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PROJECT TITLED

A Study on Training & Development


of HDFC Bank

Submitted by:
_______________________
Enrollment no. __________________

Submitted to:
_______________________

CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY
This is to certify that the project titled A Study on Training Practices of
Public Sector Banks is
i an original work of the Student and is being
submitted in partial fulfillment for the award of the Masters Degree in
Business Administration of Indira Gandhi National Open University. This
report has not been submitted earlier either to this University or to any other
University/Institution for the fulfillment of the requirement of a course of
study.

SIGNATURE OF SUPERVISOR

SIGNATURE OF STUDENT

Place:

Place:

Date:

Date:

ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Project work is never the accomplishment of an individual. Rather, it is an
amalgamation of the efforts, ideas and co-operation of a number of entities.
The completion of the project study that follows seemed to be a distant goal,
had it not been for the contributions of a number of people.
I extend a sincerest thanks to my project guide __________________
whose expertise paved the way for realization of the study objectives. The
Guide helped me a lot in each stop of the project and pointed out the area,
which needed more stress and coverage.
The pearls of learning obtained during the course of the project would surely
go a long way in shaping my career.

___________________

iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

INTRODUCTION

COMPANY PROFILE

INDUSTRY PROFILE

12

LITERATURE REVIEW

16

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

56

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

57

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

58

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

59

TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT AT HDFC BANK

61

DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATIONS

68

RECOMMENDATION

78

CONCLUSION

79

SCOPE OF FUTURE RESEARCH

80

BIBLIOGRAPHY

81

ANNEXURE

82

Personal Policies of HDFC Bank


Questionnaire

iv

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Never before has the rapid increase in new knowledge and technology and
in the base of change and itself demanded a learning response as great as
what is now required to remain competitive. Today individuals and
organizations must become continuous learners to survive and hence it is
not surprising to find that most successful organisations operate in a
continuous learning mode.
The

challenge

of

globalization,

technological

innovation

increasing

competition and growth through expansion, diversification and acquisition


has had a wide-ranging and far reaching impact on HRD. There is a need for
a continuous process that aims at providing fresh knowledge and skill inputs
to the employees so as to ensure the development of their competencies,
dynamism, motivation and effectiveness in a systematic and planned way,
thereby improving the productivity and overall organizational effectiveness.
As a result, training and development activities have acquired great
significance and are now firmly centre-stage in most of the organizations.
Hence it can be said that with the advent of free market economy rapid
change in the environment, training and development activities have
assumed an importance never before witnessed in Indian corporate history.
Training is the process of assisting a person in enhancing his efficiency and
effectiveness at work by improving and updating his professional knowledge
developing his personal skills relevant to his work and cultivating in him
appropriate behavior and attitude towards his work and people he is working
with. Development takes place as a result of training and essentially implies
growth plus change. Thus, training and development go hand in hand. My
endeavor has been to gain an in-depth insight into the process of
discovering, harnessing and developing of the human capital to the benefit
of both the individual and the organization into days highly dynamic and

competitive business world through a comprehensive study and analysis of


the latest training and development techniques.
In terms of training design the trainer needs to be alert to the demands made
by:

learning

behaviour

results required

For best effects it is important to consider what a particular piece of training


will deliver in terms of new knowledge, skills, ideas and abilities and also
what the individual will do with that learning in their job. The trainer will need
to develop a design, which includes or specifies how the learner is to
transfer what they have learned to their workplace and integrate it into dayto-day standards and behaviours. The final issue to be considered is how the
required results can be measured and be seen to have resulted from the
training provided.
Employees sent to various programs need to be evaluated so as to ascertain
the effectiveness of the program. Many people agree to the basic fact that no
much of a systematic effort towards evaluation exists in the organization.
Goods evaluation is based on careful specification of training objectives and
performance measures that will be used to determine if the training
objectives have been successfully achieved.

INTRODUCTION
Every organization needs well-trained and experienced people to perform
the activities that must be done. A job in today's dynamic organizations have
increasingly become complex, the importance of employee education and
training has increased. When jobs were simple, easy to learn and influenced
only a small degree of technological changes, there was little need for the
employees to upgrade their skills. But the situation has drastically changed
today. Instead, rapid job responsibilities are occurring, requiring employee
skills to be transferred and tuned.
Training is a learning experience in that; it seeks a relatively permanent
change in an individual that will improve the ability to perform on the job.
Training can involve changing of skills, knowledge, attitudes and behaviour.
Training is a prerequisite to improved performance as preparing human
resources for new jobs, transfers, promotions or change over to modern
technology as equipment. In addition to training of new entrants, manpower
at all levels require refreshers' training from time to time to avoid personal
obsolescence and improving competency to hold higher positions. Filippo
Lucidly discussed several advantages that stem from training. This includes
increased productivity, heightened morale, reduced supervision, reduced
accidents and increased organizational stability and flexibility. With the
increase in skills, there results an increase in both quality and quantity of
performance. The individuals who are equipped with the requisite training
accomplish the basic human needs such as security and ego satisfaction.
Trained employees can perform their work effectively even with little
supervision. It has been recognized that more errors are caused because of
inadequate preparedness on the working conditions. Adequate training on
job skills and positive attitude is likely to minimize rates of errors
considerably. The ability of the organization to maintain its effectiveness
despite the loss of key persons can be accomplished by keeping a reservoir
of trained replacement.

Training as part of the business


A useful approach for understanding the training process is to consider it as
a system whose boundaries interact with the rest of the business. Training
needs are identified, training is provided to meet the needs, the output is
compared to the requirements and any necessary changes are made to the
system to obtain the desired output. However, while this approach helps to
understand how training processes operate, it also puts training at the center
of the universe. The effect of this training-centred approach is that the
business will see training either as a panacea for all problems or as having
no direct relevance to the business.
A better approach is to extend the boundaries of the system so training is an
integral part of the business. Banks, which have made this degree of
progress, have taken the first step towards being a 'learning organization'.
Organizational flexibility can be achieved by maintaining highly trained
people with multiple skills to permit their smooth transfer to jobs where the
demand has multiplied. Indeed, a well-trained workforce is the greatest asset
to any organization.
Indian service industry is presently towards a rapid development track.
Improved technology and techniques are being obtained from the developed
countries. New quality systems are being accepted and implemented in the
form of ISO 9000 and QS 9000 Certification. In the light of the transformation
to be achieved, the most important area for concentration in Indian
organization particularly the banking industry would be developing the work
culture conducive for performance excellence. This can be achieved by
giving enormous thrust to human resource management activity in the
organizations, particularly giving training to employees.
Training programs supported to improve job performance, minimize conflicts,
prepare individuals for promotion, and to accept organizational changes
facilitate understanding of organizational goals and attain allied
behavioural activities.

COMPANY PROFILE
The Housing Development Finance Corporation Limited (HDFC) was
amongst the first to receive an 'in principle' approval from the Reserve Bank
of India (RBI) to set up a bank in the private sector, as part of the RBI's
liberalisation of the Indian Banking Industry in 1994. The bank was
incorporated in August 1994 in the name of 'HDFC Bank Limited', with its
registered office in Mumbai, India. HDFC Bank commenced operations as a
Scheduled Commercial Bank in January 1995.
HDFC is India's premier housing finance company and enjoys an
impeccable track record in India as well as in international markets. Since its
inception in 1977, the Corporation has maintained a consistent and healthy
growth in its operations to remain the market leader in mortgages. Its
outstanding loan portfolio covers well over a million dwelling units. HDFC
has developed significant expertise in retail mortgage loans to different
market segments and also has a large corporate client base for its housing
related credit facilities. With its experience in the financial markets, a strong
market reputation, large shareholder base and unique consumer franchise,
HDFC was ideally positioned to promote a bank in the Indian environment.
HDFC Bank began operations in 1995 with a simple mission: to be a "Worldclass Indian Bank". We realised that only a single-minded focus on product
quality and service excellence would help us get there. Today, we are proud
to say that we are well on our way towards that goal.
Company Vision
To build a World-Class Indian Bank.
It is extremely gratifying that our efforts towards providing customer
convenience have been appreciated both nationally and internationally.

2007

The Asian Banker Excellence in Retail Financial Services Awards


Best Retail Bank in India
5

Asian Banker
Our Managing Director Aditya Puri wins the Leadership Achievement Award
for India

2006

Business Today
Best Bank in India.
Forbes Magazine
One of Asia Pacific's Best 50 companies.
Businessworld
Best listed Bank of India.
The Asset Magazine's Triple A Country Awards
Best Domestic Bank.
Asiamoney Awards
Best Local Cash Management Bank in Large and Medium segments.
Euromoney Awards
"Best Bank" in India.

2005

Asiamoney Awards
Best Domestic Commercial Bank
Asiamoney Awards
Best Cash Management Bank - India .
The Asian Banker Excellence
Retail Banking Risk Management Award in India.
Hong Kong-based Finance Asia magazine
Best Bank India

Economic Times Awards


"Company of the Year" Award for Corporate Excellence.
The Asset Triple A Country Awards
Best Domestic Bank in India Region - 2005
The Business Today-KPMG Survey
Best Local Cash Management Bank in India US$11-100m - 2005
The Business Today-KPMG Survey
"Best Bank in India" for the third consecutive year in 2005.
Economic Times - Avaya Global Connect Customer Responsiveness Awards
"Most Customer Responsive Company - Banking and Financial Services 2005

2004

Asiamoney Awards
Best Local Cash Management Bank in India US$11-100m
Asiamoney Awards
Best Local Cash Management Bank in India >US$501m
Asiamoney Awards
Best Local Cash Management Bank in India 1989-2004 (poll of polls)
Asiamoney Awards
Best Overall Domestic Trade Finance Services in India - 2004
Asiamoney Awards
Most Improved company for Best Management Practices in India - 2004
Business World
One of India's Most Respected Companies - 2004
Forbes Global

Best Under a Billion, 100 Best Smaller Size Enterprises in Asia/Pacific and
Europe - 2004
Asian Banker Awards
Operational Excellence in Retail Financial Services - 2004
The Asset Triple A Country Awards
Best Domestic Bank in India - 2004

2003

Forbes Global
Best Under a Billion, 200 Best Small Companies - 2003
The Asset Triple A Country Awards
Best Domestic Bank in India -2003
BusinessWorld - The Business World Most Respected Company Awards
One of India's Most Respected Companies
The Asset magazine
Best Cash Management Bank
The Asset magazine
Best Trade Finance Bank
FE-Ernst & Young Best Banks Survey
Best New Private Sector Bank - 2003
Outlook Money
Best Bank in the Private Sector 2003
Business Today
Best Bank in India -2003
NASSCOM & economictimes.com - IT Users Awards
Best IT User in Banking -2003

There have been some other proud moments as well:

London-based Euromoney magazine gave us the award for "Best Bank India" in 1999, "Best Domestic Bank" in India in 2000, and "Best Bank in
India" in 2001 and 2002

Asiamoney magazine has named us "Best Commercial Bank in India


2002".

