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Iv

Project

ANGLES AND

THEIR

MEASUREMENT

Novie I. Fauni

Mary Grace Rovedillo

IV- Plato

Math IV Teacher

I.

INTRODUCTION

and metron, "measure"[1]) is a branch of mathematics that

studies relationships involving lengths

and angles of triangles. The field emerged during the 3rd

century BC from applications of geometry to astronomical

studies.[2]

The 3rd-century astronomers first noted that the lengths

of the sides of a right-angle triangle and

the angles between those sides have fixed relationships:

that is, if at least the length of one side and the value of

one angle is known, then all other angles and lengths can

be determined algorithmically. These calculations soon

came to be defined as the trigonometric functions and

today are pervasive in

both pure and applied mathematics: fundamental

methods of analysis such as the Fourier transform, for

example, or the wave equation, use trigonometric

functions to understand cyclical phenomena across many

applications in fields as diverse as physics, mechanical

and electrical engineering, music and acoustics,

astronomy, ecology, and biology. Trigonometry is also the

foundation of surveying.

Trigonometry is most simply associated with planar rightangle triangles (each of which is a two-dimensional

triangle with one angle equal to 90 degrees). The

applicability to non-right-angle triangles exists, but, since

any non-right-angle triangle (on a flat plane) can be

bisected to create two right-angle triangles, most

problems can be reduced to calculations on right-angle

triangles. Thus the majority of applications relate to

right-angle triangles. One exception to this is spherical

trigonometry, the study of triangles onspheres, surfaces

of constant positive curvature, in elliptic geometry (a

fundamental part of astronomy and navigation).

of hyperbolic geometry.

Trigonometry is the study of angles and relationships between

them. Especially important in trigonometry are the angles of a

triangle. For this reason, trigonometry is closely linked with

geometry. One of the major differences between trigonometry

and geometry, though, is that trigonometry concerns itself with

actual measurements of angles and sides of a triangle, whereas

geometry focuses on establishing relationships between

unmeasured angles and sides. To begin our study of

trigonometry, we'll review the definition and some

characteristics of angles to make sure we have a solid

foundation for learning more about them.

Angles, by definition, lie in a plane, so trigonometry is a twodimensional field of study. It will be convenient, and eventually

necessary, to become familiar with the coordinate plane, which

is a system of measuring and plotting points in two dimensions.

The location of any point in a plane, then, can be specified by

exact coordinates. A point can also be specified by a vector. A

vector is like a line segment lying in a specific position--it has

length and direction. Vectors can be used to determine the

location of points, as well as the measure of certain angles.

These basic concepts will provide a foundation for

understanding the principles of trigonometry.

II. DISCUSSION

TRIGONOMETRY, as it is actually used in calculus and

science, is not about solving triangles. It becomes the

mathematical description of things that rotate or

vibrate, such as light, sound, the paths of planets about

the sun, or satellites about the earth. It is necessary

therefore to have angles of any size, and to extend to

them the meanings of the trigonometric functions.

Angles

An angle is the opening that two straight lines form

when they meet.

When the straight line FA meets the straight line EA, they

form the angle we name as angle FAE. Letter A, which we

place in the middle, labels the point where the two lines meet,

and is called the vertex of the angle. When there is no

confusion as to which point is the vertex, we may speak of "the

angle at the point A," or simply "angle A."

The two straight lines that form an angle are called

its sides. And the size of the angle does not depend on the

lengths of its sides. We can see that in the figure above. For if

the point C is in the same straight line as FA, and B is in the

same straight line as EA, then angles CAB and FAE are the

same angle.

Now, to measure an angle, we place the vertex at the

center of a

circle (we call that a central angle), and we measure the length

of the arc-- that portion of the circumference -- that the sides

intercept. We then determine what relationship that arc has to

the entire circumference, which is an agreed-upon number. (In

degree measure that number is 360; in radian measure it is

2.)

The measure of angle A, then, will be length of the arc BC

relative to the circumference BCD -- or the length of arc EF

relative to the circumference EFG. For in any circles, equal

central angles determine a unique ratio of arc to

circumference. (See the theorem of Topic 14. It is stated there

in terms of the ratio of arc to radius, but the circumference is

proportional to the radius: C = 2r.)

