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Thermodynamic study of free and forced convection.

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ID

Shahul Hammed, Mohd Shah

23719567

Zabedi, Muhammad Zahid

Yahya, Muhammad Shafiq

Noor Hisham, Syahrul Nazreen

Tarabykin, Vladimir

R

DATE OF EXPERIMENT

STUDENT

Abstract

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1

Aim.................................................................................................................. 3

Introduction..................................................................................................... 3

Theory............................................................................................................. 4

Experimental Investigation.............................................................................. 6

4.1

Experimental Apparatus............................................................................6

4.2

Procedure.................................................................................................. 6

Results............................................................................................................. 8

5.1

Sample Calculations.................................................................................. 8

5.2

5.2.1

Experiment 1.................................................................................... 10

5.2.2

Experiment 2.................................................................................... 11

Discussion of Results..................................................................................... 12

Conclusion..................................................................................................... 13

References..................................................................................................... 13

1 AIM

This experiment aims to investigate the heat transfer rate by natural and

forced convection from surfaces with and without fins and also to

determine the temperature profile along the rectangular and cylindrical

fins.

2 INTRODUCTION

Convection is the transfer of energy in a moving liquid or gas flowing

through a duct or over an object. The transfer of that energy is due to

conduction (the interactions between micro-scale energy carries) and the

enthalpy (sum of the internal energy of the fluid and the product of its

pressure and volume) carried by the macro-scale flow.[1] The combination

of both fluid motion and heat conduction makes convection heat transfer

complex. The motion of the fluid enhances the heat transfer by initiating

higher rates of conduction at a greater number of sites in a fluid, making it

a more effective method of cooling than conduction alone.[2]

types of convection,

force or natural (free). If

the movement of the

fluid is assisted by

external devices such as

a pump, fan or

compressor it can be

classified as forced

convection. However, if

the motion of the fluid is

a result of inequalities in

the density due to

temperature differences,

it is classified as natural

or free convection. Both

Figure 21: Convection and conduction heat transfer mechanism

form of convective heat

transfer strongly

depends on the fluid

properties such as dynamic viscosity, thermal conductivity, density, and

specific heat as well as the fluid velocity. The dependence of convection

on so many variables makes it a very complex mechanism of heat

transfer. However, for this experiment the fluid we are dealing with will be

air and as such most of these values such as density and thermal

conductivity are a given constant and the variables that we will be

investigating is the fluid flow (laminar or turbulent) via Reynolds number

and the Nusselt number.[2, 3]

3 THEORY

Regardless of the complexity of convection, the rate of convection heat

transfer is observed to be proportional to the temperature difference and

is conveniently expressed by Newtons law of cooling as[4, 5]

(3.1

Q=h

A s ( T s T )

)

where

h=convection heat transfer coefficient, W/m2 K

A s =heat transfer surface area, m

T =temperature of the fluid sufficiently far from the surface, C

Because the convection heat transfer coefficient h depends on the several

of the mentioned variables and is thus difficult to determine, a simpler

equation will be used in determining the heat transfer

m

(3.2

C p ( T out T ) where

Q=

)

T out =outlet temperatures

T =inlet temperature

C p =heat capacity

And the mass flow rate for the system can be found using the following

formula

(3.3

m=

A U avg

)

where

= air density

A=cross section areaof the inlet

The close connection between convection heat transfer and fluid

mechanics mean that the fluid flow plays a key role in heat convection.

Some flows are smooth and orderly while others are rather chaotic. The

highly ordered fluid motion characterized by smooth streamlines is called

laminar. The flow of high-viscosity fluids such as oils at low velocities is

typically laminar. The highly disordered fluid motion that typically occurs

at high velocities characterized by velocity fluctuations is called turbulent.

