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PACMAD Usability Model with Everything It Features

Before initiating the discussion regarding which usability metric can be


incorporated into PACMAD with a view to improving usability of applications of
mobile phone through the interaction of users, there should be a slight
introduction of ideas availed from an entire observation which indicates the
current usability metrics of this Model. Everything that belongs to the features of
a mobile has been designed to satisfy users no matter how many kinds of users
there are. GUI is an example which is set in accordance with the preference and
convenience of the user. Here for many good reasons, user satisfaction will be
depicted as an immediately developable usability metric in order to gain an
improved user experience while users are interacting through the device.
Its also necessary to have a look on factors of the latest usability mobile
application PACMAD in order to understand how the mobile application gets
executed due to the prevalence of the usability metrics. User, Context of use,
and Task are the three factors contained by People At the Center of Mobile
Application Development (PACMAD), a very recent mobile phone
framework which combines IOS (International Organization for Standardization),
framework model of Nielsen, and inadequacies drawn round by Adipat and
Zhang.
Being an easy to comprehend factor of PACMAD the User is expectedly of
different kinds when the design of an application of mobile is executed. It takes a
few things into consideration that are supposedly the end-users and the
experience they gained previously, because of exploring a mobile system. The
design of the mobile phone application supports users who are tending to make
use of mobile from two different perspectives being divided into two significant
kinds. Power users are experienced in using mobile and prefer sophisticated
features and shortcuts but, on the other hand first-time user prefers easy-tohandle and intuitive interfaces.
Advancement in mobile technology allows users to widely communicate with
others whenever they want it. It has almost changed the way people used to
interact with others although an ultimately positive experience through mobile
communication is yet to be ensured. Its necessary to adopt more technologies
to make the most of possible usability metrics that are still to be incorporated.
Since the probability of more popularization of the mobile phone in the future is
striking, and more and more technologies are getting implemented into the
programs of mobile usability, it is time take a look to what are made in order to
safeguard users from health risks and provide more comfortable environment for
safe interactions. Paterno et al., (2007) had recommended an environment and
methodology which would help users achieve remote evaluation to make sense
of mobile applications. The technology comes up with a Mobile Event Logger
which takes the info from the device using a Multi-Device to analyze the data of

user logging and represent required visualizations to check the applications


usability. Au et al., (2008) had proposed an equivalent framework with a view to
testing mobile applications usability. Eventually, an HUIA (Handheld User
Interface Analysis) experimental framework had been designed to fulfill the
requirements that were relevantly proposed. Web design teams became able to
check the usability of the system by means of using Web-Quilt tool which could
collect info about the interaction of users within a web system to represent
required visualization; which was developed by Waterson et al., (2012).
PACMAD imposes a number of characteristics that are nearly related to usability
framework of Nielsen and includes efficacy, capability, satisfaction, errors,
memorability, learnability, cognitive load, etc. PACMAD is a perfect usability
model which requires more technologies to save users from health issues such as
excessive cognitive load. Since human brain does not contain unlimited
processing power, excessive information cant be frequently handled and
consequently performance become lowered which makes the user abandon the
task. A certain amount of mental energy is required in order to operate the
mobile phone and its system. Cognitive load is what a user has to provide as the
mental effort in order to learn new info. While browsing the web a mobile phone
can be more handy, independent, and wireless to get connected so that users
get more frequently interested in interacting with others using the device. A
huge psychological attachment is found when someone starts interacting with
others though the mobile. Despite the size may not allow them to avail the
greatest comfort with watching large pictures, users get their most wanted
immediate messages and remain keen to see what is sent from other end. A
Mobile Event Logger can provide the advantage of providing the visualization so
that users interactions can be properly tracked. Furthermore, HUIA can be
implemented in order to enhance the usability of mobile phone in the future.
PACMAD usability model has 7 (Seven) attributes that entirely makes the most of
usability which belong to an application: Satisfaction, Efficiency, Effectiveness,
Memorability, Learnability, Cognitive Load, and Errors.
User satisfaction is one of the most fundamental usability attributes. Before
discussing more on this matter the finger should be targeted to the limitations
that the mobile users use to confront on very frequent occasions. Satisfaction
means what the users are looking for while using devices and deriving services.
They need to get freedom from unease and have affirmative aptitude towards
the complete utilization of the product. Although the capacity regarding the
memory, learn-ability, and errors are other important attributes that users are
trying to get rid of every single time they use the device satisfaction is what
makes the user get devoted to continue using the product and recommend other
to have one like this. As soon as the restrictions that belong to mobile application
are resolved or minimized the usable technology with PACMAD will be widely
welcomed and appreciated by users. Below are some limitations that should be
overcome by using further usability attribute into PACMAD model.

