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HERE'S A LIST OF 83 LINUX COMMANDS FOR BEGINNERS!

Switching to Linux was a wonderful decision, now it's time to explore its power
- the command line!
So you have just switched to Linux and trying to figure out what was the fuss about the command prompt
as the most powerful tool. Well here's a list of Linux commands for a beginner to help you get a glimpse of
what the command prompt can do for you.
VIEW ING, COPYING, MOVING AND DELETING FILES
ls

Display the contents of the current directory

ls -a

Display also hidden files and hidden directories

cp filename /path/dir_name

Copy filename into directory /path/dir_name

cp -r dir_name /path/dir_name2

Copy the entire dir_name into /path/dir_name2

cp filename1 filename2
/path/dir_name

Copy filename1 and filename2 into /path/dir_name

rm name

Remove a file or directory called name

rm -r name

Remove an entire directory as well as its included files and


subdirectories

mv filename /path/dir_name

Move filename into /path/dir_name

mv filename1 filename2

Rename filename1 to filename2

cat filename

Display filenames contents

more filename

Display filename in pages. Use spacebar to view next page

head filename

Display filenames first 10 lines

head -15 filename

Display filenames first 15 lines

tail filename

Display filenames last 10 lines

tail -15 filename

Display filenames last 15 lines

pwd

Display current directory

cd /path/dir_name

Change to directory /path/dir_name

cd ..

Go 1 directory up

mkdir dir_name

Create directory dir_name

rmdir dir_name

Delete directory dir_name

FINDING FILES AND TEXT WITHIN FILES


updatedb

Update (create first time used) a database of all files under the root
directory /

locate filename

Find file filename searching in the database

find / -name filename

Starting from the root directory search for the file called filename

find / -name *filename

Same as above but search for file containing the string filename

grep string
/path/dir_name

Starting from /path/dir_name search for all files containing string

which application_name Search $path for application app_name


whereis
application_name

Search $path, man pages and source files for application_name

ARCHIVED FILES
Decompress

tar -xzf filename.tgz

Decompress tzg file

tar -xzf filename.tar.gz

Decompress tar.gz file

tar -xjf filename.tar.bz2

Decompress tar.bz2 file

Compress

tar -czf filename.tar /path/dir_name

Compress directory /path/dir_name to filename.tar

gzip -c filename > filename.gz

Compress /path/dir_name to filename.tar.gz

bzip2 -c filename > filename.bz2

Compress /path/dir_name to filename.tar.bz2

USING RPM FILES

rpm -hiv package.rpm

Install rpm called package.rpm

rpm -hiv --force package.rpm

Install rpm called package.rpm by force

rpm -hUv package.rpm

Upgrade rpm called package.rpm

rpm -e package.rpm

Delete rpm called package.rpm

rpm -qpil package.rpm

List files in not-installed rpm called package.rpm

rpm -ql package.rpm

List files in installed rpm called package.rpm

rpm -q str

List installed rpms containing the string str

rpm -qf /path/application_name Display the rpm that contains application application_name

STARTING AND STOPING


startx

Start the X system

shutdown -h now

Shutdown the system now and do not reboot

halt

Same as above

shutdown -r now

Reboot

reboot

Same as above

shutdown -r +10

Reboot in 10 minutes

MOUNTING FILESYSTEMS
mount -t vfat /dev/sd(a)
(1) /mnt/c_drive

Mount the first partition 1 of the first hard disk drive a which is in
fat32 vfat dormat under /mnt/c_drive directory

mount -t iso9660 /dev/cdrom


Mount cdrom under /mnt/cdrom directory
/mnt/cdrom

umount /mnt/hda1

Unmout the above

USER ADMINISTRATION
users

Display users currently logged in

adduser username

Create a new user called username

passwd username

Define password for user called username

who

List logged-in users

whoami

Display current user

finger username

Displays info about user username

su

Log in as root from current login

su -

Log in as root from current login and take root's path

exit

Exit from console login (ie, logout).

PROCESSES
command

Execute command in the foreground

command &

Execute command in the background

ctrl+z

Suspend a program

ctrl+c

Interrupt a program

ps

List all processes

kill -9 pid

Kill process with id pid

top

Monitor processes in real time

NETW ORKING
hostname

List the system's hostname

ifconfig

Set/Display network information

host ip

Resolves ip's hostname

ping ip/hostname

Check if ip/hostname is reachable

traceroute ip/hostname

Find network path to ip/hostname

SYSTEM INFORMATION
uname -a

General system information

fdisk -l

List partition tables

cp filename /path/dir_name

Copy filename into directory /path/dir_name

df -T -h

List filesystem disk space usage

lspci

List PCI devices

lsusb

List USB devices

free -m

Display RAM+Swap usage

PROGRAM COMPILE
gcc -o output file.c

Compile a C program

./output

Run a C program you have compiled

g++ -o output file.cpp

Compile a C++ program

./output

Run a C++ program you have compiled

./configure && make && su -c 'make


install'

Configure, compile and install a program with


Makefile

List Courtesy: my-guides

10 Useful Commands For Middle Level Linux Users!


Linux becomes more powerful as you learn more about it. We bring some
commands that can be very useful for middle level Linux users...
Saturday, January 04, 2014: Intermediate Linux users may not
be as powerful as expert users, but they still have a lot of things to
do on their system. As a result, remembering all those commands
often becomes quite difficult. Here are 10 of the most useful
commands that you will be using when you reach this level in Linux.

1. find: Use this command when you need to search for files in a particular directory. It
starts from the parent directory and then moves to the sub directories. The name option
makes the search case sensitive, while the iname option searches irrespective of the case.
2. grep: You use the grep command in order to find lines in a particular file that match a
given string or words.
3. man: The man command is used as the manual pager for the system. It brings online
documentation for a particular command.
4. ps: This is the process command, which shows you the status of all the processes that
are being run by a unique id, known as the PID.
5. kill: This command is used in order to kill a process that is not responding or is not being
used. All you need is to known the process ID or PID. To find the process id, you need to run
ps-A with the grep command (ps-A | grep processname).

6. whereis: When you need to locate the binary, sources and the manual page of a
command you use the whereis command.
7. service: This is the command that is used in order to control the start, stop or restart
function of a particular service. You do not have to restart your system in order to start,
stop or restart the services.
8. alias: This is a built in shell command which is used in order to assign the name for a
long command or for a frequently used command.
9. df: Use this command when you want to report the disk usage of a file system. It is quite
useful for the user and also for the system admin.
10. rm: This command is used in order to remove complete files and directories from your
system.