ty you (singular)
2nd person sg. formal pan sir, "you" pani madam, "you"
3rd person sg. on he ona she ono it

Plural Pronouns (mostly for passive recognition until Lesson 8):
1st person pl. my we
2nd person pl. wy you (plural)
2nd pers. pl. formal pastwo you-masc. pers. pl. (= pan+pani or panowie+panie)
panowie plural of pan
panie plural of pani
3rd person pl. oni they-masc. pers. one they-non masc. pers.


NOTES ON USING PRONOUNS
1. In general, do not use the 1st and 2nd person pronouns ja and ty with the verb; instead,
allow the verb ending by itself to express the person: robi I do, idziesz you go, and so on. The
1st and 2nd person pronouns are reserved for emphasis or contrast:
Moe on rozumie, ale ja nie rozumiem. Maybe HE understands, but I do not understand.
Czy ty pamitasz, bo ja nie? Do YOU remember, because I don't?
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2. LEKCJA DRUGA

Over-use of the personal pronouns sounds inelegant.

2. The formal pronouns pan, pani occur with the 3rd-person form of the verb, but they have
the practical effect of 2nd-person expressions of formal address:
Gdzie pani mieszka? Where do you (f. formal) live?
Czy pan rozumie? Do you (m. formal) understand?
Co pan ma? What do you have?

The pronouns pan and pani are omitted only infrequently; it is permissible never to omit them.

When preceded by ten or ta, the words pan, pani have the meanings 'man' and
'woman' (or gentleman and lady):
Ten pan jest bardzo stary. That man (gentleman) is very old.
Ta pani jest bardzo mia. That woman (lady) is very nice.

The words pan, pani are not used as third-person pronouns in the sense of 'he', 'she'. The
words for 'he', 'she' are on, ona, respectively.

3. The plural pronoun of polite address pastwo means ladies and genttlemen or Mr. and
Mrs. For more on the plural pronouns panowie, panie, pastwo, see Lesson 8.A.

4. The third-person pronouns are on he, ona she, ono it. Because these pronouns agree
with the referred-to noun in grammatical gender, they can all be used in the sense 'it':
Samochd jest zepsuty. On jest zepsuty. The car is broken. It is broken.
Ta winda jest dobra. Ona jest dobra. That elevator is fine. It is fine.
To drzewo jest mode. Ono jest mode. That tree is young. It is young.

In contrast to the 1st and 2nd person pronouns, one usually does use the 3rd person pronoun
with a verb, unless it is clear from context who or what is being discussed. Often a person will
first be referred to first by name, next by the 3rd-person pronoun, and then only by the verb
form itself, without the pronoun:
To jest pan Janowski. On bardzo si pieszy, bo jest spniony. That is Mr. Janowski. He is
in a big hurry, because (he) is late.

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2. LEKCJA DRUGA
THE POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS mj moje moja my, mine (possessive of ja) and twj twoje twoja
your, yours (possessive of ty, hence informal). These possessive pronouns agree with the noun
modified as to gender. Note the change of in the masculine forms to o in the neuter and
feminine forms:
Tu jest mj dom. Here is my house.
To jest moja ksika. Thats my book.
To krzeso jest twoje, a tamto jest moje. That chair is yours, and that one is mine.
Czy to jest twj samochd? Is that your car?
Twoja koleanka jest bardzo interesujca. Your f. colleague is very interesting.

These forms can be added to those for nasz nasze nasza our, ours (possessive of my) from
Lesson 1. When in predicate position, mj, twj, and nasz correspond to English mine, yours,
and ours:
Ta ksika jest moja I tamta jest twoja. That book is mine, and that one is yours.
Ten samochd jest nasz. That car is ours.

The 3rd-pers. pronouns jego his and jej her(s) do not change according to gender:
To jest jego dom (jego szkoa, jego biuro). Thats his house (school, office).
Jej ojciec (jej matka) jest bardzo chory (chora). Her father (mother) is very sick.

Similarly to jego and jej, the possessive forms pana your-male formal and pani your-female
formal also do not change according to gender:
Czy to jest pana samochd? Is that your-m.formal car?
Gdzie jest pani dom? Where is your-female formal house?

Summary:
Singular pronoun: Corresponding possessive: Example:
ja mj moja moje mj dom, moja sprawa, moje dziecko
ty twj twoja twoje twj brat, twoja siostra, twoje krzeso
on, ono jego jego zeszyt, jego ksika, jego piro
ona jej jej
pan pana pana
pani pani pani

Possessive pronouns are treated in greater detail in Lesson 3.A.

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przedmioty domowe household objects



biurko desk, fotel armchair, kanapa sofa, krzeso chair, kwiat flower, lampa lamp, lustro
mirror, ko bed, pka shelf, st table, szafa wardrobe, zegar clock.


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2. LEKCJA DRUGA
WICZENIA 2.A.

2.1. Possessive pronouns mj moje moja, twj twoje twoja, nasz nasze nasza, jego, jej, pana,
pani.
st: a. Czy to jest twj st? I that my table?
b. Nie, to nie jest mj st. No, that isnt my table.
c. Nie, on nie jest mj. No, it is not mine.
d. Tak, on jest mj. Yes, it is mine.

2.1.
Fill out the model, using different objects and pronouns.

2.2. Using on, ono, ona to refer to nouns according to gender. Based on the objects in the
picture above.

lampa: a. Ta lampa jest stara. That lamp is old.
b. Ona jest stara. It is old.

Repeat for each of the objects, using different adjectives. Review of some adjectives: dobry,
zy, stary, nowy, adny interesujcy, may, duy.


2.3.
2.3. Respond logically, in the 1st person singular:
a. Gdzie pan(i) mieszka?
b. Jak si pan(i) nazywa?
c. Czy pan(i) jest onaty (zamna)?
d. Dlaczego pan(i) pyta?
e. Czy pan(i) pracuje?
f. Czy pan(i) studiuje? Do you study; i.e., are you a student?
f. Gdzie pan(i) pracuje?
g. Co pan(i) studiuje?

2.4. Using pronouns contrastively. Form the suggested sentence according to the model. You
will need the question words gdzie where, jak how, dlaczego why.
Studiuj film: A co ty studiujesz? And what do you study?

Mieszkam w Polsce. Pracuj w Warszawie. Nazywam si Marian Zieliski (Maria Zielska).
Pytam, bo jestem ciekawy (ciekawa).

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2. LEKCJA DRUGA
Krakw: Koci Mariacki Church of St. Mary.



koci Mariacki (Marian Church, Krakw). An eye-catching Gothic church adjoining the Rynek
Gwny (Main Square) in Krakw, of which the church is one of its most recognizable symbols.
Built in the 13th-15th c. on the foundations of an earlier church, it houses the renowned
triptych of the medieval wood sculptor Wit Stwosz, as well as other notable artwork. On the
hour an interrupted hejna (bugle call) is played live from the taller of the two church towers,
according to legend commemorating an invasion of Krakw by Tatars. The two uneven towers
were supposedly built by competing brothers, the younger of whom killed the older when he
saw that the others tower was rising faster.

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2. LEKCJA DRUGA

Trudne pytanie a difficult question


2.B. Jak masz na imi? To nie jest polskie imi. Jak to bdzie po polsku?
Two classmates talk about first names.


Zenon: Jak masz na imi?
Margaret: Mam na imi Margaret.
Zenon: To nie jest polskie imi.
Margaret: Nie, jest angielskie. Jak to bdzie po
polsku?
Zenon: Margaret po polsku to Magorzata albo
po prostu Magosia.
Margaret: A Magosia po angielsku to chyba
Maggie.
Zenon: A jak dugo jeste w Polsce?
Margaret: Niedugo. Tylko miesic.

What's your (first) name?


My (first) name is Margaret.
That's not a Polish name.
No, it's English. How would that be in
Polish?
In Polish Margaret is Magorzata, or simply
Magosia.
And Magosia in English is probably
Maggie.
And how long have you been in Poland?
Not long. Only a month.

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2. LEKCJA DRUGA
Do zapamitania:


Jak dugo jeste w Polsce (Ameryce)?
Jak masz na imi?
Jak to bdzie po polsku?
Jestem tu niedugo.

Jestem
tu tylko miesic.
Mam na imi Magosia (Zenon).
Margaret to po polsku Magorzata.
n ie j est polskie imi.
To


Uwagi


Ameryka America. w Ameryce in America
bdzie (he, she, it) will be
imi, pl imiona first name
jak masz na imi? literally, 'how do you have
for a first name?'
Magosia diminutive or familiar form of
Magorzata
mie mam masz have
miesic month. dwa/trzy/cztery miesice;
pi, sze, siedem, etc. miesicy

nazwisko last name


obok av alongside, next to
po polsku in Polish. po angielsku in English.
Used in expressions like "speak, understand,
write Polish, English".
Polska Poland. w Polsce in Poland
rozmawia am asz converse
zauwaa am asz observe


Pytania


1. Jak ta dziewczyna ma na imi? A ten chopak?
2. Czy Margaret to jest polskie imi? Jakie to jest imi? Jak to bdzie po polsku? Jak bdzie po
angielsku Magosia?
3. Jak dugo Margaret jest w Polsce? Jak dugo ona bdzie w Polsce?
4. Jak mylisz, dlaczego Zenon nie jest ciekawy jak dugo Margaret bdzie w Polsce?
5. Jak ten chopak na obrazku ma na imi? Czy to jest trudne pytanie? Dlaczego?

