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Revision No.

Document No. : P5248-006-MC-RP-XXX


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Date
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CLIENT :

PETRONAS CARIGALI SDN. BHD [39275-U]

PROJECT TITLE

: PROVISION FOR FRONT END ENGINEERING DESIGN FOR


SKO PIPELINE REHABILITATION PROJECT

DOCUMENT TITLE : DEGRADATION DESIGN BASIS MEMORANDUM (PL-262)

DOCUMENT NO.

: P5248-006-MC-RP-0006

CONTRACT NO.
CHO/2013/DFE/0002(A)
:
CH2/C5/2003/DCE/
146
WORK
WORK
ORDER
: XXX
NO.
CTR NO.

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ISSUED FOR REVIEW

MAN

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MKI

Description

Prepd

Chkd

Appd

Client

Revision No.

P5248-006-MC-RP-0006

Document No. :
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Date
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P5248-006-MC-RP-000x
A
XX March 2015
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1.0

INTRODUCTION

1.1

General

1.2

Purpose

1.3

Scope

2.0

3.0

4.0

PROJECT SCOPE

2.1

Project Background

2.2

Abbreviation

10

REGULATION, CODE AND STANDARD

12

3.1

Malaysia Government and Local Authority

12

3.2

PETRONAS Technical Standards

12

3.3

International Codes and Standard

13

3.4

Project Documents

13

DESIGN BASIS

14

4.1

Design Basis

14

4.2

Fluid Composition

14

4.3

Operating Envelop

15

4.4

Environmental Data

15

4.5

Formation Water

16

4.6

Fluid Analysis

16

4.7

Sour Service

16

5.0

ASSUMPTIONS

17

6.0

DEGRADATION ASSESSMENT AND MATERIAL RECOMMENDATION

18

6.1

Material Study Methodology

18

6.2

Acceptable Materials

18

7.0

DEGRADATION THREATS AND MECHANISMS

P5248-006-MC-RP-0006

21

7.1
8.0

9.0

10.0

Identified Threats in PL-262 Pipeline

21

DEGRADATION CONTROL AND PROTECTION

28

8.1

Degradation Control for PL-262

28

8.2

Internal Degradation Control

29

8.3

Pigging

29

8.4

External Degradation Control

30

DEGRADATION MONITORING AND INSPECTION PROGRAMME

33

9.1

Purpose

33

9.2

Degradation Monitoring Techniques and Tools

33

9.3

Inspection

36

DRYING AND PRESERVATION

37

APPENDIX 1 FORMATION WATER (PL-262)

38

APPENDIX 2 THE SUMMARY OF NON-METALLIC MATERIAL AND LIMITS

41

P5248-006-MC-RP-0006

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

P5248-006-MC-RP-0006

1.0

INTRODUCTION

1.1

General
PETRONAS Carigali Sdn Bhd (PETRONAS Carigali) is undertaking the rehabilitation
project of pipelines and associated topside facilities for Sarawak Operation (SKO).
The SKO Pipeline Rehabilitation project shall look at the alternative replacements
and/or upgrade options for its current pipeline facilities, with the objective to provide
continuous pipeline uptime and availability for SKO assets for the next 30 years. The
alternative means of replacement/upgrade which this Rehab project considers shall
cover the possibilities of:

1.2

Non-Carbon Steel pipeline replacement e.g. plastics and flexible pipes,

Pipe-in-pipe insertion e.g. In-field Lining (IFL), Plastic lining in existing Pipeline

Purpose
The purpose of this Degradation Design Basis Memorandum is to provide
recommendation of technically acceptable materials for further evaluation in the
Material Option Study. Materials are recommended based on guidance as given in
PTS 39.01.10.12.
This document also identifies degradation threats, mitigation and monitoring for each
recommended material. Key points of drying and preservation requirements are
included in this report.

1.3

Scope
i.

