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# MATH

Iv
Project
ANGLES AND
THEIR
MEASUREMENT

Novie I. Fauni
Mary Grace Rovedillo
IV- Plato
Math IV Teacher

I.

INTRODUCTION

## Trigonometry (from Greek trignon, "triangle"

and metron, "measure") is a branch of mathematics that
studies relationships involving lengths
and angles of triangles. The field emerged during the 3rd
century BC from applications of geometry to astronomical
studies.
The 3rd-century astronomers first noted that the lengths
of the sides of a right-angle triangle and
the angles between those sides have fixed relationships:
that is, if at least the length of one side and the value of
one angle is known, then all other angles and lengths can
be determined algorithmically. These calculations soon
came to be defined as the trigonometric functions and
today are pervasive in
both pure and applied mathematics: fundamental
methods of analysis such as the Fourier transform, for
example, or the wave equation, use trigonometric
functions to understand cyclical phenomena across many
applications in fields as diverse as physics, mechanical
and electrical engineering, music and acoustics,
astronomy, ecology, and biology. Trigonometry is also the
foundation of surveying.
Trigonometry is most simply associated with planar rightangle triangles (each of which is a two-dimensional
triangle with one angle equal to 90 degrees). The
applicability to non-right-angle triangles exists, but, since
any non-right-angle triangle (on a flat plane) can be
bisected to create two right-angle triangles, most
problems can be reduced to calculations on right-angle
triangles. Thus the majority of applications relate to
right-angle triangles. One exception to this is spherical
trigonometry, the study of triangles onspheres, surfaces
of constant positive curvature, in elliptic geometry (a
fundamental part of astronomy and navigation).

## Trigonometry on surfaces of negative curvature is part

of hyperbolic geometry.
Trigonometry is the study of angles and relationships between
them. Especially important in trigonometry are the angles of a
triangle. For this reason, trigonometry is closely linked with
geometry. One of the major differences between trigonometry
and geometry, though, is that trigonometry concerns itself with
actual measurements of angles and sides of a triangle, whereas
geometry focuses on establishing relationships between
unmeasured angles and sides. To begin our study of
trigonometry, we'll review the definition and some
characteristics of angles to make sure we have a solid
foundation for learning more about them.
Angles, by definition, lie in a plane, so trigonometry is a twodimensional field of study. It will be convenient, and eventually
necessary, to become familiar with the coordinate plane, which
is a system of measuring and plotting points in two dimensions.
The location of any point in a plane, then, can be specified by
exact coordinates. A point can also be specified by a vector. A
vector is like a line segment lying in a specific position--it has
length and direction. Vectors can be used to determine the
location of points, as well as the measure of certain angles.
These basic concepts will provide a foundation for
understanding the principles of trigonometry.

II. DISCUSSION
TRIGONOMETRY, as it is actually used in calculus and
science, is not about solving triangles. It becomes the
mathematical description of things that rotate or
vibrate, such as light, sound, the paths of planets about
the sun, or satellites about the earth. It is necessary
therefore to have angles of any size, and to extend to
them the meanings of the trigonometric functions.

Angles
An angle is the opening that two straight lines form
when they meet.

When the straight line FA meets the straight line EA, they
form the angle we name as angle FAE. Letter A, which we
place in the middle, labels the point where the two lines meet,
and is called the vertex of the angle. When there is no
confusion as to which point is the vertex, we may speak of "the
angle at the point A," or simply "angle A."
The two straight lines that form an angle are called
its sides. And the size of the angle does not depend on the
lengths of its sides. We can see that in the figure above. For if
the point C is in the same straight line as FA, and B is in the
same straight line as EA, then angles CAB and FAE are the
same angle.
Now, to measure an angle, we place the vertex at the
center of a

circle (we call that a central angle), and we measure the length
of the arc-- that portion of the circumference -- that the sides
intercept. We then determine what relationship that arc has to
the entire circumference, which is an agreed-upon number. (In
degree measure that number is 360; in radian measure it is
2.)
The measure of angle A, then, will be length of the arc BC
relative to the circumference BCD -- or the length of arc EF
relative to the circumference EFG. For in any circles, equal
central angles determine a unique ratio of arc to
circumference. (See the theorem of Topic 14. It is stated there
in terms of the ratio of arc to radius, but the circumference is
proportional to the radius: C = 2r.)
There are two systems for measuring angles. One is the
well-known system of degree measure. The other is the strictly
mathematical system called radian measure.