6. Jak ty masz na imi? Czy to jest angielskie imi? A moe to jest polskie imi? Jak to bdzie po
polsku (po angielsku)? Masz drugie imi?
7. Czy wiesz, jak twj kolega albo twoja koleanka obok ma na imi?
8. Kto tu ma polskie imi? [Nikt nie ma.] Jak to bdzie po angielsku?

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2. LEKCJA DRUGA
Historia

Zenon i Margaret rozmawiaj po zajciach. Zenon pyta, jak Margaret ma na imi i ona
odpowiada, e ma na imi Margaret. Zenon mwi, e to nie jest polskie imi, i Margaret mwi,
e nie, to nie jest polskie imi, tylko angielskie. Potem Margaret pyta, jak to imi bdzie po
polsku. Zenon mwi, e Margaret po polsku to Magorzata, albo Magosia. Margaret mwi, e
Magosia po angielsku to chyba Maggie. Zenon pyta, jak dugo Margaret jest w Polsce, a ona
odpowiada, e niedugo, tylko miesic. Ona nie mwi, jak dugo ona bdzie w Polsce, i Zenon
nie pyta. Moe on nie jest ciekawy.

rozmawia am -asz converse, talk to each other. po zajciach after class. interesuje si is not
interested.

imiona first names

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2. LEKCJA DRUGA
GRAMATYKA 2.B

THE PRESENT TENSE OF VERBS (INTRODUCTION). Verbs are listed in the glossary in the infinitive
(the form that is translated as 'to go', 'to do', etc.), plus the 1st pers. sg. and 2nd pers. sg. forms
of the present tense. The other forms of the verb may be inferred from these three forms.

While the present tense forms of the verb often bear a regular relationship to the infinitive,
many do not. The most reliable way to approach verbs is by learning THREE FORMS FOR EACH
VERB, even if this sometimes seems repetitive: the infinitive, the 1st person singular, and the 2nd
person singular.

Verbs are classified into four main types, or conjugations on the basis of the present-
tense endings. These are verbs whose singular present tense forms end in:

1) , -esz, -e, as in i go (on foot): id, idziesz, idzie (idziemy idziecie id)
2a) , -isz, -i, as in robi do, make: robi, robisz, robi (robimy, robicie, robi)
2b) -, -ysz, -y, as in wierzy believe: wierz, wierzysz wierzy (wierzymy, wierzycie,
wierz)
3) am, -asz, -a, as in pyta ask (a question): pytam, pytasz, pyta (pytamy, pytacie,
pytaj)
4) -em, -esz, -e, as in rozumie understand: rozumiem, rozumiesz, rozumie
(rozumiemy, rozumiecie, rozumiej)

The 3rd person singular form of verbs of all conjugations may be obtained by dropping sz
from the 2nd person form: idziesz you go, hence idzie he/she/it goes; robisz you do, hence robi
he/she/it does; pytasz you ask, hence pyta he/she/it asks.

Since the present-tense conjugation of a verb can be predicted from the 1.p.sg. and 2.p.sg.,
these are the forms that are given in glossary listings, often abbreviated, as, for example,
dzikowa kuj kujesz, robi bi bisz, pieszy si sz szysz, mieszka am asz.


For the plural present-tense verb endings, see below in Mini-lekcja 2, and Lesson 8. The
plural endings are given in light face in the paradigms below.


Here is a brief run-down of conjugations 1-4:

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2. LEKCJA DRUGA
Conjugation 1: verbs that take - -esz -e:

i go chcie want dzikowa thank

id I go chc I want dzikuj I thank

idziesz you go chcesz you want dzikujesz you thank
idzie goes chce wants dzikuje thanks

idziemy we go chcemy we want dzikujemy we thank

idziecie you go chcecie you want dzikujecie you thank

id they go chc they want dzikuj they thank



Conjugation 2: verbs that take - -isz -i or - -ysz -y:

mwi say, speak myle think pieszy si be in a hurry
mwi I speak myl I think piesz si I 'm in a hurry

mwisz you speak mylisz you think pieszysz si you're in a hurry
mwi speaks myli thinks pieszy si is in a hurry
mwimy we speak mylimy we think pieszymy si we're in a hurry
mwicie you speak mylicie you think pieszycie si you're in a hurry
mwi they speak myl they think piesz si they're in a hurry


Conjugation 3: verbs that take -am -asz -a:

mie have pyta ask pamita remember
mam I have pytam I ask pamitam I remember
masz you have pytasz you ask pamitasz you remember
ma has pyta asks pamita remembers
mamy we have pytamy we ask pamitamy we remember
macie you have pytacie you ask pamitacie you remember
maj they have pytaj they ask pamitaj they remember

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Conjugation 4: verbs that take -em -esz -e, of which there are very few. Some have
exceptional 3rd pers. pl. in -dz.

wiedzie know je eat rozumie understand

wiem I know jem I eat rozumiem I understand

wiesz you know jesz you eat rozumiesz you understand
wie knows je eats rozumie understands
wiemy we know jemy we eat rozumiemy we understand
wiecie you know jecie you eat rozumiecie you understand
wiedz they know jedz they eat rozumiej they understand


The verb by be stands alone as to conjugation, and it is also exceptional in having a special
future tense:

by be future:
jestem I am bd I will be
jeste you are bdziesz you will be
jest he, she, it is. bdzie he, she, it will be.
jestemy we are bdziemy we will be.
jestecie you are bdziecie you will be.
s they are bd they will be.


SOME IMPORTANT VERBS.

infinitive 1.p.sg 2.sg. 3.p.sg. 3.p.pl.
by be (present )
jestem
jeste
jest
S
by be (future )
bd
bdziesz
bdzie
bd
chcie want
chc
chcesz
chce
chc
czu si feel
czuj si
czujesz si czuje si
czuj si
i go (on foot)
id
idziesz
idzie
id
je eat
jem
jesz
je
jedz
mie have
mam
masz
ma
maj
mieszka live, reside
mieszkam
mieszkasz mieszka
mieszkaj
mwi speak, talk
mwi
mwisz
mwi
mwi
musie must, have to musz
musisz
musi
musz
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2. LEKCJA DRUGA
myli si be wrong
myle think
pamita remember
pracowa work
pyta ask
robi do, make
rozumie understand
studiowa study
wiedzie know info.
wyglda look, appear
zgadza si agree
zna know s.o. or s.t.
y live, be alive

myl si
myl
pamitam
pracuj
pytam
robi
rozumiem
studiuj
wiem
wygldam
-am si
znam
yj

mylisz si
mylisz
pamitasz
pracujesz
pytasz
robisz
rozumiesz
studiujesz
wiesz
wygldasz
-asz si
znasz
yjesz

myli si
myli
pamita
pracuje
pyta
robi
rozumie
studiuje
wie
wyglda
-a si
zna
yje

myl si
myl
pamitaj
pracujy
pytaj
robi
rozumiej
studiuj
wiedz
wygldaj
zgadzaj si
znaj
yj


Use this chart to list the forms of other verbs you have encountered and found useful:

infinitive 1.p.sg 2.sg. 3.p.sg. 3.p.pl.
nazywa si be called -am
-asz
-a
-aj





























































Illustrations of use:
by (present): Jestem spniony. I am late.
by (future): Jak to bdzie po polsku? How will that be in Polish?
chcie: Chc ci co pokaza. I want to show you something.
czu si: Dobrze si czuj. I feel fine.
i: Musz ju i. I have to go.
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2. LEKCJA DRUGA
mie:
mieszka:
mwi:
musie:
myli si:
odpowiada:
pamita:
pracowa:
pyta:
robi:
rozumie:
studiowa:
pieszy si:
wiedzie:
wyglada:
zgadza si:
y:

Czy masz samochd? Do you have a car?


Gdzie pani mieszka? Where do you (f. formal) live?
On mwi zbyt szybko. He's talking too quickly.
Musz ju i. I have to go now.
Czsto si mylisz. You are often wrong.
On nie odpowiada. Hes not answering.
Nie pamitam, jak on si nazywa. I don't remember what his name is.
Pracuj w Warszawie. I work in Warsaw.
Dlaczego pan pyta? Why do you (m. formal) ask?
Co pan tu robi? What are you (m. formal) doing here?
Nie rozumiem, co on mwi. I don't understand what he is saying.
Gdzie studiujesz? Where do you study?
Bardzo si piesz. I'm in a big hurry.
Nie wiem, gdzie ona mieszka. I don't know where she lives.
wietnie wygldasz. You look great.
Nie zgadzam si. I dont agree.
Mj dziadek ju nie yje. My grandfather is no longer alive.


The word dzikuj thank you literally means I thank (you), so McDonalds says dzikujemy
we thank (you).
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2. LEKCJA DRUGA
WICZENIA 2.B.

General rules for pronoun omission/retention with verbs:


a. Omit ja, ty unless told to do otherwise.
b. Retain on, ona, ono, pan, pani.


2.5. English glosses. Match the English glosses with the Polish verbs; then use in a sentence in
the 1st pers. sg.:

ask: a. pyta
b. Pytam, jak si nazywasz. I'm asking what your name is.

be, do, eat, go on foot, have, hurry, know (information), remember, speak, understand, want,
work.
2.5.


2.6. The singular forms of the present tense.

wiedzie: wiem, wiesz, wie

pyta, chcie, pracowa, i, mie, myle, by, je, mwi, rozumie, pieszy si, y.

2.6.

2.7.




2.7. Pronoun-verb agreement. Use the rules for pronoun retention or deletion.

ty, chcie: chcesz you want.

ona, by; ja, i; ona, je; ja, robi; ty, mie; ja, mwi; pani, myle; on, wiedzie; ja, pamita;
ty, pracowa; ona, mie; pan, pyta; ja, robi; on, y; ona, rozumie; ja, pieszy si; ty,
wiedzie; ja, przeprasza; ona, mieszka; ty, myle.