There are two systems for measuring angles. One is the

well-known system of degree measure. The other is the strictly

mathematical system called radian measure.

The rays are called the sides of the angle, and the common

endpoint is the vertex of the angle. The measure of an angle is

the measure of the space between the rays. It is the direction of

the rays relative to one another that determine the measure of an

angle.

In trigonometry, angles are often defined in terms of rotation.

Consider one ray, and then let it rotate a fixed distance about its

endpoint. The ray in its initial position before the rotation, and

the ray in its ending, or terminal position, after the rotation,

creates an angle. The endpoint point about which the ray rotates

is the vertex. The amount of rotation determines the measure of

the angle. The ray in the initial position, before the rotation, is

called the initial side of the angle. The ray in the terminal

angle. An angle created this way has a positive measure if the

rotation was counterclockwise, and a negative measure if the

rotation was clockwise.

MEASURING ANGLES

There are three units of measure for angles: revolutions,

degrees, and radians. In trigonometry, radians are used most

often, but it is important to be able to convert between any of the

three units.

Revolutions

A revolution is the measure of an angle formed when the initial

side rotates all the way around its vertex until it reaches its

initial position. Thus, the terminal side is in the same exact

position as the initial side. In trigonometry, angles can have a

measure of many revolutions--there is no limit to the magnitude

of a given angle. A revolution can be abbreviated "rev".

Degree measure

of a circle divided into 360 equal parts, and we call each of

those equal parts a "degree." Its symbol is a small 0: 1 -- "1

degree." The full circle, then, will be 360. But why the

number 360? What is so special about it? Why not 100 or

1000?

The answer is two-fold. First, 360 has many divisors, and

therefore it will have many whole number parts. It has an

exact half and an exact third -- which a power of 10 does not

have. 360 has a fourth part, a fifth, a sixth, and so on. Those

are natural divisions of the circle, and it is very convenient for

their measures to be whole numbers. (Even the ancients didn't

like fractions )

Secondly, 360 is close to the number of days in the

astronomical year: 365.

its sides include. To say that angle BAC is 30 means that its

sides enclose 30

of those equal divisions. Arc BC 30

of the entire

is

360

circumference.

So, when 360 is the measure of a full circle, then 180

will be half a circle. 90 -- one right angle -- will be a quarter

of a circle; and 270 will be three quarters of a circle: three

right angles.

There are 360 degrees in one revolution. Degrees can be

minute is equal to 60 seconds. Therefore, an angle whose

measure is one second has a measure of

degrees. When

perpendicularity is discussed, it is most often defined as a

situation in which a 90 degree angle exists. Often degrees are

used to describe certain triangles, like 30-60-90 and 45-4590 triangles. As previously mentioned, however, in most cases

that concern trigonometry, radians are the most useful and

manageable unit of measure. Degrees are symbolized with a

small superscript circle after the number (measure). 360

degrees is symbolized360 o .

Radian

A radian is not a unit of measure that is arbitrarily defined, like a

degree. Its definition is geometrical. One radian (1 rad) is the

measure of the central angle (an angle whose vertex is the center

of a circle) that intercepts an arc whose length is equal to the

radius of the circle. The measure of such an angle is always the

same, regardless of the radius of the circle. It is a naturally

occurring unit of measure, just like is the natural ratio of the

circumference of a circle and the diameter. If an angle of one

radian intercepts an arc of length r , then a central angle

of 2 radians would intercept an arc of length 2r , which is the

circumference of the circle. Such a central angle has a measure

of one revolution. Therefore, 1 rev = 360 o = 2 rad . Also, 1 rad

= ( )o=

rev.

Conversion between Revolutions, Degrees, and Radians

Below is a chart with angle measures of common angles in

revolutions, degrees, and radians. Any angle can be converted

from one set of units to another using the definition of the units,

but it will save time to memorize a few simple conversions. It is

particularly important to be able to convert between degrees and

radians.