P5248-006-MC-RP-0006

2.0

PROJECT SCOPE

2.1

Project Background
SKO, one of PETRONAS Carigalis three regional operations in Malaysia comprises
the Baram Delta Operation (BDO) fields, Balingian field, Bintulu Crude Oil Terminal
(BCOT) and Miri Crude Oil Terminal (MCOT). The BDO fields are located
approximately 25km offshore Miri, Sarawak in water depths ranging from 30 76
meters, while MCOT is located onshore Miri, Sarawak. The BDO field is operated
under three production clusters namely Northern Cluster (comprises Bokor, Betty and
Baronia fields), Eastern Cluster (comprises Baram and Fairley Baram fields), and the
Southern Cluster (comprises Bakau, Tukau, Siwa, West Lutong fields and MCOT).
The Balingian field is located approximately 40 km offshore Bintulu, Sarawak in water
depths ranging from 85 to 92 meters. The Balingian field is operated as a single
production cluster and comprises J4, D35, D18, Temana, Bayan and BCOT. The
BDO field started operating in 1976 while the Balingian field started operating in
1978.
SKO currently produces about 100,000 bpd of net oil to MCOT and BCOT in addition
to about 150 million scf/d of natural gas; which is forecasted to increase to 160,000
bpd oil and 250 million scf/d of natural gas from 2013 onwards. SKOs oil and gas
production is evacuated through about 175 operating pipelines and about 104
production platforms/jackets. The pipeline assets arising from integrity risk
assessment / premature failures/degradations have been confirmed with high internal
degradation risk suspected arising from Microbiologically Influenced Degradation,
necessitating a major asset rehabilitation program from 2014 to 2016.
The schematic of the BDO and Balingian Pipeline Network are shown below.

P5248-006-MC-RP-0006

Figure 2.1 Baram Delta Operations (BDO) Field Pipeline


Network
P5248-006-MC-RP-0006

Figure 2.2 PL-262 Route

SKO currently operates a total of 172 pipelines with estimated total length of 1477
km. Most of the SKO pipelines are offshore pipelines except for the terminal pipelines
with onshore sections. The operating pipelines involved have the following services
regimes:

Stabilized crude oil evacuation from major platforms to crude oil terminals

Multiphase crude oil and gas evacuation from jackets to main platforms.

Wet gas evacuation for gas-lift service

Wet gas evacuation service

Dry gas (processed) evacuation

Vent lines

Water injection service

P5248-006-MC-RP-0006

2.2

Abbreviation
The following definitions refer to abbreviations used throughout this document:
AISI

American Iron and Steel Institute

ANSI

American National Standard Institute

API

American Petroleum Institute

Bbl/d

Barrel per Day

BNDP-A

Baronia Drilling Platform A

BNJT-C

Baronia Jacket Platform C

BOL

Bottom of Line

BWC

Bulk Water Degradation

CA

Degradation Allowance

CAPEX

Capital Expenditures

CI

Degradation Inhibitor

CISCC

Chloride Induced Stress Degradation Cracking

CO2

Carbon Dioxide

CP

Cathodic Protection

CS

Carbon Steel

CRA

Degradation Resistant Alloy

CWC

Condensing Water Degradation

DCS

Distributed Control System

DDBM

Degradation Design Basis Memorandum

DSS

Duplex Stainless Steel

ER

Electrical Resistance

FFS

Fitness for Service

FWS

Full Well Stream

GRE

Glass Reinforced Epoxy

HDPE

High Density Poly Ethylene

HIC

Hydrogen Induced Cracking

HP

High Pressure

HSE

Health, Safety and Environment

H2S

Hydrogen Sulphide

ID

Internal Diameter

IFL

In-field Liner

IP

Intelligent Pigging

P5248-006-MC-RP-0006

LCC

Life Cycle Cost

LP

Low Pressure

MIC

Microbiologically Influenced Degradation

MMscfd
MOC

Million Standard Cubic Feet Per Day


Material of Construction

NACE

National Association of Degradation Engineers

OD

Outer Diameter

PA

Polyamide

P&ID

Piping and Instrumentation Diagram

PCSB

PETRONAS Carigali Sdn Bhd

PE

Polyethylene

PEX

Cross-linked Polyethylene consisting of long polymer


Chains in a 3-dimensional structure

ppm

Part Per Million

PTS

PETRONAS Technical Standard

PVDF

Polyvinylideneflouride

RTP

Reinforced Thermoplastic

RBI

Risk Based Inspection

ROV
SDSS

Remotely Operated Vehicle


Super Duplex Stainless Steel

SIL

Safety Integrity Level

SKO

Sarawak Operation

SLC

Service Life Cycle

SRB

Sulphate Reducing Bacteria

SSC

Sulphide Stress Cracking

TOL

Top of Line

UCR

Unmitigated Degradation Rate

UT

Ultrasonic Testing

WGR

Water Gas Ratio

WT

Wall Thickness

P5248-006-MC-RP-0006

3.0

REGULATION, CODE AND STANDARD


This study follows the requirements of the latest editions of the following in order of
precedence:

3.1

National or Local Regulation / codes

PETRONAS Technical Specification (PTS)

International Codes and Standards (API, ANSI, etc)

Malaysia Government and Local Authority


The design shall also comply and satisfies the Malaysian Government or Local
Authority Laws and Regulations, including but not limited to the following:

Petroleum (Safety Measures) Act 302,1984 [Reprint-2001];


Petroleum (Safety Measures) (Transportation of Petroleum by Pipeline)

Regulation, 1985.

