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Important Terms:

Annual Ring-The set of wood in secondary phloem produced in one year.

Anticlinal wall-A wall perpendicular to a nearby surface, especially in the outer surface if
the plant
Axial System- Derived from fusiform initials
Bark- is the outermost layers of stems and roots of woody plants. Plants
with barkinclude trees, woody vines, and shrubs
Cork Cambium-A layer of cells that produces the cork cells of the bark
Corks- Cork is a specialized secondary tissue produced by the cork cambium of the
Diffuse Porous Wood in which the vessels of late wood are about as numerous and as
wide as the early wood
Early wood- Spring wood
Establishment Growth- (botany) A special form
of seedling growth in monocotyledon during which the stem reaches its final girth and
its underground surface where adventitious roots may form is increased.
Fusiform initials- Long tapered cells
Growth Ring-These are rings that produced 8 woods in a year.
Hardwood-a term applied to both dicot trees and shrubs and to their woods
Heartwood-The colored, aromatic wood in the center of a trunk or branch
Included Phloem-These are patches of secondary of secondary phloem may be located
within the secondary xylem.
Late Wood-Spring Wood
Lenticels-A region of cork cells with intercellular spaces permitting diffusion of oxygen
into inner tissues.

Nonstoried Cambium-A cambium in which the fusiform initials are not aligned
Periclinical wall-A wall that is parallel to a nearby surface, especially the outer surface of
the plant.
Periderm-A technical term for bark.
Phellem cell(also cork), the secondary integumentary tissue that forms the external part of the
The phellem originates from cells of the corkcambium (phellogen) that have divided tan
Phellogen-Like a cork cambium, it is also a layer of cells that produces the cork cells
Primary Tissues-The tissues derived more or less directly from an apical meristem or
leaf primordium.
Radial System- The set of rays within a wood.
Ray Initials-In a vascular cambium, the short cells that give rise to the rays of the
secondary xylem and phloem.
Ray Tracheids-These are horizontal tracheids in the secondary xylem of gymnosperms.
Ray-A radial series of cells produced by ray initials.
Reaction wood-wood performed in response to mechanical stress.
Ring porous-Woods in which early wood has more numerous and large vessels than
late wood.
Sapwood-The light-colored, light-scented outermost wood of a trunk or branch.
Secondary Phloem-Phloem derived from the vascular cambium.
Secondary Tissues-The tissues of the secondary plant body
Secondary Vascular Bundles- Vascular bundle of secondary growth.
Secondary Xylem-xylem derived from the vascular cambium.

Softwood-A term applied to both gymnosperms and their wood.

Storied Cambium-A vascular cambium in which fusiform initials are aligned horizontally.
Tylosis-Activity in which the adjacent cells may push through cytoplasm into vessel
through pits,plugging the vessel.
Vascular Cambium-The meristem that produces secondary vascular tissues.
Wood-It is the secondary xylem

1. Growth in apical meristems has been previously described. In woody species,
additional tissues are produced in the stem and roots by two other meristems, the
vascular cambium and cork cambium. The new tissues themselves are secondary
vascular bundles ( Secondary xylem and Secondary phloem), and Periderm ( Phellem,
phellogen and phelloderm). They are secondary tissues and they constitute the plants
secondary body.
3. Many herbs live for several years. How do they respond to the bottleneck of the
limited conducting capacity of the first-year stem?
In some, the first-years leaves die during winter, and in the second year, the plant
produces only as many leaves as it had during the first year. In other species,
adventitious roots are produced that supply conducting capacity directly to the new
section of stem being formed, thus bypassing older portions of the stem. Most of these
plants must remain low enough for adventitious roots to reach the soil. These are often
rhizomatous, such as irises, bamboo, and ferns.

4. . Which groups of plants have secondary growth? which never do?

