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CarSim

Educational
User Manual
VERSION 4.5

Mechanical Simulation Corporation
January 2000

NOTICE
This manual describes the CarSim Educational software.
© 1996 – 2000, Mechanical Simulation Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

Mechanical Simulation Corporation
709 W. Huron, Ann Arbor, MI 48103
Phone: (734) 668-2930
FAX: (734) 668-2877
http://www.trucksim.com

Table of Contents
1. Introduction................................................................................................................... 9
About This Manual...........................................................................................................9
What CarSimEd Does .......................................................................................................9
CarSimEd Model Features...............................................................................................11
How CarSimEd Works.................................................................................................... 13
What CarSimEd Does Not Do ......................................................................................... 15
Notational Conventions in This Manual ........................................................................... 16

2. CarSimEd Installation................................................................................................ 17
Computer Requirements.................................................................................................. 17
Installation of CarSimEd................................................................................................. 18
Linking to SIMULINK and MATLAB............................................................................. 18

3. Database Organization............................................................................................... 21
Introduction to the CarSimEd Database............................................................................ 21
Data Screens .................................................................................................................. 22
Making New Data Sets....................................................................................................24
On-Line Help ................................................................................................................. 24
A Map of the CarSimEd Libraries and Screens ................................................................. 24
How CarSimEd Communicates with SIMULINK ............................................................. 28

4. The Basics of Using CarSimEd................................................................................ 30
About the Runs Screen.................................................................................................... 30
Getting to a Runs Screen................................................................................................. 31
Making a New Run (Stand-Alone)................................................................................... 33
Replacing a Run (Stand-Alone) ....................................................................................... 34
Making the First SIMULINK Run ................................................................................... 35
Making Additional SIMULINK Runs .............................................................................. 36
Viewing an Animation .................................................................................................... 36
Viewing a Single Pre-Defined Plot...................................................................................37
Viewing Several Pre-Defined Plots .................................................................................. 38
Overlaying Plots for Multiple Runs.................................................................................. 38
Defining Plots Interactively............................................................................................. 39
Viewing All Model Parameters and Inputs ....................................................................... 40
Printing a Data Set.......................................................................................................... 40
Making a New Vehicle Data Set ...................................................................................... 41
Modifying an Existing Vehicle Description ...................................................................... 42
Switching Between CarSimEd and SIMULINK Inputs...................................................... 43
Going Directly to Any CarSimEd Library ........................................................................ 44
Locking Your Data ......................................................................................................... 45
Deleting Data Sets .......................................................................................................... 48
Making Five or More Plots for a Single Run..................................................................... 48

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Overlaying Plots for Multiple Runs.................................................................................. 49
Making Many Plots in Batch Mode.................................................................................. 50
Setting Up Multiple Runs................................................................................................ 50
Making New Plot Descriptions ........................................................................................ 52
Linking to Different Libraries.......................................................................................... 53

5. The Solver Programs..................................................................................................55
Overview of Program Operation (Stand-Alone) ................................................................ 55
How a Simulation Run Is Made in SIMULINK.................................................................56
File Types ...................................................................................................................... 59

6. The Animator.............................................................................................................. 63
Updates.......................................................................................................................... 63
Overview of Operation.................................................................................................... 63
Reference Frames ........................................................................................................... 64
Files...............................................................................................................................65
Units.............................................................................................................................. 66
File Menu ...................................................................................................................... 67
Edit Menu ...................................................................................................................... 69
Animation Menu.............................................................................................................70
Coordinates Menu .......................................................................................................... 71
Options Menu.................................................................................................................73
Help Menu ..................................................................................................................... 75
Pop-Up Menu................................................................................................................. 76
Time Control Slider ........................................................................................................ 76
Testing Animator Data Sets............................................................................................. 77

7. The Plotter................................................................................................................... 80
Updates.......................................................................................................................... 80
Overview of Operation.................................................................................................... 80
Batch and Interactive Operation....................................................................................... 81
Zooming ........................................................................................................................ 82
Tool Bar.........................................................................................................................83
Printing Plots..................................................................................................................84
File Menu ...................................................................................................................... 86
Edit Menu ...................................................................................................................... 88
Format Menu..................................................................................................................90
Data Menu ..................................................................................................................... 96
View Menu .................................................................................................................. 105
Windows Menu ............................................................................................................ 107
Help Menu ................................................................................................................... 109

8. Design of CarSimEd Data Screens ........................................................................110
The Ribbon Bar ............................................................................................................ 110
Data Links ................................................................................................................... 115

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Tabular Data ................................................................................................................ 117
File Menu .................................................................................................................... 119
Edit Menu .................................................................................................................... 122
Text Menu ................................................................................................................... 123
Page Menu ................................................................................................................... 124
Tools Menu.................................................................................................................. 125

9. Alphabetical Library Reference .............................................................................127
Conventions in This Chapter ......................................................................................... 127
Animator: Camera Setup............................................................................................... 129
Animator: Groups......................................................................................................... 133
Animator: Reference Frames ......................................................................................... 136
Animator: Shapes ......................................................................................................... 139
Animator: Wheels......................................................................................................... 142
Calculator .................................................................................................................... 143
CarSimEd Startup......................................................................................................... 150
Computation Parameters ............................................................................................... 155
Generic 2D Table ......................................................................................................... 157
Generic Data Group...................................................................................................... 159
Generic Table............................................................................................................... 161
Input: Braking .............................................................................................................. 162
Input: Road Profile ....................................................................................................... 164
Input: Steering Wheel Angle ......................................................................................... 166
Input: Target Path For Closed-Loop Steer Control .......................................................... 167
Input: Throttle Control .................................................................................................. 171
Input: Wheel Height Above Ground............................................................................... 173
Library Editor...............................................................................................................174
Plot Format .................................................................................................................. 176
Plot Setup: Batch.......................................................................................................... 179
Plot Setup: Single ......................................................................................................... 181
Plot Transforms............................................................................................................ 183
Runs: 2D Ride.............................................................................................................. 187
Runs: 3D Handling ....................................................................................................... 188
Runs: SIMULINK CMEX Version ................................................................................ 196
Runs: Suspension Analyses ........................................................................................... 199
Runs: Batch.................................................................................................................. 201
Suspensions: Independent ............................................................................................. 204
Suspensions: 5-Link Independent...................................................................................207
Tires: CarSimEd Model ................................................................................................ 209
Tires: Cornering Stiffness..............................................................................................212
Tires: Pneumatic Trail................................................................................................... 214
Vehicles: Car................................................................................................................215

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10. Advanced Topics....................................................................................................218
Adding a New SIMULINK Model................................................................................. 218
Installing CarSimEd in a New Directory.........................................................................219
Importing Data from Another Copy of CarSimEd ........................................................... 222
Exporting Data to Other Plotting and Analysis Software ................................................. 223
Changing Plot Formatting ............................................................................................. 225
Creating Offset Plots..................................................................................................... 226
Re-Scaling Tabular Data ............................................................................................... 227
Improving the Appearance of the CarSimEd Screens ...................................................... 228
Continuing a Run..........................................................................................................230
Changing the Default Runs Library................................................................................ 232
Changing a Solver Program........................................................................................... 232
Changing the Default Text Editor .................................................................................. 234

