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IPASJ International Journal of Electronics & Communication (IIJEC)

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJEC/IIJEC.htm


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A Publisher for Research Motivation ........

Volume 3, Issue 7, July 2015

SIMULATION BASED ANALYSIS OF IEEE


802.16 WIMAX ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR
HIGH LOAD APPLICATIONS
Jatinder Preet Kaur1, Mandeep Kaur2
1

Punjab Institute of Technology, Rajpura, Punjab

Punjab Institute of Technology, Rajpura, Punjab

ABSTRACT
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) is a technology that bridges the gap between fixed and mobile
access and offer the same subscriber experience for fixed and mobile user. Routing is the key issue of WiMAX. Routing
protocols are studied mainly on the basis of distance vector routing protocols, link state routing protocols and path vector
routing protocols and the protocols are IGRP, RIP, EIGRP; OSPF, IS-IS and BGP respectively. The performance of each
routing protocols is different from others. Optimized Network Engineering Tool (OPNET) simulator is used to analyze and
measure the comparative performance of various routing protocols. In this paper, focus is made on comparative analysis of
routing protocols for high load application such as FTP. The performance evaluation of three routing protocols that are Border
Gateway Routing (BGP), Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) and Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP), is carried on the
basis of End to End delay, network load, Media Access Delay, Retransmission Attempts and Throughput. The analysis is done
by obtaining the results from simulation scenarios in OPNET Modeler version 14.0.

Keywords: WIMAX, BGP, OSPF, IGRP, OPNET.

1. INTRODUCTION
In present telecommunications, networking and services are varying in a rapid way to support next generation Internet
user environment. Wireless networks will play a significant role in supporting next generation Internet. The rapid
growth of wireless internet causes a demand for high-speed access to the World Wide Web. To serve the demand for
access to the internet any where any time and ensure quality of service, the IEEE 802.16 working group brought out a
new broadband wireless access technology called WiMAX.

2. LITERATURE REVIEW
A survey on all relevant activities of WiMAX by Daan Pareit et al. [1] has been done elaborately and comprehensive
overview of all those activities has been given, which reveals the importance of the willingness to innovate and to
continuously incorporate new ideas in the IEEE standardization process and the importance of the WiMAX. There are
different routing protocols that are proposed for 802.16 WiMAX networks. The selection of an appropriate routing
protocol is a key issue while designing a scalable and efficient wireless networks. An optimal scheduling scheme has
been proposed by Liqun Fu and Zhigang Cao [2] to increase the IEEE Standard 802.16-2004 network throughput. The
problem of finding the maximum network throughput in the optimal scheduling scheme can be formulated as an
integer linear problem. A reservation based Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol has been adopted by the IEEE
802.16 standard as the basic protocol for data communication within the upstream channel. Tzu-Chieh Tsai and
Chuan-Yin Wang [3] proposed a new routing method (using SWEB as metrics) that is well-suited in IEEE 802.16
distributed, coordinated mesh mode. Also, an admission control algorithm (TAC) which utilizes the token bucket
mechanism is proposed. M.Rehan Rasheed, et al. [4] have worked on different routing protocols that behave differently
in 802.16 networks according to their internal working mechanism and DSDV protocol gives the best performance in
terms of the packet delivery fraction parameter which outperforms both DSR and AODV.

3. ROUTING PROTOCOLS OF WIMAX


Various types of routing protocols have proposed for WIMAX in the literature. In this paper, three different routing
protocols -BGP, OSPF and IGRP working at access point level have been evaluated.

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IPASJ International Journal of Electronics & Communication (IIJEC)


A Publisher for Research Motivation ........

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJEC/IIJEC.htm


Email: editoriijec@ipasj.org

Volume 3, Issue 7, July 2015


A. Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
Border gateway protocol (BGP) is inter domain routing protocol employed on the internet which allows each
autonomous system to independently formulate its routing policies, and it allows policies to override distance metrics in
favor of policy concerns. It is a path vector routing protocol [5]. BGP announces pathways and the networks that are
reachable at the end of the pathway. It also describes the pathway by using attributes which are similar to metrics.
B. Interior gateway routing protocol (IGRP).
Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) is distance vector. Router is used to exchange routing data within an
independent system. Interior gateway routing protocol is created in a part to defeat the confines of RIP (Routing
Information Protocol) in large networks. It maintains multiple matrices for each route as well as reliability, maximum
transmission unit, delay load, and bandwidth. The maximum hop of IGRP is 255 and routing updates are transmitting
90 seconds.
C. Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
Open Shortest Path Vector (OSPF) is a link state dynamic routing protocol that detects and learns the best routes to
destinations. OSPF can quickly perceive changes in the topology of an autonomous system, and after a short
convergence period, calculate new routes. Each router running the OSPF protocol has a database describing a map of
the routing domain. This database is identical in all participating routers. From this database, the IP routing table is
built through the construction of a shortest-path tree, with the router itself as root [6].

4. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION METRICS


For the comparison of protocols under the applications generating heavy traffic, five different metrics have been
chosen:
A. End to End Delay:
The packet end to end delay is the average time that packets take to transverse the network. This is the time from the
generation of the packet by the sender up to their reception at the destination application layer and is expressed in
seconds.
B. Network Load (bits/sec)
Network Load represents the total data traffic received (in bits/sec) by the network from the higher layers of the MACs
that is accepted and queued for transmission.
C. Media Access Delay
Media access delay is the time a node takes to access media or link to start its transmission. For each packet, the delay
is recorded when the packet is sent to the physical layer for the first time. Media access Delay includes transmission
delay, queuing delays and delays due to contentions and back offs.
D. Retransmission Attempts (Packets)
Total number of retransmission attempts by all WLAN MACs in the network, until either packet is successfully
transmitted or it is discarded as a result of researching short or long retry limit.
E. Throughput
Throughput is the measurement of number of packets passing through the network in a unit of time. This metric shows
the total number of packets (bits/sec) that have been successfully delivered to the destination nodes. The throughput is
defined as the total amount of data a receiver receives from the sender divided by the time it takes for the receiver to get
the last packet.

5. SIMULATION
The design goal is to evaluate the performance of routing protocols-BGP, IGRP and OSPF of WiMAX for high load
applications. The network scenario is created which consists of 1000*1000 m campus and further divided into seven
cells. Each cell has its own base station and five mobile stations/nodes. The nodes are connected to the base station
through wireless local area network (WLAN) as shown in figure 1. All the base stations are located in such a way that
every base station is able to detect a transmission from any other base station. The scenarios simulated for different
protocols under the data rate 54Mbps for the different routing protocols of WiMAX. Total 5 scenarios run for the
simulation time of 1 hour. The whole research is carried out using discrete event simulation environment software

Volume 3, Issue 7, July 2015

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IPASJ International Journal of Electronics & Communication (IIJEC)


Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJEC/IIJEC.htm
Email: editoriijec@ipasj.org

A Publisher for Research Motivation ........

Volume 3, Issue 7, July 2015


known as OPNET Modeler version 14.0. [7]. This network has been configured for FTP(File transfer protocol ) as an
application at high load traffic.

Figure1. Sample Network Scenario

6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


This section outlines how well the mentioned three routing protocols respond to the performance metrics end to end
delay, Network load; Media access delay, retransmission attempt and throughput. The designed networks are
configured by using various optimized parameters. The optimized values of all the used wireless parameters as shown
in table 1.
Table 1 WLAN Parameters
General Parameters

Values

Packet Size

Exponential (2048)

Fragmentation

1024 bytes

RTS Threshold

1024 bytes

Power Utilization

0.30 Watt

Network Size

1000 x 1000 m

No. of cell

No. of nodes/cell

Trajectory

Vector

Mode

Mobility

Data Rate

54Mbps

Application

High Load FTP

Figure 2 gives end to end delay from the source to destination application layer in case of BGP, IGRP and OSPF
routing protocols. It has been observed that OSPF has the lowest delay out of the three protocols. It was followed by
IGRP whose value increases initially, then decreases and remains nearly constant.BGP has higher value of delay. The
results of three routing protocols are compared on the basis of delay degrades to 0.00155 sec from 0.0018 sec for BGP,
0.00093 sec from 0.0008 for IGRP and 0.0003 sec from 0.0002 sec for OSPF. This is because end to end delay is less,

Volume 3, Issue 7, July 2015

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IPASJ International Journal of Electronics & Communication (IIJEC)


A Publisher for Research Motivation ........

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJEC/IIJEC.htm


Email: editoriijec@ipasj.org

Volume 3, Issue 7, July 2015


packets takes less time to transverse the network. Therefore OSPF performance is better than other two protocols in
case of end to end delay and the values are 0.00341 in seconds.

Figure 2 End to End Delay (sec)


The network load is in bits/sec is shown in figure 3 for analysis. It has been concluded that the network load in OSPF is
lower than both BGP and IGRP due to the lower control load, because OSPF publishes the routing information to all
the routers in the network in the regular intervals of time. In IGRP, load increases by 43056.48 bits/sec to 58302.73
bits/sec and then comes to constant value, but in OSPF load is increased from 35263.87 bits/sec to 56826.57 bits/sec
and in BGP it increases by 53220.76190 bits/sec to 63347.14 bits/sec.