-gymnosperms(present in all species),dicots (present in many species,but many other
species are herbs)
-modern ferns(absent in all species),monocots(ordinary type is absent in all species, but
some have anomalous secondary growth)

5. Imagine a tree that has a radius of 20 cm and that produces a new layer of wood 0.5
cm thick ( the outer radius of the new wood is 20.5 cm and the inner radius is 20 cm).
What is the cross-sectional area of the new layer of wood (CSA=Pir^2)? If each leaf
needs 0.1 cm2 of wood to supply it with water, how many leaves can the tree have? If
the tree produces a new ring of wood next year that is again 0.5 cm thick, how many
leaves can the tree have next year (assume that wood conducts water for only 1 year,
not 2 years)?
-The cross-sectional area of the new layer of wood is 63.62 cm2. The tree can have 636
leaves. After a year the tree can have 13218 leaves.
8. What is the name of the vascular cambium that arises within the vascular bundles?
Between vascular bundles? After the two are formed, what is the shape of the vascular
cambium? Is it a series of strips that are aligned up and down the trunk or root, or is it a
complete cylinder?
Fasicular cambium. Interfasicular cambium. After this the vascular cambium is complete


11. What are the two types of cell in vascular cambium? Can either type be converted
into the other?
The two types of cell in vascular cambium are FUSIFORM INITIALS and RAY
12. Look at the figure 8-6. Part (a) shows the lower half of fusiform (actually most
fusiform initials would be much taller than this), and part (b) shows the same cell after it
has divided and one of the daughter cells is developing into xylem cell. Did the fusiform
initial divide with a periclinal wall or an anticlinal wall as it went from part a to part b?
Part (d) shows that the same fusiform initial has now produced a second cell that is
developing to the phloem cell. Was that phloem cell produced by a periclinal or anticlinal
division of the fusiform initial? Part (f) shows the fusiform initial dividing and forming a
second fusiform initial. Is this division occurring by periclinal wall or an anticlinal wall?

Periclinal wall ; Periclinal wall ; Anticlinal wall.

13. Are fusiform initials parenchyma cells, collenchyma cells or schlerenchyma cells?
Do they have chloroplasts, chromoplasts or proplastids?
Parenchyma cells; Yes they have chloroplasts, chromoplasts or proplastids.
14. Look at figure 8-8. Vascular cambium is not present; it was located far above the top
of the micrograph , but you can see there are six rows of wood cells. How many
fusiform initials were involved in producing the wood visible in this figure? Look at all
cells in any particular row. Were all cellsof that row made by divisions of one fusiform
initial or by many different fusiform initials?
Many fusiform initials were involved in producing the wood visible in the figure. All
cells of that row made by division of one fusiform.

15. Are ray initials longer or shorter than fusiform initials? Can they undergo both
periclinal and anticlinal divisions or just one or the other?
Ray initials are shorter than fusiform initials. The ray initials undergo periclinal
division and anticlinal.
16.Ray initials are typically grouped together in short vertical rows only one cell wide
(__________________), two cells wide (____________________) or many cells wide
Uniseriate; Biseriate;Multiseriate
17.True or false. Typically a vascular cambium never has large regions of only fusiform
initials or ray initials.
18.What fraction of cells formed to the interior of the vascular cambium develop into
secondary phloem known as wood- less than half, exactly half or more than half all
Exactly half.
19.In gymnosperms (conifers like Christmas trees), what types of cells occur in the axial
system ( the cells produced by fusiform initials)? Which cells are very rare (Hint: table 8-

2)? Wood of gymnosperms is called ____________________ because certain type of

cell is absent from their axial system. Which type of cell is that?
Tracheids; Fibers and parenchyma cells; Softwood;
20. In basal angiosperms and eudicots, what type of cells occur in the axial system?
What types of cell occur in the axial system? What is the only type of cell present in the
rays of eudicots ? The wood of eudicots is called _______________________ because
it has the type of cell lacking in gymnosperms. Which type of cell is that?
Tracheids; Tracheids; Hardwood
21. What types of cells are derived from fusiform initials? What types of cell are derived
from ray initials? Is it theoretically possible to have a vascular cambium without ray
initials or without fusiform initials?
The types of cells that are derived from fusiform initials are vascular cambium
cell and developing xylem cell. Ray initials, on the other hand, produce short cells,
mostly just storage parenchyma and, in gymnosperms, albuminous cells. No, it is not
possible to have a vascular cambium without ray initials or fusiform initials.
22. Look at the woods of Figure 8-13. In part (b), all vessels have about the same
diameter and are narrow, but the wood in part (c) has some very wide vessels (in the
early wood) and some narrow ones (in the late wood, both types produced in the same
year). The answer is not in the text, but would you think that these two species have
different water conducting needs? Is it possible that one species lives in area with very
rainy spring times and the other lives in an area that is rather dry all the time?
Yes, I think that these two species have different water conducting needs,
because of the structure of their vessels. Yes, it is possible that the two species live in
those two different areas.
23. What is a growth ring? How does early wood differ from late wood? Do all species
of wood show strong differences between these two phases of a growth ring?
A growth ring is a concentric layer of wood, shell, or bone developed during an
annual or other regular period of growth. Early wood, also called as the spring wood, is
the first wood formed. It must have a high proportion of wide vessels. Late wood, also
called as summer wood, has a lower proportion of vessels. No, not all species of wood
show strong differences between these two phases of a growth ring.
24. Why do some people prefer the term growth ring rather than annual ring?. What
can sometimes happen if a summer is unusually cool? Do you think this occurs more
frequently in California or in Alaska?
Some people prefer the term growth ring than annual ring, because the term
growth ring is a better and a more inclusive term than annual ring. If a summer is