11. Trouble Shooting....................................................................................................236
File System Errors ........................................................................................................ 236
Database (ToolBook) Problems ..................................................................................... 237
Solver Programs ........................................................................................................... 239
Plotter and Wire-Frame Animator.................................................................................. 239

Appendix A — Glossary .............................................................................................241
Appendix B — Vehicle Dynamics Terminology .....................................................245
Vectors and Angles....................................................................................................... 246
Axis Systems and Coordinate Systems ........................................................................... 247
Entire vehicle ............................................................................................................... 250
Suspensions and steering............................................................................................... 253
Tires and wheels........................................................................................................... 255
Notes ........................................................................................................................... 256

Appendix C — ERD File Format...............................................................................258
The Header .................................................................................................................. 258
The Data Section .......................................................................................................... 262

Appendix D — Plotter Files and Keywords..............................................................264
PLT Batch Control Files................................................................................................264
Plot Setting Files .......................................................................................................... 265
Plot Transform Files ..................................................................................................... 266
Plot Format Files .......................................................................................................... 266
Preference File Format.................................................................................................. 269
Text Files..................................................................................................................... 269

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..................................................316 Sign Conventions ........................ 274 Camera Settings....................... 325 Appendix J — Model Input and Output Variables......................................................................................................................... 306 Appendix H — The Tire Model .................................................................................................................................................................................... 320 References ....... 328 Creating Lists of Outputs ....................................... 292 Keywords and Parameters for the 3D Suspension...........................................................................................................296 Overview of Factors Affecting Vehicle Behavior.. 307 Tire Forces and Moments................................... 298 Masses and inertias........................... 300 Summary of Major Model Variables ......................................................................................................................... 271 Units..............................................................................................................................274 Reference Frames .................307 Tire/Wheel Kinematics ................................................... 282 Appendix F — Model Files and Keywords.................................................................. 297 Rigid Body Kinematics ............................. 318 Application to Vehicle Control ......... 316 References ................................................................................ 335 — vii — ......................................................................................................................................318 Optimal Control Theory....................................................................................................................... 302 References ...... Coordinates..........................................................................................................................................314 Sequence Of Calculations............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 317 Appendix I — The CarSimEd Steer Controller............................................................................................................ 275 Parts (Shapes)..........................................................................277 Wheels....................................... 288 Keywords and Parameters for the 2D Car Model ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................294 Appendix G — The 3D Car Model............................................................................................................................... 280 Target Path........................................................................................................ 283 Viewing Keywords ........................................... 287 Keywords and Parameters for the 3D Car Model .................. 279 Grid and 3D Ground Surface ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................271 Overview of a PARSFILE.............................................................................................................................326 Types of Output Variables...................... 326 Inputs and Output Variables ..Appendix E — Animator Files and Keywords....................................................................................................................................................... and Sign Conventions..........................................................283 File Types ...............................296 Introduction....................... 312 Low-Speed Exceptions....... 300 Suspension Force Effects ...........................

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Other chapters can be read as needed or for reference. Although we would not discourage you from reading this manual from beginning to end. Chapter 4 has the essential information about how you use CarSimEd. describes the CarSimEd data screens in alphabetical order. In particular. • The first three chapters provide an overview of CarSimEd: its use. • Chapter 11 contains tips to help diagnose problems and identify errors.html What CarSimEd Does CarSimEd is a software package for simulating and analyzing the behavior of fourwheeled vehicles in response to steering. The majority of user questions from the past few years are covered in this chapter. • Chapters 5 through 9 provide reference material.1. vehicle dynamics terminology. CarSim Educational is called CarSimEd.com/carsimed/index. It then continues with a summary of what CarSim Educational can do and how it works. and assorted modeling details. Throughout this manual. Chapter 9. • Chapter 4 provides instructions for performing common operations in CarSimEd. installation. It produces the same kinds of outputs that might be measured with physical tests involving instrumented vehicles. Please read Chapters 1 through 4.trucksim. the largest in the manual. model parameter definitions. —9— . we recognize that your time is valuable and that you might start by reading only what you think is absolutely necessary. • The appendices provide technical details such as a glossary. and acceleration inputs. and program structure. braking. output variable names. Introduction This chapter begins an overview of the rest of this manual. • Chapter 10 provides instructions for performing operations that are more advanced than those covered in Chapter 4. file formats. About This Manual This manual is intended to help you understand and use CarSimEd. The most recent version of this manual can be obtained (free) from the web site: www.

After you run a simulation you can inspect and analyze hundreds of variables. solver programs. It’s easy to simulate vehicles and test conditions that are difficult or impossible to conduct experimentally. existing runs — all kinds of data — are accessible with pull-down menus in the database. Here are some reasons that CarSimEd makes simulation practical for students and engineers: 1. components. 4. to rapidly gain experience in the subject. 3. (However. 2. 5.) Due to its ease-of-use and speed. It requires no special hardware. plotter. What were the conditions leading to a specific accident or crash? (Can the event be reconstructed?) CarSimEd is designed to provide accurate simulation with rapid speed and ease-of-use. animator. and utility programs. simulation with detailed models has too often been considered to be an advanced form of analysis that is only practical for experts in simulation technology and vehicle dynamics. It includes a graphical database. simulations have been used by experts to learn about specific issues.Chapter 1 Introduction CarSimEd Advantages Detailed mathematical models for simulating automotive vehicle dynamics have been in use for decades. such as: 1. you can run simulated tests far more quickly and easily in CarSimEd than with physical testing. Vehicles. — 10 — . CarSimEd runs on ordinary Windows desktop and laptop PCs. as explained on page 12. All aspects of the software have a point-and-click graphical user interface. Why Use Simulation? The reason for using a vehicle simulation program is nearly always to learn something about vehicle behavior. How does a specific design change affect vehicle response in certain test conditions? 2. However. CarSimEd requires no additional software. The same factors (speed and ease of use) provide the potential to provide an impact on design decisions much earlier in the design process than has traditionally been possible. inputs. It is much easier to use than older vehicle simulation programs. It includes a database that minimizes the time needed to build a vehicle description and set up run conditions. CarSimEd is designed to also work with MATLAB®/SIMULINK®. Simulations run faster than real time on any current PC. Traditionally. This means it can be used by students and engineers who are not yet experts in vehicle dynamics. It runs fast. Why does an existing vehicle behave in an unexpected fashion under certain specified conditions? (And what can be done to change that behavior?) 3.