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2. LEKCJA DRUGA
2.8. 'I want' plus the infinitive. Retain the person of the cue. With 2nd person cues, form a yes-
no question.

wiem I know:
wiesz you know

Chc wiedzie. I want to know.


Czy chcesz wiedzie? Do you want to know?

pytam, ona pracuje, robi, id, on ma, jestem, jesz, ona mwi, ona mieszka, rozumiem,
studiujesz, piesz si.

2.8.

Polski orze biay Polish white eagle

Orze Biay (White Eagle). The bird is a right-facing white crowned eagle on a red shield
background, comprising the Polish national coat-of-arms. Tradition traces it to Lech, the
legendary founder of the Polanian state, the forerunner of the Polish state. During the PRL
Peoples Poland, i.e., communist Poland, the eagle did not have a crown. The crown returned
in 1989, following the fall of communism. These various versions of the Polish white eagle
(orze biay) on a postage stamp series call to mind different stages in the history of the Polish
nation. The "communist eagle," without a crown, logically belongs in the blank space, but the
stamp was never issued. The stamps show out-of-date denominations in old zotys. Today a
zoty is worth about 30 cents.


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2. LEKCJA DRUGA

2.C. Mw wyraniej, Jerzy! Nie sysz ci.*


Listening to a third person, speaking an unknown language, possibly French.


Krzysiek: Czy rozumiesz, co mwi ten
Do you understand what that man (lady) is
pan (ta pani) <bo ja nie>?
saying <because I don't>?
Krysia: Nie, nie rozumiem, co on (ona)
No, I don't understand what he's (she's)
mwi, bo on mwi po francusku.
saying, because hes speaking in French.
Krzysiek: Przecie mwisz po francusku.
But you speak French.
Krysia: Troch mwi, ale on (ona)
I speak a little, but he (she) is speaking too
mwi bardzo szybko i niezbyt wyranie.
quickly and not too distinctly.
Krzysiek: HmDokadnie tak jak ty po polsku.
Hmm Just like you in Polish.


m husband, w snake. pyton python.

* The New Yorker, 1941. Original caption: "Oh, speak up, George. Stop mumbling!"
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2. LEKCJA DRUGA
Do zapamitania:

Czy rozumiesz, co mwi ten pan (ta pani)?
On(a) mwi tak jak ty.
Nic nie rozumiem.
Prawie nic nie rozumiem.
Nie rozumiem, co on(a) mwi. Przecie mwisz po francusku.
Nie zgadzam si.
Troch rozumiem po francusku.
On mwi niezbyt wyranie.
Wszystko rozumiem.
On powinien (Ona powinnna) mwi

wyraniej.

On(a) mwi zbyt szybko.


dokadnie av exactly, precisely
inny pron aj other, different
jaki jaka, jakie some kind of
jzyk mi -a language. jzyk polski Polish
language
Krysia. diminutive or affectionate form of
Krystyna
Krzy diminutive or affectionate form of
Krzysztof
mwi mwi, mwisz speak, talk, say



Uwagi

niezbyt av not too, not particularly


po francusku (in) French
powinien, f. powinna should, ought
przecie 'but' of surprise or protest
rozumie -em -esz understand
saby aj weak. av sabo av (here: poorly)
szybki quick, szybko quickly
tak jak av phr the same way as
wyrany distinct. wyranie distinctly.
wyraniej more distinctly

Pytania

1. Co mwi ten pan (ta pani)?


2. Czy Krysia rozumie, co on(a) mwi? Dlaczego Krysia nie rozumie, co ten pan (ta pani) mwi?
3. Dlaczego Krzysiek myli, e Krysia powinna rozumie, co on(a) mwi?
4. Czy Krysia zawsze mwi wyranie po polsku? Dlaczego tak mylisz?

5. Czy ty rozumiesz po francusku <po hiszpasku>? Czy rozumiesz i mwisz dobrze po francusku
<po hiszpasku>, czy raczej sabo (weakly, poorly)?
6. Czy rozumiesz lepiej po francusku <po hiszpasku>, czy po polsku?
7. Czy znasz jaki inny jzyk? Jaki? [Nie, nie znam.]
8. Czy mylisz, e ten pan na obrazku powyej (in the above picture) powinien mwi
wyraniej? Dlaczego (nie)? Czy ty zawsze mwisz wyranie?
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2. LEKCJA DRUGA
Historia

Krzysiek i Krysia siedz na awce i suchaj, jak inna para (pan i pani) rozmawia. Krzysiek pyta,
czy Krysia rozumie, co ten pan mwi, a Krysia odpowiada, e nie, bo ten pan mwi po
francusku. Krzysiek myli, e Krysia mwi po francusku, wic myli, e ona powinna rozumie,
co ten pan mwi. Krysia mwi, e ona troch rozumie po francusku, ale ten pan mwi bardzo
szybko i niezbyt wyranie. Krzysiek myli, e ten pan mwi po francusku tak jak ona po polsku, i
tak mwi. Jak mylisz, co Krysia teraz powie?

siedz are sitting. awka f bench. na awce on a bench. suchaj are listening. inna para another
couple. powinna she ought. niezbyt wyranie not too distinctly. powie will say.



gono i wyranie loudly and clearly. dziewi lekcji dobrego mwienia nine lessons toward
good speech. Cover of a self-help book on elocution.

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2. LEKCJA DRUGA

GRAMATYKA 2.C.
NOTES ON VERB USE

1. LACK OF HELPING VERBS. Polish does not use verbs like 'is', 'do', or 'have' as helping verbs
in compound verb expressions. In this respect the Polish verb system is simpler than the
English. The form robi expresses all of this by itself: 'I do, I am doing, I have been doing'.
Similarly, the question Co robisz? can mean 'what are you doing', 'what do you do', or 'what
have you been doing'. It is important to remember that an English expression like Where are
you going? will not EVER be rendered in Polish with the help of a form of the word 'are', but
only by a single verb form: Gdzie idziecioe? Where are you going? Similarly, Do you speak
Polish? will not EVER be translated into Polish with a form of the verb 'do,' but with a single
form of the verb mwi speak: Mwisz po polsku? Do you speak Polish?

To summarize: the verbs by (jestem jeste) be, mie (mam masz) have, and robi (robi
robisz) do are used only as independent verbs in Polish. They do not have a use as helping
verbs in compound verb expressions.


2. LACK OF THE PRO-VERB 'DO'. In English, it is usual to use the verb do when answering a
question, instead of repeating the verb of the question: Do you know where he lives? Yes, I do.
Polish has no such use, so one must repeat the main verb. Often, in answering a yes-no
question, repetition of the verb substitutes for, or is used in addition to, saying 'yes' or 'no':
Czy wiesz, gdzie on mieszka? Do you know where he lives?
Tak, wiem. (Nie, nie wiem.) Yes, I do. (No, I don't.)

Czy mwisz po francusku? Do you speak French.
Troch mwi. I do a little.

Czy masz samochd? Do you have a car?
Mam. Yes, I do.


3. USING THE 2ND PERSON FORM OF THE VERB. When addressing non-intimates, it is
important not to use the 2nd pers. sg. or "you" form of the verb, which is reserved for close
friends, class-mates in school, and the very young. Instead, address non-intimates as either pan
(m.) or pani (f.), in combination with the 3rd person form of the verb. These forms are the
rough equivalents of southern American sir, ma'am:
Przepraszam, czy pan (pani) wie, gdzie jest tani hotel? Excuse me (sir, ma'am) do you
know where an inexpensive hotel is?
Most European languages have similar distinctions in degree of formality. Improper use of the
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2. LEKCJA DRUGA
2nd person form of the verb is not ungrammatical but it is apt to be taken as impolite. Poles,
who are generally quite tolerant of language errors, will tend to interpret the use of the 2nd
person form by a non-intimate as a serious mistake in social manners, not as a lack of
knowledge of Polish. In sum:

2nd-person informal 2.p.sg. form of verb by itself:
czy wiesz? do you know?
2nd-person formal pan(i) + 3.p.sg. form of verb:
czy pan(i) wie? do you know?

Despite the above advice, however, bear in mind that classmates in school or at the university
are automatically on a first-name basis with one another.

4. THE PLACEMENT OF THE REFLEXIVE PARTICLE si
The reflexive particle si, literally meaning 'self', accompanies various verbs. If a verb
occurs with the particle si in the infinitive, it will occur with si throughout its conjugation. In
spoken Polish, the particle si usually goes in front of the verb, but it cannot occur in the initial
position of a clause or sentence:
piesz si. I am in a hurry.
Bardzo si piesz. I am in a big hurry.


5. THE PLACEMENT OF THE NEGATIVE PARTICLE nie.
When a verb is negated, the negative particle nie is placed immediately before the verb:
Ona nie jest spniona. She is not late.
Ja si nie piesz. I'm not in a hurry.

NOTHING CAN EVER COME BETWEEN A VERB AND ITS NEGATING PARTICLE nie. THE
PARTICLE nie IS TREATED AS PART OF THE VERB.


THE VERBS 'KNOW", 'UNDERSTAND', 'REMEMBER. The following verbs are particularly
important for relating knowledge, in both positive and, especially, in negative uses:
pamita pamitam, pamitasz, pamita remember
rozumie rozumiem, rozumiesz, rozumie
wiedzie wiem, wiesz, wie know (information).

Examples:
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2. LEKCJA DRUGA
Nie pamitam, jak on si nazywa. I don't remember what his name is.
Nie rozumiem, co ten pan mwi. I don't understand what that man is saying.
Nie wiem, gdzie ona mieszka. I don't know, where she lives.