For our use of information technology we have been recognized as a


"Computerworld Honors Laureate" and awarded the 21st Century
Achievement Award in 2002 for Finance, Insurance & Real Estate
category by Computerworld, Inc., USA.

Our technology initiative has been included as a case study in their


online global archives .The Economic Times has conferred on us The
Economic Times Awards for Corporate Excellence as the Emerging
Company of the Year 2000-01.

Leading Indian business magazine Business India named us "India's


Best Bank" in 2000.

In the year 2000, leading financial magazine Forbes Global named us in


its list of "The 300 Best Small Companies" in the world and as one of the
"20 for 2001" best small companies in the world.

We are aware that all these awards are mere milestones in the continuing,
never-ending journey of providing excellent service to our customers. We are
confident, however, that with your feedback and support, we will be able to
maintain and improve our services.
HDFC Bank is headquartered in Mumbai. The Bank at present has an
enviable network of over 684 branches spread over 316 cities across India.
All branches are linked on an online real-time basis. Customers in over 120
locations are also serviced through Telephone Banking. The Bank's
expansion plans take into account the need to have a presence in all major
industrial and commercial centres where its corporate customers are located

as well as the need to build a strong retail customer base for both deposits
and loan products. Being a clearing/settlement bank to various leading stock
exchanges, the Bank has branches in the centres where the NSE/BSE have
a strong and active member base.
The Bank also has a network of about over 1695 networked ATMs across
these cities. Moreover, HDFC Bank's ATM network can be accessed by all
domestic

and

international

Visa/MasterCard,

Visa

Electron/Maestro,

Plus/Cirrus and American Express Credit/Charge cardholders.


Retail Banking
Propelled by higher fee-based income and retail banking, HDFC Bank,
countrys third largest bank in market capitalisation, posted a net profit of Rs
321.2 crore for the first quarter ended June 30, 2007. The rise in profit was
34.2% above the June quarter of the previous year.
With a spread of 4.1%, almost 55% of the profit was contributed by the retail
banking segment, said a senior executive of the bank.
The banks Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR) was at 13.1% as of June 30,
2007, of which tier I CAR was 9.2%. The bank is raising around Rs 3,000
crore of capital shortly through a combination of overseas and domestic
borrowing programme. Though there has been further slippage of stressed
assets in absolute amount, the net non-performing assets of the bank for the
reporting period is pegged at 0.4% of its total advances.
Other income (non-interest revenue), registered a strong growth of 77.3%
from Rs 290.9 crore for the first quarter ended June 30, 2006 to Rs 515.8
crore in the first quarter of the current year.
Other income (non-interest revenue) consisted principally of fees and
commissions of Rs 372.2 crore, foreign exchange and derivatives revenues
of Rs 146.5 crore, and loss on investments of Rs 4.1 crore, as against Rs
290.6 crore, Rs 55.8 crore and Rs 62.29 (loss) crore respectively, for the
quarter ended June 30, 2006.

10

The banks total income is estimated at Rs 2,641.7 crore for the quarter
ended June 30, 2007, as against Rs 1,795.2 crore of the corresponding
previous year quarter.
The banks provisions and contingencies for the quarter were Rs 307.1
crore, comprising specific provisions for non-performing assets and general
provision for standard assets of Rs 299.7 crore as against Rs 185.4 crore for
the quarter ended June 30, 2006.
Total balance sheet size as of June 30, 2007, was Rs 105,695 crore, an
increase of 32.6% over June 30, 2006. Banks total deposits were Rs 81,604
crore, 34.6% over Rs 60,630 crore of the previous year quarter. Savings Net
advances at Rs 53,839 crores as of June 30, 2007 were up by 32.7% over
June 30, 2006. Retail loans constituted 57% of the net advances as of June
30, 2007. The banks total customer assets (including advances, corporate
debentures, investments in securitised increased to Rs 45,764 crore in June
30.
DIFFERENT DEPARTMENTS

Middle market
Global Banking
Mutual Funds
Payments
Cash Management
ITSM
Customer service
Trade Service
Home Loan
Personnel Loan
HR
Corporate Sales
Locker

Credit cards

11

INDUSTRY PROFILE
a) Origin and development of the industry
Banking Industry in India has always revolved around the traditional function
of deposits and credit. Their role had been defined as to assist the overall
economic growth with majority of share being controlled by the Government
of India in most of the banks. But with the process of liberalization, and the
technological

revolution

the

banking

industry

has

also

undergone

tremendous change in the last 5 years. The market, which was largely
controlled by the public sector banks, has now been facing stiff competition
not only from foreign players but also from the new generation private sector
banks. The rules of the game have been changing with the RBI introducing
new norms to make banks more accountable and to adopt the practices
followed worldwide.
Most of the banks have now been trying to function on the concept of a
Universal Bank. Apart from the traditional functions of a commercial bank,
they are taking steps to build themselves into a one stop financial centre
wherein all the financial products would be available. Banks have started
catering to the retail segment to improve their deposit portfolio. In order to
have a maximum share in this segment, most of the banks have been
introducing new products. The delivery channels have also been shifted from
branches to ATMs, phone banking, net banking etc.
Banks traditionally involved in working capital financing have started offering
consumer loans and housing loans. Some of the banks have started offering
travel loans as well. Retail financing is the other area where the banks have
started to concentrate. The loan formalities too have been relaxed to a great
extent and sanctioning time has been speeded up.
History of Banking Industry
Banks are the most prominent and very important part of the financial
economy of India. The performance of banks is completely linked to the
growth of the economy while the nature and quantum of growth is in turn
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linked to the availability of bank credit. banks have been used by successive
governments to achieve their social, political and economic goals. the
structure of the government banking system has undergone numerous
change since independence. two phases of nationalization, introduction of
regional rural banks in 1975 (to focus on rural spread on banking) and
permission to new private banks to set up operations since 1993-94 are
some of the major changes undergone.
Banking Industry in India has always revolved around the traditional function
of deposits and credit. Their role had been defined as to assist the overall
economic growth with majority of share being controlled by the Government
of India in most of the banks. But with the process of liberalization, and the
technological

revolution

the

banking

industry

has

also

undergone

tremendous change in the last 5 years. The market, which was largely
controlled by the public sector banks, has now been facing stiff competition
not only from foreign players but also from the new generation private sector
banks. The rules of the game have been changing with the RBI introducing
new norms to make banks more accountable and to adopt the practices
followed worldwide.
Most of the banks have now been trying to function on the concept of a
Universal Bank. Apart from the traditional functions of a commercial bank,
they are taking steps to build themselves into a one stop financial centre
wherein all the financial products would be available. Banks have started
catering to the retail segment to improve their deposit portfolio. In order to
have a maximum share in this segment, most of the banks have been
introducing new products. The delivery channels have also been shifted from
branches to ATMs, phone banking, net banking etc.
Technology has become an important medium of not only attracting new
customers but also in retaining them. The new generation private sector
banks have made a strong presence in the most lucrative business areas in
the country because of technology upgradation. While, their operating
expenses have been falling as compared to the PSU banks, their efficiency

13

ratios (employees productivity and profitability ratios) have also improved


significantly.
b) Growth and present status of the industry.
KEY INDUSTRY STATISTICS OF SCHEDULED COMMERCIAL BANKS
(Rs bn)
2006

2007

2008

2009

7140

8132

8729

9928

Demand

1174

1273

1266

1347

Time

5966

6859

7463

7498

3688

4358

4667

4779

Food

168

256

320

373

non-food

3520

4102

4347

4399

Investments

2545

3088

3332

3347

govt. sec

2232

2784

3023

3038

other approved sec

313

304

309

314

Cash in hand

43

53

53

57

Balance with RBI

635

574

631

656

Cash-Deposit ratio

9.50%

7.70%

7.80%

7.80%

Investment-Deposit ratio

35.70%

38%

38.20%

38.20%

Credit-Deposit ratio

51.70%

53.60%

53.50%

53.50%

Total deposits

Total bank credit

Banks traditionally involved in working capital financing have started offering


consumer loans and housing loans. Some of the banks have started offering
travel loans as well. Retail financing is the other area where the banks have
started to concentrate. The loan formalities too have been relaxed to a great
extent and sanctioning time has been speeded up.

14

Mergers and Acquisitions have also started playing their role in the banking
industry where lots of players are trying to consolidate their position. The
recent merger of HDFC Bank with Times Bank and ICICI Bank with Bank of
Madura are important steps in this direction. In recent times, most of the new
private sector banks have shown interest in inducting a foreign partner in
their operations.
Most of the banks are also planning to enter the insurance business and are
in the process of identifying their strategic partners. Since most of the banks
already have an extensive distribution network, this new business should
result in substantial revenues. But with most of the top league players
planning to enter this business, the more efficient and pro active players
would be able to take a lead.
c) Future of the industry.
The Indian Banking industry is largely dominated by the public sector banks.
These banks till the early 90s were involved in the traditional banking
business of deposits and credit lending. They performed a supportive role in
the overall growth of the economy. While most of these banks used to focus
on the growth of balance sheet, profitability was not a significant factor in the
competition. In most of the banks, the government has a holding of 100%
whereas in the few banks, the stake has fallen because of a public issue in
the post liberalization period. The government is proposing to bring out a bill
wherein its share in all these banks would stand reduced to 33% from the
current levels.

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LITERATURE REVIEW
Organisations are made up of people and function through people. Without
people organisations cannot exist. The resources of men, money, materials
and machinery are collected, coordinated and utilized through people. These
resources by themselves cannot fulfill the objectives of an organisation. They
need to be united into a team. It is through the combined efforts of people
that material and monetary resources are effectively utilized for the
attainment of common objectives. Without united human efforts, no
organisation can achieve its goals. All the activities of an organisation are
initiated and completed by the persons who make up the organisation.
Therefore, people are the most significant resource of any organisation. This
resource is called human resource and it is the most important factor of
production. According to L.F. Urwick, "business houses are made or broken
in the long run not by markets or capital, patents or equipment but by men."
Of all the resources manpower is the only resource, which does not
depreciate, with the passage of time.
From the national viewpoint, human resources may be defined as "the
knowledge, skills, creative abilities, talents and aptitudes obtained in the
population." From the viewpoint of an organisation, human resources
represent the people at work. They are the sum-total of the inherent abilities,
acquired knowledge and skills as exemplified in the talents and aptitudes of
its employees. According to Jucius, human resources or human factors refer
to "a whole consisting of inter-related, interdependent and interacting
physiological, psychological, sociological and ethical components."
Thus,

human

resources

represent

the

quantitative

and

qualitative

measurement of the workforce required in an organisation.


Human resources are characterized by the following features:
(i)

Human resources of an organisation are the product of their biological


inheritance

and

interactions

with

the

environment.

