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Nonlinear Observer Design and

Applications to Synchronization

Chaotic systems are subclass of nonlinear systems. Chaotic system
synchronization and its possible use in secure communication was
first proposed by Pecora and Carroll. Among other techniques,
observer based scheme for synchronization of chaotic system are of
paramount importance for chaotic communication.
Unknown Input Obsrver (UIO) addresses the issue of state
estimation in the presence of unknown input. UIO for linear
systems have been proposed by Darouach [1] and Chen [2]. The
concept of decoupled unknown input used in [1] was extended to
nonlinear systems by Chen [3] and Imsland [4]. Unknown input
observers are of use in many applications such as fault detection &
isolation (FDI), parameter identication and cryptography. Sliding
mode based UIO's have been proposed in [5], [6] for fault detection
and isolation.

Sliding Mode UIO

Consider the master chaotic system subject to uncertainties and the
unknown input. Unknown input is a message signal and is to be
recovered at the receiver side. Moreover the bounds on f (x) and
u(t) are considered to be unknown.
x Ax Bf ( x) Bu (t ) Dv(t )
y Cx


Observer for the master system (1) is proposed as

z Nz Ly Mf ( x ) M
x z Ey


The observer states under the influence of feedback coupling

Converges asymptotically to system states.

UIO an LMI approach

It has been proved above that, if the LMI is feasible observer states
will converge to system states. Thus system dynamics in terms of
estimated states can be written as

x(k 1) Ax(k ) Bf ( x(k )) g ( y(k ), u(k )) Dv(k )

Now unknown input v(k ) can be estimated as

x (k 1) [DT D]1 DT [ Ax(k ) Bf ( x(k )) g ( y(k ), u(k )) Dv(k )]





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L. Imsland, T. A. Johansen, H. F. Grip, and T. I. Fossen. On non-linear unknown
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International Journal of Control, 80(11):1741{1750, 2007.
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using a sliding mode observer. Automatica, 43(9):1605{1614, 2007.