Nielsen was definitely interested in allowing users to get back to telecoms


systems, instead of computer software. Traditional models of usability faced a
huge challenge while getting advanced and keeping pace with the advent of
usability of mobile devices. Adipat and Zhang have identified some issues that
are giving vent to, by the appearance of mobile devices into the market.
While using mobile application on a consistent basis, the user does not stick
around a single place however, they need to interact with nearby individuals,
materials, and elements that belong to the subsequent environment. All this may
create a distortion of mind and concentration when user tries to keep going on
steadily. Thus users attention may become discontinued and users are getting
distracted because of the ceaseless interaction. If this limitation gets resolved
the mobile application will be more user-friendly and competent.
Connectivity is another obvious option that a mobile application should
desperately take care of. Sometimes, the connectivity remains slow and
undependable. This will for sure impact over the execution expected from mobile
applications that make use of these features.
Screen size of the mobile is very limited since it is designed to be portable.
However, limited size of screen shows limited amount of info and the total
displayable materials are limited as well. Mobile devices use limited resolution
which results in poor quality images, pictures, and videos. For being portable
enough the mobile devices are usually smaller than that of desktop and other
PCs. Consequently most usable applications of mobile devices become limited.
Input methods and machineries of a mobile device are different than those of a
desktop computer. It requires the user to have a certain scale of proficiency. This
shortcoming enhances the likelihood of random input and reduces the
percentage of data entry. On the other hand, additional cognitive load is
seemingly a large drawback for individuals who use the mobile device to avail
many regular computing performances. Its apparent that some current models
for usability avoid mobility and the consequence of it.
This all are collectively the instances of drawbacks against the user satisfaction
and it is obvious that all these issues should be taken into account in the early
process of designing the mobile device. As soon as those limitations will get
resolved the user satisfaction, efficacy, effectiveness, and more attributes will
come into the action meaningfully.
The PACMAD model of usability expands the depiction of Errors which, for the
first time was proposed by Nielsen to incorporate an evaluation of errors which
are mistakenly or deliberately done by participants while using apps of the
mobile. This will help the developers detect the most tiresome areas that users
confront, and to make use of opportunities of doing something using the next
available resources in subsequent interactions of improvement. This attribute
should be utilized to invent and interpret how consummately the user can go
about completing the expected task without errors. According to Nielsen, users
should make or be allowed to make a few flaws while handling the device and

when they make errors the interface must make them be able to recover from
them in the easiest and preferred way. To identify the simplicity of the system the
rate of error may be used. The PACMAD usability model has the consideration of
the type and nature of errors and the ratio of which they come about. By means
of understanding the nature of such errors its almost possible to prevent such
errors from getting happened when the future version of the application arrives.
Effectiveness, Efficiency, and Satisfactions are widely considered attributes for
playing part with their sharp relationship to the technical capacities of the entire
system of mobile and are identified by standard of usability of ISO. Effectiveness
and Efficiency are connected with the implementation and design of the system
while these are thoroughly examined. These two attributes are measured easily
in comparison to other attributes. Effectiveness can be monitored to be
evaluated if a user is able to get pre-defined task accomplished. The time taken
by user to get a task done is measured as the Efficiency.
The importance of evaluation of usability of mobile application without
supervision knows no bound this time around. Usability evaluation or detection
by an unsupervised method in user applications is supremely expected because
such effective and unsupervised method is able to decrease the expanses on
additional support such as customer support and software bug detection can be
speeded-up (if exist) in a friendly user application and it can enhance the user
satisfaction at the same time. This invention makes use of interactive software to
determine usability points of shortcomings. Whole user software, mobile device,
and a package of software are needed in order to help the system run. Software
package consists of numerous applications such as SMS application; email
application, configuration application etc. Points of weakness are determined as
screen that causes usability drawback. And the software which is enabled in the
mobile will instantly start working to resolve the issue.
The entire unsupervised usability evaluation can be possible by using gyroscope,
accelerometer, compass, proximity sensor, etc. Mobile interfaces are helpful
while light sensor and proximity let the phone perform ordinary forms of context
recognition. The detection by proximity sensor is all about to uncover the time
when user holds the device to his/her face in order to speak. Touch keys and
screens will be temporarily disabled at that time so that no accidental pressing
may take place. This type of technology provides usability detection based on a
location. By means of using the GPS users unsupervised usability details can be
disclosed. This can probably help a lot of users who are expecting their devices
to perform with that, but, as there are a few questions regarding the privacy, the
entire technology should be enabled by users consent. User can find out to see
what he/she did not experience while bearing the mobile in hand but, afterwards
user can get available info from his mobile device using secure password to
come along with the unsupervised usability evaluation.
The area and prevalence of mobile application is getting expanded very fast.
Since the portable devices possess an enhanced processing power, developers
tend to increase the range of deliverable services on a consistent basis. The size