(As the run proceeds. understeer.) components (brake system.). Click a button to view an animation of the simulated test to get an overall view of the vehicle behavior. A 3D kinematics model (no dynamics or compliance) of a 5-link suspension. 3D Handling Model The main simulation program in CarSimEd is a handling model with full 3D rigid-body equations for the vehicle sprung and unsprung masses. and throttle inputs. and are represented with parameters that correspond to standard vehicle properties that can be measured directly. etc. With practice. you can assemble the vehicle with pull-down menus alone. and throttle.Chapter 1 Introduction CarSimEd Operation Summary The basic operation of CarSimEd involves this sequence: 1. etc. springs. 5. CarSimEd Model Features This section provides a short summary of the features of CarSimEd that pertain to vehicle dynamics and its mathematical models. Run the simulation with a single button click. 2. and possibly the properties of its components. you will be able to quickly see how component and vehicle design changes affect critical aspects of behavior such as braking performance. CarSimEd writes force and motion variables into an output file for later analysis. steering system. braking. A comprehensive 3D handling model that computes response time histories for steering. Each solves equations of motion numerically for a mathematical model designed to predict an aspect of vehicle behavior. A 2D pitch-plane model for simplified ride analyses. mass. Models CarSimEd has several separate simulation programs. (Again. modify its properties (dimensions. Details of the linkages and gears in the — 11 — . shock absorbers. The models are: 1.) 3. this can be done with pull-down menus if you are using existing data sets. and transient response. As needed. The major kinematical and compliance effects of the suspensions and steering systems that affect wheel motions are included. Select a vehicle to run. If you use only existing data sets. braking. 2. Specify the control inputs for steering. Click another button to view plots and analyze the resultant behavior in more detail.) 4. 3.

98 or NT. Two solver programs are provided for this model. spring and damper rates. The model can simulate short-long-arm (SLA) wishbone suspensions. It runs under MATLAB®. This model can be used to determine how basic ride parameters (wheelbase.262). In other words. pp 254 . requiring no additional programs or tools to run. Hiller and S. mass center. The simulations run much faster than you might expect for such detailed models. etc.Chapter 1 Introduction suspensions and steering systems are not included. All it takes is a single button click. SIMULINK and MATLAB are available from the MathWorks. as described in the IAVSD benchmark (M. 2D Ride Model The ride model uses a subset of the input parameters required for the more detailed 3D model. Steering can be specified explicitly as a function of time. One is a stand-alone application program with the file extension EXE. Working with SIMULINK ® and MATLAB® SIMULINK® is a software package for modeling. a mathematical workshop. vol 22. SIMULINK provides a graphical user interface for building models as block diagrams. Computer Requirements The software runs on Intel PC’s equipped with Windows 95. the programs run faster than real time. 1993. the vehicle models run several times faster than real time. reducing the amount of information needed to obtain accurate simulations. Braking and throttle inputs are both specified as tabular functions of time. Frik. a circle) and a built-in driver model will generate the steering wheel angle as needed to try to follow the path. Information related to roll or yaw motion is ignored. Alternatively. “Five-Link Suspension. Inc. braking. The model has three forms of input: steering. The graphical interface is popular for — 12 — . a run simulating a 10-second test will finish in just a few seconds. and analyzing dynamical systems in general.. and the other is a plug-in for use with MATLAB/SIMULINK with the extension DLL. a path input can be specified (e.” from Multibody Computer Codes in Vehicle System Dynamics. Supplement to Vehicle System Dynamics. and throttle. On any current PC. It is selfcontained.g. simulating. On higher-end desktop computers.) affect the behavior of a car going over an arbitrary road profile. and also the 5-link rear suspensions used in some Daimler-Benz automobiles. Outputs You can view simulation results as wire-frame animations or as plots of output variables. 3D Suspension Model The suspension model is of a 5-link design.

However.Chapter 1 Introduction developing dynamical models for many fields. it includes S-functions (system functions) to augment and extend the building blocks in SIMULINK to include arbitrary complex systems. How CarSimEd Works CarSimEd combines information from the data screens with vehicle dynamics programs to simulate the vehicle behavior. — 13 — . The extra capability added by SIMULINK is mainly the ability to combine new controller designs with the CarSimEd models. CarSimEd also links the simulation results with animation and plotting programs. The CarSimEd package is primarily made up of four tightly integrated software modules. as shown schematically in Figure 1.) The simulations can be run from within SIMULINK. using the SIMULINK integrators and the SIMULINK environment for setting control inputs to the vehicle model. You can build controller models (steering. such as electronics. braking. Note: SIMULINK and MATLAB are not included with CarSimEd— they must be obtained from the MathWorks. etc. don’t worry. If you are not already using SIMULINK. The mathematical behavior of S-functions can be defined either as a MATLAB M-file. SIMULINK is not needed to make runs or view results. etc. The S-function appears in a SIMULINK model as a block in the block diagram. or as an executable piece of object code in the form of a DLL (dynamic link library) obtained by compiling C or FORTRAN source code. CarSimEd is fully functional as a stand-alone package. (The DLL files were created by compiling CMEX files with the same equations of motion as used for the stand-alone C programs used to create the EXE solver programs in CarSimEd. CarSimEd includes DLL files that can be loaded and run by SIMULINK. SIMULINK is not particularly useful for building equation sets for complex mechanical 3D systems such as the CarSimEd models. The S-functions in CarSimEd are made from C source code and are thus called CMEX functions. Such “executable” functions are called MEX files (where the EX stands for executable). chemistry. hydraulics.1 and described below.) in SIMULINK and test them with the full nonlinear CarSimEd vehicle models.

The process of performing these calculations is called making a “simulation run” or simply a “run. The data screens are part of a database that maintains libraries of related data sets. Vehicle dynamics solver programs use equations of motion in mathematical models to calculate output variables. The Windows Engineering Plotter (WinEP) creates plots of vehicle variables as functions of time or as cross plots of output variables. Data screens serve as your primary interface to CarSimEd. Four parts of CarSimEd. 2. If test measurements are available. You can view the simulated motions. and interactively move around the simulated vehicle to change your point of view.Chapter 1 Introduction CarSimEd data screens Wire frame animator Engineering plotter Vehicle dynamics solver programs Figure 1. — 14 — . 4. 3.” CarSimEd includes the models in two forms: (a) as stand-alone EXE application files. A wire-frame animator shows the resultant vehicle motions.1. They contain vehicle model parameters. Plot any combination of variables and overlay plots from different runs. and (b) as DLL plug-in files (also called CMEX files) for use with SIMULINK. control inputs. CarSimEd includes about 30 libraries (each with multiple data sets) that are linked together to make up the database. zoom in and out with a simulated camera. you can overlay simulation and test results. 1. Use this tool to view any of the hundreds of variables computed by the simulation models. and run settings.

