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278413086.

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 Eileen is going to cook some vegetable. If she fries the vegetable, she will use
20 g of olive oil and heat the oil to about 200 C before putting the vegetable into
the wok. If she boils the vegetable, she will boil 1 kg of water and then add 10 g
of olive oil before adding the vegetable to the water. The output power of her
stove is 2000 W.
(Given: Specific heat capacity of olive oil = 1970 J kg1 C1
Specific heat capacity of water = 4200 J kg1 C1)
(a) Suppose Eileen fries vegetable.
(i)

Find the energy required to heat up the oil from 27 C to 200 C.
(2 marks)

(ii) If 300 kJ is required to cook the vegetable, how long will it take for the
whole cooking process?
(2 marks)
(iii) In practice, will Eileen use a longer time or a shorter time to cook?
Why?
(2 marks)
(b) Suppose Eileen boils the vegetable.
(i)

How much energy is required to heat up water and oil from 27 C to
100 C?
(1 mark)

(ii) Which cooking method consumes more energy according to the above
calculation? Explain briefly.
(3 marks)
-- ans -Solutions
(a) (i)

(ii)

Marks

By Q = mcT,

1M

energy required = 0.02  1970  (200  27) = 6820 J

1A

By Q = Pt,

1M

time for cooking =

Q
6820  300 000
=
= 153 s
P
2000

(iii) In practice, Eileen will use a long time to cook.

1A
1A

This is because energy is lost to the surroundings during
cooking.

1A

(Or other reasonable answers)

1

(b) (i) (3 marks) Find the energy supplied by the heater from t = 0 to t = 240 s.01  1970  (100  27) 1A = 308 000 J (ii) Boiling the vegetable consumes more energy.ans -Solutions Marks (a) 2 .278413086.doc (b) (i) By Q = mcT. energy required = 1  4200  (100  27) + 0. (2 marks) -. 1A This is because the specific heat capacity of water is very 1A high and the amount of water used in boiling is more than the 1A amount of the oil used in frying.ans end -{{<P=11><C=02><S=core><T=LQ><M=11><L=2><X=H><id=002>}} 1123002  A 200-W immersion heater is immersed in 0. The following data are obtained: Time t / s 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 Temperature T / oC 20 27 34 41 48 55 61 67 70 (a) Plot a graph of T against t on graph paper. (Specific heat capacity of water = 4200 J kg1 C1) (2 marks) (iii) Give two reasons to explain the difference between the answers in (i) and (ii).2 kg of water in a polystyrene cup. The heater is switched on and the temperature of water is recorded every 30 s. (2 marks) (ii) Find the energy absorbed by the water from t = 0 to t = 240 s. (2 marks) (iv) How will the difference between the answers in (i) and (ii) change if the polystyrene cup is replaced by a beaker? Give reasons to support your answer. -.

(iv) The difference will increase.ans end -{{<P=11><C=02><S=core><T=LQ><M=14><L=2><X=H><id=003>}} 1123003 3 .278413086. 1A -.doc T / C t/s (Correct axes) 1A (Correct data points) 1A (Correct curve) 1A (b) (i) Energy supplied by the heater = Pt 1M = 200  240 = 48 000 J (ii) Energy absorbed by the water = mcT 1A 1M = 0.2  4200  (70  20) = 42 000 J (iii) Some energy is lost to the surroundings and some energy is absorbed by the polystyrene cup. 1A 1A 1A 1A This is because the energy lost to the surroundings through a beaker is larger than that through a polystyrene cup.