of mobile device is limited due to being portable but does not enable users to
expand their usability here and there because of missing the information
displayed on the screen and users cant comprehensively interact with others
using this device. The usability of mobile application is affected by limited input,
small screen size, and poor connectivity on a regular basis. Most of the imminent
models of usability dont manage the complexions with interactions through the
mobile platform. So, PACMAD usability model has been the burning question as it
augments current usability models in between the context of applications of
mobile.
When a user starts interacting through the mobile it is necessary for the time
being, that the interaction of usability will be monitored. However, an invention
of technology which can automatically read all that it needs to collect info and
justify the usability remotely can change the gear of satisfaction and users
experience. Automated tech will allow the user being disconnected with the
supervising authority but get all info about its usability as soon as it inquires.
Sometimes, user himself does not know what they are doing while using mobile
or even cant concentrate consciously on the entire interaction which somehow
matters. This time, someone may not feel even if they would need for a further
inquiry on any later occasion to know more about their interaction done.
Automated or unsupervised usability evaluation can help them get back to it
miraculously though they must not do anything while setting the option to track
their conversation or interactions.
Since mobile has become likely a mini computer device and most of works that a
desktop executes can be also done by a high-end mobile, somebody may have
interests in using mobile to execute all things they use to do with the desktop.
But, sadly enough, for some usability issues this has not been yet proved to
convenient to execute computable jobs using mobile. Because of the influences
of the physical world and subsequent reality this is not recommended to expect a
mobile to execute all that a desktop computer does. Nevertheless, because of
some precise predictions that refer to the fact that within a few years, mobile will
replace the desktop for its affordability and conveniences, it is a high matter to
make the mobile remain safe and secure regarding the health issues and other
physical experiences so that it would likely replace the desktop in future.
PACMAD has an extreme importance for those reasons as it is designed to
explain things that matter with mobile device rather than a desktop computer.
Portability of mobile is the main reason to limit its possible features that have
been discussed. But, the new hope and challenge is that a portable device like
mobile will be able to accommodate most features that it currently does not.
That is why; the relevancy of PACMAD is so strong and inspiring.

Reference Links

http://www.nngroup.com/articles/minimize-cognitive-load/
http://www.alastore.ala.org/pdf/tidal_sample.pdf
http://worldconferences.net/proceedings/gse2015/paper%20gse15/G
%20078%20USABILITY%20EVALUATION%20FRAMEWORKS%20OF%20MOBILE
%20APPLICATION%20-%20ASHRAF%20MOUSA%20SALEH.pdf
http://www.journalofinteractionscience.com/content/pdf/2194-0827-1-1.pdf
http://www.researchgate.net/publication/267368031_Usability_Metric_Framework
_for_Mobile_Phone_Application
https://www.google.com.bd/patents/EP2367113A1?
cl=en&dq=unsupervised+usability+evaluation+for+mobile+application&hl=en
&sa=X&ved=0CBwQ6AEwAGoVChMInevD46iJxwIVlwWOCh2B1ww1
http://www.cs.dartmouth.edu/~campbell/papers/survey.pdf