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However, it is more convenient to have these numbers as whole numbers or as near to a

whole numbers as possible. While searching for various atomic mass units, scientists
initially took 1/16 of the mass of an atom of naturally occurring oxygen as the unit. This was
considered relevant due to two reasons:

oxygen reacted with a large number of elements and formed compounds.


this atomic mass unit gave masses of most of the elements as whole numbers.

2. The maximum number of electrons that can be accommodated in the outermost orbit is 8.
3. Immunity
4. We know formulae of Kinetic Energy K=


Here mass = m
and velocity = v
And given Kinetic energy = 200 j.


2 = 200

2 = 400..
Now if mass = 2m
New Kinetic Energy =



2 2 = mv2

Now we substitute value from equ. 1

So new kinetic energy = 400 j.
5. Time period, T = 0.01sec Frequency = 1/T = 1/0.01 = 100Hz v = 15m/s
velocity= frequency*wavelength => velocity/ frequency = wavelength =>
wavelength = 15/100 = 0.15 m the distance between adjacent crest and trough
= wavelength/2 = 0.075m
6. Ans:
Atomic mass of 1-Nitrogen atom = 14 grams
Atomic mass of 1- Hydrogen atom = 1
Nitrogen and hydrogen combine in the ratio 14: 3 by mass.
Therefore one Nitrogen atom combines with three Hydrogen atoms and
molecular weight of the compound formed is 17.
Formula of the compound formed in the given ratio and calulated molecular
weight is NH (ammonia).
Following equation shows the formation of ammonia molecule from Nitrogen
and Hydrogen.
N + 3H2NH
7. The atomic number of potassium is 19. Hence its electronic configuration
would be 2, 8, 8, 1. The no.of electrons potassium needs to lose for getting
stability is 1 electron. Hence the valency of potassium is 1. The atomic number
of phosphorus is 15. Hence its electronic configuration would be 2, 8, 5. The
no.of electrons phosphorus needs to gain for getting stability is 3 electron.
Hence the valency of phosphorus is 3.

9Triploblastic animals: Triploblasty is a condition of the blastula in which there

are three primary germ layers: the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. The
germ layers form during gastrulation of the blastula. Additionally, the term may
refer to any ovum in which the blastoderm splits into three layers.
Bilateral Symmetry: Animals that are bilaterally symmetric have
mirror symmetry in the sagittal plane, which divides the body vertically into left
and right halves, with one of each sense organ and limb pair on either side.
Open Circulatory System: The open circulatory system is common to
molluscs and arthropods. Open circulatory systems (evolved in crustaceans,
insects, mollusks and other invertebrates) pump blood into a hemocoel with the
blood diffusing back to the circulatory system between cells. Blood is pumped by
a heart into the body cavities, where tissues are surrounded by the blood.
13. (a) As the prssure decreases the surface area of contact increases so a broad and thick
handle is preferred for a suitcase.
(b) P=F/a Pressure is inversely proportional to the area on which it acts. Shoes with broad
sole have more surface area and so pressure is less and vice versa for heels.

12. KEf-KEi=W=Fd
Male Cockroach:
1. Tenth abdominal segment carries two pairs of
abdominal appendages- i) segmented and cerci and ii) un
segmented anal styles or caudal styles.
2. Posterior part of abdomen is less broad and elongated.
3. Sternum of seventh segment is not divided.
4. VII (8th) sclerite is overlapped by sclerite of VII (7th)
5. Second and third basal segment of antennae are equal.
Female Cockroach:
1. Tenth abdominal segment carries only one pair of abdominal
appendages and many segmented anal cerci.
2. Posterior part of abdomen is broad and boat shaped.
3. Sternum of 7th segment is divided into two.
4. Sclerite of 8th and 9th segment are overlapped by that of
seventh sclerite.
5. Third basal segment of antennae is larger than second basal