In combination with the one-syllable forms like wiem wiesz wie, stress falls on the negative
particle nie: NIE wiem. I don't know.


REPORTING VERBS. Some verbs for reporting on the content of speech are
mwi mwi, mwisz, mwi 'say', followed by the conjunction e that;
pyta pytam, pytasz, pyta 'ask', followed by a question word (especially czy whether, jak
how, gdzie where, dlaczego why, kiedy when)
odpowiada odpowiadam, odpowiadasz, odpowiada 'answer', followed by the conjunction
e that.

Observe the shift from 1st-person to 3rd-person verb forms under reported speech:
Jestem ciekawy. I am curious.
Ten pan mwi, e jest ciekawy. That man says that he is curious.

Phrases following reporting verbs are most often introduced by the conjunction e that:
Ona mieszka w Krakowie. She lives in Krakow.
Wiem, e ona mieszka w Krakowie. I know that she lives in Krakow.

On pracuje w Warszawie. He works in Warsaw.
Pamitam, e on pracuje w Warszawie. I remember that he works in Warsaw.

Ona bdzie spniona. She will be late.
Ona mwi, e bdzie spniona. She says that she will be late.

The conjunction e is never omitted, as contrasted to the usual colloquial practice in
English of omitting the conjunction that. The conjunction e should not be confused with
the pronouns co what or to that, which are not conjunctions. As noted previously, a
comma is always inserted before e as a visual separative sign; there is no corresponding
pause in speech.


Verbs which report information given in a question make use of the question-word as the
introducing conjunction:
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2. LEKCJA DRUGA











- Gdzie on pracuje? Where does he work?


- Nie pamitam, gdzie on pracuje. I don't remember where he works.
- Co ona mwi? What is she saying?
- Nie rozumiem, co ona mwi. I don't understand what she is saying.
- Kto to jest? Who is that?
- Nie wiem, kto to jest. I don't know who that is.
- Czy ta winda dobrze dziaa? Does that elevator work all right?
- Nie wiem, czy ona dobrze dziaa. I don't know whether that elevator works all right.
The word for 'if' is jeli. One should not use jeli in place of czy whether after negated
verbs of knowledge (unlike normal colloquial English practice): Nie wiem, czy on pracuje.
I don't know whether (if)i.e., not *jelihe works.


The adjectives pewien (m.), pewna (f.) certain, sure and ciekaw(a) curious also function in a
reporting function:
Jestem pewien (pewna), e on tam bdzie. I'm sure he will be there.
Nie jestem pewien (pewna), czy ona tam bdzie. I'm not sure, whether she will be there.

(It is possible to use the form pewny instead of pewien, but pewien is more common in this
use.)
Jestem ciekaw(a), jak to bdzie po polsku. I'm curious how that will be in Polish.


LANGUAGE ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS.
Proper adjectives like polski, polska, polskie Polish and angielski, angielska, angielskie
English are not capitalized in Polish: polski samochd Polish car, polska ksika Polish book,
polskie miasto Polish town. Language adjectives are often used in combination with the word
jzyk tongue, language, as in jzyk polski Polish language, jzyk angielski English language. In
these expressions the adjective is exceptionally placed after the noun jzyk.

One expresses "in Polish, in English" by using adverbial expressions po polsku, po angielsku,
which are used in conjunction with verbs referring to language use:

Troch mwi po polsku. I speak a little Polish.
On nie rozumie dobrze po angielsku. He doesn't understand English well.
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2. LEKCJA DRUGA
One may ask what language one speaks with the phrase po jakiemu:
Po jakiemu on mwi? What language does he speak (is he speaking)?
Some other language adjectives and adverbs are:

chiski Chinese po chisku in Chinese, francuski French po francusku in French, japoski
Japanese po japosku in Japanese, niemiecki German po niemiecku in German, hiszpaski
Spanish po hiszpasku in Spanish, rosyjski Russian po rosyjsku in Russian, woski Italian po
wosku in Italian.


SOME ADVERBS TO USE WITH VERBS OF SPEECH.

Comparatives:
Mwisz zbyt ---. You are speaking too --.
Mw ---. Speak ---!
cicho quietly, softly.
ciszej more quietly
duo a lot wicej more
gono loudly
goniej more loudly
mao a little mniej

less
szybko quickly
szybciej more quickly
wolno, powoli slowly
wolniej, bardziej powoli more slowly
wyranie clearly
wyraniej more clearly

The adjectives corresponding to these adverbs are szybki quick, fast, wolny slow, wyrany
clear, distinct, gony loud, cichy quiet. Compare: wolny pocig. slow train. mwi wolno speak
slowly.

Mw goniej i wyraniej. Nie sysz ci.


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2. LEKCJA DRUGA

WICZENIA 2.C.
2.9. Informal to formal address:

Gdzie mieszkasz? Where do you live? (informal): Gdzie pan (pani) mieszka? (formal).

Gdzie pracujesz?
Dlaczego pytasz?
Co robisz?
Gdzie idziesz?

Co mwisz?
Co jesz?
Co pamitasz?
Kiedy bdziesz?

Gdzie jeste?
Czy yjesz?
Co masz?
Dlaczego si pieszysz?


2.10. Im not sure. (pewien/pewna) and I wonder (ciekaw/ciekawa). Transform
appropriately the cues of exercise 2.9, one way or the other.

2.9.

Gdzie on(a) mieszka? Nie jestem pewien (pewna), gdzie on(a) mieszka. Im not sure where he
(she) lives. or: Jestem ciekaw (ciekawa), gdzie on(a) mieszka. Im
curious awhere he (she) lives.

2.11. Lack of helping verbs; omit 1st and 2nd person pronouns. Translate the verb expressions
with a single verb-form.

he is talking:

on mwi

I am going, you are working, he understands, she is doing, I am living, she asks, you are eating,
he is asking, I am in a hurry, she lives, you think-m. formal, you are mistaken.

2.11.


2.12. Negative vs. positive reporting verb. Choose between e and czy, using different
introductory verbs, choosing from wiedzie, pamita, rozumie.

On mieszka w Warszawie.
a. Wiem, e on mieszka w Warszawie. I know that he lives in Warsaw.
b. Nie wiem, czy on mieszka w Warszawie. I don't know whether he lives in Warsaw.

Ona bdzie spniona. Ten hotel jest drogi. On si pieszy. Ona mieszka w Krakowie. On mwi
po polsku. Ona pracuje w Warszawie. Ten samochd jest nowy.


79

2.12.

2. LEKCJA DRUGA
2.13. Being 'curious' (ciekaw(a). Use the cues of exercise 2.12.

Jestem ciekaw(a), czy on mieszka w Warszawie. I'm curious whether he lives in Warsaw.

2.13.

2.14. 'know' wiedzie, 'remember pamita', pewien/pewna certain:


Co mwi ten pan? What is that man saying?


Nie wiem (or nie pamitam, nie jestem pewien/pewna), co on mwi. I don't know
what he is saying.

Gdzie mieszka ta pani?


Gdzie pracuje ten pan?
Co mwi ta pani?
Co robi ten pan?
Co to jest?

Kto to jest?
Czy ta ksika jest dobra?
Gdzie idziesz?
Kiedy on bdzie?
Czy ten hotel jest dobry?

2.14.

2.15. 'What will that be in Polish? '


notebook: a. Jak bdzie notebook po polsku? What will 'notebook' be in Polish? (NB: 'booklet of
paper', not 'small computer, which is, in fact, notebook).
b. Notebook po polsku to zeszyt. 'Notebook' in Polish is zeszyt.

chair, floor, pencil, wall, tree, person, animal, book, picture, hotel.

2.15.

2.16.

2.16. The adjective 'Polish': polski, polskie, polska.


st:

To nie jest polski st. That's not a Polish table.

obraz, imi, radio, telewizor, lampa, nazwisko, szkoa, muzeum.


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2. LEKCJA DRUGA
2.17. Country of origin. In the answer, choose different countries.

French picture: -Czy to jest francuski obraz? Is that a French picture?
-Nie, jest niemiecki. No, it's German.

German book, Russian student (f.), Italian last name, Spanish first name, English automobile,
Japanese television set (telewizor), Chinese last name (nazwisko).



2.18. Speech adverbs.

softly: a. Mwisz zbyt cicho. You speak too softly.
b. Mw* goniej. Speak more loudly.

Slowly, indistinctly (niewyranie), loudly, quickly, quietly.

*The imperative of the verb. See the Mini-Lesson to this lesson and Lesson 9.

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2.17.

2.18.

2. LEKCJA DRUGA

winda elevator. schody stairs. stomatologia dentistry.



2.D. Wol i pieszo
|ta winda
Zosia: Czy |ten telefon dziaa? Does that elevater (phone, radio) work?

|to radio
|zepsuta,
Zenon: Nie, jest |zepsuty, | jak zwykle <jak prawie zawsze>.
|zepsute,
No, it's broken, as usual <as almost always>.
Zosia: Jeste pewien (pewna)? Are you sure?
Zenon: Tak, <jestem prawie pewien>. Yes, < Im almost certain>.
|tamta ? |ona |zepsuta?
Zofia: A |tamten? Czy |on te jest |zepsuty?
|tamto? |ono |zepsute?
And that one over there? Is it broken too?
Zenon: Nie wiem. Chyba dziaa. <Powinna dziaa>.
I don't know. It probably works <It ought to work>.
Zosia: Wiesz, ja ju wol i pieszo. You know, I prefer to go on foot. [if choice is winda]
Zenon: Ja te. <Przecie jedziemy tylko na pierwsze pitro>. Me too. <After all, were only going
to the first floor.>
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2. LEKCJA DRUGA
Do zapamietania:

Czy ta winda dziaa?
Ta winda nie dziaa.
Czy tamten samochd te jest zepsuty? Ta winda
prawie
zawsze jest zepsuta.