## An angle is the union of two rays that share a common endpoint.

The rays are called the sides of the angle, and the common
endpoint is the vertex of the angle. The measure of an angle is
the measure of the space between the rays. It is the direction of
the rays relative to one another that determine the measure of an
angle.
In trigonometry, angles are often defined in terms of rotation.
Consider one ray, and then let it rotate a fixed distance about its
endpoint. The ray in its initial position before the rotation, and
the ray in its ending, or terminal position, after the rotation,
creates an angle. The endpoint point about which the ray rotates
is the vertex. The amount of rotation determines the measure of
the angle. The ray in the initial position, before the rotation, is
called the initial side of the angle. The ray in the terminal

## position, after the rotation, is called the terminal side of the

angle. An angle created this way has a positive measure if the
rotation was counterclockwise, and a negative measure if the
rotation was clockwise.

MEASURING ANGLES
There are three units of measure for angles: revolutions,
degrees, and radians. In trigonometry, radians are used most
often, but it is important to be able to convert between any of the
three units.
Revolutions
A revolution is the measure of an angle formed when the initial
side rotates all the way around its vertex until it reaches its
initial position. Thus, the terminal side is in the same exact
position as the initial side. In trigonometry, angles can have a
measure of many revolutions--there is no limit to the magnitude
of a given angle. A revolution can be abbreviated "rev".

Degree measure

## To measure an angle in degrees, we imagine the circumference

of a circle divided into 360 equal parts, and we call each of
those equal parts a "degree." Its symbol is a small 0: 1 -- "1
degree." The full circle, then, will be 360. But why the
number 360? What is so special about it? Why not 100 or
1000?
The answer is two-fold. First, 360 has many divisors, and
therefore it will have many whole number parts. It has an
exact half and an exact third -- which a power of 10 does not
have. 360 has a fourth part, a fifth, a sixth, and so on. Those
are natural divisions of the circle, and it is very convenient for
their measures to be whole numbers. (Even the ancients didn't
like fractions )
Secondly, 360 is close to the number of days in the
astronomical year: 365.

## The measure of an angle, then, will be as many degrees as

its sides include. To say that angle BAC is 30 means that its
sides enclose 30
of those equal divisions. Arc BC 30
of the entire
is
360
circumference.
So, when 360 is the measure of a full circle, then 180
will be half a circle. 90 -- one right angle -- will be a quarter
of a circle; and 270 will be three quarters of a circle: three
right angles.

## A more common way to measure angles is in degrees.

There are 360 degrees in one revolution. Degrees can be

## subdivided, too. One degree is equal to 60 minutes, and one

minute is equal to 60 seconds. Therefore, an angle whose
measure is one second has a measure of
degrees. When
perpendicularity is discussed, it is most often defined as a
situation in which a 90 degree angle exists. Often degrees are
used to describe certain triangles, like 30-60-90 and 45-4590 triangles. As previously mentioned, however, in most cases
that concern trigonometry, radians are the most useful and
manageable unit of measure. Degrees are symbolized with a
small superscript circle after the number (measure). 360
degrees is symbolized360 o .

Radian
A radian is not a unit of measure that is arbitrarily defined, like a
degree. Its definition is geometrical. One radian (1 rad) is the
measure of the central angle (an angle whose vertex is the center
of a circle) that intercepts an arc whose length is equal to the
radius of the circle. The measure of such an angle is always the
same, regardless of the radius of the circle. It is a naturally
occurring unit of measure, just like is the natural ratio of the
circumference of a circle and the diameter. If an angle of one
radian intercepts an arc of length r , then a central angle
of 2 radians would intercept an arc of length 2r , which is the
circumference of the circle. Such a central angle has a measure
of one revolution. Therefore, 1 rev = 360 o = 2 rad . Also, 1 rad
= ( )o=
rev.
Conversion between Revolutions, Degrees, and Radians
Below is a chart with angle measures of common angles in
revolutions, degrees, and radians. Any angle can be converted
from one set of units to another using the definition of the units,
but it will save time to memorize a few simple conversions. It is
particularly important to be able to convert between degrees and
radians.

## The Coordinate Plane

Angles lie in a plane. To specify the point in space where an
angle lies, or where any figure exists, a plane can be
assigned coordinates. Since a plane is two-dimensional, only two
coordinates are required to designate a specific location for
every point in the plane. One coordinate determines the length,
and the other determines width. In reality, length and width are
the same thing--they are used because they describe distance in
two directions which are perpendicular to each other. This is all
the coordinate plane is: a plane with two perpendicular axes by
which distance in either of two dimensions can be measured.
The coordinate plane consists of an origin and two axes. The
origin is a point. The axes are lines perpendicular to each other
that intersect at the origin. Below is pictured the coordinate
plane, with the origin at point O.