3.2

Department of Occupational Safety & Health (DOSH), Malaysia.

PETRONAS Technical Standards


The design shall comply and satisfies the requirement of the latest edition of the
PETRONAS Technical Standards (PTS), including but not limited to the following:

PTS 30.10.02.13
PTS 30.10.02.31
PTS 30.48.00.31
PTS 31.38.01.11
PTS 31.40.00.10
PTS 31.40.00.19
PTS 31.40.00.20
PTS 31.40.10.20
PTS 31.40.30.34
PTS 31.40.30.37
PTS 39.01.10.11

P5248-006-MC-RP-0006

Non-Metallic Materials Selection & Application


Metallic Materials-Prevention of Brittle Fracture (Jan 2010)
Protective Coatings and Lining (Sep 2012).
Metallic Materials-Prevention of Brittle Fracture (Jan 2010)
Pipeline Engineering (Jan 2008)
Degradation Mitigation Strategy Wet Sour Gas CS Pipelines
(Jan 2010)
Pipeline and Riser Engineering (Sept 2012)
Spoolable Fibre-reinforce Plastic Pipe (Aug 2012)
Thermoplastic Lined Pipeline (Jan 2011)
External Field Joint and Rehabilitation Coating for Line Pipe
(Jan 2010)
Selection of Materials for Life Cycle Performance (EP)
Materials Selection Process (Dec 2010)

PTS 39.01.10.12

Selection of Materials for Life Cycle Performance (EP)


Upstream Equipment (Dec 2010)
PCSB Degradation Management Guidelines (2009)

WW ALL E 04
001
WW ALL M 04
002
MY ALL O 07002
3.3

PCSB Quality Control Manual (Sept. 2002)

International Codes and Standard

API RP14E
API 1104
API 5L
API RP 15LE
API RP 17B
API RP 17J
DNV-RP-F101
DNV-RP-F103
M-001
NACE MR
0175
3.4

PCSB Inspection And Maintenance Guideline (Sep 2010)

Recommended Practice for Design and Installation of


Offshore Production Platform Piping Systems (Mar 2007).
Welding of Pipelines and Related Facilities (April 2010).
Specification for Line Pipe (Nov 1992)
Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Line Pipe
Specification for Flexible Pipe
Specification of Unbonded Flexible Pipe (Jan 2009)
Corroded Pipelines (Oct 2010)
Cathodic Protection of Submarine Protection by Galvanic
Anodes (Oct 2010)
Norsok Standard Material Selection (Aug 2004)
Petroleum and natural gas industries - Materials for use in
H2S-containing environments in oil and gas production.

Project Documents

P5248-006-MC-RP-0006

4.0

DESIGN BASIS

4.1

Design Basis
Summary of the data that has been used as the basis for the degradation study
reported in this document are as follow:
Design Life
Design Pressure
Inlet Temperature
CO2 (in gas)
H2S (in water)

4.2

:
:
:
:
:

Fluid Composition
The data used are based on the laboratory analysis report which provided by
CoreLab. The gas composition for PL-262 is shown in Table 4.1 below:
Table 4.1 Gas Composition for PL-262

COMPONENT

NAME

CO2
N2
C1
C2
C3
iC4
nC4
C5
iC5
nC5
C6

Carbon dioxide
Nitrogen
Methane
Ethane
Propane
i-Butane
n-Butane
Neo-Pentane
i-Pentane
n-Pentane
Hexanes
M-C-Pentane
Benzene
Cyclohexane
Heptanes
M-C-Hexane
Toluene
Octanes
E-Benzene
M/P-Xylene
O-Xylene

C7

C8
C9

P5248-006-MC-RP-0006

MOLE %

WEIGHT %

COMPONENT
C10
C11
C12+

NAME

Nonanes
Decanes
Undecanes
Dodecanes Plus
TOTAL

MOLE %

WEIGHT %

100.00

100.00

C12+ is considered pseudo component. The property of C12+ is shown in Table 4.2
below:
Table 4.2: Pseudo Components
CALCULATED RESIDUE
PROPERTIES

MOLE %

WEIGHT
%

MOLE
WEIGHT
(g.mol-1)

DENSITY AT
60F (g.cm-3)

C7+ Heptanes Plus

4.3

Operating Envelop

4.4

Environmental Data
The environmental data is taken from BARDEGG Pipeline Hydraulic Report

Ambient Air Temperature (Max)


Ambient Air Temperature (Min)
Seabed Temperature (Max)
Seabed Temperature (Min)
Air Velocity
4.5

Formation WateR

4.6

Fluid Analysis

: 40C
: 21C
: 30C
: 17C
: 24.2m/s

Fluids in PL-262 comprise gas lift and condensed water. These have been analyzed
for degradation and species that may be present in the water stream.