The braking and handling model has nonlinear steering geometry. • The five-link suspension model does not include compliance. including a detailed driveline model. nonlinear springs. dampers. To obtain information about the commercial version of CarSim.Chapter 1 Introduction What CarSimEd Does Not Do CarSimEd is not a general-purpose simulation tool. Suite 50 Ann Arbor. A commercial version of the software is available with more extensive modeling. Friction and ground elevation are specified as functions of ground position.com web: http://www. (734) 668-2930 fax (734) 668-2877 email: info@trucksim. compliance. nonlinear suspension geometry (toe and camber). Throttle inputs are related to drive torque by constant coefficients. and nonlinear differentials. and kinematics are modeled with linear coefficients.com — 15 — .) • The brakes are modeled with linear gains between brake torque and brake input. A more detailed tire model is built-in that can match experimental data over a wide range of conditions. please contact MSC (or view the web site): Mechanical Simulation Corporation 709 West Huron Street. • The vehicle models do not have aerodynamic effects. • The suspension springs. Closed-loop controllers are available for variable speed and steering to follow a prescribed path and speed. It is customized for the kinds of simulations described above. • The handling model assumes constant steer ratios (no Ackerman effect. MI 48103 tel. Some limitations of the models in CarSimEd are: • The 3D vehicle model does not support closed-loop speed control for variable speed. • The tire model does not allow specification of forces and moments for large slip angles. Aerodynamic effects are included. pressure. Simulations with other models are not possible without adding programs. but which cannot be adjusted by the user. There are no bump stops. • CarSimEd has no driveline dynamics.trucksim. The ride model assumes a constant vehicle speed. Large slip is handled using built-in functions that are reasonable. nonlinear brake torque vs. • The road surface is smooth and level with a constant friction coefficient. nonlinear dampers.

— 16 — . It is used for text that is shown in bold on the screen. menu items. Other fonts and styles are used to convey special meanings. • Underline is used to indicate text that you. such as titles of data sets. id. It is also used for section names (e. For example.Chapter 1 Introduction Notational Conventions in This Manual Some standard conventions are used throughout this manual to make it more concise. and sign conventions used in the CarSimEd models. suppose the root folder is C:\CarSimEd. Fonts and Type Face The bulk of this manual is presented using a Times font. SIMULINK).. library). might click on: buttons. axes. run.LPO. If id were 171..LPO represents a file name where id is some value. “Section Animator: Shapes”). “In the speed field. ToolBook. Pathnames Pathnames are specified relative to the CarSimEd folder.tbk would be named as Runs\Runs.g. The glossary also defines file types and names of software packages that might otherwise be unfamiliar (e. CMEX. keyword. For example. might type.g. It also defines the coordinate systems. E. (Long text files are shown in the regular Times font because it is more compact and easy to read.. type 100.g. then the file name would be 171. Terminology Specialized terms are defined in the first two appendices. while still being reasonably easy to read.” • Italics are used to indicate variable names and place-holders. etc. menus. The folder C:\Runs\Runs. the user.) • Bold is usually used for things that you. the user. Appendix B defines specialized terms applicable to vehicle dynamics. Appendix A is a glossary of words used throughout this manual in a manner that is specific to CarSimEd (e.tbk. • The Courier font is used for keywords (keywords are special names used in CarSimEd files) and names of computer files and folders.. It is also used to designate the contents of text files if they’re not too long.g.

and NT. If CarSimEd is posted on a network server. DOS. Windows 3. and graphical interface are currently available only for Windows 95. 1. (SIMULINK is a separate software package from the MathWorks that is obtained and installed independently of CarSimEd. — 17 — . It is recommended that all library files on the server be locked. you might have several standard vehicle data sets on the server that can be used as inputs for runs made on local machines. and NT. there are a few restrictions. 98. 3. Note: The vehicle dynamics solver programs in CarSimEd are not specific to Windows. drive R:). Installation is simple: just copy the root CarSimEd directory and follow the instructions in Chapter 10 in the section Installing CarSimEd in a New Directory. Whenever a screen appears showing data from the CarSimEd database. However. Although CarSimEd should not be run completely from a remote server.1. (Portions of CarSimEd use full pathnames. plotter. and MacOS. it is possible to access data from a server. It also describes how CarSimEd works with SIMULINK.2. so it is essential that each pathname be valid for all users. Similar versions have been compiled and run on other operating systems such as UNIX. 98. The network must be configured such that the drive containing CarSimEd appears with the same volume name for all users (e. the animator.g. you should copy the entire directory to your disk and run the local copy. Networks In general. Therefore.) 2. CarSimEd Installation This chapter describes how CarSimEd is installed on your computer. only one person at a time can access data from the server. However.) Computer Requirements Operating Systems The complete software package runs under Windows 95. and that all users make runs from a local copy of CarSimEd. including their own Runs library.. For example. CarSimEd should not be run from a remote server. the corresponding file is inaccessible to all other potential users.

the default directory is the directory containing the PIF. Updating the MATLAB PIF The integration between CarSimEd and SIMULINK is done with software contained in the folder Matlab. a CarSimEd DLL solver module. The Program Information File (PIF) acts as a pointer (shortcut) to the MATLAB program.45). When asked about installing program manager groups. When asked.. click the YES button. select the full installation. Depending on — 18 — .Chapter 2 CarSimEd Installation Installation of CarSimEd The CarSimEd software is provided as a self-extracting EXE file that is typically downloaded from the MSC web site. Run the EXE file to unpack a folder INSTALL.pif. Each of these folders contains one file that you might have to modify: Matlab. Linking to SIMULINK and MATLAB SIMULINK and MATLAB must be installed on your computer if you wish to combine the CarSimEd and SIMULINK packages. When MATLAB is started by opening the PIF. that contains a file SETUP. which in turn contains one folder for each SIMULINK model. The program then runs through an initialization process that takes a minute or two. If you move the main folder (e. it is necessary to re-initialize the software as described in chapter 10. and some extra support files. rather than the normal MATLAB default.g. Each SIMULINK model folder contains a shortcut to the MATLAB program. C:\CarSimEd.EXE. Run SETUP to install the software.

2). locate the MATLAB PIF file. When the MATLAB folder in CarSimEd is installed on your computer. select the Program tab (see Figure 2. and NT. 5. 3. Right-click on the Matlab. 9x. A properties window will appear (see Figure 2.1.2). and is also supported by the ToolBook software used to manage the CarSimEd database. You will have to change the Command Line field if your MATLAB installation is not standard. select the item Properties. To do so: Figure 2.Chapter 2 CarSimEd Installation your Windows settings. Note: The PIF was introduced in Windows 3. Change the pathname in the Command Line field to the location of MATLAB on your hard drive.2. the PIF might be displayed without the PIF extension (see the next figure). In the Windows explorer. the file might appear simply as Matlab). 4.pif (depending on your settings. Properties of the Matlab PIF. In the Properties window. 2.2. It is supported in Windows 3.1 to support DOS programs running in the Windows environment. Click the OK button to close the window. 1. From the pop-up menu. the Matlab PIF in each model folder points to the default location shown in Figure 2. 6. Repeat steps 1 through 5 for all other MATLAB PIFs. — 19 — .