Ja te
Ta winda powinna dziaa.
Jedziemy na pierwsze pitro.
Ten samochd chyba dziaa.
Jeste pewien?
Ten telefon powinien dziaa.
Jeste pewna?
To auto dobrze dziaa.
Nie wiem, czy ta winda dziaa. Wol
ju i pieszo.


chyba probably, I suppose. chyba tak I
suppose so. chyba nie probably not
duo czasu a lot of time
dziaa (of machinery) it works, runs
dobrze dziaa works fine
i tak av even so, anyway
koniec end, w kocu in the end.
pewien, f pewna aj sure, certain. pewna
osoba a certain person




Uwagi

pieszo on foot
pitro n floor. The first floor in a Polish
building is one floor up from ground.
prawie av almost
te nie also not, not either
wole l lisz +infin prefer
zepsuty aj ruined, broken, spoiled

Pytania


1. Czy ta pierwsza winda dziaa? A tamta, czy ona te jest zepsuta? Jeste pewien (pewna)?
2. Czy ta winda zwykle jest zepsuta? Czy ona prawie zawsze jest zepsuta?

3. Czy masz samochd, czy telewizor? [Nie, nie mam.] Czy on dobrze dziaa? Co masz w domu,
co nie dziaa zbyt dobrze?
4. Czy tam, gdzie mieszkasz, jest winda? Czy ona zawsze dobrze dziaa?
5. Czy zwykle dugo czekasz na wind? Gdzie? Na co jeszcze musisz czsto dugo czeka?
6. Czy jest winda tam, gdzie mieszkasz? Czy zwykle wolisz i pieszo?
7. Na ktrym pitrze [on what floor] mieszkasz? Na pierwszym? Drugim? Trzecim? Czwartym?


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2. LEKCJA DRUGA
Historia
Zosia i Zenon czekaj na wind w akademiku. S tam dwie windy. Zosia myli, e jedna winda
jest zespsuta, i pyta, czy Zenon wie, czy ona dziaa. Zenon jest prawie pewien, e ona nie dziaa,
bo ona prawie zawsze jest zepsuta. Potem Zosia pyta, czy ta winda obok te jest zepsuta. Zenon
mwi, e nie jest pewien, ale myli, e ona chyba dziaa. Ona powinna dziaac. Zreszt kada
winda powinna dziaa. W kocu Zosia mwi, e nie chce czeka na wind. Woli i pieszo.
Zenon te. Przecie jad tylko na pierwsze pitro.

czeka am asz na wind wait for an elevator. akademik dormitory. w akademiku in the
dormitory. dwie f. two. obok alongside. zreszt for that matter. kady every. koniec end, w
kocu in the end. przecie after all. jad they are riding.


Czy ten telefon dziaa?

darmowy telefon free phone. za darmo for free

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2. LEKCJA DRUGA
GRAMATYKA 2.D.

SHOULD, OUGHT. The item powinien, f. powinna, used to express obligation in the sense of
moral compunction, is a half-verb, half adjective. Like the modal of external compunction
musie sz sisz must, have to, it is followed by an infinitive. Its singular forms are as follows:

masculline feminine neuter
1.p.sg. powinienem powinnam
2.p.sg. powiniene powinna
3.p.sg. powinien powinna powinno


Examples of use:
Powinienem (powinnam) ju by w domu. I ought to be at home already.
Powiniene (powinna) mwi wicej po polsku. You ought to speak Polish.
On powinien (ona powinna) to wiedzie. He (she) ought to know that.
Ta winda powinna dziaa. That elevator ought to work.


QUESTION WORDS AND CORRESPONDING INDEFINITES AND NEGATIVES. The usual word for
asking questions as to for what reason is dlaczego why. Questions asked with dlaczego may be
answered with bo because, but they may also, more formally, be answered with dlatego, e:
- Dlaczego si pieszysz? Why are you hurrying?
- Bo (dlatego, e) jestem spniony. Because I am late.

- Dlaczego pytasz? Why do you ask?
- Bo (dlatego, e) jestem ciekawy. Because Im curious.

Most question words have corresponding negative, indefinite, and all-inclusive forms:

question words
negatives in ni-
indefinites in -
All-inclusive in -kolwiek
co what
nic nothing
co something
cokolwiek anything
kto who
nikt no one
kto someone
ktokolwiek anyone
gdzie where
nigdzie nowhere
gdzie somewhere
gdziekolwiek anywhere
kiedy when
nigdy never
kiedy sometime
kiedykolwiek anytime
jak how
nijak nohow [rare]
jako somehow
jakkolwiek anyhow

The word dlaczego why stands somewhat apart from the other question words.
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2. LEKCJA DRUGA

NOTES ON INDEFINITE AND NEGATIVE PRONOUNS:
1. The suffix - creates a word that is indefinite in the sense of something definite but not
known. Thus, co means 'something, but I don't know or want to say what'; kto means
'someone, but I don't know or want to say who'; and so on. Occasionally, these words translate
English words beginning with 'any-':
Co pamitam. I remember something.
Czy co rozumiesz? Do you understand something/anything?
Czy on gdzie pracuje? Does he work somehere/anywhere?
Czy kto tu mieszka? Does someone/anyone live here?

The suffix can be placed after the pronominal adjective jaki jaka jakie to form the
indefinite and slightly pejorative pronominal adjective jaki jaka jakie in the sense some
sort of. Note that follows any other ending:
To jest jaki hotel. Thats some sort of hotel.
To jest jaka restauracja. Thats some sort of restaurant.
To jest jakie biuro. Thats some sort of office.


2. The suffix -kolwiek creates an open-ended indefinite in the sense "any possible person,
thing, place, way":
Czy cokolwiek rozumiesz? Do you understand anything at all?
-Gdzie chcesz mieszka? -Gdziekolwiek. -Where do you want to live? - Any place at all.


Gdziekolwiek bdziesz, zagosuj. Wherever you will be, vote!
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2. LEKCJA DRUGA

3. THE POLISH 'DOUBLE NEGATIVE'. The use of a word beginning with ni- requires that the
verb of the sentence be negated, creating the superficial impression of a double negative:
Nic nie wiem. I don't know anything.
On nigdy nie jest spniony. He is never late.
On nic nie rozumie. He doesn't understand anything.





No matter how many words there are in a sentence beginning with ni-, the verb requires only a
single negation:
Nikt nigdy nic nie wie. No one ever knows anything.


THE PHRASE o ile wiem as far as I know. The phrase o ile insofar as can be used with verbs of
knowledge and comprehension such as wiedzie, pamita, rozumie, for example:
O ile wiem, ta winda dziaa. As far as I know, that elevator works.
O ile pamitam, on pracuje w Krakowie. As far as I remember, he lives in Krakw.
O ile rozumiem, on bdzie spniony. As far as I understand, he will be late.


THINGS AROUND THE HOUSE THAT "WORK" (OR NOT)

adapter record player
ogrzewanie heating
aparat camera
piec stove, oven
drukarka printer
pralka washer
dzwonek bell
radio radio
elektryczno f electricity
rower bicycle
klimatyzacja air conditioning
smartfon smartphone
komrka cell phone
suszarka dryer
komputer computer
telefon telephone
lodwka refrigerator, ice box
telewizor television set
maszyna typewriter
wideo VCR
mikrofalwka microwave
zegar clock
mikser mixer
zegarek watch
odkurzacz vacuum cleaner
zmywarka dishwasher
odtwarzacz dyskowy CD player

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2. LEKCJA DRUGA
WICZENIA 2.D.

2.19. 'broken' vs. 'working'; 3rd-person pronouns.

winda: a. Czy ta winda dziaa? Does that elevator work?


b. Nie wiem, czy ona dziaa. I don't know whether it works.
c. Nie, ona jest zepsuta. No it's broken.
d. Tak, ona dobrze dziaa. Yes, it works fine.
e. Ona powinna dziaa. It ought to work.

telewizor, pralka, radio, komputer, magnetofon, samochd, lampa, video.

Expand this exercise by referring to the items listed above.


2.20. Use of tamten, tamta, tamto. Expression of 'either'.

2.19.

telewizor: Tamten telewizor te nie dziaa. That televison set there doesn't work either.

pralka, samochd, radio, magnetofon, lampa, video.


2.20.

2.21.



2.21. Indefinite pronouns. With 2nd persons cues, form a yes-no question. Then form a negative
statement:

Co ona mwi?: a) Czy ona co mwi? Is she saying something?
b) Ona nic nie mwi. She is not saying anything.

Gdzie on mieszka? Co ona pamita? Kiedy on jest w domu?
Co ona myli? Kto tu mieszka? Co jesz?
Gdzie ona pracuje? Co on studiuje? Gdzie ona jest?
Gdzie idziesz? Kto mwi? Co on rozumie?

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2. LEKCJA DRUGA
2.22. Negative pronouns. Give negative responses in the 1.p.sg.
Co masz? What do you have? Nic nie mam. I don't have anything.

Co robisz? Co pamitasz?
Gdzie pracujesz?

Co studiujesz?

Gdzie idziesz?

Co jesz?

Gdzie mieszkasz?

Co rozumiesz?

Co wiesz?

O co pytasz?

Co mwisz?

Gdzie jeste?

2.22.


2.23.

2.24. 'Not either'. The use of the 1st person pronoun for emphasis with te nie 'not either'.
On nie pracuje. Ja te nie pracuj. I don't work either.

