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GROUP T4 MEMBERS

ID
Shahul Hammed, Mohd Shah
23719567
Zabedi, Muhammad Zahid
Yahya, Muhammad Shafiq
Noor Hisham, Syahrul Nazreen
Tarabykin, Vladimir

Mazlan, Muhammad Zuhairi

R
DATE OF EXPERIMENT

STUDENT

Abstract

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1

Aim.................................................................................................................. 3

Introduction..................................................................................................... 3

Theory............................................................................................................. 4

Experimental Investigation.............................................................................. 6

4.1

Experimental Apparatus............................................................................6

4.2

Procedure.................................................................................................. 6

Results............................................................................................................. 8
5.1

Sample Calculations.................................................................................. 8

5.2

Calculated Results and Graph.................................................................10

5.2.1

Experiment 1.................................................................................... 10

5.2.2

Experiment 2.................................................................................... 11

Discussion of Results..................................................................................... 12

Conclusion..................................................................................................... 13

References..................................................................................................... 13

1 AIM
This experiment aims to investigate the heat transfer rate by natural and
forced convection from surfaces with and without fins and also to
determine the temperature profile along the rectangular and cylindrical
fins.

2 INTRODUCTION
Convection is the transfer of energy in a moving liquid or gas flowing
through a duct or over an object. The transfer of that energy is due to
conduction (the interactions between micro-scale energy carries) and the
enthalpy (sum of the internal energy of the fluid and the product of its
pressure and volume) carried by the macro-scale flow.[1] The combination
of both fluid motion and heat conduction makes convection heat transfer
complex. The motion of the fluid enhances the heat transfer by initiating
higher rates of conduction at a greater number of sites in a fluid, making it
a more effective method of cooling than conduction alone.[2]

There are generally two


types of convection,
force or natural (free). If
the movement of the
fluid is assisted by
external devices such as
a pump, fan or
compressor it can be
classified as forced
convection. However, if
the motion of the fluid is
a result of inequalities in
the density due to
temperature differences,
it is classified as natural
or free convection. Both
Figure 21: Convection and conduction heat transfer mechanism
form of convective heat
transfer strongly
depends on the fluid
properties such as dynamic viscosity, thermal conductivity, density, and
specific heat as well as the fluid velocity. The dependence of convection
on so many variables makes it a very complex mechanism of heat
transfer. However, for this experiment the fluid we are dealing with will be
air and as such most of these values such as density and thermal
conductivity are a given constant and the variables that we will be
investigating is the fluid flow (laminar or turbulent) via Reynolds number
and the Nusselt number.[2, 3]

3 THEORY
Regardless of the complexity of convection, the rate of convection heat
transfer is observed to be proportional to the temperature difference and
is conveniently expressed by Newtons law of cooling as[4, 5]
(3.1

Q=h
A s ( T s T )
)

where
h=convection heat transfer coefficient, W/m2 K
A s =heat transfer surface area, m

T s=temperature of the surface, C


T =temperature of the fluid sufficiently far from the surface, C
Because the convection heat transfer coefficient h depends on the several
of the mentioned variables and is thus difficult to determine, a simpler
equation will be used in determining the heat transfer

m
(3.2
C p ( T out T ) where
Q=
)
T out =outlet temperatures
T =inlet temperature
C p =heat capacity
And the mass flow rate for the system can be found using the following
formula
(3.3
m=

A U avg
)

where
= air density
A=cross section areaof the inlet

U avg =average velocity


The close connection between convection heat transfer and fluid
mechanics mean that the fluid flow plays a key role in heat convection.
Some flows are smooth and orderly while others are rather chaotic. The
highly ordered fluid motion characterized by smooth streamlines is called
laminar. The flow of high-viscosity fluids such as oils at low velocities is
typically laminar. The highly disordered fluid motion that typically occurs
at high velocities characterized by velocity fluctuations is called turbulent.
The flow of low-viscosity fluids such as air at high velocities is typically
turbulent. To determine the flow type the Reynolds number of the flow is
determined[2]

U L
(3.4
R e flat plate =
v
)
(3.5
U Dh
) R e cylinder =

where
L=width of the flat plate
D h=hydraulic diameter of the cylinder
=kinematic viscosity