doc  Jimmy uses the apparatus shown in the following figure to find the specific heat capacity of water.278413086. (2 marks) (b) What is the function of the joulemeter in this experiment? (1 mark) (c) Explain why the water should be stirred throughout the experiment. would you expect the specific heat capacity of water obtained to be higher or lower than that obtained in (d)? Explain briefly.2 kg Initial temperature of water = 25 C Final temperature of water = 42 C Initial joulemeter reading = 64 350 J Final joulemeter reading = 79 470 J Find the specific heat capacity of water. (2 marks) -.ans -Solutions Marks 4 . (1 mark) (d) Jimmy obtains the following results: Mass of water = 0. (2 marks) (g) Suggest two reasons for using a polystyrene cup in the experiment. (a) Draw a diagram to show how the apparatus should be arranged in the experiment. (3 marks) (f) If Jimmy adds a lid to cover the cup and repeats the experiment. Suggest two reasons for this and explain your answer briefly. (3 marks) (e) The value obtained in (d) is found to be higher than the actual value.

1A (c) 1A This ensures that the temperature of the water is uniform.278413086.doc (a) (Heater. (g) Polystyrene cup can reduce the energy lost to the surroundings. 5 . the specific heat capacity of water obtained will be lower than that obtained in (d). 1A As a result. less energy will be lost to the surroundings. 1A 1A The energy absorbed by the polystyrene cup is very little and negligible. stirrer and thermometer placed inside the cup) 1A (Joulemeter and heater connected correctly) 1A (b) It measures the energy supplied by/to the heater. 1A -.2  ( 42  25) 1M = 4450 J kg1 C1 (e) Some energy is lost to the surroundings 1A 1A and some energy is transferred to the polystyrene cup. the actual amount of energy absorbed by the water is (f) less than the energy supplied by the heater. (d) Specific heat capacity of water = = Q mT 1M 79 470  64 350 0. 1A With a lid. 1A As a result. the stirrer and the thermometer.ans end -{{<P=11><C=02><S=core><T=LQ><M=11><L=2><X=H><id=004>}} 1123004  Jerry wants to conduct an experiment using the following apparatus to investigate the specific heat capacity of an aluminium block.

plot a graph of T against t on graph paper.doc aluminium block thermometer polystyrene tile immersion heater joulemeter (a) Draw a diagram to show how Jerry sets up the apparatus. (3 marks) (b) Mandy uses another method to find the specific heat capacity of the aluminium block.ans -6 . Mandy records the temperature of the aluminium block in every 30 s. (3 marks) (iii) Explain the difference between the answer in (ii) and the standard value 900 J kg–1 C–1. She obtains the following data: Time t / s 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 Temperature T / oC 20 27 34 41 48 (i) 55 61 67 70 Using a scale of 1 cm to 10 C and 1 cm to 30 s. She reuses the set-up in (a) but replaces the joulemeter with a stop-watch. (3 marks) (ii) Find the specific heat capacity of aluminium. After switching on the heater. (2 marks) -.278413086. The immersion heater has a power of 200 W and the mass of the aluminium block is 1 kg.

278413086.doc Solutions Marks (a) joulemeter immersion heater thermometer aluminium block to power supply polystyrene tile (Joulemeter and heater connected correctly) 1A (Heater and thermometer placed inside the aluminium block) 1A (Polystyrene tile placed under the aluminium block) 1A (b) (i) T / C t/ s (Correct axes) 1A (Correct data points) 1A (Correct curve) 1A 7 .

thermometer stirrer joulemeter power supply heater glass The following are the readings taken in the experiment: Power of the heater = 50 W Mass of liquid L in the glass = 500 g Initial length of the mercury thread = 8.278413086. (iii) Some energy is lost to the surroundings. Find the room temperature. When she puts the thermometer in a glass of liquid L at room temperature. -. The set-up is shown in the following figure. the length of the mercury thread is 8.doc (ii) Energy supplied by heater = energy absorbed by aluminium 1M Pt = mcT 1M 200  240 = 1  c  (70  20) c = 960 J kg1 C1 1A  The specific heat capacity of aluminium is 960 J kg1 C1. 1A The actual amount of energy absorbed by the metal block is less than the energy supplied by the heater. Kate finds that the lengths of the mercury thread at the upper and the lower fixed points are 24.4 cm.ans end -{{<P=11><C=02><S=core><T=LQ><M=13><L=3><X=H><id=005>}} 1123005  Kate is going to calibrate a mercury-in-glass thermometer and to use it in an experiment.0 cm respectively.0 cm and 4. 1A The answer in (ii) is therefore higher than the standard value. (2 marks) (c) The thermometer is then used to measure the specific heat capacity of a glass of liquid L.4 cm Final length of the mercury thread = 15.5 cm 8 . (a) How does she calibrate the thermometer on the Celsius scale? (4 marks) (b) In (a).