unusually cool, a tree may fail to grow and produce a ring, so these are occasionally not
truly annual rings. Yes, I think this occurs more frequently in California and Alaska due
to their cold weather.
25. If especially wide vessels are produced early in the growing season and only
narrow, sparse vessels are produced later, the wood is said to be ring porous; however,
if vessels have similar size and abundant throughout a a growth ring, the wood is diffuse
porous. Name three examples of each type.
Ring porous: Red oak, Sassafras, Honey locust Diffuse porous: Yellow birch,
Aspren, Sugar Maple
26. What changes occur as sapwood is converted to heartwood?
The wood parenchyma cells undergo numerous metabolic changes which
produce large quantities of phenolic compounds, lignin, and other dark-colored,
aromatic substances that prevent the growth of bacteria and fungi. These chemicals are
dark and aromatic that gives a darker and more fragrant characteristic as it accumulates
wood. Sapwood is converted to heartwood once all the parenchyma cells die.
27. What is a tylosis? How does formation of tyloses slow the spread of fungi in wood?
Why doesnt a tree make tyloses in vessels that are still conducting water?
Tylosis is a plug formed in the wood parenchyma cells adjacent to vessels that
push bubbles of protoplasm through the pits into the vessel.
28. The thickness of sapwood is some indication of how long a growth ring of wood is
able to function. Look at Table 8-3. About how long does wood of catalpa function? How
about wood of wild black cherry or honey locust?
1-2 years; 10-12 years
29.) Because secondary phloem is formed from the vascular cambium just as
secondary xylem is, it too has an AXIAL system and a RADIAL system. Why do the
size, shape, and number of phloem rays match those of xylem rays?
Phloem rays and xylem rays match because they are produced by the same ray
. 30.) In a cross section of a tree, where are the oldest growth rings -- in the outer region
or nearer pith? Where is the oldest secondary phloem -- near the outside of the tree or
near the cambium?

The growth ring near the pith is the oldest. The oldest secondary phloem is
located near the outside of the tree
. 31.) What causes the outermost tissues of a woody stem or root to become pushed
outward and expanded?
The secondary xylem cells causes the tissues of a woody stem or root to be
pushed and expanded outward.
32.) The layer of cells that produces cork has a technical name and an ordinary name.
Give each name.
> Cork - Phellem; Cork cambium - Phellogen
33.) Periderm consists of at least two types of cells. Sometimes a third is present. What
are these three types of cell?
Periderm consists of the phellem or cork cells, phellogen and phelloderm.
34.) Why does a layer of periderm offer only temporary protection? When the plant
makes a new layer of cork cambium, does it make the new layer to the outer side of the
failing periderm or to the inner side of it, deeper in the secondary phloem?
Periderm offers only temporary protection because the root or stem continues to
grow interior to it. The new layer of the cork cambium if formed in younger secondary
phloem near the vascular cambium.
35.) In which tissues does the first cork cambium form? When does it usually arise? In
which tissues do later cork cambia form?
The first cork cambium form in dermal tissues (epidermis). They arise when the
epidermal cells resume mitotic activity. Later cork cambia form in the hypodermis
. 36.) Are geraniums herbs or woody plants? Do they ever form bark?
Geraniums are woody plants, they also form bark.
37.What type of plant produces the cork used for wine bottles and cork boards
pines, oaks, maples, eucalyptus, or none of these (Hint: Figure 8-25)?
Cork oaks in particular produce the cork used for wine bottles and cork boards.
38.What is the function of lenticels? How are intercellular spaces important for this