## The origin is fixed, and designated as the point (0,0). Every

other point is assigned an ordered pair, (x, y) , according to its
position relative to the origin. The two axes are named the \$x\$axis and the y-axis. In most drawings, the x -axis is the
horizontal axis, and the y-axis is the vertical axis, but this does
not necessarily need to be the case. A point is assigned an
ordered pair consisting of two real numbers: The first is the xcoordinate, which measures how far the point is from the y-axis.
The second real number making up an ordered pair is the ycoordinate, which measures the distance between the point and
the x-axis. Often the axes are pictured with tick marks
indicating length to make it easier to measure distance. When a
point is drawn into the coordinate plane and assigned an
ordered pair, it is plotted. Take a gander at the plotted points
below.

## Note that some of the coordinates are negative numbers.

Negative distance does not exist, but coordinates are given
either positive or negative values to specify which side of the
given axis they are on. In most cases, the positive direction of the
x-axis points to the right, and the positive direction of the y-axis
points upward. Thus, for example, points on the left of the y-axis
have a negative x-coordinate. The positive directions don't
always have to be these directions, though. Often, as in the
diagram above, the axes will only have an arrow on the end
which points in the positive direction. The other end has no
arrow. This is how one can tell where the positive and negative
values lie.
A plane extends in all direction without limit. So does the
coordinate plane. Although there are many ways to draw the
coordinate plane, it is always the same thing: a point of origin
and two axes, which intersect at the origin and lie perpendicular
to each other. The origin, by definition, always has the
coordinates (0,0). Every other point in the plane can be
measured according to the axes. Even the point
(33563452143,23455434) exists and can be located in any
coordinate plane; it extends without limit. Below are some other
ways to draw the coordinate plane. All look different, but they
are all the same coordinate plane.

The axes of the coordinate plane divide the plane into four
regions--these regions are called quadrants. The region in which
the x-coordinate and the y-coordinate are both positive is called
Quadrant I. Quadrant II is the region in which x < 0 and y > 0 .
Quadrant III is the region in which x < 0 and y < 0 . Quadrant IV
is the region in which x > 0 and y < 0 . The quadrants are
labeled in the figure below.

Vectors
One way to represent motion between points in the coordinate
plane is with vectors. A vector is essentially a line segment in a
specific position, with both length and direction, designated by
an arrow on its end. The figures below are vectors.

## A vector can be named by a single letter, such as v . The

vector v is symbolized by a letter v with an arrow above it, like
this:
. A vector is determined by two coordinates, just like a
point--one for its magnitude in the x direction, and one for its
magnitude in they direction. The magnitude of a vector in the xdirection is called the horizontal, or x-component of the vector.
The magnitude of a vector in the y-direction is called the
vertical, or \$y\$-component of the vector. A vector with
coordinates (3,4) and origin at the origin of the coordinate plane
looks like this:

A vector has length and direction, that is all. Two vectors with
the same length and direction are the same vector. They may
have origins at different points, but they are still equal. The
length of a vector is formally called its magnitude. Given the
coordinates of a vector (x, y) , its magnitude is
. This
formula is drawn from the **Pythagorean Theorem*
{math/geometry2/specialtriangles}*. The direction of a vector is
only fixed when that vector is viewed in the coordinate plane.
Then, using techniques we'll learn shortly, the direction of a

## vector can be calculated. Outside the coordinate plane,

directions only exist relative to one another, so a single vector
cannot have a specific direction.

## Operations with Vectors

Vectors can be added and subtracted to one another, and
multiplied and divided by scalars (number with magnitude but no
direction). When two vectors are added or subtracted, the xcomponent of one vector is added or subtracted to the xcomponent of the other, and the same is done with the ycomponents of the vectors. For example, if

and

then
. When a vector is multiplied or
divided by a scalar, the scalar (any real number) is simply
distributed through to both coordinates of the vector. Hence,
using the vectors defined above, 2
and
. In any
case, the sum, difference, product, or quotient is still a vector.
A vector whose origin is the origin of the coordinate plane ends
at the point with the same coordinates as the vector. Because
vectors have a fixed magnitude, they always determine two
points, the origin of the vector and the endpoint. Vectors are
useful mathematical tools for modeling motion and symbolizing
directed line segments.
Vectors vs. Rays
One more note is important to make in this lesson: vectors are
not rays. They are symbolized the same way--a line segment with
an arrow on one end--but they are very different things. Vectors
have a specified length, rays have infinite length. From this point
on, whenever a line semgent is drawn with an arrow on one end,
assume that it is a ray. If such a figure is a vector, it will be
noted.