In convection studies, it is common practice to non-dimensionalize the


governing equations and combine the variables, which group together into
dimensionless numbers in order to reduce the number of total variables. It
is also common practice to non-dimensionalize the heat transfer
coefficient h with the Nusselt number, defined as
(3.6
) Nu=

Dh
Q
A s ( T oT m )

where
=thermal conductivity

T m=

T +T out
2

Finally, to determine the efficiency of the heat transfer rate, the ratio of power of
the heat dissipated by the fins and plate and the electrical power supply is
obtained
(3.7
)

Q
power
Q

4 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION

Figure 41: G.U.N.T WL-350 Heat Convection Apparatus; 1) Temperature sensor, 2) Air duct, 3) Thermocoup

4.1 EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS


a)
b)
c)
d)

GUNT WL-352 Heat Convection Apparatus


Digital Anemometer
Thermocouple thermometer
Vernier Caliper

4.2 PROCEDURE
Experiment #1
a) Free convection
1) The air duct is set up with the fan switched off. The flat plate is
carefully mounted from the back and connected to the power
supply. The power is switched on and turned to maximum.
2) As the flat plate receives power, it gets heated up. The cut-off point
for the voltage needs to be achieved before any readings can be
taken.
3) Once the condition in (2) is met, temperature readings of the flat
plate surface, the inlet and the outlet are recorded using the
thermocouple.
4) The air velocity at the inlet and the outlet are measured using the
anemometer.
5) Steps 1-4 were repeated for the rectangular and the cylindrical fins.
b) Forced convection
6) The fan switched on rig was switched on.

7) The flat plate is inserted and the same measurements as for free
convection were taken after an appropriate amount of time.
8) Steps 2 to 5 were repeated.
Experiment #2
1) The cylindrical fin plate was mounted in the rig as seen in Figure 4-1
with the fan and power set to max.
2) The plate is allowed to heat up and the cut-off point of the voltage
was achieved before any readings were taken.
3) The inlet and outlet temperature, the air flow rate was measured
using the anemometer and the power input to the heater was noted.
4) The temperature distribution along the fin (T2, T3, T4 and T5) was
measured using the thermocouple.
5) Steps 1 to 4 were repeated using the rectangular fin plate.
6) The temperature distribution along the length of each of the fins
was plotted.

5 RESULTS
5.1 SAMPLE CALCULATIONS
Hydraulic Diameter of Air Duct
D h=

4 0.01495
=0.1223 m
0.4891

Average Temperature

T m=

Tin+Tout 26.1+ 29
=
=27.55 C
2
2

Density

1.1881+
=

20T m
1.1120
T m40

20T m
+1
T m 40

1.1120
( 2027.55
27.5540 )
+1
( 2027.55
27.5540 )

1.1881+
=

=1.1594 kg/m

Specific Heat Capacity


1.007+
Cp=

20T m
+1
T m 40

1.008
( 2027.55
27.5540 )
+1
( 2027.55
27.5540 )

1.1007+
Cp=

20T m
1.008
T m40

C p =1.0074 kJ /kg K

Thermal Conductivity
0.02603+
=

20T m
0.02749
T m 40

20T m
+1
T m 40

0.02749
( 2027.55
27.5540 )
+1
( 2027.55
27.5540 )

0.02603+
=

=0.0266 W / K m

Velocity
(15.13 106 )+
=

20T m
(16.92 106)
T m 40

20T m
+1
T m 40

(16.92 10
( 2027.55
27.5540 )
2027.55
( 27.5540
)+1

(15.13 106 )+
=

=1.5806 105 m2 / s

Mass Flow rate


m=1.1594

0.01495 0.1=0.00173 kg /s

Output Power

Q=0.00173
1.0074 ( 2926.1 ) =0.00506 W

Efficiency
=

0.00506
100=0.00298
170

Reynolds Number
=

0.1 0.1223
2
=7.7349 10
5
1.5806 10

Nusselts Number
Nu=

0.00506 0.1223
=0.039
0.01407 0.02667 42.45

Heat Transfer Coefficient


0.039 0.0266 =0.0085 W /( m2 . K )
h=
0.1223

5.2 CALCULATED RESULTS

AND

GRAPH

5.2.1 Experiment 1
Table 5-1: Experimental results for heat convection of flat plate.

Flat Plate
Free

Forced

0.01407

0.01407

0.00506

0.06139

(%)

0.00298

0.03654

Re

773.49

24886

h (W/m^2.K)

0.0085

0.1406

Aeff (m^2)

power

(W)

Table 5-2: Experimental results for heat convection of cylindrical fins.