P5248-006-MC-RP-0006

Analyses of water indicate calcium carbonate and strontium carbonate scale


formation. Other species having 10-2 mg/L or greater expected to be formed are listed
in Table 4.3 below.
4.7

Sour Service
NACE MR0175/ISO15156 defines sour service in multiphase systems and
recommends materials that are resistant to SSC in sour service environment as
shown in Figure 4.1.

Figure 4.1 Sour Service Requirement


At operating pressure of 61 barg and no detectable H2S in water phase, the system
will be in region 0 or non-sour service.

P5248-006-MC-RP-0006

5.0

ASSUMPTIONS

6.0

DEGRADATION ASSESSMENT AND MATERIAL RECOMMENDATION

6.1

Material Study Methodology


Material is evaluated based on the recommendation of technically acceptable
materials as given in PTS 39.01.10.12.
Final analysis of material optimization will be based on economic assessment of life
cycle cost of each material considered for PL-262 pipeline.

6.2

Acceptable Materials

P5248-006-MC-RP-0006

7.0

DEGRADATION THREATS AND MECHANISMS

7.1

Identified Threats in PL-262 Pipeline


The following degradation mechanisms and threats have been identified for the
recommended materials to be studied for PL-262 pipeline.
Table 7.1- Degradation mechanism and threats identified for PL-262 pipeline
THREATS

Material Recommended For PL-262


Reference section

Internal Degradation

Type

Corrosive Process

CO2 Degradation

7.2.1

Galvanic Degradation

7.2.2

Sulphide Stress Degradation


Cracking

7.2.3

Hydrogen Induced Cracking


(HIC) & Step Wise Cracking
(SWC)

7.2.3

Oxygen Degradation

7.2.4

Microbiologically Influenced
Degradation (MIC)

7.2.5

Erosion Degradation

7.3.1

Under-deposit Degradation

7.3.2

Low Temperature
Embrittlement

7.3.3

P5248-006-MC-RP-0006

External Degradation

Permeation

7.3.4

Absorption

7.3.5

Atmospheric Degradation

7.4.1

Seawater Degradation

7.4.2

Chloride Stress Degradation


Cracking

7.4.3

Degradation
Insulation

7.4.4

Under

Crevice Degradation

7.4.5

UV Degradation

7.4.6

7.2

Internal Degradation

7.2.1

CO2 Degradation

7.2.2

Galvanic Degradation

7.2.3

H2S Degradation

7.2.4

Oxygen Degradation

7.2.5

Microbiologically Influenced Degradation

7.3

Other Internal Degradation Mechanisms

7.3.1

Erosion Degradation

7.3.2

Under Deposit Degradation

7.3.3

Low Temperature Embrittlement

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7.3.4

Permeation

7.3.5

Absorption

7.4

External Degradation

7.4.1

Atmospheric Degradation

7.4.2

Seawater Degradation

7.4.3

Chloride Induced Stress Degradation Cracking (CISCC)

7.4.4

Degradation Under Insulation

7.4.5

Crevice Degradation

7.4.6

UV Degradation

8.0

DEGRADATION CONTROL AND PROTECTION

8.1

Degradation Control for PL-262

8.2

Internal Degradation Control

8.3

Pigging

8.4

External Degradation Control

8.4.1

Pipeline Coating

8.4.2

Riser Coating

8.4.3
9.0

Cathodic Protection
DEGRADATION MONITORING AND INSPECTION PROGRAMME

9.1

Purpose

9.2

Degradation Monitoring Techniques and Tools

9.2.1

Sampling and Analysis

9.2.2

Polymer Probe

P5248-006-MC-RP-0006

9.2.3

Degradation Monitoring for Flexible Pipe

9.3

Inspection

9.3.1

Risers

10.0

DRYING AND PRESERVATION

APPENDIX 1 FORMATION WATER (PL-262

P5248-006-MC-RP-0006