Angles lie in a plane. To specify the point in space where an

angle lies, or where any figure exists, a plane can be

assigned coordinates. Since a plane is two-dimensional, only two

coordinates are required to designate a specific location for

every point in the plane. One coordinate determines the length,

and the other determines width. In reality, length and width are

the same thing--they are used because they describe distance in

two directions which are perpendicular to each other. This is all

the coordinate plane is: a plane with two perpendicular axes by

which distance in either of two dimensions can be measured.

The coordinate plane consists of an origin and two axes. The

origin is a point. The axes are lines perpendicular to each other

that intersect at the origin. Below is pictured the coordinate

plane, with the origin at point O.

other point is assigned an ordered pair, (x, y) , according to its

position relative to the origin. The two axes are named the $x$axis and the y-axis. In most drawings, the x -axis is the

horizontal axis, and the y-axis is the vertical axis, but this does

not necessarily need to be the case. A point is assigned an

ordered pair consisting of two real numbers: The first is the xcoordinate, which measures how far the point is from the y-axis.

The second real number making up an ordered pair is the ycoordinate, which measures the distance between the point and

the x-axis. Often the axes are pictured with tick marks

indicating length to make it easier to measure distance. When a

point is drawn into the coordinate plane and assigned an

ordered pair, it is plotted. Take a gander at the plotted points

below.

Negative distance does not exist, but coordinates are given

either positive or negative values to specify which side of the

given axis they are on. In most cases, the positive direction of the

x-axis points to the right, and the positive direction of the y-axis

points upward. Thus, for example, points on the left of the y-axis

have a negative x-coordinate. The positive directions don't

always have to be these directions, though. Often, as in the

diagram above, the axes will only have an arrow on the end

which points in the positive direction. The other end has no

arrow. This is how one can tell where the positive and negative

values lie.

A plane extends in all direction without limit. So does the

coordinate plane. Although there are many ways to draw the

coordinate plane, it is always the same thing: a point of origin

and two axes, which intersect at the origin and lie perpendicular

to each other. The origin, by definition, always has the

coordinates (0,0). Every other point in the plane can be

measured according to the axes. Even the point

(33563452143,23455434) exists and can be located in any

coordinate plane; it extends without limit. Below are some other

ways to draw the coordinate plane. All look different, but they

are all the same coordinate plane.

The axes of the coordinate plane divide the plane into four

regions--these regions are called quadrants. The region in which

the x-coordinate and the y-coordinate are both positive is called

Quadrant I. Quadrant II is the region in which x < 0 and y > 0 .

Quadrant III is the region in which x < 0 and y < 0 . Quadrant IV

is the region in which x > 0 and y < 0 . The quadrants are

labeled in the figure below.

Vectors

One way to represent motion between points in the coordinate

plane is with vectors. A vector is essentially a line segment in a

specific position, with both length and direction, designated by

an arrow on its end. The figures below are vectors.

vector v is symbolized by a letter v with an arrow above it, like

this:

. A vector is determined by two coordinates, just like a

point--one for its magnitude in the x direction, and one for its

magnitude in they direction. The magnitude of a vector in the xdirection is called the horizontal, or x-component of the vector.

The magnitude of a vector in the y-direction is called the

vertical, or $y$-component of the vector. A vector with

coordinates (3,4) and origin at the origin of the coordinate plane

looks like this:

A vector has length and direction, that is all. Two vectors with

the same length and direction are the same vector. They may

have origins at different points, but they are still equal. The

length of a vector is formally called its magnitude. Given the

coordinates of a vector (x, y) , its magnitude is

. This

formula is drawn from the **Pythagorean Theorem*

{math/geometry2/specialtriangles}*. The direction of a vector is

only fixed when that vector is viewed in the coordinate plane.

Then, using techniques we'll learn shortly, the direction of a

directions only exist relative to one another, so a single vector

cannot have a specific direction.

Vectors can be added and subtracted to one another, and

multiplied and divided by scalars (number with magnitude but no

direction). When two vectors are added or subtracted, the xcomponent of one vector is added or subtracted to the xcomponent of the other, and the same is done with the ycomponents of the vectors. For example, if

and

then

. When a vector is multiplied or

divided by a scalar, the scalar (any real number) is simply

distributed through to both coordinates of the vector. Hence,

using the vectors defined above, 2

and

. In any

case, the sum, difference, product, or quotient is still a vector.