SIMULINK makes the file fully compatible with your version. 5.Chapter 2 CarSimEd Installation MATLAB Versions CarSimEd 4. save the MDL file.3). To prevent this in future runs. This is because the SIMULINK MDL file was created with a different version of SIMULINK than the one you are using (version 5.3.5 has been tested with SIMULINK/MATLAB versions 5. In doing so. — 20 — .2 vs. The first time you make a run in SIMULINK. you might get a stream of warnings in the MATLAB window.2 and 5.

the levels are: 1.1. Starting with what you see on the screen. Data screens . A data set is the information you provide and can edit in a data screen. the database is considered at five levels. — 21 — . Contents of a CarSimEd Library. 2. Introduction to the CarSimEd Database Throughout this manual. Any screen display in CarSimEd that has editable fields or other forms of user settings is called a data screen. Database Organization You will generally spend most of your time interacting with the CarSimEd database. The data screen is a view of a data set as seen through the CarSimEd user interface. minus the screen itself. This chapter provides an overview of how the database is organized. (SGUI) CarSimEd is composed of individual data sets in a library of the database. Figure 3. A data screen is a view of one data set through the simulation graphical user interface.3. Data sets.

the simulation is run (again) after the changes were made.Chapter3 Database Organization 3. Figure 3. The architecture of CarSimEd is called the SGUI. • Links between data sets can be made and broken as you see fit. vehicles. click on the field. For example. plus a graphical view of one data set at a time. CarSimEd automatically handles the transfer of information between the libraries and solver programs. some of the libraries have special buttons for functions such as running a simulation. You do not have to know where the libraries are (file names) or what they contain (file formats). A library is a collection of one or more data sets. In this way. simulation results will be affected only if: a. inputs.. running an animation. data sets. Specifically. It includes the database. Data Screens Common elements in a data screen are introduced for the example screen shown in Figure 3.g. • Changes made on a data screen affect the one data set. The CarSimEd database. — 22 — . All of the library screens include buttons at the top to quickly navigate through the data sets in the library. In addition. item 4 ). etc. 2. etc. Yellow fields. and to go to other libraries and programs in CarSimEd (see the buttons near 2 ). Buttons. the code for managing the database. you should understand that: • Each CarSimEd data screen shows one data set from the library associated with the screen title. can be rapidly swapped. find the yellow field 3 with the current wheelbase value. and change the value using the mouse and keyboard. and libraries. components. plus utilities such as the plotter and animator. The Simulation Graphical User Interface (SGUI). Blue links with pull-down menus. CarSimEd includes about 30 libraries.2. This indicates that if you click over the button with the left mouse button then a pull-down menu will appear. However. These contain data that you can edit directly. to change the vehicle wheelbase. but all other data sets in the library are unaffected. Libraries. the changed data set is linked to the run. • When a data set is changed. 4. it is important to understand the distinction between data screens. 3. plus the information needed to provide a view in the user interface. These buttons are always marked with a triangle (e.1 shows the contents of a library: multiple data sets. and b. 5. Each data screen has three kinds of elements that you use: 1.

Example data screen. It has no significance to the solver program.2.g. it can have great use for organizing your data sets. The menu can be used to select a different data set in the linked library (choose the data set of interest from the list displayed at the bottom of the menu). click the triangle button 4 to view the following menu. It can also be used to go to the linked data set (choose the menu option to Go To Data Set). e. The title is just text that you choose to identify this data set in the library.) Each blue field represents a link to another data set. and the triangle button is used to display a pull-down menu. located in the upper-right corner of each data screen. The yellow field in the upper-left corner of the screen is the title of the data set. After using Go To Data Set to go to a different library. shown below. HMMWV 1 .Chapter3 Database Organization 2 1 3 4 Figure 3. you can return to the previous screen using the Back button. — 23 — . The name of the data set is shown in the blue field.. For example. (However.

This way you can switch back to the original whenever necessary. CarSimEd includes the following types of libraries: • vehicle parameters. The plotter and animator also work from the same data. • plot setups. The top level of CarSimEd is shown graphically in Figure 3. This is one of the most essential buttons in the SGUI — click it to make a copy of the current data set. the normal practice is to make a new copy and modify the copy. Rather than modifying an existing data set. Move the cursor over an object to read a one-line description of its function in the status bar.Chapter3 Database Organization The standard elements in a data screen. are described in more detail in Chapter 8.3 — 24 — . One of the reasons that CarSimEd can be such a productive tool is that data sets do not have to be re-entered. • run setups including simulation and post processing control. • animation setups. Making New Data Sets Every CarSimEd screen includes a New button in the ribbon bar. and the blue links. all information used by the CarSimEd solver programs is obtained from the data sets seen in the CarSimEd data screens. such as the ribbon bar at the top. Each screen design is associated with a separate library file. A Map of the CarSimEd Libraries and Screens Except when using CarSimEd with SIMULINK. and • batch controls. • control and environmental inputs for simulation runs. On-Line Help Every CarSimEd screen includes a status bar at the bottom of the screen.

you specify the plot and animation setup to view results. For example. you can go “down” to a Runs screen. each with links to vehicles.4 shows a partial map of the various libraries (screens).). you select the various inputs (braking. • using the plotter to view simulation results. In the map. The Runs screen also has three buttons for: • running new simulations. After the simulation is run. the vehicle. from the Startup screen. Role of Runs screen in CarSimEd. steering. inputs. here is a link between the Runs library and a vehicle library: — 25 — . data sets from different libraries are connected with links.3. Clicking the Start button on that screen takes you to the Runs screen. For example. and various settings. Figure 3. Figure 3. and the parameters that control the numerical solution methods used to make a simulation. From there. and • using the animator to view simulated motions. The Runs screen is the window to a library of many run descriptions.Chapter3 Database Organization You normally start CarSimEd at the Startup screen. etc.

CarSimEd Startup Runs 3D Runs 2D Throttle Inputs Brake Inputs Steer Inputs Groups Cars Path Inputs Plot Setup Suspensions Tires Ky Shapes Ref.4 shows a more detailed map of the various libraries (screens) that pertain to the 3D handling model. Notes: In order to create the detailed map at a reasonable size. etc. For example. After the simulation is run.Chapter3 Database Organization Type of vehicle to be simulated Name of specific vehicle data set In general. you specify the plot and animation setup to view results. From there. the names were shortened from the full screen titles.). the vehicle. Formats Filters Ref. libraries shown near the top of the map are more systems-oriented. Frames Runs Susp. Frames Trail Wheels Figure 3. — 26 — Cameras . Partial map of the CarSimEd libraries.4. and the parameters that control the numerical solution methods used to make a simulation. and libraries shown near the bottom are more component-oriented. you select the various inputs (brake. Libraries used for more than one of the simulations are shown in italics. you can go “down” to the Runs screen for the 3D handling model. steer. Map for the 3D Handling Model Figure 3. from the Startup screen.

Map for the 3D Suspension Model Figure 3. some of the tire data required for the 3D model are not required for the 2D simulations. — 27 — . Frames Wheels Figure 3. Partial map of the CarSimEd libraries. Notice that nearly all of the library names are in italics. The main difference is with the inputs: the steer. Frames Shapes Ref. braking.Chapter3 Database Organization Map for the 2D Ride Model Figure 3. and throttle inputs for the 3D model are replaced with a road profile input. Also. but shares the libraries for the animator and plotter. indicating that they are also used for 3D handling/braking simulations.6 shows a map of the libraries for the 3D suspension model.5.) CarSimEd Startup Runs 3D Runs 2D Runs Susp. This model does not use any of the vehicle data. Road Inputs Cars Groups Suspensions Plot Setup Tires Formats Filters Cameras Ref.5 shows a map of the libraries for the 2D ride model. (The extra data are ignored when the simulation runs.