Family

relationships, religious influences, caste or racial background,

16

educational accomplishments and organisational climate influence the


attitudes, behaviour and performance of human beings.
(ii)

Human resources are heterogeneous. They consist of a large number


of individuals each having a unique personality, different needs,
attitudes and values. Each has his own physical and psychological
traits. Most of the problems of an organisation are people-related
problems. These problems arise from the mistaken belief that people
are alike and they can be treated identically. In order to make effective
use of its human resources, an organisation must recognise and pay
attention to differences between individuals so that each person can
maximize his/her potential.

(iii)

Human resources are dynamic and behave differently. They react to


the same situation in quite different ways. Even the same individual
may behave differently at two different points of time. It is, therefore,
very difficult to predict human behaviour.

(iv)

Human resources are the most important element in an organisation.


The effective utilization of all other resources depends upon the
quality of human resources.

(v)

Human resources have the greatest potential to develop and grow


provided the right climate is provided to them. An organisation can
survive and grow if it has the right people at the right time working at
right jobs.

(vi)

The term human resources is wider than the term personnel. Human
resources include all the dynamic components of all the people at all
levels in the organisation whereas personnel means the employees
working in the organisation.

Training and Development


The effective functioning of any organization requires that employees learn
to perform their jobs at a satisfactory level of proficiency. An effective
organization wishes to have amongst its ranks individuals who are qualified

17

to accept increasing responsibilities. So much so that organizations need to


provide opportunities for the continuous development of employees not only
in their present jobs, but also to develop their capabilities for other jobs for
which they might later be considered.
Training refers to the teaching/learning activities carried on for the primary
purpose of helping members of an organization to acquire and apply the
knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes needed by that organization. Broadly
speaking, training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an
employee for doing a particular job.
Though it is true that unplanned learning through job experience helps
development, the experience of most organizations is that it is advantageous
to plan systematic training programmes of various types as a regular part of
an adequate personnel development programme. Such programmes are
definite assets in helping managers to learn correct job methods, to achieve
a satisfactory level of job performance, and to acquire capabilities that would
be valuable in possible future jobs.
Planning and Training Activities
The following steps must form the basis of any training activity:
1. Determine the training needs and objectives.
2. Translate them into programmes that meet the needs of the selected
trainees.
3. Evaluate the results.
Training Inputs
There are three basic types of inputs: skills, attitudes, and knowledge.
The primary purpose of training is to establish a sound relationship between
the worker and his job- the optimum man-task relationship. Such a
relationship is at its best when the workers attitude to the job is right, when
the workers knowledge of the job is adequate, and he has developed the
necessary skills.

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Training activities in an industrial organization are aimed at making desired


modifications in skills, attitudes and knowledge of employees so that they
perform their jobs most efficiently and effectively.
Skills
Training activities nowadays encompass activities ranging from the
acquisitions of a simple motor skill to a complex administrative one. Training
an employee for a particular skill is undertaken to enable him to be more
effective on the job. For instance, new workers can be trained to achieve
levels of output attained by experienced older workers. Similarly existing
workers whose levels of output are below par can be retrained.
Attitude
Through orientation (induction) programmes, organization develops attitudes
in new employees, which are favorable toward the achievement of
organizational goals. Training programmes in industry are aimed at moulding
employee attitudes to achieve support for company activities, and to obtain
better cooperation and greater loyalty.
Knowledge
Training aimed at imparting knowledge to employees in the organizations
provides for understanding of all the problems of modern industry. This
knowledge for a worker is specific to his job, and related broadly to plant,
machinery, material product, and quality and standard of product. Knowledge
for managerial personnel may be related to complexity of problems in
organizing, planning, staffing, directing and controlling.
In general, training initiated for imparting knowledge to employees should
consider three aspects:
1. Knowledge in general about factory and work environment- job
context
2. Specific knowledge related to job- job content
3. Knowledge related to quality and standards of product or quality of

19

work.
Areas of Training
Areas of training can be classified into the following categories:
1. Training in company policies and procedures (induction training)
2. Training in particular skills.
3. Training in human relations.
4. Managerial and supervisory training.
5. Apprentice training.
Training in company policies and procedures
This is a part of the induction of a new employee. The objective is to orient
new employees with the set of rules, procedures, management, organization
structure, environment and products, which the firm has and/or deals with.
Orientation is a continuous process aimed at the adjustment of all
employees to new and changing situations. It aims to impart the facts of
company rules and policy, to create attitudes of confidence in the company,
prides in the products, respect for company personnel, and to provide
information about needs and skills, development, quality of production and
work organization.
It also enables employees to get the first impression of the culture of the
firm and the kind of people he will have to deal with. At no time does it allow
for questioning or change of system. It, therefore, in no way contributes to
the organizations growth, nor does it enhance an employees ability to
contribute to the organizations growth. Induction programs are also used for
in-company promotes, who have to be oriented to the demands of their
requirements.
Induction programs are based on the philosophy that the process of initial
adjustment and entry to the organization is a difficult process. Unless a
conducive and supportive atmosphere facilitates it, it would leave the new
entrant with several uncertainties in his mind and make his assimilation in
20

organizational life more complex and difficult. Many organizations are


conscious of this and devote considerable effort to make the initial entry
phase a pleasant and cordial one.
Training In Particular Skills
Training of employees for particular skills is undertaken to enable the
employee to be more effective on the job. It is a here-and-now proposition,
somewhat like induction training, which does not have a very significant
development aspect to it. Its aim is narrow-to guarantee a certain
contribution to the job, for instance sales training and machine skills.
Human Relation Training
This is a broad category embracing many different aspects.
Self-learning and inter-personnel competence can be included in this
category-all concerned with generally the same theme. It stresses a concern
for individual relationships, for feeling and treating people as human
beings, rather than as machines. Not only is this concern and awareness in
ones attitudes and behavior conducive to better work-place relations, but
also to enhanced productivity. This category of training is oriented towards
the development of the individual and consequently the organizations
efficiency in terms of better teamwork.
Problems Solving Training
Many in-company programmes also revolve around organizational units, like
divisions of branches, which generally handle a product line. The practice is
to hold together all managerial personnel in a particular division/ branch from
the both headquarter and the field of offices and discuss common problems
and solutions across the table. This not only helps solve problems, but also
serves as a forum for the exchange of ideas and information, which could be
utilized in other situations.
Managerial and Supervisory Training
The managerial job combines both techniques and conceptual knowledge. If
it is that of a specialist, it would emphasize some techniques and knowledge
21

like operations, research, finance, production, and personnel management.


If on the other hand it is a general management job, then the emphasis
would be on the principles of scientific management: organizing, planning,
staffing, directing and controlling.
Apprentice Training
The apprentice act 1961 was based on the philosophy of providing some
technical training for unskilled people in order that their employment
opportunity is enhanced, or alternatively to help them be self-employed.
Industrial organizations in specified industries are required to train
apprentice in proportion to their workforce in designated trades. The duration
of training is one to four years.
Learning and Training
Irrespective of the type or method of training, trainer has to keep in mind
some of the principles of learning or motivation, which would enhance
internalization of what is taught.
Motivation
A trainee needs to have a desire to learn and benefit from the programme. If
he is not interested, or is de-motivated, then the learning outcome is going to
be insignificant and the company will have spent its money badly. On the
other hand, being too intense about learning and outcome may result in
setting over-ambitious goals for the individual.
Reinforcement
Following on the concept of motivation is that of reinforcement. For learning
to take place and be internalized to the desired extent, a trainee is rewarded
or given some encouragement. This reinforcement, or the acknowledgement
that what has been acquired is desirable, can be either an extrinsic or
intrinsic reward- external praise or some tangible reward, or the individuals
feeling of a sense of progress. Current stress is on positive support and
helpful behavior, even when mistakes are made.

22

Feedback
During the training process, it is useful for the trainee to be told how he is
progressing. The knowledge of results is, several researchers have
confirmed, an effective motivator. Constant and periodic feedback has
positive effects on the trainees learning. Unless the trainee knows how close
his performance comes to the desired standard, he will not have an
opportunity to improve. Feedback, therefore, provides a basis for correcting
oneself. Secondly, feedback helps to sustain the trainees interest in the
task, or in the learning that is taking place, by bringing greater involvement
with the learning process. If feedback is to be meaningful, it should follow a
learning segment as quickly as possible.
Transfer of Training
The maximum use of training can be made if the trainee is able to transfer
his learning to his actual work role. This is possible if elements are
incorporated in the training situation from the job role, either existing or
proposed. The more similar the learning situation is to the job situation, the
higher the degree of transfer the trainee can expect, and hence the greater
the relevance of the training programme.
Repetition
Repetition etches a pattern into our memory, e.g., when one studies for an
examination, it is necessary to repeatedly go over ideas so that they can be
recalled later.
Relevance
Relevance relates to the meaningful use of material, which aids learning,
e.g., trainers usually explain in the overall purpose of a job to trainees before
assigning them a particular task.
Training Policy
A company's training policy represents the commitment of its top
management to training, and is expressed in the rules and procedures that

23

govern or influence the standard and scope of training the organization.


Training policies are necessary for the following reasons.
1. To highlight the firm's approach to the training function, provide guidance
for design and execution, and to provide information regarding
programmes to all employees.
2. Formulation of policy helps in identification of priority areas in training,
and since resources are scarce, they are prioritized according to felt
needs.
3. A training policy document helps to communicate the firm's intent
regarding an employee's career development, and also gives the
employee the opportunity to better his prospects through training.
Positive Outcomes of Training
The continued effectiveness and efficiency of an organization is to some
extent dependent on the ability of its employees to produce at high levels of
efficiency, and keep abreast with their changing job-role demands. Training
will provide for an output in this direction. The several positive benefits of
training are that:
-

Training helps employees to learn their jobs and attain desired levels of
performance speedily thus cutting costs and contributing to better
utilization of machines and materials, for example in workers' categories.

Training helps to reduce the cost of raw materials and products-reducing


losses due to waste, poor quality products and damage to machinerywhich would result if an untrained employee were to learn on his own.

Employee motivation is enhanced when employees known that the firm


would provide them training opportunities to increase their skills and
knowledge, thus enabling them to develop and qualify for higher posts.
Such practices create favorable attitudes towards the organization, which
could result in better adjustment and commitment to one's work and the
organization. Thus cooperation could help reduce employee turnover,
absenteeism, accidents, dissatisfactions and grievances.
24

Finally, training aids in the development of individual skills, better


methods, new equipment, and sometimes new work place relationships.
Such a process would also facilitate technological change by updating
the versatility of employees.