Ona nie jest spniona. On nie studiuje.


2.23. Use the cues of the previous exercise.

Co robisz? Nikt nigdy nic nie robi. No one ever does anything.

On nie pamita.

On si nie pieszy.

Ona nie rozumie.

Ona nic nie robi.

On nic nie wie.

On nigdy nie jest w domu.

Ona nie mwi po polsku.

Ona nic nie mwi.

On dobrze rozumie po angielsku.

Ona pracuje w Polsce.

On wie, co chce.

Ona bdzie spniona.

On mieszka w Krakowie.

Ona idzie do domu.


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2.24.

2. LEKCJA DRUGA
2.25. Answer the following sentences in some negative, but explanatory way, as in the model:

Czy ona idzie na zajcia? Nie, ona idzie do domu. No, she's going home.

Czy to jest polskie imi? Czy ten hotel jest drogi?
Czy ona mieszka w Warszawie?

Czy gdzie pracujesz?

Czy jeste pewny/pewien (pewna)?

Czy kto tu mieszka?

Czy tamten telefon dziaa?

Czy on idzie do domu?

Czy ta ksika jest dobra?

Czy bardo si pieszysz?



2.26. 'as far as I know', if Im not mistaken. Use different verbs with o ile wiem as far as I
know or ljeli si nie myl if Im not mistaken.

Czy to radio jest zepsute? Is that radio broken?
Tak, o ile wiem (or: jeli si nie nie myl), ono jest zepsute. Yes, as far as I know (if Im not
mistaken) it's broken

Choose five items from the preceding exercise for which the constructions make sense.


2.27. powinien, powinna ought. Use the corresponding phrase after the modal of obligation, in
the 1st person sg.

go home: Powinienem (Powinnam) i do domu. I ought to go home.

speak Polish. understand what he is saying. hurry. live in Poland. know where she is. eat
something. go on foot. not do anything. not say anything.

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2. LEKCJA DRUGA


Co znaczy ten znak? What does this sign mean? wypadek accident pl. wypadki accidents. This
sign either means that automobile-pedestrian accidents often occur at this place, or it could
mean: Take good aim at pedestrians, because otherwise they might get away.

2.E. Co to znaczy?
Investigating the meaning of an unknown word.

Halina: -Co to znaczy?
What does that mean?
Henryk: -Co?
What?
Halina: -To sowo.
That word.
Henryk: -Jakie sowo?
What word?
Halina: - "Przecie". <"Zreszt.">
"Przecie." <Zreszt>
Henryk: -To jest trudne pytanie. Nie wiem That's a difficult question. I don't <exactly>
<dokadnie>, jak si mwi "przecie"
know how one says "przecie <"zreszt"> in
<"zreszt"> po angielsku.
English.
Halina: -Jak mylisz, kto bdzie wiedzie? What do you think, who might know?
Henryk: -Chyba profesor. Trzeba go
Probably the professor. One should ask him.
zapyta.

Halina: -Nie, on na pewno nie bdzie
No, he surely doe4snt know. Better to Google
wiedzie. <Lepiej to wygooglowa.
it. Google knows everything.
Google wszystko wie.>

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2. LEKCJA DRUGA
Do zapamitania:

Co to znaczy?
Moemy go zapyta.
Co znaczy "przecie" po angielsku?
Moemy to wygooglowa.
Co znaczy to sowo?
Nie jestem taki pewny (taka pewna).
Jakie sowo?
Nie wiem, jak to si mwi.
Jak to si mwi po angielsku? On
n a p ewno
n ie b dzie wiedzie.
Jak si mwi "przecie" po angielsku?
Profesor wszystko wie.
Jak mylisz, kto bdzie wiedzie?
To jest trudne pytanie.
Jestem prawie pewien (pewna).
Trzeba go (j) zapyta.


bdzie wiedzie (bdzie wiedzia(a) (s)he
will know
co (here: as. to samo, co the same (thing)
as
co to znaczy? what does that mean?
jak si mwi? how does one say?
kady aj each, every
moe by phr can be
na pewno av surely
obraz mi picture. na obrazie in the picture



Uwagi

przecie after all, but (of protest)


trudny aj difficult. atwy aj easy
trzeba one must, one should
wszystko pron aj everything.
zapyta -am asz ask. The Perfective of
pyta (Lesson 7)
znaczy -czy us. in 3rd pers. mean
zreszt av for that matter, in any case,
anyhow
Pytania

1. Co znaczy sowo "przecie"? zreszt? Jak si mwi po polsku "mean"? Dlaczego to moe
by trudne pytanie?*
2. Jak bdzie po angielsku "prawie"? jeszcze? chyba?
3. Jak bdzie po polsku multi-story car-park? Czy google bdzie wiedzie? Sprawd [check it].
4. Czy rozumiesz tu wszystko? [Nie, nie rozumiem.]
5. Czy profesor zawsze wszystko wie? A google?

* It can be a difficult question among other reasons because the verb has two meanings, often
confused: mie znaczenie have the meaning and chcie mwi want to say. Also, the word
is an adjective meaning malicious. The Polish title of the movie Mean Girls is Wredne
dziewczyny.
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2. LEKCJA DRUGA
Historia
Halina I Henryk studiuj jzyk angielski. Obecnie ucz si razem w bibliotece. Halina nie wie, jak
bdzie po angielsku polskie sowo przecie, mimo e dobrze rozumie, co to znaczy po polsku.
Henryk te nie wie. On myli, e to jest trudne pytanie. Wic kto moe wiedzie? Henryk myli,
e profesor bdzie wiedzie, ale Halina nie jest taka pewna. Ona jest prawie pewna, e profesor
te nie bdzie wiedzie. Moemy to po prostu wygooglowa, sugeruje Halina. Zreszt google
prawie wszystko wie.*

studiuj they are studying. obecnie av presently, currently. ucz si are studying. mimo, e
even though. zapyta am asz pf ask. prawie av almost. moemy we can. sugerowa ruj
jesz suggest. zreszt av for that matter, after all. wszystko everything.

*Actually not in this instance. Googles translation of przecie as yet is way off.


drzewo w jezdni tree in the roadway. A znak drogowy (road sign) one does not see every day.
wykrzyknik exclamation point
93

2. LEKCJA DRUGA
GRAMATYKA 2.E.


IRREGULAR COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS.

1. GOOD, BETTER, BEST. The adjective dobry good has the irregular comparative lepszy
better, and the superlative najlepszy best:
To radio jest dobre. This radio is good.
Tamto radio jest lepsze. That radio over there is better.
Tu jest nasze najlepsze radio. Here is our best radio.

The opposite of dobry good is zy bad, whose irregular comparative is gorszy worse, and whose
superlative is najgorszy worst. Since in the positive degree the word zy also means 'angry', the
adjective niedobry not good often substitutes for zy, especially with objects:

To radio jest niedobre. That radio is not good.
To radio jest gorsze. That radio is even worse.
To jest nasze najgorsze radio. That is our worst radio.

Comparative and superlative adjectives take endings in the same way that other adjectives do.
The comparative conjunction "than" is ni:

Ten magnetofon jest lepszy ni tamten. That tape recorder is better than that other.
To jest nasza najlepsza szkoa. That is our best school.

Each degree of a Polish adjective (positive, comparative, superlative) has a corresponding
unchanging adverbial form, used when the adjective does not modify a noun bu rather a verb,
adjective or other adverb. Here is a chart of the adjectives dobry, lepszy, najlepszy and zy,
gorszy, najgorszy, next to their corresponding adverbial forms:

ADJECTIVE ADVERB
positive
dobry -a -e good
dobrze well
comparative
lepszy -a -e better
lepiej better
superlative
najlepszy -a -e best
najlepiej best




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2. LEKCJA DRUGA
2. BAD, WORSE, WORST

ADJECTIVE
positive
zy -a -e bad
comparative
gorszy -a -e worse
superlative najgorszy -a -e worst

ADVERB
le badly
gorzej worse
najgorzej worst


Ona dobrze (le) rozumie. She understands well (badly).
On mwi jeszcze lepiej (gorzej) ni ja. He speaks even better (worse) than I.
On chyba rozumie najlepiej (najgorzej). He probably understands the best (the worst).
le (dobrze) si czuj. I feel bad (good).







3. A LOT, MORE, MOST. As an adjective, duy large, big and its irregular comparative
wikszy bigger, larger most often refer to size, not to amount:
Ten dom jest duy, ale tamten jest jeszcze wikszy. That house is big, but that one there is
even bigger.

The adverbial forms are most often used in the sense of amount rather than size:
Widz, e duo rozumiesz. I see that you understand a lot.
Rozumiem wicej, ni mylisz. I understand more than you think.

ADJECTIVE ADVERB
positive
duy -a -e large, big
duo a lot
comparative wikszy -a -e larger, bigger
wicej more
superlative
najwikszy a e biggest
najwicej most

The forms wikszy, najwikszy are also the comparative and superlative forms of wielki great.


4. LITTLE, LESS, LEAST. As an adjective, may most often means small, little in size, not in
amount:
Ten samochd jest may, ale tamten jest jeszcze mniejszy. That car is small, but that one
there is even smaller.
By contrast, the adverbial forms are most often used in the sense of amount rather than size:
Mao rozumiem po rosyjsku. I dont understand much Russian.
Jeszcze mniej rozumiem, ni ty. I understand even less than you.
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2. LEKCJA DRUGA

ADJECTIVE ADVERB
positive
may -a -e little, small
mao little, not much
comparative
mniejszy -a -e smaller
mniej less
superlative
najmniejszy -a -e smallest
najmniej least

Note the contrast between Troch rozumiem po rosyjsku. I understand a little Russian and
Mao rozumiem po rosyjsku. I dont understand much Russian.