5  c  (57.0  100 24. (ii) The result of experiment is different from the actual value because energy is lost to the surroundings.5  4.4  4. Calculate the specific heat capacity of liquid L.0 Energy supplied by heater = energy absorbed by liquid L Pt = mcT 1M 1M 1M 50  5  60 = 0. 1A (b) By proportion. 1A The temperatures of the boiling water and melting ice are taken as 0 C and 100 C respectively. Marks 1A Then put the thermometer in melting ice and mark the mercury level. Why? Suggest two methods to improve the experiment.0  4.0  4.ans -Solutions (a) Put the thermometer in boiling water and mark the mercury level. (4 marks) (ii) It is found that the result obtained in (i) is different from the actual value of the specific heat capacity of liquid L.0 = 22 C (c) (i) 1M 1A Initial temperature = 22 C Final temperature = 15.5  22) c = 845 J kg1 C 1 1A  The specific heat capacity of liquid L is 845 J kg1 C1. (3 marks) -.5 C 24.278413086. room temperature = 8. 1A 9 .0  100 = 57. 1A The separation between these two mercury levels is divided into 100 equal divisions and each division is 1 C.doc Time taken to heat up liquid L = 5 min (i) Liquid L does not boil during the experiment.

(4 marks) (b) Explain why a few drops of oil should be added into the hole for inserting the thermometer. (1 mark) (d) The following data are obtained: Mass of metal block = 1 kg Initial temperature = 25 C Final temperature = 32 C Energy supplied by the heater = 6750 J Calculate the specific heat capacity of the metal.ans end -{{<P=11><C=02><S=core><T=LQ><M=12><L=3><X=H><id=006>}} 1123006  A student uses the apparatus shown below to find the specific heat capacity of a metal. (a) How can the energy supplied by the heater be measured? Explain your answer with the aid of a diagram.doc Methods to reduce heat loss to the surroundings (any two of the following): 2  1A Use a more powerful heater to reduce the heating time. (2 marks) (e) The value obtained in (d) is found to be higher than the accepted value of the specific heat capacity of the metal. Add a lid to cover the cup.278413086. Add a polystyrene tile under the cup. (1 mark) (c) Explain why the heater should not be switched on unless it is totally inserted into the metal block. Suggest a reason for this and explain your answer briefly. -. Replace the glass with a polystyrene cup. (2 marks) 10 . (2 marks) (f) Suggest two methods to improve the accuracy of the experiment.

1A -.doc -. the actual amount of energy absorbed by the metal (f) block is less than the energy supplied by the heater. power supply and heater as shown below.ans -Solutions Marks (a) Connect the joulemeter. 1A (d) Specific heat capacity of the metal = = Q mT 1M 6750 1 (32  25) = 964 J kg1 C1 (e) Some energy is lost to the surroundings. 1A Place the metal block on a polystyrene tile. 1A Wrap the metal block with cotton wool. The difference between the initial and final readings of the joulemeter is the energy supplied by the heater.ans end -- 11 . 1A To prevent damaging the heater due to overheating. 1A 1A As a result.278413086. 1A joulemeter immersion heater power supply (Heater and joulemeter connected correctly) 1A (Joulemeter and power supply connected correctly) 1A (Correct label of joulemeter) 1A (b) To ensure a good thermal contact between the thermometer and (c) the metal block.