Training Methods
Training methods are a means of attaining the desired objective in a learning
situation. Given background work such as identification of training needs, a
programme design and its duration (based on these needs), it then becomes
pertinent to analyze and select the best method or combination of methods,
given the several constraints, to attain the programme objective. The choice
of a method several constraints, to attain the programme objective. The
choice of a method would depend on a wide variety of factors, such as
competence of instructors, relevance to the participants, the programme
design, i.e., is a particular method the best vehicle to put across the
contents, and finally its cost implications.
Numerous training methodologies and techniques have been developed
over the years to meet certain specific needs. Each method has structured
procedures for conduct that offer certain advantages in developing certain
limited facets of a trainee, and suffer from some limitations.
In using a particular method, one should know its strengths and
weaknesses, given the situation, and analyze its relevance, its purpose, and
if it is useful, how to get the most out of it. This would provide the rationale of
the various training methods. The trainer should know the rationale of each
of the methods before attempting to use any of them.
Objectives of Training Methods
Training methods have a number of overlapping objectives. As stated earlier,
they have to be chosen in relation to the programme design requirements.
The main objectives of individual training methods could be: demonstration
value, developing interest and finally, appeal to senses. However, more than
one, or even all three objectives may be found in one method.

25

Demonstration Value
Complete demonstration of job requirements is training of a kind that
enables the trainee to grasp the meaning of ideas, concepts, or procedures
visually. Such a method can be used effectively as an aid to overcome the
"breakdown of communication". People remember things that they see and
hear, much longer than they do information they receive through talks or
reading, alone.
Developing Interest
One of the factors to be kept in mind in choosing a method is its ability to
hold and arouse the interest of the trainee in the learning situation. Much
research has been done in the field to test the effectiveness of various
methods. A trainer has to consider alternative methods of presenting training
material to participants in order to stimulate their interest and facilitate
retention of the matter. For instance, if traditionally the matter has been
presented through lectures, perhaps audiovisual methods could be used, or
instead project work be assigned which would mean learning by doing or
researching the subject oneself.
Appeal to Many Senses
The statement that "to see a thing once is better than to hear it a hundred
times emphasizes the inadequacy of words as a means of communication.
Experience indicates that almost 75 per cent of what we imbibe is through
the sense of sight and the rest is through the sense of hearing, touch, smell
and taste. From the trainer's point of view it would be beneficial to utilize as
many of the trainee's senses as possible, in order to improve retention of
learning.
Application of these basic objectives or guidelines alone would not be
enough. For the appropriate use of a method, problem analysis and needs
identification are also necessary.
The trainer has to understand and identify the problem area; what is wrong,
and where is the correction needed? He has to examine whether there is a

26

problem with the manner in which the task is done, i.e., an operational
problem, or whether there is a problem with an individual or individuals, i.e.,
a human-relations problem.
Secondly, selecting the appropriate method would be dependent on the level
of the trainee in an organizations' hierarchy-is he a shop floor worker,
supervisor or a manager?
Finally, before selecting a training method, the trainer should keep the mind
cost effectiveness.
Classification of Methods
Depending on the learning outcome, and the process by which it is attained,
it is possible to categorize the various methods into several groups.
On-the-job-oriented Training Methods
In this cluster are included methods whose main objective is centered
around the job, more specifically, learning on the job itself by a variety of
methods. They embrace development through performance on the job,
where organizational strength and constraints, human behavior and
technological systems have full and free play. Methods, which fall into this
category, are:
1. On-the-job training.
2. Job rotation.
3. Guidance and counseling.
4. Brainstorming sessions.
5. Syndicate method (working in small groups).
Simulation Methods
Real-life situations are simulated for imparting training. The methods falling
in this category are:
1. Role-play.
2. Case method.
27

3. Management games.
4. In-basket exercise.
Role Play
The role-play method requires participants to enact roles on the basis of a
written script or an oral description of a particular situation. The enactment
process provides an insight and understanding of the demands and
situations of the assigned role, thereby facilitating empathy with another's
(actual) role. The main emphasis in management training is in facilitating
better understanding of interpersonal problems, and attitude change. If not
handled well, however, it could degenerate a childish exercise, where,
instead of focusing on the problem to be understood, the situation might be
over-dramatized.
Case Method
The case is an actual situation, which is written for discussion purposes.
Analysis would need problem identification, analysis of the situation and of
its causes. There could be several solutions to the problem, and each of
these alternatives and their implications needs to be examined. In the real
world, on many occasions, a manager may not have all the relevant
information with him before taking a decision. Similarly, the case method
approximates this reality and in many situations decisions are taken with
limited data, or what is termed decision-making under uncertainty. The
managerial response in such a situation is explored and understood and
learning consists of developing problem-solving skills.
Management Games
The game is built around the model of a business situation and trainees are
divided into teams representing the management of competing companies.
They simulate the real-life process of taking operation decisions. Decisions
taken are analyzed by a computer, or manually, and a series of the
implications of these decisions are fed back. The game is played in several
rounds to take the time dimensions into account.

28

In-basket exercise
This is a simulation training technique designed around the "incoming mail"
of a manager. A variety of situations are presented which would usually be
dealt with by an executive in his working day. His reactions and responses
are taken down in writing and then analyzed. Feedback on his decisions
forces him to re-consider not only his administrative actions but also his
behavioral style.
Knowledge-based methods
In this method of training, an effort is made to expose participants to
concepts and theories, basic principles, and pure and applied knowledge in
any subject area. Basically, it is aimed at creating an awareness of the
knowledge of fundamentals. The focus is essentially transmission of
knowledge which has to be imbibed by the participants. The methods in this
category are:
1. Lectures.
2. Seminars, workshops.
3. Educational training programmes at academic institutes.
4. Programmed instruction in which knowledge is disseminated in book
form to be learnt at the individual's pace, and where feedback on the
learning is a given aspect of the method.
5. Films and TV.
6. Group discussion, especially in combination with some of the above, for
assimilation and integration.
Training Organization
There are several administrative aspects that have to be taken into account
before launching in-house training programme, or nominating participants to
external programmes.

29

In-Company/External Programmes
The company needs to formulate its thinking regarding participation in
programmes offered by external agencies like educational management
institutes, government institutions and consultant programmes, vis--vis
conducting its own in-house programmes. Where employee numbers are
small, it may not be worthwhile to set up a training establishment and
conduct in-house programmes, but as the numbers increase, this options
may offer a distinct possibility. There is the cost aspect to be considered: for
the cost of sending a participant to an external programme, several
employees could be trained within an organization. Yet, the advantage of an
external programme would be a breath of fresh air through discussions with
other participants and a fresh approach could be brought into the
organization and its problems. The skills and techniques learnt might also be
different from those offered by one's own in-house programmes.
Training Budgets
A training budget for each internal programme has to be prepared, which
would include cost of facilities like training room, food, transport, guest
faculty, if any, and cost of teaching materials. In fact, the cost to the
organization should also include the wages and salaries of employee
participants who would be temporarily pulled out of their regular jobs and
sent for training. Yet, organizational requirements would necessitate their
jobs being done by someone else. The reason for costing the trainee
employee's salary would be that they would not be making any contribution
to the company during the training period, and that this is an additional
burden on the company's finances.
Evaluation of Training
Evaluation of any activity is important, since in evaluating one tries to judge
the "value or worth of the activity, using the information available".
What is the purpose of evaluation? Evaluation, by bringing to the fore
"weaknesses and failuresstrengths and successes," helps to improve

30

training methods. Evaluation helps management to answer the following


questions
-

The relevance of the programmes to the organization's needs-what


changes if any should be made in existing programmes to realign to the
organization's needs.

Feedback on the choice of areas of training will also need to be


examined in the context of its contributions to the organization's
effectiveness.

Should the money continue to be spent on this activity, or another more


relevant activity that will improve attainment of the organization's
objectives?

Reactions from trainees about the training programme can help identify its
strengths and weaknesses. These reactions can be used as a base for the
improvement of programmes, but those evaluating must first be definite
about the aspects they are interested in investigating.
An evaluation of a training method or system must also take into account the
suitability of objectives. "If the objectives were inadequately formulated in the
first place, even a 'good' training programme has really no chance to be
effective."
Objectives have to be clear-cut, must relate to needs, and make way for
changes. Objectives cannot be static and need to be re-appraised frequently
so that training may result in improved overall organizational efficiency.
Evaluation of objectives helps to bridge the gap between needs and
objectives.
The Evaluation Process
The most useful means of evaluating training are observations, ratings,
trainee surveys and trainee interviews. Observation is concerned with
observing the behavior of people in a certain situation. To be useful, it must
be specific, systematic, quantitative, recorded and expert. Needless to say,
observers, must be trained and have specific ideas about what they are
31

looking for. This is the most direct method of "assessing the quality of formal
training and of identifying deficiencies".
The second method of evaluation is that of ratings. "Various elements of the
training system should be rated independently by several qualified raters.
These elements include trainees, instructors, equipment, materials, training
aids and facilities." The use of rating scales requires supervised practice, as
it is easy to commit errors.
The third method is trainee surveys where opinions of the trainees are used
for evaluation. These opinions should not be used independently, since they
cannot always be relied on to be objective.
The fourth method is trainee interviews, whereby ideas and views that
trainees might not put down on paper can be determined by "skilful
questioning". This method allows for more precise information and details to
be obtained and prevents ambiguity, especially in interpretation.
The final method is that of collecting the observations and recommendations
of instructors through surveys and interviews "to ensure that the system is
consistent with the needs of the implementers of the training". Interviews
with instructors will bring to the surface characteristics that instructors may
feel reluctant to put down on paper.
Is Training The Best Medicine?
Imagine this: A man is having chest pains. He rush as to his doctor, tells him
he is having a heart attack, and demands that he perform open-heart
surgery. He obligingly agrees. It is not until after a great deal of pain and
expense that he discovers it was only in digestion.
When it comes to training, a similar situation happens all the time. If scrap
rates are too high, productivity is too low, and employees neglect to follow
standard quality procedures, they must need more training. Before rushing
into the pain and expense of interrupting production to send them off to a
seminar it is necessary to make sure that training is the proper solution.

32

Just as a doctor must understand the cause of a patients symptoms before


he can attempt a cure, one needs to know why employees are not meeting
the companys expectations before taking action. Thats where a trainingneeds analysis will help. It tells how well employees are doing their jobs,
where they could use some improvement and how that improvement can
best he achieved. Done correctly, it can save the company from wasting a lot
of time and money on inappropriate training programs.
Gathering the information
To do a valid training-needs analysis, one needs to gather as much objective
data about employee performance as possible. There are many ways to
collect this information, including:

Casual conversations

Formal interviews

Direct observation

Work samples

Written records

Surveys

Tests

Focus groups

A professional trainer can be hired to perform an analysis but its not just a
technique for trainers. Everybody should be trained in this simple process.
Its a supervisors or a managers job to make sure people can do their jobs.
To do training needs analysis the following steps should be followed:
Study current performance: Before tying to change anything, its essential
to know what is already happening. What skills and knowledge do
employees already have? What tasks are they performing on their daily
jobs?

