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# Civil Engineering Dept, ISM Dhanbad

Structural Engg Laboratory (MTech)
Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity
Objective of the experiment: To determine the quality of the concrete using ultrasonic pulse
velocity.
Theory: This is one of the non-destructive testing methods for concrete. The ultrasonic pulse
velocity method could be used to establish the homogeneity of the concrete, the quality of the
concrete in relation to standard requirements, the quality of one element of concrete in
relation to another, and the values of dynamic elastic modulus of the concrete. The ultrasonic
pulse is generated by an electro-acoustical transducer. When the pulse is induced into the
concrete from a transducer, it undergoes multiple reflections at the boundaries of the material.
A complex system of stress waves is developed which includes longitudinal (compression),
shear (transverse) and surface (Rayleigh) waves. The receiving transducer detects the onset of
the longitudinal waves, which is the fastest. Because the velocity of the pulses is almost
independent of the geometry of the material through which they pass and depends only on its
elastic properties, hence pulse velocity method is a convenient technique for investigating
structural concrete. In case of poorer quality, lower velocities are obtained. If there is a crack,
void or flaw inside the concrete which comes in the way of transmission of the pulses, the
pulse strength is attenuated and it passes around the discontinuity, thereby making the path
length longer. Consequently, lower velocities are obtained. The actual pulse velocity obtained
depends primarily upon the materials and mix proportions of concrete. Density and modulus
of elasticity of aggregate also significantly affect the pulse velocity.
The pulse velocity is determined by
Path length (l )
Pulse velocity 
Transit ti me (t )
Where path length is the distance of pulse velocity travelled from transmitter to receiver in
mm, transmit time in microsecond (μs) gives the velocity in Km/s.

Methods of propagating ultrasonic pulse: In the figure – a. so that the display reads 00.5 to 4. which is a transmit time in microseconds. Put a probe on these greased spots and apply pressure on them.  Velocity of the ultrasonic pulse can be calculated from the above equation.In case of doubtful quality it may be necessary to carry out further tests. Velocity Criterion for Concrete Quality Grading [IS13311 (Part 1):1992] Sl.5 3 3 to 3. c.5 4 Below 3 Note . Direct transmission.  Now read the display and note down the reading. b.No Pulse velocity by cross probing (Km/s) 1 Above 4. Observation table: Concrete quality grading Excellent Good Medium Doubtful .No Path Transmit Pulse Quality of on . Procedure:  Connect the mains led to the socket at the back power supply. The quality of the concrete is known by comparing the velocity from the Table 2 of Indian Standard code IS 13311 (Part 1):1992.  Connect the crystal probes to TRANS and REC terminals. length (l) Time (t) Velocity (l/t) Concrete of and the grease the faces the probes press the faces together and if required use the SET ZERO control for initial correction.  Now the grease the opposite face of the specimen across which the measurement has to be made.  Put Sl.0+/-1. Indirect or surface transmission. Semi-direct transmission.5 2 3.  Measure the distance between the two faces of the specimen.

ρ is density of material in KN/mm3 .(1) √ Where E is Elasticity modulus in N/mm2. The relation of pulse velocity and the properties of materials can be given as – E V= ρ ---.Result: The quality of the concrete mould (block/cylinder) is found _______.