Standard position

## We say that an angle is in standard position when its

vertex A is at theorigin of the cordinate system, and its Initial
side AB lies along the positive x-axis. We say that AB has
"swept out" the angle BAC, and that AC is its Terminal side.

## We now think of the terminal side AC as rotating about the

fixed point A. When it rotates in a counter-clockwise direction,
we say that the angle is positive. But when it rotates in a
clockwise direction, as AC', the angle is negative.
When the terminal side AC has rotated 360, it has
completed one full revolution.
Angles can exist anywhere in the coordinate plane where
two rays share a common vertex. If this vertex is at the origin
of the plane and the initial side lies along the positive \$x\$-axis,

## then the angle is said to be in standard position. Some angles

in standard position are shown below.

## Angles in standard position can be classified according to

the quadrant contains their terminal sides. For example, an
angle whose terminal side lies in the first quadrant is called a
first quadrant angle. If the terminal side of an angle lies along
one of the axes, then that angle doesn't lie in one specific
quadrant; it lies along the border of two quadrants. Such
angles are called a quadrantal angle.

## The four quadrants

The x-y plane is divided into four quadrants. The angle begins
in itsstandard position in the first quadrant ( I ). As the angle

## continues -- in the counter-clockwise direction -- we name each

succeeding quadrant.
Why do we name the quadrants in the counter
clockwise direction? Because in what we call
the "first" quadrant, the algebraic signs
of x and y are positive.

Coterminal angles
Angles are coterminal if, when in the standard position, they
have the same terminal side.

## For example, 30 is coterminal with 360 + 30 = 390.

They have the same terminal side. That is, their terminal
sides are indistinguishable.
Any angle is coterminal with + 360 -- because we are
just going around the circle one complete time.
90 is coterminal with 270. Again, they have the same
terminal side.
Notice: 90 plus 270 = 360. The sum of the absolute
values of those coterminal angles completes the circle.

III. QUIZ
Problem 1. How many degrees corresponds to
each of the following?
a) A third of a revolution
b) A sixth of a revolution
c) Five sixths of a revolution
d) Two revolutions
e) Three revolutions
f) One and a half revolutions

revolution?
30
360

Answer. 30 is
30
360

of a revolution:
3
36

1
12

## Problem 2. What fraction of a revolution is each of

the following?
a) 60
b) 45
c) 72
Example 2. If the diameter of a circle is 16 cm, how long
is the arc intercepted by a central angle of 45?

## Answer. 45 is one eighth of a full circle. (It is half of 90 ,

which is one quarter.) Now, the full circumference of this
circle is
C = D = 3.14 16 cm.
The intercepted arc is one eighth of the circumference:
3.14 16 8 = 3.14 2 = 6.28 cm

## Problem 3. If the diameter of a circle is 20 in, how long

is the arc intercepted by a central angle of 72?

terminate?
a) 15
b) 15
c) 135
d) 390
e) 100
f) 460

## Problem 5. Name the non-negative angle that is

coterminal with each
of these, and is less than 360.
a) 360
b) 450
c) 20
d) 180
e) 270
f) 720
g) 200

KEY ANSWERS
Problem 1.

## A) A third of 360 = 360 3 = 120

B) 360 6 = 60
C) 5 60 = 300
D) 2 360 = 720
E) 3 360 = 1080
F) 360 + 180 = 540
Problem 2.
A)
60
36

6 =
360

1/6

B)
45/360 =

5/40 = 1/8

C)
72/360 = 8/40 = 1/5

Problem 3.

## We saw in Problem 2c) that 72 is one fifth of a circle.

The circumference of this circle is C = D = 3.14 20
in. The intercepted arc is one fifth of this: 3.14 20
5 = 3.14 4 = 12.56 in.
Problem 4.
a) I

b) IV c) II

f) III.

g) IV.

d) I.

## 710 is 10 less than two revolutions, which

are 720.
Problem 5.

a) 0
b) 90. 450 = 360 + 90
c) 340
d) +180
e) 90
f) 0. 720 = 2 360
g)

160

REFERENCE
http://www.sparknotes.com/math/trigonometry/angles/
http://www.themathpage.com/atrig/measure-angles.htm

AUTHOR