The CMEX program receives some inputs from SIMULINK and provides output variables to the MATLAB/SIMULINK workspace. It has the same equations of motion. The outputs are identical to the variables that are written into the output ERD file for plotting and animation. In SIMULINK. the CMEX program exchanges information with SIMULINK. Suspension data Groups Formats Filters Spindle input Ref. The CarSimEd DLL will generate an error message if you try to use a variable-step integrator. and the same control inputs and disturbances. Figure 3. In addition to the normal inputs from the SGUI and the output files for the plotter and animator. Therefore. Note: There is just one mathematical difference in the way the SIMULINK program (a DLL file compiled from CMEX source code) runs relative to the stand-alone program (an EXE file compiled from C source code).7 shows the the flow of information. All of the files that are read and written by a standard CarSimEd solver program are also read and written by the SIMULINK version. and the ODE2 (Heun) is recommended because it runs the fastest for a given level of accuracy. Partial map of the CarSimEd libraries. How CarSimEd Communicates with SIMULINK The SIMULINK version of a CarSimEd solver program works almost the same as the stand-alone version. the same model parameters.Chapter3 Database Organization CarSimEd Startup Runs 3D Runs 2D Plot Setup Cameras Runs Susp. A fixed-step integrator is required. — 28 — . the CarSimEd post-processing plotter and animator work nearly the same as with the stand-alone version.6. the numerical integration is controlled by the MATLAB/SIMULINK routines. Frames Wheels Figure 3.

The communication between the CMEX S-function and SIMULINK follows the Sfunction convention and is made at each time step through predetermined inputs and outputs. etc.7. — 29 — .Chapter3 Database Organization Vehicle Properties and Inputs from SGUI Control Inputs from SIMULINK CarSim CMEX file (DLL) Output ERD file for plotting. The CarSimEd database includes four Runs libraries. Three are for stand-alone simulations (without SIMULINK) and one is for SIMULINK. The screens are nearly identical in appearance: the main differences are (1) the screens have different window titles and (2) the SIMULINK-compatible screen has two buttons for accessing SIMULINK. Portions of a README file are presented in Appendix J. CMEX inputs and outputs. X-Y plots.) Figure 3. whereas the stand-alone screens have just one button for running the EXE solver program. Outputs into MATLAB Workspace Outputs into SIMULINK Sinks (scopes. Communication between the CMEX program and the CarSimEd database is made in the same fashion as for the stand-alone EXE program (see Chapter 5). animation. etc. A README text file is included in each MATLAB folder to describe the specific input and output variables for the model associated with the folder.

) After the reference material in Chapters 5 through 9. Computer Simulation (Math Model) Input 1 4 Output 3 2 10 7 11 5 8 9 12 6 14 13 15 16 Figure 4. The Basics of Using CarSimEd This chapter explains the basics of how to use CarSimEd.1. — 30 — . The Runs screen. and includes step-by-step instructions. Each section covers a specific task. It assumes no prior knowledge other than what has been covered in the preceding chapters. covering just the essence of how to accomplish each task. The sections are fairly compact.1 shows the Runs screen — the screen most central to the operation of CarSimEd. Chapter 10 continues by explaining how to do more advanced tasks in CarSimEd. About the Runs Screen Figure 4. (The detailed reference information is covered in following chapters.4.

Chapter 4 The Basics of Using CarSimEd The settings in the left-hand portion of the screen give you access to the inputs for the mathematical vehicle models used to simulated tests. as shown in Figure 4. — 31 — . Getting to a Runs Screen Most operations begin with one of the four Runs screens in CarSim Ed. The screens are nearly identical (compare Figure 4. Unless otherwise specified. these references apply to all versions.3 on page 35. There are many references throughout this manual to a generic Runs screen. It is obtained when the Overlay Runs and Show More boxes are not checked.1 and Figure 4. CarSimEd includes four Runs screens: three for stand-alone solver programs. Start CarSimEd to get to the Startup screen. open the file Startup. a.1 shows one possible appearance of the Runs screen. and the settings and button in the center are used to run the simulated test. Use the Windows Start menu. Use the triangle button next to the data set title in the ribbon bar to go to the start point for the type of simulation with which you are interested (see the figure below).3). The circled numbers will be used in the following sections to describe common actions.) Notes: Figure 4. and one for working with SIMULINK. or b. When Starting 1. the settings and buttons in the righthand region give you access to views of the simulation outputs.tbk from within the CarSimEd folder (or a shortcut to that file) 2. (A different Runs screen is used for making runs with SIMULINK.

• 3D Car (Self Contained). Click the Start button in the lower-right corner of the screen. The GO button displays a pull-down menu when clicked. — 32 — . Start Screen Choose the type of runs: (Four or more options) Runs Screen: Simulation Setup Click Here to go to a Runs screen After Starting All CarSimEd screens include a standard ribbon bar with navigation buttons. OR • 3D Car in Simulink. OR • 5-Link Suspension.Chapter 4 The Basics of Using CarSimEd Choose either: 2D Car (Ride). OR 3.

click the or Animator screen. a. The recommended way to return to the Runs screen from the plotter or animator is to exit the program. find an existing data set that is close to what you want. c. 6 . Select a steering or path input from the linked library 5 — 33 — 8 . follow a circle). Select the desired Runs screen from the menu. Select the vehicle of interest from the linked vehicle library b. Existing runs are left intact and their output can still be viewed with the plotter and animator. However. . Click the GO button in the ribbon bar ( ) to display a pull-down menu. 1. 1. it might be covered by the windows of the other programs. Select a braking and/or throttle input from the linked library d. 3 in the ribbon bar. Inspect and edit the simulation inputs.. because the two are mutually exclusive. the Runs screen is still there. Using the navigation buttons 2 . From the Plotter or Animator The CarSimEd plotter and animator are independent programs. time) or a path input (e. The main thing to look for is whether there is a steering input (steer vs. Specify the speed using the yellow field 4 . especially if you are not using a large computer monitor. . Start from the Runs screen (see Figure 4. Click the New button 3. To exit the plotter or animator. box in the upper-right corner of the WinEP Making a New Run (Stand-Alone) Use this method to make a new run in CarSimEd using a stand-alone solver program (without SIMULINK). When you launch one of them by clicking a button on the Runs screen. 2.Chapter 4 The Basics of Using CarSimEd 1. 2.g.1 on page 30).

the normal settings cause the program to quit after updating all output files. When the simulation finishes the DOS window disappears and you are returned to the Runs screen. In rare circumstances. Replacing a Run (Stand-Alone) Use this method to replace an existing run. There are a few other occasions when the CarSimEd solver program will not run. the program will generate the output files even if it quits suddenly.2.1 on page 30). a bad input parameter will cause the program to quit before it can create any output files. in most cases. . — 34 — . Start from the Runs screen (see Figure 4.Chapter 4 The Basics of Using CarSimEd e. Click the Run Simulation button 7 9 . A bar graph at the bottom of the window indicates the progress. However. as described in the next section). Console display when solver program is running. Notes: If the vehicle comes to a complete stop. Figure 4. Among them are: 1. Specify the simulation stop time 4. A console application window (DOS-style) appears while the simulation runs. 2. The output file cannot be written if it is in use by the plotter or the animator (this can happen if you are replacing a run. or rolls over. or will quit prematurely.