Cylindrical Fins
Free

Free

0.10012

0.10012

0.04025

0.29497

(%)

0.02354

0.17250

Re

1507.7

1507.7

h (W/m^2.K)

0.0078

0.0078

Aeff (m^2)

power

(W)

Table 5-3: Experimental results for heat convection of rectangular fins

Rectangular Fins
Free

Free

0.1539

0.1539

0.02625

0.27549

(%)

0.01572

0.16496

Re

1378.6

23497

h (W/m^2.K)

0.0046

0.1059

Aeff (m^2)

power

(W)

5.2.2 Experiment 2

Temperature vs. Distance


45.0
40.0
35.0
30.0
25.0
Temperature (C)

20.0
15.0
10.0
5.0
0.0
0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10
Distance (m)

Figure 5-1: Temperature profile for cylindrical fins from outlet T2-T5

Temperature vs. Distance


12.0
10.0
8.0

Temperature (C)

6.0
4.0
2.0
0.0
0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10
Distance (m)

Figure 5-2: Temperature profile for rectangular fins from outlet T2-T5

6 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
For the first half of experiment 1, that is natural or free convection, the
results indicates that the cylindrical pins fins has the best performance
among the 3 plates tested. The cylindrical pin fin had an efficiency of
0.023 % with an effective surface area of 0.10012 m2 which is lower than
the rectangular fin at 0.1539 m2. The flat plate was the least efficient at
0.003 % while the rectangular fins came in second at 0.016%. The results
for the second half of experiment 1, forced convection, shows a significant
increase in the efficiency of the plates. The cylindrical pin fin still holds the
best performance with an efficiency of 0.17% followed closely by the
rectangular fins at 0.16% and finally the flat plate at 0.04%.

Figure 61: (a) Heat transfer results for fin-baseplate assemblies with a 68-fin array; (b) heat transfer per unit area for

The low performance of the flat plate can be attributed to its small surface
area, 0.01407m2. In accordance to research done by Sparrow and Vemuri
[6] on the free convection on different populous of pin fin arrays, the
results showed a proportional increase in the heat transfer rate as surface
area increase. Figure 6-1 shows the results from said research as a graph
of Nusselts number against Rayleigh number. The Nusselts number
defined in the graph was intended to be a direct reflection of the rate of
heat transfer from the fin-baseplate assembly per unit baseplate-toambient temperature difference while the Rayleigh number is a
dimensionless version of the temperature difference. From the graph the
higher the pin-fin array with the higher length over diameter ratio (L/D)
yielded the best heat transfer performance.
However, this doesnt not explain the performance difference of the
cylindrical pin versus the rectangular fins. The surface area of the
rectangular fins is significantly higher (>50%) than that of the cylindrical
pins but has a lower performance in heat transfer rate.

7 CONCLUSION

8 REFERENCES
[1]

[2]
[3]

[4]
[5]
[6]

G. Nellis, S. A. Klein, and Ebooks Corporation. (2009). Heat transfer.


Available: http://ezproxy.lib.monash.edu.au/login?
url=http://www.MONASH.eblib.com.au/EBLWeb/patron/?
target=patron&extendedid=P_424535_0 Full text available (with Read
Aloud feature) from Ebook Library
Y. A. Cengel, Heat transfer : a practical approach, 2nd ed. Boston: McGrawHill, 2003.
B. Sunde**n and Ebooks Corporation. (2012). Introduction to heat transfer.
Available: http://ezproxy.lib.monash.edu.au/login?
url=http://www.monash.eblib.com.AU/EBLWeb/patron/?
target=patron&extendedid=P_876771_0 Full text available (with Read
Aloud feature) from Ebook Library
F. P. Incropera, Fundamentals of heat and mass transfer, 7th ed. Hoboken,
NJ: John Wiley, 2011.
L. M. Jiji and L. M. Jiji, Heat convection: Springer, 2006.
E. Sparrow and S. Vemuri, "Natural convection/radiation heat transfer from
highly populated pin fin arrays," Journal of heat transfer, vol. 107, pp. 190197, 1985.