The flow of low-viscosity fluids such as air at high velocities is typically

turbulent. To determine the flow type the Reynolds number of the flow is

determined[2]

U L

(3.4

R e flat plate =

v

)

(3.5

U Dh

) R e cylinder =

where

L=width of the flat plate

D h=hydraulic diameter of the cylinder

=kinematic viscosity

governing equations and combine the variables, which group together into

dimensionless numbers in order to reduce the number of total variables. It

is also common practice to non-dimensionalize the heat transfer

coefficient h with the Nusselt number, defined as

(3.6

) Nu=

Dh

Q

A s ( T oT m )

where

=thermal conductivity

T m=

T +T out

2

Finally, to determine the efficiency of the heat transfer rate, the ratio of power of

the heat dissipated by the fins and plate and the electrical power supply is

obtained

(3.7

)

Q

power

Q

4 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION

Figure 41: G.U.N.T WL-350 Heat Convection Apparatus; 1) Temperature sensor, 2) Air duct, 3) Thermocoup

a)

b)

c)

d)

Digital Anemometer

Thermocouple thermometer

Vernier Caliper

4.2 PROCEDURE

Experiment #1

a) Free convection

1) The air duct is set up with the fan switched off. The flat plate is

carefully mounted from the back and connected to the power

supply. The power is switched on and turned to maximum.

2) As the flat plate receives power, it gets heated up. The cut-off point

for the voltage needs to be achieved before any readings can be

taken.

3) Once the condition in (2) is met, temperature readings of the flat

plate surface, the inlet and the outlet are recorded using the

thermocouple.

4) The air velocity at the inlet and the outlet are measured using the

anemometer.

5) Steps 1-4 were repeated for the rectangular and the cylindrical fins.

b) Forced convection

6) The fan switched on rig was switched on.

7) The flat plate is inserted and the same measurements as for free

convection were taken after an appropriate amount of time.

8) Steps 2 to 5 were repeated.

Experiment #2

1) The cylindrical fin plate was mounted in the rig as seen in Figure 4-1

with the fan and power set to max.

2) The plate is allowed to heat up and the cut-off point of the voltage

was achieved before any readings were taken.

3) The inlet and outlet temperature, the air flow rate was measured

using the anemometer and the power input to the heater was noted.

4) The temperature distribution along the fin (T2, T3, T4 and T5) was

measured using the thermocouple.

5) Steps 1 to 4 were repeated using the rectangular fin plate.

6) The temperature distribution along the length of each of the fins

was plotted.

5 RESULTS

5.1 SAMPLE CALCULATIONS

Hydraulic Diameter of Air Duct

D h=

4 0.01495

=0.1223 m

0.4891

Average Temperature

T m=

Tin+Tout 26.1+ 29

=

=27.55 C

2

2

Density

1.1881+

=

20T m

1.1120

T m40

20T m

+1

T m 40

1.1120

( 2027.55

27.5540 )

+1

( 2027.55

27.5540 )

1.1881+

=

=1.1594 kg/m

1.007+

Cp=

20T m

+1

T m 40

1.008

( 2027.55

27.5540 )

+1

( 2027.55

27.5540 )

1.1007+

Cp=

20T m

1.008

T m40

C p =1.0074 kJ /kg K

Thermal Conductivity

0.02603+

=

20T m

0.02749

T m 40

20T m

+1

T m 40

0.02749

( 2027.55

27.5540 )

+1

( 2027.55

27.5540 )

0.02603+

=

=0.0266 W / K m

Velocity

(15.13 106 )+

=

20T m

(16.92 106)

T m 40

20T m

+1

T m 40

(16.92 10

( 2027.55

27.5540 )

2027.55

( 27.5540

)+1

(15.13 106 )+

=

=1.5806 105 m2 / s

m=1.1594

0.01495 0.1=0.00173 kg /s

Output Power

Q=0.00173

1.0074 ( 2926.1 ) =0.00506 W

Efficiency

=

0.00506

100=0.00298

170

Reynolds Number

=

0.1 0.1223

2

=7.7349 10

5

1.5806 10

Nusselts Number

Nu=

0.00506 0.1223

=0.039

0.01407 0.02667 42.45

0.039 0.0266 =0.0085 W /( m2 . K )

h=

0.1223

AND

GRAPH

5.2.1 Experiment 1

Table 5-1: Experimental results for heat convection of flat plate.