33

Define ideal performance: what standard of performance is necessary for


the business and the employees to be a success? What tasks must they do?
What level of accuracy or productivity should they achieve? What skills and
knowledge must they have?
Find the gap: What is the difference between the definition of ideal
performance and what the employees are currently doing? Are there any
areas that arent functioning as well as they should? Where are there
opportunities for improvement? This is the performance gap that the
company is trying to fill. One must look for problems or opportunities that
may occur in future as well as ones that already exist.
Identify the cause: Why are workers not working up to standard? Have they
ever performed the job correctly? Where and when do the problems occur?
Has anything changed recently that might have instigated the problem?
Compare best and worst performers to find the differences in what they do.
When these steps have been completed one should be ready to make
diagnosis, but it must be remembered that training is not the only medicine
for ailing performance. Although it is often mistakenly applied as a cure- all,
the only problem that training can solve is a lack of skills and knowledge. Do
employees know how to do the job? Could they do it if their lives depended
on it? If so, probably there is no training problem. There are many reasons
why a worker might not be doing his job correctly, including unclear
expectations, insufficient feedback, lack of incentive and adverse working
conditions. These are all management problems that can only be improved
by management changes.
Too often, people see the gap and they want to just leap right in and fix it.
The key is not to jump to the solution, which is assumed to be training.
Understanding the situation is the first step. Then, once one understands the
situation one can think about why (The problem exists). Only if its because
(employees) lack skills and knowledge should training be considered as a
solution.

34

TRAINING & TRAINING NEED IDENTIFICATION


Training: After the best applications for the available positions have been
selected, the staffing process is almost complete. Now the retail firm
must give the selected applications the knowledge and skills they need
to be productive employees. The process of bringing a new hire up to
speed is called employee training. Knowledge of companys policies and
procedures and of the stores products and services is basic to all
positions. So are an understanding of the stores customers and their
needs and desires, knowledge of competitive retail offerings, and basic
information about dress codes, sick leave, parking, and scheduling.
Basic information about the firm usually is spelled out in the employees
handbook. The firm should make the employee handbook available to new
employees as soon as they are hired. The Whole Foods Market, whose
highly regarded handbook was mentioned earlier, includes key aspects of
the firms strategic plan. Employees of the firm found the material so helpful
that they suggested new hires take a quiz on the information to determine
whether they understand it. Whole Foods follows the legally recommended
practice of keeping a file of signed forms indicating that employees have
received and have had the opportunity to read and understand the company
handbook.
The difference between the knowledge and skills the job requires and those
the new hire possesses will depend on the individual. A person who has
worked for the store in the recent past will need little training, whereas
someone with no experience in retailing will needs a great deal. To avoid
moving too quickly for some employees and too slowly for other, some firms
have structured their training programs in units so that materials can be
skipped or repeated as necessary. The key to successful training is to
ensure that new employees get the information they need early in their
careers. Unfortunately, reduced profits and high employee turnover have
forced some companies to reduce the time and money devoted to training
a move that almost guarantees human resource problems.

35

Training programs can use a variety of educational tools. Lectures,


videotapes, manuals, role playing, and computerized exercises can be
useful. The key to determine the type of information employees need to learn
and then match that need with the most appropriate learning tools. A lecture
or videotape may be the best way to communicate the history of the
organisation, whereas role playing may be more effective in teaching selling
and negotiation skills.
Compares initial employee training with the ongoing activity of keeping
employees skills up to date. As the figure shows, employee training is
designed to increase the new employees skills to the point where he or she
can perform on the job effectively. The size of the gap between the incoming
employees skills and the skills needed to perform the job will vary, as will the
amount of time needed to close the gap. However, once that gap has been
closed, the staffing function is still not complete. Over time employees will
need

new knowledge

and

skills as job

responsibilities, products,

technologies, and customer needs change.


Fig.: The Role of Training and Development in Fighting the

Knowledge and Skill


Level

Obsolescence of Human Resource

Level Required for


Effective
Performance

Employees Actual
Level
Employee
Training

36

Employee
Development

Employees Tenure with the Firm


This ongoing process of the employee development is crucial to the retail
firms ability to compete. A firm that fails to design and implement an
employee development program will soon face employees obsolescencethe outdating of employees knowledge and skills to the point where
employees can no longer perform effectively. A series of activities are
needed to keep employees current. The ideal situation occurs when new
hires get all skills they need through employee training and then receive
enough employee development to minimize the gap between their skills and
the requirements of the job.
Employee development program can include books and magazine
subscriptions, seminars, short course, college course, and advanced
degrees, as well as in-store meetings. Many companies fund part or all of
the cost of employee development, but the employee must shoulder part of
the responsibility for staying up to date. Increasingly, companies are looking
for employees who are true students of the retail industry. As knowledge and
technology continue to advance rapidly, fighting employee obsolescence will
require diligence on the part of both employee and employer.
While it is essential to have a training philosophy, policy and standards, it is
impossible to judge whether our training is in accordance with these if there
is no clear definition of training.
For example, a company might have a target to give each of its employees
five days of training every year. Depending on what is considered to be
training, one company might say it is providing three days of training and
another company might claim nine days- even though both companies
employees have received exactly the same amount of training and
development.
An amazing number of activities might be considered as training. The
following is just a selection:

37

Classroom (trainer led),

Distance learning,

Computer-based training,

On-the-job training,

External courses,

Large-scale workshops,

Attendance at seminars,

Attending conferences,

Attending communications meetings,

Evening classes,

Further education,

Assignments,

Participating in quality circles,

Reading articles and books.

Some of the above activities, such as classroom training and computerbased training, would always be considered as training. Activities such as
exhibitions, conferences, assignments and reading would not usually be
classified as training.
Clearly on-the-job training should be considered as training, but surely not all
of the time spent under supervision should qualify for the employees hours
of training. The conclusion we came to was that the time spent on producing
usable output should not be included in the training time.
In Europe and the United States, participating in quality circles would
probably not be considered to be training because the prime purpose of a
quality circle is thought to be solving the companys problems. Any learning
that comes about would be though to be secondary. In fact, this is another
38

indication of how Western culture misunderstood Japans quality revolution,


because one of Japans main aims in starting quality circle activities was to
enable the factory workers to study together and teach themselves quality
control.
Without a definition of training, deciding whether an activity should be
recognised as training becomes very subjective. The working definition of
training that I use is:
Training is the transfer of defined and measurable knowledge or skills/
From this definition it can be seen that training activities should have
objectives and a method for checking whether these objectives have been
met.
Training, defined in this way, deals only with changes in behaviour and
knowledge. Some definitions include changes of attitude as part of training. I
have not included attitude change within the definition because, apart from
being incredibly difficult to measure, it is the environment and culture of a
important part to play in this, an can help create the environment in which
attitudes can change, but training alone will not change anybodys long-term
attitude.
Many different attempts have been made to define what constitutes a
training activity, and these all vary depending on the definition of training that
is used. Having agreement on a definition of training is more important than
which of the many good definitions you decides to use. This allows you to be
aligned within your own company, and to make sensible comparisons with
other companies.
If you have not already done so, this would probably be a good time to
consider which activities in your company should be considered as training.
Training activities are those activities which are paid for by employers and
take place in accordance with a programme which:

Has pre-determines objective,

39

Specifies the teaching methods,

Specifies the personnel to be used,

Has an implementation plan,

Assess the results,

Is given in premises separate from the production area unless it includes


practical training.

Can include correspondence courses, safety and security training and


training outside of work hours.

40

Managing the Training Process


Identify needs
Evaluate needs
Select courses
Determine workload

Select trainers

Select trainers
Identify location and
resources
Finalize budget
Finalize training
plan

Select trainers

Pre-course admin
Prepare course
Deliver Course
Validate training
Post-course admin
Transfer learning
Evaluate training
Revise course

41

Select courses

Training as part of the Business


A useful approach for understanding the training process is to consider it as
a system whose boundaries interact with the rest of the business. Training
needs are identified, training is provided to meet the needs, the output is
compared to the requirements and any necessary changes are made to the
system to obtain the desired output.
While this approach helps you understand how training processes operate, it
does put training at the centre of the universe. The effect of this trainingcentred approach is that the business will see training either as a panacea
for all problems or as having no direct relevance to the business. Neither of
these impressions will help you manager the training process effectively.

Needs

Training

Skills
and
knowl
edge

Training as a system whose boundaries interact with the business


A learning organisation is one which facilitates the learning of all its
members and continuously transforms itself to achieve superior competitive
performance.
Figure shows a system that is displaying single-loop learning. The output of
the system is compared to a set of standards and adjustments are made to
counterbalance any deviations from the standards. More advanced learning
organisation would have progressed to double-loop learning where the
standards themselves are challenged.

42

THE BUSINESS

Training
Customer
Requirements

Assessment

Actions
Busine
ss
strateg
y

Training as part of the business system


The concept of the learning organisation does not replace training. As you
can see from figure, training is a vital component of learning. It is important
not to overlook this fact, as there have been examples of organisation that
they have, to their cost, overlooked the basic of training.

Organizational
learning

Individual
learning

Business Process

Training

Organisation
Development

Education
Experience

Training as part of the learning organisation

43

Training Strategies
The training process is a cycle that you need to manager continuously. You
respond to needs. You ensure that the training is aligned with the business.
The cycle time is short term-usually no longer than a year. Managing the
training process is essentially operational or tactical.
If we always manage training at this level we are in danger of being reactive
rather than proactive: starting and stopping training programmes or perhaps
even failing to deliver anything.
We need to have a clear idea of how we are going to deliver training over a
longer period. Training needs analysis and training policies provide the what
and the how much. A training strategy provides the long-term orientation.
To put a training strategy together you should have a vision of what training
in your organisation should look like in, say, five years. You should then map
out the years and the key milestones along the way. When you are putting a
training strategy together you should ask yourself the following questions:

How much training will you need to do each year?

What type of course will you need to provide?

What types of people will you put on what type of course?

What resources will you need in terms of space and trainers?

Who will you use to do your training?

Will you use fill-time, part-time or consultant trainers?

What delivery methods will you use?

How will changes in technology affect delivery methods?

What business, social and environmental changes are likely to take


place?

Every time you cycle through the training process you should re-examine
your training strategy to see if it still holds up in the light of new training
44

requirements and corporate policies. This is an example of double-loop


learning. Try to make your strategy as robust as possible, and only change
strategies when there are significant business, social and environmental
changes. If your strategy is really robust you will find that you can respond to
many changes by adjusting your tactics rather than throwing aways your
strategy.
It is difficult but essential to find the right balance between constantly
chopping and changing strategies, and sticking with a useless and
outmoded strategy.
Here I will be covering two steps of the training process:

identify needs,

Evaluate needs.