Figure 3 Network Load (bits/sec)


The figure 4 shows the media access delay of three routing protocols. Considering all the scenarios collectively it has
been observed that OSPF performs better than BGP and IGRP routing protocols. OSPF has value 3.61E-05 which
degrades from 4.11E-05. Media access delay in case of BGP is initially low then abruptly increases and its value is
02.638568179. In IGRP the media access delay increases from 0.00021 to 0.24119. So OSPF has better performance
than other protocols.

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IPASJ International Journal of Electronics & Communication (IIJEC)


A Publisher for Research Motivation ........

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJEC/IIJEC.htm


Email: editoriijec@ipasj.org

Volume 3, Issue 7, July 2015

Figure 4 Media Access Delay (sec)


The retransmission attempt of routing protocols is shown in figure 5. It has been observed that BGP has least
retransmission attempts and OSPF suffers higher retransmission attempts. In BGP all the packets are safely received by
destination. In OSPF, the value of retransmission attempts is increased to 5.8 from 5.277 but in case of BGP its value is
4.43. So BGP has better performance than other routing protocols.

Figure 5 Retransmission Attempts (Packets)


The figure 6 shows the throughput of all the routing protocols. The BGP routing protocol outperforms other protocols.
Initially the throughput of BGP increases and attains peak value 25,544 bits/ sec and after that gradually degrades with
increase in time. The peak point of IGRP is 5,132 bps and that of OSPF is 3,848 bps and then the values for both of the
protocols exponentially decrease. Since throughput is the ratio of the total amount of data that a receiver receives from
the sender to the time it takes for the receiver to get the last packet. In the nutshell, we can claim that BGP performs
better with higher throughput than other two protocols,

7. CONCLUSIONS
WiMAX provides high broadband internet access at high data rates and meets the demand of various users by
providing accesses anywhere anytime. Routing in WiMAX networks is challenging problem due to frequent topology
changes caused by mobility of subscriber stations The performance of WiMAX routing protocol-BGP, OSPF, IGRP
have been discussed under high traffic load applications. The parameters used for evaluating these protocols are End to
End Delay, Network load, Media Access Delay Retransmission Attempts and Throughput. After the intensive
simulations and analysis, it has concluded that BGP routing protocols outperforms routing protocols, i.e. OSPF and
IGRP.

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IPASJ International Journal of Electronics & Communication (IIJEC)


A Publisher for Research Motivation ........

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJEC/IIJEC.htm


Email: editoriijec@ipasj.org

Volume 3, Issue 7, July 2015

Figure 6 Throughput
REFERENCES
[1] Daan Pareit, Bart Lannoo The History of WiMAX: A Complete Survey of the Evolution in Certification and
Standardization for IEEE 802.16 and WiMAX. In IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, p.p. 1-29,
October 2011.
[2] Liqun Fu and Zhigang Cao, Joint Optimization of Routing and Scheduling for Higher Throughput in IEEE
802.16 Mesh Networks. In the proceeding of International Conference on Wireless, Mobile & Multimedia
Networks, p.p. 1-4, October 2006.
[3] Tzu-Chieh Tsai and Chuan-Yin Wang, Routing and Admission Control in IEEE 802.16 Distributed Mesh
Networks. in IEEE, p.p. 1-5, July 2007.
[4] M. Rehan Rasheed, M. Kamran Khan, M. Naseem, Aisha Ajmal and Ibrahim M. Hussain, Performance of
Routing Protocols in WiMAX Networks in IACSIT International Journal of Engineering and Technology, Vol. 2,
No.5, October 2010.
[5] Timothy G. Griffin, F. Bruce Shepherd, and Gordon Wilfong et al. The Stable Paths Problem and Inter domain
Routing IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING, Vol. 10, No. 2, April 2002.
[6] Avishek Anand, Kiran R.K, Simulation of Network Topologies a model for OSPF Mobile Technology,
Applications and Systems, January 2005.
[7] OPNET MODELLER version 14, ModelerWireless Suite.http://www.opnet.com/products/modeler
AUTHORS
Jatinder Preet Kaur received the B.Tech degrees in Electronics and Communication
Engineering from Punjab Technical University, Jalandhar and M.Tech. degree in Communication
Systems from Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar in 2009 and 2012, respectively. During
2012-2014, she has worked as an Assistant Professor in Electronics Deptt at Guru Nanak Dev
University, Amritsar. Now she is working as an Assistant Professor in Electronics Deptt at Punjab
Institute of Technology,Rajpura.

Mandeep Kaur received the B.Tech degree in Electronics and Communication Engineering from
Punjab Technical University, Jalandhar and M.Tech degree in Electronics and Communication
Engineering from Punjabi University, Patiala in 2009 and 2011, respectively. She has more than
3.6 years experience of teaching graduate and postgraduate classes. Presently, she is working as
an Assistant Professor in Electronics Deptt. at Punjab Institute of Technology, Rajpura.

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