4. MORE AND MOST WHEN COMPARING ADJECTIVES. While most common Polish
adjectives have special comparative and superlative forms, like waniejszy more important,
najwaniejszy most important from wany important, Polish is liberal about accepting bardziej
more and najbardziej most in front of an adjective in order to express comparison:
To jest bardzo wane sowo. That's a very important word.
Tu jest jeszcze bardziej wane sowo. Here is an even more important word.
Jakie sowo tu jest najbardziej wane? What word here is the most important?

The corresponding words for negative comparison are mniej less and najmniej least:
To sowo nie jest zbyt wane. This word is not very important.
Tamto sowo jest mniej wane. That word is less important.
To sowo jest najmniej wane. That word is least important.


SOME WORDS AND PHRASES USED IN COMPARISONS.

1. THAN, The conjunction used in sentences of comparison is ni than:
Ona mwi lepiej ni ja. She speaks better than I.
2. EVEN. The usual word for the adverb 'even' of surprise is nawet:
Nawet ja to rozumiem. Even I understand that.

However, with comparative adjectives and adverbs, one more often expresses 'even' with
jeszcze; see below under USES OF jeszcze.

3. BY A LOT. Although one may use duo to express (by) a lot, the usual phrase is o wiele
(by) a lot:
Ja wiem o wiele wicej ni ona. I know a lot more than she does.
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2. LEKCJA DRUGA

4. MORE AND MORE. The word coraz is used with comparative adjectives and adverbs to
express more and more, ever more, increasingly:
Ta lekcja jest coraz trudniejsza. This lesson is increasingly difficult.
Rozumiem coraz wicej. I understand more and more.
Mwisz coraz lepiej. You speak better and better.


ADDITIONAL PHRASES

1. TOO MUCH, SO MUCH; TOO LITTLE, TOO MUCH. The phrases za duo too much, za mao
too little, tak du so much, tak mao so little are used in a wide variety of practical contexts:
Za duo (za mao) mwisz. You talk too much (too little).
On nie powinien mwi tak duo (tak mao). He shouldnt speak so much (so little)

2. 'NOT EITHER'. One expresses 'either' in the sense of 'not either' with te nie:
- Nie rozumiem zbyt dobrze. I don't understand very well.
- Ja te nie rozumiem zbyt dobrze. I don't understand very well either.

3. USES OF jeszcze

a. STILL: The usual meaning of jeszcze is the 'still' of continuing activity:
Czy jeszcze tam pracujesz? Do you still work there?

b. NOT YET: This words negation, jeszcze nie, means not yet:
Ta winda jeszcze nie dziaa. That elevator isnt working yet.

c. EVEN: jeszcze can mean 'even' in combination with comparatives:
Ten samochd jest jeszcze lepszy. That car is even better.
Ona rozumie jeszcze lepiej ni ja. She understands even better than I do.

d. ONE MORE: The word jeszcze can also mean 'one more', i.e. 'one additional', 'else', as
in:
co jeszcze something else kto jeszcze someone else

gdzie jeszcze someplace else jeszcze raz one more time

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2. LEKCJA DRUGA
3. 'PROBABLY'. The normal colloquial word for 'probably' is chyba, which has the sense of 'I
suppose', 'perhaps', as in
To chyba nie jest polskie imi. That's probably not a Polish first name.
- Czy to radio dziaa? Does that radio work?
- Nie wiem, chyba dziaa. I don't know, I suppose it does.

- Czy on bdzie w domu? Will he be at home?
- Chyba tak. Probably so. (Chyba nie. Probably not).

- Kto tu mwi najlepiej? Who here speaks the best?
- Chyba ja. Probably me (I).

A more formal way to say 'probably' is prawdopodobnie.
Ona prawdopodobnie bdzie teraz w domu. She will probably be at home now.


MODAL WORDS AND VERBS THAT TAKE OTHER VERBS IN THE INFINITIVE. We have enountered
a number of verbs and other modal words that are followed by the infinitive of a verb:
chcie chc chcesz want
mona one may
lubi lubi lubisz
musie musz musisz must, have to
mie mam masz have to, be supposed
powinienem (powinnam) should, ought
to
trzeba one must, one should
mc mog moesz can, be able
wole wol wolisz prefer

Examples of use:
Chc lepiej mwi po polsku. I want to speak Polish better.
Lubi podrowa. I like to travel.
Mam by w domu. Im supposed to be3 at home.
Mona ju i? May one (=may I, may we) go now?
Musz si pieszy. I have to hurry.
Nie mog rozumie. Im not able to understand.
Powiniene mwi wyraniej. You ought to speak more clearly.
Trzeba go zapyta. One should ask him.
Wol i pieszo. I prefer to go on foot.



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WICZENIA 2.E.


2.29. Give the comparative of the adverb.

Duo rozumiesz. Wicej rozumiesz, ni ja. You undertand more than I.

Mao wiesz. Dobrze mwisz po polsku. le pracujesz. Duo pamitasz. le rozumiesz. Mao
pamitasz. Duo mwisz.

2.29.

2.30.


2.31.

2.32. Superlative degree of 'good'.

telewizor: a. Czy ten telewizor jest dobry? Is that television set good?
b. Tak, to jest nasz najlepszy telewizor. Yes, that's our best television set.

pralka, samochd, radio, magnetofon, lampa, video.


2.30. Comparative adverbs with the phrases even', 'a lot'. Because of the contrast, in this
exercise, do not omit the pronouns.

ty, ja, mwi: a. Ty mwisz lepiej ni ja. You speak better than I.
b. Ja mwi gorzej ni ty. I speak worse than you.

on, ona, pamita; ja, ty, rozumie; ona, ja, pracowa; pan, ja, y; ty, ona, czu si.



2.31. English, French: Mwi lepiej po angielsku ni po francusku. I speak English better than
French.

Italian, Spanish; Polish, Russian; German, French.


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2.32.

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2.33. Contrast of ten and tamten; contrast of 'good' and 'better'.

telewizor: Ten telewizor jest dobry, ale tamten jest jeszcze lepszy. That television set is good,
but that one is even better.

ksika, krzeso, st, hotel, student, lektorka, radio.

2.33.



2.34. Do exercise 2.33 using zy and gorszy, duy and wikszy, and may and mniejszy.

telewizor: Ten telewizor jest zy (duy, may), ale tamten jest jeszcze gorszy (wikszy,
mniejszy). That television set is good, but that one is even better.


2.35. too little, too much. Follow the model:

Za mao mwisz. Powinienem (powwinam) mwi wicej. You ought to speak more.

Other words taking infinitives (chc, musz, wol, mog, trzeba) may be substituted for
powinienem (powinnam).

Za duo mwisz. Za mao rozumiesz. Za duo rozumiesz. Za mao pracujesz. Za duo pracujesz.
Za mao jesz. Za duo jesz. Za mao pamitasz.



2.36. Give a question that the statement could answer.

Mieszkam w Warszawie: Gdzie pan(i) mieszka?


1. Pracuj w Krakowie.
2. Nazywam si Maria Zieliska.
3. Nie, ta winda jest zepsuta.
4. Tamta winda te nie dziaa.
5. Mam na imi Michael.

6. Tak, dobrze mwi po polsku.


7. Nie, nie rozumiem, co ona mwi.
8. Ona mwi zbyt szybko.
9. Margaret to jest angielskie imi.
10. Po polsku Michael to Micha.

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2.37. Sentence pairs based on the conversations. Translate into Polish.

1. Where do you live?
No, she is speaking too indistinctly.
I live in Warsaw.










14. Is that TV set any good?
2. Where do you work?
No, it's old and broken.
I work in Krakow.


15. Is that radio any good?
3. What is your name?
My name is Jan Zieliski (Joanna Zieliska). Yes,
it p robably
works.











4. Why are you asking?
16. Is that elevator over there also broken?
I'm simply curious.
I don't know.










5. Are you married (m/f)?
17. What does that word mean?
That's only my affair.
What word?











6. I don't understand why he is asking.
18. How does one say "almost" in Polish?
I don't understand either.
I don't know how one says that.









7. What's your (first) name?

My (first) name is Krzy (Krysia).
19. I don't know what that word means.

I don't know either.
8. That's not a Polish name.

No, it's English.
20. Where do you work?

I live and work in Krakow.
9. How would that be in Polish?

I don't know.
21. Who will know?









10. I'm curious how Chris would be in
Surely the profesor will know.
Polish.

In Polish Chris is Krzy (Krysia).
22. Probably the professor will know.

No, Im almost certain that he wont know.
11. Do you understand what that man is

saying?
23. I understand a lot.
No, he's speaking French.
I think that you understand even more than


you think.
12. Do you understand French?

Yes, but that man is speaking too quickly.
24. Does that elevator work?

13. Do you understand what that lady is
I dont know, but I prefer to go on foot.
saying?
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2.38. Fill in the blanks, translating the given word or phrase, and putting it in the correct form.
1. Jak to bdzie ---?