Identifying training needs is the starting point for managing the training
process. Yet this is often one of the last steps to be considered seriously
probably because a proper needs analysis is both difficult and time
consuming.
Initially, it might be quicker and easier to forget about analyzing the needs
and have your customers pick and choose from a catalogue, but this will
ultimately lead to frustration and inefficiency.
Identifying training needs is not just a matter of finding the need and them
simply satisfying it. There are often conflicting requirements from different
interests within the company. The development needs of the individual have
to organisation. These needs, once identified, have to be matched to
appropriate training courses.
Sometimes there is a feeling that training will always be the solution for
every identified development problem. However, there is not point in
providing training if training is not an appropriate solution. When this is the
case the training manager has to be brave enough to say that it is not
appropriate and creative enough to suggest alternative solutions.

45

NEEDS IDENTIFICATION
Needs identification has to balance corporate demands, policies and
strategies as well as individual and organisational requirements. Figure
outlines a process that balances these requirements. It shows that corporate
policies and strategies should be the umbrella under which individual and
organisational training needs are identified. This helps to ensure alignment
of training activities with the business direction.
Collect corporate policies and strategies
Corporate policies and strategies form the boundaries within which all
training and development activities should take place.
There are two ways in which corporate policies and strategies give rise to
training needs. The first is directly through mandatory training. The other way
is through indirect influence. When an organisation outs its training plan
together it should take account of both the business plan and individual
development needs. This is where the process often breaks down and even
the indirect influences start to disappear.
Policy deployment which is a structured method of Cascading corporate
goals and strategies through the company is a powerful method of ensuring
that training needs are identified within the context of the company s
business goals
We discussed the importance of alignment and of getting the corporate basic
right. If this has been done well, you will have no difficulty in collecting
corporate policies and strategies. You will then be able to prepare a training
plan that supports the direction of the business.

46

If your company is confused about its strategies, or does not communicate


them effectively, you might as well as miss this step out completely and be
resigned to providing training that cannot completely support the business.
Collect corporate policies and strategies

Identify business needs


Identify individual
needs
(appraisals, requests,
counseling)

Identify
departmental
needs and skills
for each job

Identify
mandatory
training

Identify affected individuals


Enter potential needs on training records
Produce training requirement reports

Start by reading your companys policies on training and development,


reviewing the companys vision and understanding the current goals and
objectives.
Identify mandatory training
Company policy dictates which employee groups are required to undergo
prescribed courses. Some courses, such as induction training and total
quality management, are an integral part of companys culture so all new
employees have to attend this training.
Company strategy may also require all personnel to go through specified
forms of training in a relatively short period. Examples of this kind of training
are:

equal opportunities,

empowerment,

harassment,
47

financial responsibility,

new measurement systems (e.g. economic value added),

New legal requirements.

Compulsory courses will usually be aligned with the company direction


because

they

have

been

developed

centrally

for

company-wide

implementation.
Identify business needs
Policy deployment and the training forum are two essential tools for
identifying business needs. Policy deployment and the training forums role
in defining the basics of the training process are both covered.
Policy deployment is the process by which a companys strategies are
communicated to its organisations. An organisation then determines what it
need to achieve by understanding its part in the company' strategy. The
what should be measurable and take the form of goals or objectives.
Once an organisation has determined what it has to achieve, it then has to
decide how these objective will be met. Once the how has been identified it
is possible to determine the skills and knowledge the organisation will
require.
The training forums role at this stage of the process is to:

provide a forum for identifying an organisations business needs,

ensure that training plans are aligned with the companys direction,

Identifying opportunities for sharing or exchanging resources.

The training forum comprises training managers and other interested parties
who meet to discuss training plans. They also identify opportunities for
sharing resources. A forum is particularly useful when there are several,
dispersed training departments within a company.
The forum would normally need to meet twice a year: the first time to
understand both corporate requirements and local issues; the second
48

meeting to review draft training plans. Figure shows typical timings for the
two training forum meetings.
MAY
Overall
Requirements
Departmental

FORUM
MEETING
(Preplanning)

JULY/AUGUST
Departmental training
plans prepared

OCTOBER
FORUM
MEETING
(Plan
review)

Training plan
prepared

Requirement
s

Schedule for training forum meetings


Timing of these forum meetings is critical and depends on which month is
the start of the organisations financial year. The output of the second
meeting needs to be available for inclusion in the annual business plan.
Individual development plans should be completed before the draft
department training plans are put together. The training plans will be based
on guesswork if the development plans are not available. If the development
plans are available too early, the training plan could be out of time by up to
six months.
Identify individual needs
Identifying training needs via business requirements is a top-down
approach which satisfies the need for training to be in alignment with the
business direction. If we were only to use this approach, the coverage would
be too broad to pick up individual development requirement. We also need
to consider bottom-up training requests and to make sure that both sources
of training requirements complement each other. Individual training
requirements come either from direct requests or as a result of appraisal
discussions.
Because these development plans are always up to date, the training needs
analysis can be done at any time of the year. The training administrator can

49

request copies of the current development plan when the needs analysis has
to be done.
Identify departmental needs
So far we have seen how training departments can be aligned with each
other and with the corporate business direction. We have also seen how
individual development requirements can be identified. We now need to see
how the detailed departmental training needs are identified.
The processes already described should ensure that the department's
raining demands are based on corporate or company business needs and
requirements. The individuals requirements give us a picture of the demand
within a department but not necessarily the need. in fact, the process for
identifying departmental needs is very similar to the process for identifying
need at the corporate level. Each department should assess where it is. The
department should have a vision, a mission and a strategy for realizing the
vision.
Identify skills and training required for each job
The department's mission, and the work processes the company uses,
determine the jobs the department needs to produce its products and
services. Each job has an associated set of skills. New jobs required new
skills.
In its simplest form, identifying the training required for each job involves:
1. Identifying the skills required to do a job.
2. Comparing the required skills to the current skills level of the people who
will be doing the job.
It is training's function to bridge the gap between current and required skills.
The skills and knowledge required for every job should be documented. You
should also document the courses that a representative person will need to
reach the required skills level. This makes it easier to select the correct

50

courses. A representative person is the type of person you would normally


employ to do the job.
The basis of identifying and documenting the required skills is the 'job
description'. a job description should include the tasks that have to be
performed and the outputs that have to be produced by the job holder.
Outputs are products or services that ate handed on to someone else. An
output should have a standard or specification attached to it so that the
quality of the output can be measured.
The next step is to prepare a 'person specification' from the job description.
A person specification describes the ideal person to fill the job. It is a profile
of the required personal skills and characteristics. These skills and
characteristics are also known as competencies.
For job descriptions which cover a large number of employees it is worth
producing a 'training specification matrix'. This matrix describes the training
courses that correlate to the skills described in the person specification.
You shouldn't be surprised if all this sounds rather familiar. It is exactly the
same as the recruitment processes the only difference being that we are
developing existing people to fit the person specification rather than
recruiting the 'ideal' person.
If you are recruiting to fill a vacancy, you may not be able to find anybody
who fits the person description. You might also want to give people who do
not yet meet the person specification a chance to work at a higher level. In
such cases you will need to provide additional training to bring these people
to the required level.
Identify affected individuals
Arising out of your analysis of corporate policies, mandatory training,
business needs and job skills requirements, you will be able to identify which
groups of employees will need what training. For example, all new managers
will need training on the basics of management, and all electronics assembly
people will need training on electrostatic protection.

51

Effective training processes need to be managed at the level of the


individual, so the next step is to identify those individuals who are part of the
group which needs the training. This task is make a great deal simpler by
computerized personnel and training records. If each person's job is given a
job code, the computer can print out a report on the people who have a
particular type of job and have yet to receive the required training. This task
if make even easier if the personnel and training records are part of the
same database. If you have separate records, you will need to update the
training database every time someone joins, leaves or changes jobs.
Enter potential needs on training records
A training record should not only list the courses a person has attended but
also the training a person needs. It is easier to prepare a training plan if the
record gives a range of dates for when the training is required. The potential
need can be in the form of either a course or a skill.
It is important that the training record is a live reflection of current training
requirements. It should be revised any time a new training requirement is
identified. This can be after appraisal, when a training request form is
received or after an individual has attended an assessment centre. This
means that an up-to-date training plan can be pulled off the system at any
time of the year.
Produce training requirement reports
A training record shows the training that individuals have completed and the
training that they need to do. The next step is to sift through all the training
requirements so you can evaluate the needs and estimate the amount of
training that needs to be done. This can be done manfully, but it is much
quicker if you have computerized training records.
A computer can produce training requirement reports that list:

All the people who have requested a particular course,

All the people who need a particular skill,

52

The amount and type of training requested by a particular organization.

Needs evaluation
All training requests need to be validated to ensure the training is both
appropriate and necessary. The amount of effort and time required to
validate the training requirements depends on the quality of the input
received. The best time to evaluate training needs is when the needs are
being identified. This is why it is worth spending the time to run development
open days and to train managers in development needs analysis. In an ideal
situation the training administrators should only need to perform a quick
request.
FIG:- PROCESS OF EVALUATING TRAINING NEEDS
Check individuals have not previously been trained

Check that training is an appropriate solution

Check queries with managers

Find alternative to training

Prepare draft training plan

Estimate impact of training load

Discuss draft plan with organization heads and


human resource managers

53

Counseling
Counseling is a critical skill for managers and it is especially important when
training needs are being identified. The steps in the counseling process are:
1. Set climate.
2. Set expectations.
3. Seek counselees views of strengths and weaknesses.
4. Agree a development plan.
5. Summarize.
Although the process there describes a training manager counseling a
trainer, the techniques are just as applicable to appraisal and development
discussions.
Prepare a draft training Plan
When you have validated the training requirements you are in a position to
put a draft training plan together. This should include estimates of:

The number of trainer-days you think you will have to provide,

The spread of the training load over the year.

The cost of the training

The number of days of training per employee.

Estimate impact of training load


Take the draft training plan and consider its impact from two perspectives:
1. The impact on the training department,
2. The impact on the organization.
The impact on the training department is really a question of whether it has
the capability, space, budge and resources to meet the demand. If it does
not have the capability to deliver the demand, now is the time to signal that
you may need more resources.

54

The impact on the organization is a little more subtle. Try asking yourself the
following questions to help you understand the impact:

What do the estimated hours of training per person mean in terms of


people being away from the workplace?

What are the expected short-term penalties, in increased production


times and costs, compared with the long term benefits?

How many people can you afford to have absent from one department at
the same time?

What other claims are there on the budget you need to deliver the
training plan?

Discuss draft plan with organization heads and human resource


managers
Considering the impact of the training puts you in a good position for
discussing the draft plan with senior management, departmental managers
and human resource managers. The purpose of this step is to get buy-in'
from the stakeholders before you go public with the final plan. It is far better
to deal with 'fatal flaws' and objections at this stage than later on in the
training cycle.
You can discuss what the demand and training load mean to avoid nasty
surprises later in the year. You can get agreement to the proposed budget.
you can discuss issues. You can discuss whether all the requested training
is appropriate.

55

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY


The objective of my study is to examine the training and development
process being followed by HDFC Bank.

To identify functional skill areas of personnel, for more effective


contribution to the organization.