Lenticels permit the diffusion of oxygen into inner tissues. Intercellular spaces
create a diffusion pathway for oxygen.
39..Do roots form wood and bark, or are these secondary tissues present only in
Yes, there are also wood and bark in stems.
40.Describe the anomalous secondary growth in roots of sweet potatoes. What is
the selective advantage of this unusual type of secondary growth?
The amount of storage parenchyma is increased in roots of sweet potatoes.
There is an increase in the number of vascular cambia, new vessel may also be
surrounded by another new cambium, and the process is repeated. The selective
advantage of this type of secondary growth is the rate of cell production is important.
41.Describe the formation of included phloem. How did the included phloem of
Iresine in Figure 8-30a become surrounded by xylem?
Vascular cambium produces secondary xylem and phloem. Then the
cambium stops to divide and becomes the xylem. The outermost, oldest secondary
phloem reactivates and replaces the vascular cambium. The new vascular cambium
does what the first cambium did until it stops to divide and becomes the xylem. The
arrangement form interior to exterior would be first xylem, first phloem, second xylem
and second phloem. The secondary phloem which is in between two bands of xylem
is called included phloem. The included phloem is surrounded by xylem because of
the continuous formation of xylem by cambium.
42.Describe the secondary growth of monocots like Joshua trees and dragon trees.
What are secondary vascular bundles?
A type of vascular bundle arises from the outside of the outermost vascular
bundle which originates from cortex cells. It produces only parenchyma. Columns of
some parenchyma cells undergo rapid division and produce narrow cells that
differentiate into secondary vascular bundles. The outermost cells of each bundle
develop into fibers with thick secondary walls. The parenchyma cells that do not
divide form a secondary ground tissue. Secondary vascular bundles are narrow cells
which were formed from columns of parenchyma cells that undergo rapid division.
43.Describe the growth of a palm seedling. For the first few years of life, the seedling
becomes wider, but without secondary growth, how is it able to do this? Each
adventitious root adds something. What is it? If the palm stem has 100 vascular
bundles and then forms five new adventitious roots with eight bundles each, how

many vascular bundles can the stem have above these new adventitious roots?
Would the stem be wider or narrower above those adventitious roots?
A palm seedling does not have a full set of leaves and wide trunk. After a few
years, the number of leaves increases and the palm trunk becomes wider. The
seedling does this without secondary growth because they produce adventitious
roots that rise from the base of the short stem. Each adventitious root adds extra
vascular bundles. They can have 140 vascular bundles. The stem would be wider.
44.why can a monocot like an iris branch and increase its number of leaves? Is the
fact that the shoot is a rhizome with adventitious roots important? Is water
transported from one end of the shoot to the other?
Monocots can increase their number of leaves because of the production of
adventitious roots. Yes, it is important. Yes, the water is transported from one end of
the shoot to the other.
45.What is the name of the analysis of tree rings? How is that used to study past
climates? How is it used to establish the data when ancient buildings and ships were
Dendrochronology is the analysis of tree rings. Trees that produce very little
wood occur in extremely harsh climates. In tropics, there are many rings found in
trees due to the large amount of growth. Dendrochronology is also used to
determine the age of ancient buildings and ships constructed a long time ago.
46.In tree ring analysis, what is a floating sequence? Why has the sequence for the
Middle East been floating, whereas we know the exact dates of each ring in the
sequences for North America and Europe? What is so important about the volcanic
eruption in 1628 BCE? Do you think it is possible that the unusual ring in North
American tree sequence was produced by a volcanic eruption in North America and
the unusual ring in the Middle East sequence was caused by a different
phenomenon that occurred in a different year? If so, then has the floating sequence
been anchored?
The floating sequence is the archaeological wood samples whose rings overlap the
other rings, and the other rings overlap some more of the rings. They believed that the
floating sequence was caused by the volcanic eruption in the Middle East which
produced extra rain and optimal growing conditions to Middle Easts hot and dry climate.
It gave them a hunch that the very strange ring found in the North American and
European sequences and the floating ring found in the Middle East sequences was in
fact produced by the volcanic eruption. Yes, it is possible. Yes, they will eventually

determine the exact date of those floating sequences which will lead to the exact dates
of different buildings, statues and ships.