Chapter 4

The Basics of Using CarSimEd

1.

Find the existing data set in the Runs library that you want to replace. Use the navigation
buttons 2 next to the Data Set (title) box 1 .

2.

Inspect and edit the simulation inputs (vehicle, steering or path input, braking or throtthle
input, speed, etc.)

3.

Click the Run Simulation button 7 .This makes a run, as described in the previous
section, except that in this case the previous run (selected in step 1) is over-written.

Making the First SIMULINK Run
Use this method to start up a SIMULINK model that uses a CarSimEd CMEX module. If
SIMULINK is already running, see the next section.
Start from the Runs SIMULINK screen (see Figure 4.3).

2

1

Figure 4.3. The CMEX Runs screen.

Notes: The figure shows one possible appearance of the Runs screen. It
is obtained when the Overlay Runs and Show More boxes are
not checked.

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Chapter 4

The Basics of Using CarSimEd

If you compare Figure 4.1 and Figure 4.3, you will see that the
only differences are in the numbered items 1 and 2 (in Figure
4.3).
1.

Prepare to make a run, as described earlier for the stand-alone version (page 30).

2.

Click the Start SIMULINK button

1

.

You should see the splash screen for MATLAB, and then a window with a SIMULINK
model, similar to the display shown in Figure 5.2 on page 57.
You are now through with the CarSimEd part of the process.
3.

Click in the SIMULINK window to make it active.

4.

Type Ctrl+T to start the run. Or, select the Start menu item from the Simulate menu.

5.

When the run is complete, you can view the results with SIMULINK and MATLAB tools
or with CarSimEd tools. (The CarSimEd tools are described in the rest of this chapter.)

Making Additional SIMULINK Runs
Use this method to make a run when SIMULINK and MATLAB are already running in
the background.
Start from the Runs SIMULINK screen (see Figure 4.3).
1.

Prepare to make a run, as described earlier (page 30).

2.

Click the Update Data button 2 . This copies the specifications for the run into a batch
control file that will be used by the S-function in the SIMULINK model.
You are now through with the CarSimEd part of the process.

3.

Click in the SIMULINK window to make it active.

4.

Type Ctrl+T to start the run. Or, go to the Simulate menu and select the Start item.

Viewing an Animation
Start from a Runs screen (see Figure 4.1 on page 30). (The simulation run must have
already been made in order to view an animation.)
1.

Choose a camera setup using the blue link

2.

Click the Animate button

3.

If there is no motion, go to the Animation menu and select the item Start from
Beginning (Ctrl+S) (in the Animator screen).

10

11

. (See Figure 4.4)

.

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Chapter 4
4.

The Basics of Using CarSimEd

After viewing the animation, exit the animator by clicking the
corner of the screen.

in the upper-right

10
11

Figure 4.4. Choosing a camera setup for the animator.

Viewing a Single Pre-Defined Plot
Start from the Runs screen (see Figure 4.1 on page 30). (The simulation run must have
already been made in order to view a plot.)
1.

To avoid making multiple plots, un-check the box Multiple Plots

2.

To avoid overlaying plots from different runs, un-check the box Overlay Runs

3.

Use the pull-down menu next to the blue field labeled Plot #1 Setup
plot of interest (e.g., spring forces on the left side of the vehicle).
13

14
15
16

— 37 —

14

.

16

15

.

and select the

Chapter 4

The Basics of Using CarSimEd

4.

Click the Plot button

5.

After viewing the plot, exit the plotter by clicking the
screen.

13

.
in the upper-right corner of the

Viewing Several Pre-Defined Plots
Start from a Runs screen (see Figure 4.1 on page 30). (The simulation run must have
already been made in order to view a plot.)
1.

Check the box Multiple Plots
as shown in Figure 4.5.

14

. This reveals three more links to plotter data sets

17

,

14
13
15

16
17
17
17
18
18

Figure 4.5. Additional plot and run links.
2.

Select up to four plot setups, using the links

3.

Click the Plot button
Note:

4.

13

16

and

17

.

.

Multiple plots can be viewed in WinEP in several modes. The
WinEP Windows menu can be used to locate any existing plot
window. All of the plots can be viewed simultaneously by using
the vertical or horizontal tiling options from the Windows menu.

After viewing the plots, exit the plotter by clicking the
the screen or by using the File menu or by typing Ctrl+Q.

in the upper-right corner of

Overlaying Plots for Multiple Runs
Start from a Runs screen (see Figure 4.1 on page 30). Multiple simulation runs must have
already been made in order to view plots involving them.

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Chapter 4

The Basics of Using CarSimEd

1.

Check the box Overlay Runs 15 . This reveals two links labeled Overlay Run #2 and
Overlay Run #3 18 (see Figure 4.5).

2.

Select another run of interest from the pull-down menu next to Overlay Run #2

3.

If you want to overlay three runs, link to another run of interest using the link labeled
Overlay Run #3 . On the other hand, if you only want to compare two runs, choose {No
data set selected} for Overlay Run #3.

4.

Select up to four pre-defined plots using links

5.

Click the Plot button

6.

After viewing the plots, exit the plotter by clicking the
in the upper-right corner of
the screen or by using the Exit option in the File menu or by typing Ctrl+Q.

13

16

and

17

18

.

.

.

Defining Plots Interactively
Start from a Runs screen (see Figure 4.1 on page 30). (The simulation run must have
already been made in order to view a plot.)
1.

Start the plotter program by clicking the Plot button. (See

2.

From within the plotter, go to the Data menu and select the item Define New Plot… (or
type the keyboard command Ctrl+N). This brings up a window which lists all of the
variables in the simulation output file.

13

in Figure 4.1.)

1
3

2

5

4

6

3.

Select X and Y variable names from the X and Y lists
Note:

5

and

6

.

You can select the names by clicking on them with the mouse.
You can also click in a list to make it active and then type the
first letter of a name. As with other lists in Windows, keep
hitting the keyboard letter to go down the list. For example, hit

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Chapter 4

The Basics of Using CarSimEd
“J” three times to select the third variable that begins with the
letter “J”.

4.

Add the selected variables to the list of data to plot
Note:

1

by using the Add button

3

.

You can also add a pair of variables by double-clicking on the
name in either the X 5 or Y 6 lists. You can also type Alt-A.

4.

Make the plot by clicking the Plot button

5.

To make another plot, repeat steps 2 through 4. To clear the list of the data to plot use the
Clear button 2 .

4

.

See Chapter 7 for more information on using the plotter interactively.

Viewing All Model Parameters and Inputs
Start from a Runs screen (see Figure 4.1 on page 30). (The simulation run must have
already been made in order to view a list of all parameters.)
1.

Click the button View Echo File (All Parameters)

2.

This loads a text file into the default text editor. The text file is created when a solver
program is run, and lists all model parameter values, definitions, and units.

12

.

Notes: CarSimEd is shipped with a free text editor called WinVI. If you
want to use a different text editor as your default, see the section
Assigning the Default Text Editor in Chapter 10.
3.