To provide platforms for professional growth and exploration leading to


overall improved organizational health and quality of life.

To develop human resources in consonance with broader corporate


horizon and long-range vision of the organization.

To study the various Training & Development activities undertaken by


HDFC Bank.

To study the Training methodology adopted by HDFC Bank.

To study the effectiveness of Training provided by HDFC Bank.

56

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY


Never before has the rapid increase in new knowledge and technology and
in the base of change and itself demanded a learning response as great as
what is now required to remain competitive. Today individuals and
organizations must become continuous learners to survive and hence it is
not surprising to find that most successful organisations operate in a
continuous learning mode.
The

challenge

of

globalization,

technological

innovation

increasing

competition and growth through expansion, diversification and acquisition


has had a wide-ranging and far reaching impact on HRD. There is a need for
a continuous process that aims at providing fresh knowledge and skill inputs
to the employees so as to ensure the development of their competencies,
dynamism, motivation and effectiveness in a systematic and planned way,
thereby improving the productivity and overall organizational effectiveness.
As a result, training and development activities have acquired great
significance and are now firmly centre-stage in most of the organizations.
Hence it can be said that with the advent of free market economy rapid
change in the environment, training and development activities have
assumed an importance never before witnessed in Indian corporate history.

57

SCOPE OF THE STUDY


Training and Development is a subsystem of an organization. It ensures that
randomness is reduced and learning or behavioral change takes place in
structured format.
Traditional Approach Most of the organizations before never used to
believe in training. They were holding the traditional view that managers are
born and not made. There were also some views that training is a very costly
affair and not worth. Organizations used to believe more in executive
pinching. But now the scenario seems to be changing.
The modern approach of training and development is that Indian
Organizations have realized the importance of corporate training. Training is
now considered as more of retention tool than a cost. The training system in
Indian Industry has been changed to create a smarter workforce and yield
the best results
The Training & Development programmes usually provided valuable inputs
to the trainees for performing present as well as future roles effectively.
So, the project is beneficial for the HDFC Bank to improve for the betterment
of the organization as well as the industry.

58

RESERCH METHODOLOGY
The information required for this project study is collected both through the
primary as well as secondary source of data.
Tools for Data Collection
Primary sources of data
Questionnaire
Questionnaire method for primary data collection is being used to collect
information that is relevant for the objectives of the study.
The questionnaire is mix of both open as well as close-ended questions and
questionnaire consist of 9 questions.
Basis of Questionnaire
The questionnaire is made on the basis of the following parameters. These
are:

Quantity: It includes questions, which voice employees concerns


regarding the number of training hours spent by them.

Quality: Quality implies the kind of training that is imparted to the


employees, how it is done and what kinds of feedback methods are
given.

Importance to Training: This includes questions from which we get


to know whether the emphasis on training is laid down by the
departmental heads, training managers, HR Head or the employees.

Effectiveness and Efficiency of Training: This includes questions


related to whether the training imparted to employees in different
departments is effective and efficient.

Interview

59

In depth interview with the employees who are unable to work on the
questionnaire and the training manager will be conducted in order to know
about the training practices being followed at the HDFC Bank.
Sample Size
30 Employees of HDFC Bank
Data Analyis - Statistical Tools to be used
i)

Pie charts & Bar Charts

ii)

Histograms

Secondary Sources of Data


A mixture of books, journals, case studies, handouts and Webster will be
used to gain a clear understanding of the objectives of the project study.
Limitations

Time is the biggest constraint as many times it is not be possible to meet


HR Managers and staff members to collect such information.

There may be biases on the part of the Managers and Staff while
providing the information. This is not directly affect the study but it has
some impact on the conclusions.

The data collected may not be up to mark as related to the present


market situation. The situation is handled with care to a large extent but
there can be some mistakes on my part.

Some of the respondents were not willing to provide information on their


organisation.

All efforts are made to get all the relevant information's required for this
study and presented in this project.

60

TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT AT HDFC BANK


Training and Development at HDFC Bank is classified for two categories of
employees: New Recruits and Others. Currently, the Training and
Development process is evolving and undergoing many changes. This
document provides the current process, as it exists as well as the new
process as the Corporate Training and Development group envisage it.
Process
As
Exists Today

It Future
Requirement
Different

I. New Recruits:
New
recruits
go -samethrough
an
Induction
programme

System
if should
provide
Linkage
from
Recr.
Module
Introduction
routing to be
provided by the
system
Recording
of
Induction
programmes
and attendees
Recording
of
Training Details
for
each
attendee
Drawing
up
Introduction list
from
recruitment
module
Recording
of
Introduction
and attendees
Recording
of
Training Details
for
each
attendee

Classroom Training -sameexists for groups


joining
simultaneously (e.g.
In Mkt. Currently)

II. Other Employees:


Training
Needs
Analysis There
are two kinds of
training needs that
get generated for all
employees

HDFC
Bank
Give

Sample
Programme
schedule
Position
chart
Recording
Format
Recording
Format

Recording
Format
Recording
Format

Sample
Training
Needs
Sample
61

to

Those that arise


from the Appraisal
(Appraisal
Trng.
needs)
(Detailed
after next bullet)
Those that arise
from
Business
Needs
(Business
Trng. Needs) Only
in
Marketing
at
present.
Needs
analysed jointly by
Corp. Trng. Group
and Marketing

Training
Needs

Appraisal
Format ISO
System
to Formats
provide
data
Appraisal Training
from previous
Needs Analysis
cycle
training
The appraiser at the The
appraiser need identified
end of the appraisal should complete and
training
session, completes
programmes
the Identification of
attended,
Training
Needs
form.
HoD collects and The ISO form, Action
plan
sends these forms which
could generated,
to Corp. HR
replace
the completed and
Corp. HR copies Identification of rated
each form onto an Training Needs
ISO
format
and Form
sends it back to the
appraiser
for
signatures
Format for
Appraiser sends it -samecollation
back to Corp. HR
Automatic
Format for
duly signed
-samecollation needs deciding on
Corp. HR collates
and
planning batches
and
sorts
the
out of training (e.g.
Not
training needs.
batches
for more than
each subjects
x number
from
a
location,
grouped by
grades/loca
tions etc.)
Calendar
format
Nomination
To be done by Nomination list Nomination
HR
decides
on HoD, based on to be generated format
62

nomination
of
employees
across
the company for
Training
Programmes, based
on training needs
generated in the
appraisal.
HR
sends
the
nominees names to
respective
HoDs
and
letters
to
nominees
Training Session
Training programme
Held
Feedback
from
Trainee obtained
Action plan follow
through
after
3
months
Following
records
updated:
Training Record
Training Card

training calendar
and
list
of
persons
with
similar
needs,
both
to
be
provided by HR

by
system
highlighting
training
completed
against budget,
past
year
training data.

HR to send
nomination
letters,
addressed to
employee, to
handed over
the HoD.

Sample
System
to Letter
generate letter

the
the
be
by

-same-same-same-

Complication of
feedback
Average
feedback
scores
of
faculty, faculty
record updation
system trigger
and mails to be
sent out
Snapshot
history to be
stored??

-same-same-same-same-

Generation
of Number
of System
Training
Reports training
days generate
Does not exist at attended
by reports
present
given employee
against
given
budget:
Of 2 days per
employee
in
plants
7
days
per
employee in Mkt.
2
days
per
employee
in
Corp.
63

Feedback
format
Action
plant
format
Action plan
follow
through
format

Training
record
format
Training
Card
format
to Report
all format
to
be provided

Number
of
training
days
completed
by
give
unit/location/dep
artment/group
against budget.
Number
of
training
days
completed
by
company as a
whole
against
budget.
Parallel Processes -same1. Vendor Selection
The
vendor
for -sametraining programes
can be either a
company
or
a
faculty member.
In
case
of
a -samecompany, the
Concerned faculty
members profile is
sought
In all cases faculty -sameis first given a pilot
programme
If average rating in Faculty card and
feedback sheet is faculty record to
4.2 or avove for be
created,
normal programmes similar
to
(or3.5
for Training
card
confrontational, lab and
training
type programmes), record.
faculty is finalised.
Parallel Process
-sane2. Internal Faculty
(Trainer) Selection
There is a Train the -sameTrainer programme
which results in a
certification process
at the end, for all
internal faculty

64

System
to Profile
crosscheck
format
Profile against
template??

Initiate
and 2 Formats
maintain
company
and
faculty record

Maintain
Certificatio
records
of n format
internal trainers
and
prompt/suggest
names
while
compiling
programme
batches

GOALS OF HRD SYSTEM AT HDFC BANK

To create on enabling climate that continuously identity, nurtures and


utilize the capabilities of employees.

To develop the capacity of each employee as an individual

To develop the capacity of each employee in relation his/her present


job/role.

To develop the capacity of each employee in his/ her expected future


job/role

To develop a mutually supporting relationship between each employee


and his/her supervision.

To develop team spirit and effective functioning of every subsystem of


the organization.

To develop overall health and self-reasoning capabilities in the


organization.

The goals of HRD system at HDFC Bank are realized through various sub
systems practiced on the company. They are as follows:

Performance appraisal

Suggestion scheme

Training

Awards

Grievance procedure for the employees

Incentive and reward scheme

Employee participation

Communication policies

Socio cultural activities

65

Employee welfare and quality of work life

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT


Keeping in view the principle of Right person for the management position,
HDFC Bank takes adequate care while selecting the employee. Merit is
always recognized and given weightage.
To meet the demands of competition, high premium is attached to training
activities.
TRAINING OBJECTIVES
High premium is placed on training and development activities in the
organization keeping in view the following objectives

To achieve systematic integration of training in the organizations


mission.

To upgrade skills, abilities and capabilities of the employees.

To establish a distinctive work culture in the organization.

To meet the organizations need for success, better performance and


growth.

To prepare employees the job meant for them while on first application,
on transfer or on promotion and impact to them, the required skills and
knowledge.

To assist the employees to function more effectively in their present


positions by exposing them to the latest concepts, information,
techniques and developing the skills that would be required in the
particular fields.

HDFC Bank is relentlessly trying to materialize these objectives to the fullest


extent
TRAINING SET UP
Main thrust areas of training

66

Management training in house

External programs

Overseas programs

Training of trainees

Pre employee training scheme

Apprentrenship training

Vocation training coming from other institutions

Other training programs

TRAINING POLICY
Formulation of training policy.
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT FUNCTION
Responsibility of Training and development.