A vector whose origin is the origin of the coordinate plane ends

at the point with the same coordinates as the vector. Because

vectors have a fixed magnitude, they always determine two

points, the origin of the vector and the endpoint. Vectors are

useful mathematical tools for modeling motion and symbolizing

directed line segments.

Vectors vs. Rays

One more note is important to make in this lesson: vectors are

not rays. They are symbolized the same way--a line segment with

an arrow on one end--but they are very different things. Vectors

have a specified length, rays have infinite length. From this point

on, whenever a line semgent is drawn with an arrow on one end,

assume that it is a ray. If such a figure is a vector, it will be

noted.

Standard position

vertex A is at theorigin of the cordinate system, and its Initial

side AB lies along the positive x-axis. We say that AB has

"swept out" the angle BAC, and that AC is its Terminal side.

fixed point A. When it rotates in a counter-clockwise direction,

we say that the angle is positive. But when it rotates in a

clockwise direction, as AC', the angle is negative.

When the terminal side AC has rotated 360, it has

completed one full revolution.

Angles can exist anywhere in the coordinate plane where

two rays share a common vertex. If this vertex is at the origin

of the plane and the initial side lies along the positive $x$-axis,

in standard position are shown below.

the quadrant contains their terminal sides. For example, an

angle whose terminal side lies in the first quadrant is called a

first quadrant angle. If the terminal side of an angle lies along

one of the axes, then that angle doesn't lie in one specific

quadrant; it lies along the border of two quadrants. Such

angles are called a quadrantal angle.

The x-y plane is divided into four quadrants. The angle begins

in itsstandard position in the first quadrant ( I ). As the angle

succeeding quadrant.

Why do we name the quadrants in the counter

clockwise direction? Because in what we call

the "first" quadrant, the algebraic signs

of x and y are positive.

Coterminal angles

Angles are coterminal if, when in the standard position, they

have the same terminal side.

They have the same terminal side. That is, their terminal

sides are indistinguishable.

Any angle is coterminal with + 360 -- because we are

just going around the circle one complete time.

90 is coterminal with 270. Again, they have the same

terminal side.

Notice: 90 plus 270 = 360. The sum of the absolute

values of those coterminal angles completes the circle.

III. QUIZ

Problem 1. How many degrees corresponds to

each of the following?

a) A third of a revolution

b) A sixth of a revolution

c) Five sixths of a revolution

d) Two revolutions

e) Three revolutions

f) One and a half revolutions

revolution?

30

360

Answer. 30 is

30

360

of a revolution:

3

36

1

12

the following?

a) 60

b) 45

c) 72

Example 2. If the diameter of a circle is 16 cm, how long

is the arc intercepted by a central angle of 45?

which is one quarter.) Now, the full circumference of this

circle is

C = D = 3.14 16 cm.

The intercepted arc is one eighth of the circumference:

3.14 16 8 = 3.14 2 = 6.28 cm

is the arc intercepted by a central angle of 72?

terminate?

a) 15

b) 15

c) 135

d) 390

e) 100

f) 460

coterminal with each

of these, and is less than 360.

a) 360

b) 450

c) 20

d) 180

e) 270

f) 720

g) 200

KEY ANSWERS

Problem 1.

B) 360 6 = 60

C) 5 60 = 300

D) 2 360 = 720

E) 3 360 = 1080

F) 360 + 180 = 540

Problem 2.

A)

60

36

6 =

360

1/6

B)

45/360 =

5/40 = 1/8

C)

72/360 = 8/40 = 1/5

Problem 3.

The circumference of this circle is C = D = 3.14 20

in. The intercepted arc is one fifth of this: 3.14 20

5 = 3.14 4 = 12.56 in.

Problem 4.

a) I

b) IV c) II

f) III.

g) IV.

d) I.

are 720.

Problem 5.

a) 0

b) 90. 450 = 360 + 90

c) 340

d) +180

e) 90

f) 0. 720 = 2 360

g)

160

REFERENCE

http://www.sparknotes.com/math/trigonometry/angles/

http://www.themathpage.com/atrig/measure-angles.htm

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