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Soft Shoreline Stabilization Options

Design Considerations

Design Objectives

1.

Determine Existing Conditions


Geometry (surveys)
Shoreline stability
Habitat quality

2.

Define project goals

3.

Design solutions to meet project goals


(Soft Engineering Technique)

Existing Conditions
z
z
z
z
z
z
z
z
z

Detailed survey of shoreline


Detailed bathymetry of river
Inventory of riparian vegetation
Inventory of aquatic vegetation
High and low water elevation
Max tide height
Shoreline water velocities
Ice conditions
Water salinity

Existing Conditions
z

z
z

Geotechnical information
River substrate material
Slope substrate material
Soil boring
Soil quality tests (presence of
contaminants?)
Site access
Storm water runoff, (adjacent land use and
stormwater management)
Current slope conditions, (stable or visible
erosion?)

Detailed Survey and Bathymetry of Site

Map Documenting Site Conditions

Design Water Elevations


z

Survey should identify the high water


mark, usually visible on shoreline
Check water level fluctuations with tides
Hudson River Estuary tides range
between 2.5 and 4.5 ft
Look at historic flood data if available
Typically projects are designed for the
100 yr flood elevation
FEMA Flood Insurance Rate Maps
(FIRM) should have flood elevations

Hydraulic Conditions
z

Tidal flow in both directions


River velocity data (ebb and flood
tides)
Hudson River typically between 1 and
3 ft/sec
Design high velocity for 100 yr
flood/storm condition
Review hydraulic FEMA models if
available, (hydraulic models provide
velocity predictions for flood
conditions)
Estimate shoreline shear stresses
based on river slope, and channel
geometry

Hydraulic Conditions
z

wave conditions (wind and vessel induced); proximity to


navigation channel
Forces due to waves can be determined using the linear
(Airy) wave theory (USACOE CEM 2002)
The Army Corps of Engineers Coastal Engineering Manual
provides a thorough review of wave forces.
u=

H
2

g
cos
d

d
1
<
L 25

assumes u horizontal particle velocity (ft/sec)


H wave height (ft)
d water depth (ft)
L wave length (ft)
wave phase, (varies between 0 to 2)
g acceleration due to gravity (32.2 ft/sec2)

Ice Conditions

Banks and shallow substrates are scoured by


ice, moving sediments

Ice rafts push, roll or slide material along tidal


flats

Anchor ice can break loose and carry along


large chunks of material

These processes result in localized areas of


bank instability, limited riparian and
submerged aquatic vegetation, and areas of
sediment deposition.

Hudson River Ice


(source: http://ahps.erh.noaa.gov/nerfc/graphics/ice_pics/)

Hudson River Ice


(source: http://ahps.erh.noaa.gov/nerfc/graphics/ice_pics/)

Hudson River Ice


(source: http://ahps.erh.noaa.gov/nerfc/graphics/ice_pics/)

Geotechnical Information
Subsurface data needed
to determine slope
stability and scour
potential:
z
z
z
z
z
z

Soil Borings
Geotechnical Report
Grain size distribution
Soil bearing capacity
Soil friction angle
Dry and wet density

Additional Design Considerations


z

Stormwater management of adjacent land

Overall stability of existing slope

z
z

If eroding and unstable, determine causes:


Runoff
Waves
Ice or,
River currents
Soil testing for contaminants
Site access for construction

Additional Design Considerations


z

Inventory of riparian vegetation


Determine the presence of nonnon-native and invasive
species
Invasive species eradication could be part of the
shoreline rehab project
Identify native species that may be appropriate for Soft
Engineering techniques

Water salinity range and appropriate vegetation

Shoreline Design Requirements


z

What are the primary goals?:


Improve aquatic and terrestrial habitat
Aesthetics
Stabilize adjacent infrastructure (ie
(ie,, roads and railroads)
Eradicate invasive species
Reduce runoff nutrient loading with buffer
Available foot print for design (ie
(ie.. slope requirements, and shoreline
width available)

Answers to these design requirements will help determine which


stabilization technique is applicable for the existing conditions.
conditions.

Available Soft Engineering Techniques


Method

Bank
slope

Vegetated
Geogrids

Max: ~
8V:1H

Advantages
Relatively high allowable shear
stress and velocities.
Slopes can be close to vertical.

Disadvantages
Costs are relatively high
Installation can be complex and
requires heavy equipment to install

Provides higher aesthetic value


than other vegetated structural
techniques.

Live
Cribwall

Max: ~
8V:1H

Provides protection for slopes near


vertical.
Allowable shear stresses and
velocities are relatively high.

Requires heavy equipment to install


Precast concrete types are extremely
heavy and cumbersome.

Available Soft Engineering Techniques


Method

Bank
slope

Advantages

Disadvantages

Joint
Planting

Relatively low cost and fast installation


Max:
~
on existing riprap slopes.
1V:2H Provides additional protection to the
armor layer by preventing washout of
fines and reinforcing the underlying
soil.

Aesthetic, wildlife and aquatic habitat


are not as good as other vegetated
structural methods.

Brush
mattress

Provides good stabilization with


Max:
relatively moderate allowable shear
~
1V:3H stress and velocities with stone toe
protection.
Can be installed with manual laborand
provides higher aesthetic value than
other vegetated structural techniques.

Installation can be complex and costs


are moderate.
Allowable shear stress and velocities are
lower than other structural methods and
applications is limited to shallow slopes.

Vegetated
Rock
Gabions

Relatively simple construction that


Max:
provides protection for steep slopes.
~
8V:1H
Occupies less area because of the steep
slopes possible and allowable shear
stresses and velocities are relatively
high.

Planting after installation is nearly


impossible. Requires heavy equipment
to install.

Thresholds for Stabilization Techniques

Source, Fischenich 2001

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Soft Engineering Techniques


Requirements and Cautions for application:
z

All techniques require a stone toe extending above high water


elevation

Soft engineering techniques and vegetation start above high water


water

Vulnerable to flooding and storms until established with vegetation


vegetation

Require maintenance and inspection after flood and storm events

Should be inspected each Spring for ice damage

Example Design

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Example Design

Questions?
References:
Fischenich, C. 2001. Stability Thresholds for Stream
Restoration Materials,
Materials, EMRRP Technical Notes
Collection ERDC TNEMRRPTNEMRRP-SRSR-29. U.S. Army
Engineer Research and Development
Center,Vicksburg,
Center,Vicksburg, MS.
United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACOE). 2002.
Coastal Engineering Manual EM 11101110-2-1100. April
30, 2002.
National Weather Service Northeast River Forecast
Center http://www.erh.noaa.gov/nerfc/index.shtml
http://www.erh.noaa.gov/nerfc/index.shtml

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