67

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATIONS


Q.1. WORK EXPERIENCE AT HDFC BANK

12
10
8
6
4
2
0
Less than 5 years

6-7 Years

Senior officer to Assistant Manager

68

More than 7 years


Senior Manager and above

Q.2. DESIGNATION
30

No. of employees

25
20
15
10
5
0
Senior managerand
above

Senior officer to
assistant manager

Designation

69

Q.3. EDUCATION QUALIFICATION

12
10
8
6
4
2
0
Less than 5 years

6-7 Years

Senior officer to Assistant Manager

70

More than 7 years


Senior Manager and above

Q.4. AGE GROUP


14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
Less than 25 26-34 Years
years

35-45 Years

Senior officer to Assistant Manager

71

Morethan 45
Years

Senior Manager and above

Q.5. PURPOSE OF TRAINING


Rank
Senior officer to

Senior

assistant

manager and

manager

above

Upgradation of abilities

Preparing for promotions

Preparing

Training in allied fields

Preparing for transfers

Develop

for

assignments

future

in

same

position

specific

abilities/

competence
It is seen from the analysis that both the levels of employees think
that upgradation of training and training for allied fields is the least
important.
While senior officers to assistant managers feel that preparing for
transfers is the second most important purpose of training senior
managers

and

above

feel

that

developing

specific

abilities/

competencies is the second most important purpose of training so a


difference in perception exists here.

72

Q.6. IDENTIFICATION OF TRAINING NEEDS


PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
Senior Mgr.
and above
25.5%

DISCUSSION WITH SUPERIORS

Senior
officer to
Asstt. Mgr.
74.5%

Senior Mgr.
and above
35.3%

Senior
officer to
Asstt. Mgr.
64.7%

73

TRAINING DEPARTMENT

Senior
officer to
Asstt. Mgr.
40%

Senior Mgr.
and above
60%
73.68% of senior officers to assistant managers felt that training needs are
identified through performance appraisal whereas only 2.6.31% of senior
managers and above felt the same.
66.63% of senior officers to assistant managers felt that discussion
with superiors is a method of identifying training needs whereas
36.36% of senior managers and above felt the same.
40% of senior officer to assistant managers felt that training needs
are identified by the training department and 60% of senior
managers and above felt the same.
Hence a significant difference in perception exists between the two
levels when it comes to identifying training needs.
The analysis also shows that none of the employees at both such
felt that after job rotation was a means of identifying training needs.

74

Q.7 TRAINING PROGRAMMES ATTENDED


The employees were asked to list any 3-training programme they
had attended in the last two years.
Most of the senior managers and above remembered attending the
Team Building Exercise by Mr. Santosh Babu at Ranibhaet and Dr.
Atrayas Workshop.
A majority of the senior officers to assistant managers had not
attended a single training progrmame.
The few that had attended had undergone a Computer Training
Programme.
As compared to this, there were only handfuls of senior managers
and above who had not attended a single training programme.
Some of the other training programmes attended by them were
Train the Trainees and Project Management at IIM Ahmedabad A
few training programmes attended by Senior Officers to Assistant
Managers were Project Management at IIM Ahmedabad and MDP
by Dr. Srivastava.

75

Q.8 MAN DAYS OF TRAINING


35% of the employees had attended upto 5 man days of training.
Out of this 71.5% were senior managers and above and 28.5% were
senior offices to assistant managers.
25% of the employees had attended 5-10 man days of training. Out
of this 60% were senior managers and above and 40% were senior
officers to assistant managers 20% of the of the employees had
attended more than 10 man days of training. Out of this 62.5% were
senior managers and above and 37.5% were senior officers to
assistant managers.
20% of the employees had not attended a single man-day of
training. Out of this 75% were senior officers to assistant managers
and 25% were senior managers and above.

76

Q.9 HOW HAS THE TRAINING PROVIDED HELPED YOU?


53.8% of senior officer to assistant managers felt that the training
they received helped them to improve their work performance and
57.1% of senior managers and above felt the same.
19.2% of senior officers to assistant managers felt that the training
they received helped them for future growth and 21.4% of senior
managers and above felt the same.
26.9% of senior officer to assistant managers felt that the training
did not help them at all and 21.4% of senior managers and above
felt the same.
From this analysis, it can be seen

that both the levels felt that the

training provided to them has helped them mainly in improving their


work performance.

77

RECOMMENDATION
1. Training should be given according to the job profile of the
employees. e.g. Managers should be made to attend more of team
oriented workshops since they are required to work in teams. Whereas
an officer level employee needs to enhance his computer skills. Hence
training programmes have to be designed accordingly.
2. Since a few employees felt that the training they had undergone
in the last two years didnt help them at all, a feedback session
should be made mandatory after every training session, in order
to

ascertain

whether

the

above

idea

behind

the

training

programme had been accomplished or not.


3. Every now and then the employees should be encouraged to
identify their own training needs which would enhance employee
morale and also shift the burden from the superior to the
employee him self.
4. Rather

than

just

investing

money

on

various

training

programmes, HDFC Bank should also concentrate on regular


training evaluation.

78

CONCLUSION
Making the process of identification of training needs and evaluation of
training more effective will enhance the effects of training to the banks in
general and employees in particular.
Whether it is training needs identification evaluation or any other aspects in
training, it requires active support, cooperation and participation of the
functionaries at various levels of the bank including trainees. One of the best
ways to identify the training needs of the employees is to understand the gap
existing in the skills of the employees and introduce the training programmes
to fill these gaps. Needs of the bank should take in to account expansion of
the markets, introduction of new products and services, mergers and
acquisition, novel techniques of marketing and customer service and many
more. As no single evaluation technique is foolproof, banks could imbibe the
evaluation of training programmes depending upon their availability of
resources and areas of business. If the banks use these two important
formulae, namely, training needs identification and training evaluation
productively and creatively then the banks have the reason to feel confident
of it and they have a factual corroborative to answer management regarding
the positive results produced by employee training and development.

79

SCOPE OF FURTHER RESEARCH


The training needs analysis is the base for all training activities in
HDFC Bank Efforts at all levels of the organisation are made to
identify and meet the training needs of the employees. Priority is
given to need base training which can have direct impact on the
employees performance and improve work efficiency. The training
and development department takes into consideration the annual
appraisal report of the employees for analyzing the training needs.
The training programmes usually provided valuable inputs to the
trainees for performing present as well as future roles effectively.
Also, at the end of each training session trainers impressions about
the session should be recorded in a register, which gives a weight
into the trainees performance during the training period. The timely
feedback of both the trainers and the trainees helps in taking
corrective action for future training programmes.
This

analysis

has

depicted

what

common

training

and

development technique are adopted by from and has provided an


insight into the training and development system followed by HDFC
Bank.
But still much more can be done. Suitable strategies can be framed
to develop a team of highly motivated and committed work force so
that the company can make inroads into the international markets
and build a favourable image there. The quest for improvement
should never end as it is an endless journey.

80

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Books
V. S. P. Rao, Human Resource Management.
Rolf Lynton & Uday Parekh, Training Strategy.
Martyn & Solemn, Training Strategy.
Francis & Bee Roland, Training Needs Analysis and Evaluation,
University Press.
Valarie A. Zeithamal & Mary Jo Bitner, Services Marketing Integrating
Customer Focus Across the Firm. Tata McGraw- Hill Edition.
Websites
www.bluestar.com
www.goole.com
www.altavista.com

81

ANNEXURES

82

PERSONNEL POLICIES OF HDFC BANK


Originated personnel Policies: These policies are established formally and
deliberately by top management. Senior executives initiate such policies to
guide their subordinates.
Scope or Coverage of personnel policies
Policies

are

established

regarding

various

functions

of

personnel

management which are as follows:


1. Employment.

All policies concerning recruitment, selection, and

separation of employees are included in this function. Employment


policies should provide clear guidelines on the following points:
(a)

Minimum hiring qualifications

(b)

Preferred sources of recruitment

(c) Reservation

of

seats

for

scheduled

castes,

scheduled

tribes,

handicapped persons and ex-servicemen.


(d)

Employment of local people and relations of existing staff

(e)

HDFC Bank on various selection devices such as university degrees


tests interviews, reference checks, physical examination, etc.

(f) Basic (length of service or efficiency) to be followed in discharging an


employee
(g)

Probation period

(h)

Layoff and rehiring

2. Training and Development


(a)

Attitude towards training-whether it is regarded as a device to


overcome specific problems or as a continuing relationship between
superior and subordinate.

(b)

Objectives of training

(c) Opportunities for career development

83

(d)

Basis of training

(e)

Methods of training-on the job or off the job.

(f) Programmes of executive development


(g)

Orientation of new employees.

3. Transfers and promotions


(a)

Rationale of transfer

(b)

Periodicity of transfer

(c) Promotion from within or outside the organization


(d)

Seniority required for promotion

(e)

Relative weight age to seniority and merit in promotion./

(f) Seniority rights


(g)

Channels of promotion

4. Compensation
(a)

Job evaluation system

(b)

Minimum wages and salaries

(c) Method of wage payment


(d)

Profit sharing and incentive plans

(e)

Non monetary rewards

(f) Executive stock option plan


(g)

Procedure for getting pay

(h)

Whether to pay prevailing or more than prevailing salary scales.

5. Working conditions
(a)

working hours

(b)

Number and duration of rest intervals

(c) Overtime work

84

(d)

Shift work

(e)

Safety rules and regulations

(f) Leave rules


6. Employee services and welfare
(a)

Type of services-housing, transportation, medical facilities, education


of children, group insurance, credit facilities, purchase of company's
products at discount, company stores, social security, etc.

(b)

Financing of employee services

(c) Incentives of motivate


7. Industrial Relations
(a)

Handling of grievances.

(b)

Recognition of trade union

(c) Suggestions schemes


(d)

Discipline and conduct rules

(e)

Workers' participation in management

(f) Employees' news sheet and house journals

85

SAMPLE QUESTIONNAIRE
Q.1. How many years are you working with HDFC Bank?
Less than 5 years

6-7 year

More than 7 years

Q.2. What is your Designation at HDFC Bank?


Senior Manager and above

Senior Officer to Assistant Manager

Q.3. What is your education qualification?


Engineering / Post Graduate (Engg./PG)

Management Graduate (Mft. Grad)

Chartered Accountant / ICWA (CA/ICWA)

If Others, Please Specify____________________________


Q.4. Please tick which Age Group are you from?
Less than 25 years

26-34 years

35-45 years

More than 45 years

Q.5. What is the purpose of training at HDFC Bank?


Rank
Senior officer to
Senior
assistant manager
manager and
above
Upgradation of abilities
Preparing for promotions
Preparing
for
future
assignments
in
same
position
Training in allied fields
Preparing for transfers
Develop specific abilities/
86

competence
Q.6. IDENTIFICATION OF TRAINING NEEDS
Performance Appraisal
Senior Manager and above

Senior Officer to Assistant Manager

Discussion with Superiors


Senior Manager and above

Senior Officer to Assistant Manager

Training Department
Senior Manager and above

Senior Officer to Assistant Manager

Q.7 How many of them attended Training Programmes at HDFC


Bank?
_______________________________________________________
Q.8 How many of them attended Man Days of Training at
HDFC Bank?
_______________________________________________________
Q.9 How has the training provided help to you at HDFC Bank?
_______________________________________________________
Thank You

87