Flat Plate

Free

Forced

0.01407

0.01407

0.00506

0.06139

(%)

0.00298

0.03654

Re

773.49

24886

h (W/m^2.K)

0.0085

0.1406

Aeff (m^2)

power

(W)

Cylindrical Fins

Free

Free

0.10012

0.10012

0.04025

0.29497

(%)

0.02354

0.17250

Re

1507.7

1507.7

h (W/m^2.K)

0.0078

0.0078

Aeff (m^2)

power

(W)

Rectangular Fins

Free

Free

0.1539

0.1539

0.02625

0.27549

(%)

0.01572

0.16496

Re

1378.6

23497

h (W/m^2.K)

0.0046

0.1059

Aeff (m^2)

power

(W)

5.2.2 Experiment 2

45.0

40.0

35.0

30.0

25.0

Temperature (C)

20.0

15.0

10.0

5.0

0.0

0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10

Distance (m)

Figure 5-1: Temperature profile for cylindrical fins from outlet T2-T5

12.0

10.0

8.0

Temperature (C)

6.0

4.0

2.0

0.0

0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10

Distance (m)

Figure 5-2: Temperature profile for rectangular fins from outlet T2-T5

6 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

For the first half of experiment 1, that is natural or free convection, the

results indicates that the cylindrical pins fins has the best performance

among the 3 plates tested. The cylindrical pin fin had an efficiency of

0.023 % with an effective surface area of 0.10012 m2 which is lower than

the rectangular fin at 0.1539 m2. The flat plate was the least efficient at

0.003 % while the rectangular fins came in second at 0.016%. The results

for the second half of experiment 1, forced convection, shows a significant

increase in the efficiency of the plates. The cylindrical pin fin still holds the

best performance with an efficiency of 0.17% followed closely by the

rectangular fins at 0.16% and finally the flat plate at 0.04%.

Figure 61: (a) Heat transfer results for fin-baseplate assemblies with a 68-fin array; (b) heat transfer per unit area for

The low performance of the flat plate can be attributed to its small surface

area, 0.01407m2. In accordance to research done by Sparrow and Vemuri

[6] on the free convection on different populous of pin fin arrays, the

results showed a proportional increase in the heat transfer rate as surface

area increase. Figure 6-1 shows the results from said research as a graph

of Nusselts number against Rayleigh number. The Nusselts number

defined in the graph was intended to be a direct reflection of the rate of

heat transfer from the fin-baseplate assembly per unit baseplate-toambient temperature difference while the Rayleigh number is a

dimensionless version of the temperature difference. From the graph the

higher the pin-fin array with the higher length over diameter ratio (L/D)

yielded the best heat transfer performance.

However, this doesnt not explain the performance difference of the

cylindrical pin versus the rectangular fins. The surface area of the

rectangular fins is significantly higher (>50%) than that of the cylindrical

pins but has a lower performance in heat transfer rate.

7 CONCLUSION

8 REFERENCES

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

Available: http://ezproxy.lib.monash.edu.au/login?

url=http://www.MONASH.eblib.com.au/EBLWeb/patron/?

target=patron&extendedid=P_424535_0 Full text available (with Read

Aloud feature) from Ebook Library

Y. A. Cengel, Heat transfer : a practical approach, 2nd ed. Boston: McGrawHill, 2003.

B. Sunde**n and Ebooks Corporation. (2012). Introduction to heat transfer.

Available: http://ezproxy.lib.monash.edu.au/login?

url=http://www.monash.eblib.com.AU/EBLWeb/patron/?

target=patron&extendedid=P_876771_0 Full text available (with Read

Aloud feature) from Ebook Library

F. P. Incropera, Fundamentals of heat and mass transfer, 7th ed. Hoboken,

NJ: John Wiley, 2011.

L. M. Jiji and L. M. Jiji, Heat convection: Springer, 2006.

E. Sparrow and S. Vemuri, "Natural convection/radiation heat transfer from

highly populated pin fin arrays," Journal of heat transfer, vol. 107, pp. 190197, 1985.

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