21. Mwi ___ po polsku.

in English

a little

2. Co znaczy to ---? word

22. Czy idziesz ---?
3. Czy ta pralka jest ---?

home
broken
23. Czy --- tu mieszka?
4. Czy pan (pani) jest ---?

someone
married

24. Czy on --- pracuje?
5. Czy rozumiesz, co mwi ---?

someplace
that gentleman (that lady)
25. Czy wiesz, --- on mieszka?
6. Czy ta winda --- jest dobra?

where
also

26. Dlaczego ---?
7. Dlaczego pan (pani) ---?

are you asking
want to know

27. To jest ---.
8. Gdzie pan (pani) ---?
our new museum
work
28. Kto tu mwi po polsku ---?
9. Jeste ---?

the best
certain

29. Nasz samochd jest ---.
10. Mieszkam w ---.

better
Krakow

30. Jestem pewien , --- on tam bdzie.
11. Ta winda --- dziaa.

that
probably

31. ---, gdzie on pracuje.

I don't remember
12. On (ona) mwi bardzo ---.

32. Nie rozumiem, --- ona mwi.
indistinctly

what
13. On (ona) mwi --- szybko.

33. Nikt --- nic nie wie.
too

never
14. Ta pralka --- dziaa.

34. On mwi --- ni ja.
not either

better
15. --- jestem ciekawy (ciekawa).
35. Ona mwi --- lepiej ni ja.
Simply
even
16. --- nic nie rozumiem.

36. Tamto radio jest ---.
Almost

better
17. --- mwisz po francusku.

37. To radio jest lepsze --- tamto.
But (After all)

than
18. To jest --- polskie nazwisko.
38. To --- nie jest polskie imi.
some kind of
probably
19. To jest ---.

39. To jest --- radio.
my business
our worst
20. To nie jest ---.

40. To jest --- szkoa.
a Polish first name
our best
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2. LEKCJA DRUGA
41. Nie wiem, --- on mwi po polsku.
almost
whether
46. Wol ---.
42. To jest ---.
go on foot.
difficult question
47. Pownna ---.
43. To sowo nie jest zbyt ---.
understand better
important
48. --- mwisz.
44. Tamto sowo jest --- wane.
too little
more/most
49. On powinien --- mwi.
45. Jestem --- pewien.
more


2.39. Vocabulary in a grammatical context.. Replace the word or words in boldface with
another word in a form adapted to the grammatical context. In some instances the choice is
very broad, in others it may be restricted to one or two items.

1. Moe on rozumie, ale ja nie rozumiem.
16. Jak to bdzie po polsku?
2. Czy ty pamitasz?

17. On mwi zbyt szybko.

3. Gdzie pani pracuje?

18. Gdzie chcesz mieszka?

4. Czy ten samochd jest bardzo nowy?

19. Troch mwi po francusku.

5. Ten pan jest spniony.

20. Nie pamitam, gdzie on pracuje?

6. To nie jest twoja ksika.

21. Nie wiem, co ona myli.

7. To nie jest twoja ksika.

22. Czy moesz mwi wyraniej?

8. Gdzie jest mj dom?

23. Nie wiem, czy on pracuje.

9. Gdzie jest mj dom?

24. Czy to jest francuskie imi?

10. Jej matka jest bardzo mia.

25. Ona nic nie wie.

11. Co pan studiuje?

26. Kto tam studiuje?

12. Co pan studiuje?

27. Ja te nie rozumiem.

13. Pracuj w Warszawie.

28. To jest nasze najlepsze radio.

14. Pracuj w Warszawie.

29. To jest nasze najlepsze radio.

15. Jak masz na imi?

30. On lepiej rozumie, ni ja.


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2. LEKCJA DRUGA
Mini-Lekcja 2: Liczba mnoga czasownika the plural of the verb


Although exercises in this book do not expect control of the plural of present-tense verbs until
Lesson 8, you will find the plural of verbs useful for retelling conversations and for narrating
other situations and events. It is not difficult to form.

1. The 1st and 2nd person plural forms of the verb (we and you-plural) are obtained by
adding my and cie to the 3rd person singular, hence

3.p.sg. 1.p.pl. 2.p.pl.
pyta s/he asks pytamy we ask pytacie you (informal)-plural ask.
idzie s/he goes idziemy we go idziecie you (informal)-plural go
robi s/he does robimy we do, robicie you (informal)-plural do.

2. The 3rd person plural (they) form of the verb may be obtained by substituting j for
1st person singular m, or for 1st person singular :

1.p.sg. 3.p.pl.
id I am going id they are going
musz I must musz they must
pytam I ask pytaj they ask
robi I am doing robi they are doing.
rozumiem I understand rozumiej they understand

Irregular: wiem, wiedz they know. jem, jedz they eat. s they are (from by, whose entire
present tense is irregular: jestem, jeste, jest jestem, jestecie, s).

The 3rd person plural pronoun (they) is oni for all-male and mixed gender groups; otherwise
it is one. On the basis of the above information, you should be able to form complete present-
tense conjugations of all verbs encountered thus far, as these for i go, musie must, and
pyta ask:
sg. pl. sg. pl. sg.
pl.
1.p. id idziemy musz musimy pytam
pytamy
2.p. idziesz idziecie musisz musicie pytasz
pytacie
3.p. idzie id musi musz pyta
pytaj


INTRODUCTION TO THE IMPERATIVE. The imperative, or command form of the verb is frequent
in informal speech. Although it is not introduced in detail until Lessoon 11, it is not difficult to
form. Here are some rules for forming the 2nd person singular imperative. Remember that this
form is informal, used among friends and family members.
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2. LEKCJA DRUGA

1. Verbs whose 1.p.sg form ends in drop esz, -isz, or ysz from the 2.p.sg. form, taking
care to restore the kreska in those verbs that need it:

I, id, idziesz (=id-esz) go, 2.p.sg. imperative id go!


mwi, mwi, mwisz speak, 2.p.sg. imperative mw speak!
pieszy si, piesz si, pieszysz si hurry, 2.p.sg. imperative piesz si hurry!


Sometimes an o or an in a root goes to , , respectively:
robi, robi, robisz do, 2.p.sg. imperative rb do!
by, bd, bdziesz be, 2.p.sg. imperative bd be!

2. Verbs whose 1.p.sg. form ends in m drop from the 3.p.pl. form:
czeka, czekam, czekasz wait, 3.p.pl. czekaj, 2.p.sg. imperative czekaj wait!
sucha, sucham, suchasz listen, 3.p.pl. suchaj, 2.p.sg. imperative suchaj listen!
Je, jem, jesz eat, 3.p.pl. jedz, 2.p.sg. imperative jedz eat!

3. One often achieves the aim of a command by using some subtler means of expression.
For example, instead of saying Mw ciszej! Speak more quietly! one may say, more
tactfully:
Prosz, czy pan moe mwi troch ciszej? Could you speak a little more quietly?

For fuller details and exceptions, see Lesson 11.



Neptune fountain in Gdask, which has become an emblem of the town.
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2. LEKCJA DRUGA

Konwersacje uzupeniajce
A. Jad subowo. Im traveling on business.


Pan: -Czy pani jedzie daleko?
Are you traveling far?
Pani: -Daleko.
Far.
Pan: -Dokd, jeli mona zapyta?
Where to, if I may ask?
Pani: -Do Gdaska.
To Gdask.
Pan: -Pani tam mieszka?
Do you live there?
Pani: -Nie. Jad tam subowo.
No, Im traveling there on business.

B. Wynajmuj pokj. I rent a room.

- Gdzie mieszkasz?
Where do you live?
- Mieszkam w domu studenckim. A ty?
I live in a dormitory. And you?
- Ja mieszkam prywatnie.
I live on my own.
- Masz wasne mieszkanie?
You have your own apartment?
- Nie, wynajmuj pokj.
No, I rent a room.


D. Co studiujesz?

- Co studiujesz na uniwersytecie?
What are you studying at the university?
- Prawo.
Law.
- Chcesz pracowa jako adwokat?
You want to work as a lawyer?
- Moe. Zobaczymy.
Maybe. Well see.
E. Jzyki obce. Foreign languages


- Co studiujesz na uniwersytecie?
- Jzyki obce.
- Jakie?
- Portugalski, arabski I polski.
- Bye (bya) kiedy w tych krajach?
- Byem (byam) w Polsce i Portugalii, ale w
krajach arabskich jeszcze nie byem
(byam).

What do you study at the university?


Foreign languages.
Which ones?
Portuguese, Arabic, Polish
Have you ever been to those countries?
Ive been in Poland and Portugal, but I
havent been in the Arabic countries yet.

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2. LEKCJA DRUGA
F. Duo rozumie. He understands a lot.

-Mwisz dobrze po polsku.
You speak Polish well.
-Dzikuj, ale rozumiem o duo lepiej, ni
Thanks, but I understand a lot more than I
mwi.
speak.
-Skd tak dobrze mwisz po polsku?
Where do you speak Polish so well from?
-Moi rodzice s z Polski. Mwi po polsku w
My parents are from Poland. They speak
domu.
Polish at home.
-Czy twoja siostra (twj brat) mwi tak
Does your sister (brother) speak Polish as
dobrze po polsku, jak ty?
well as you?
-Nie, ale duo rozumie.
No, but he understands a lot.

G. Mniej wicej. More or less.




-Czy rozumiesz ten film?
Do you understand this movie?
-Mniej wicej.
More or less.
-Czego nie rozumiesz?
What dont you understand?
-Tego, co ludzie mwi.
What people are saying.
-Jak moesz zrozumie film, kiedy nie wiesz,
How can you understand the movie if you
co ludzie mwi?
dont know what people are saying?
-Bo akcja jest zrozumiaa.
Because the action is understandable.


H. Te tak myl

-Jak masz na imi? Whats your first name?
-Izolda. Izolda.
-To bardzo adne imi. Thats a very pretty name.
-Tak mylisz? You think so?
-Tak. Yes.
-Dzikuj. Ja te tak myl. A ty jak masz na imi? Thanks. I do too. And whats your first
name?
-Trystan. Tristan.


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