Return to the Runs screen in CarSimEd with the text editor still active by pressing
Alt+Tab. Or, exit the text editor to return to the Runs screen.

Printing a Data Set
You can print any screen in CarSimEd. Copies of the data screens are sometimes helpful
for showing model parameters as they appear when using the software. However, a more
efficient method is to view all of the parameters in a text editor, as described in the
previous section, and then print them from the text editor.
Start from a Runs screen (see Figure 4.1 on page 30). (The simulation run must have
already been made in order to view a list of all parameters.)
1.

Click the button View Echo File (All Parameters)

2.

Select Print from the File menu of the text editor.

— 40 —

12

.

4 on page 26. Give the new data set an appropriate title in the yellow “Data Set” field — 41 — 1 . To start. you are at the “bottom” when • the current screen has no blue links. but the data sets available from the menus associated with the links are suitable for your purposes. use the appropriate link to go down to it. To navigate through the Runs library. etc. For the purpose of making changes. Method Start from a Runs screen (see Figure 4. go down to the linked data set for a vehicle. The parameter values for a vehicle model are spread over several data sets. 5.). Typically. suspension. the concept of going “up” and “down” is based on the map shown in Figure 3. you will want to change a few and leave most of the rest the way they are. 2.4 on page 26.1 on page 30). The Basics of Using CarSimEd Exit the text editor. Click the New button (in the ribbon bar) to copy the current data set. Repeat step 2 as needed to go down to more detailed levels. use the buttons 2 next to the Data Set (title) box 1 . or • the current screen has blue links. Go down to the linked vehicle data set. Making a New Vehicle Data Set Use the following method to create a new vehicle data set that can be used for future runs. In other words. 3. . it is possible to go down through several levels of detail. If you are interested in making a new component or subsystem data set (tire. Using this process leaves existing vehicle descriptions intact. Find an existing data set that involves the type of vehicle you are interested in. 1.Chapter 4 3. 4. As indicated in the map shown in Figure 3. Note: In the following instructions. you do not have to modify or create any data sets that are further “down” in the database.

e. the change you will make is to select the new data set you created in the library one level “down. you created a new data set that is now available for use in CarSimEd. c. 8. Make a new one. 2. using the adjacent pull-down menu. Go down to the vehicle data set. Start from a Runs screen (see Figure 4. Note: When you clicked the New button. you would do the following: a. Return to the vehicle data set. Go back up one level. d. and change the suspension link to use the data set created in step c. Change any yellow fields or blue links as needed.) 9. It is in the same library as the original. f. using the Back button in the ribbon bar. you will select the new vehicle data set from the linked library of vehicles. Find an existing data set that involves the vehicle whose description you will modify. 7. and appears in pull-down menus that show the library contents. Either way. and change the vehicle link to use the data set created in step d.1 on page 30). Repeat steps 4 through 6. Click the Run Simulation button. Modify the data set: • Modify the values in the yellow fields as needed. Make a new suspension data set. In this case. At this point. Make a new one. Repeat steps 7 and 8 until you are back at the Runs screen. you can make a new run or modify the current run. Example Suppose you are going to change the spring in the front suspension of the car.Chapter 4 The Basics of Using CarSimEd 6. it will not be used in any simulations until you have linked to it from a higher-level data set. Return to the Runs data set.” (Use the blue link that connects to the library in which you just added a data set. • Change the data sets in any blue links. Modifying an Existing Vehicle Description Use the following method to modify an existing vehicle description. Go down to the front suspension data set. Go down to the linked vehicle data set. 1. b. — 42 — . and then change the spring rate. Starting from the Runs screen. However.

the input to the model is zero. then change the copy and link to it in those places where you want to use the new data. However. to return to the Runs screen for the ride model or suspension kinematics. For example. Attach the associated inputs to ground in SIMULINK (in this context. this is exactly what you intend. The control inputs for the model are the sums of the inputs from the CarSimEd database (the simulation graphical user interface—the SGUI) and those from the SIMULINK work space. all of the inputs in the database can be used. (For example. and tells how they are combined with inputs from the SGUI. 4. if you change a spring rate. If you are working with the 3D handling model. then all control comes from the SGUI. For example. To Specify Inputs from the CarSimEd Libraries (SGUI) 1. inputs can be provided from the SIMULINK environment. If the SGUI input is zero. Hopefully.Chapter 4 The Basics of Using CarSimEd 3. If not. And if the SIMULINK input is zero. 2. Appendix __ lists part of the README file. See the README file in the Matlab — 43 — . Warning: Almost every data set in the CarSimEd database is referenced by other data sets (via the blue links). choose an open-loop steering input that defines steering wheel angle as a function of time. then consider using the New button to create a copy of the data set. The SIMULINK inputs are all elements in an array and are typically referenced in SIMULINK by the array index. When you change values in a data set. When all changes have been made. “ground” is the electrical concept that sets a variable to zero). then all control comes from SIMULINK. return to the Runs screen by clicking the Runs button in the ribbon bar ( ) or using the Runs command in the Tools menu. you must use the GO button (or click the Back button repeatedly to retrace your steps back to the Startup screen). If both are zero. Switching Between CarSimEd and SIMULINK Inputs When you run the CarSimEd models from SIMULINK. Each folder for a SIMULINK model includes a copy of the README text file that defines the inputs for the 3D vehicle model. you have in effect also changed all data sets that reference it. return to the Runs screen. Repeat step 2 to go down more links and change other components as needed. Additionally. every vehicle data set that is linked to the affected suspension data set with will use the new spring rate in future simulation runs.) Given that each model input is the sum of two parts—one from the SGUI and one from SIMULINK—one or both of the components are typically set to zero. Specify inputs as described earlier for making runs with the stand-alone solver programs.

Select inputs as described earlier for making runs with the stand-alone solver programs.Chapter 4 The Basics of Using CarSimEd folder to identify the input variables. the first item in the menu is More. Select a library from this menu to leave the current library and go to the selected one. connect the steering wheel input contribution [INPT(1)] to ground. For example. In this case. The control inputs are all tabular functions of time. choose the “No Steering” data set for the steering wheel angle as a function of time. Highlight it to view more menu items. For example. Going Directly to Any CarSimEd Library You can jump directly from any CarSimEd library to any other library. — 44 — . Press the GO button in the ribbon bar to display a menu of other libraries in CarSimEd. (Or. Specify the associated inputs in SIMULINK using the SIMULINK and MATLAB modeling capabilities. See the README file in the Matlab folder to identify the input variables. 1. For example. specify a mathematical function for the steering wheel input contribution [INPT(1)].) To Specify Inputs from SIMULINK 1. CarSimEd menus The menu typically contains more items than will fit on a monitor with VGA resolution (640 x 480). 2. so just specify data sets where the input variable is zero for all values of time. just don’t specify it at all because the default value is zero.

is simple and rapid. However. You will also find that clicking on a yellow field brings up a message telling you that the data set is locked. depending on the simulation type. most of the vehicle data sets are not shown in the GO menu because they cannot be used with the suspension model. The locked box protects only the data shown on the screen. For example. However. you can unlock the data set by clicking the box again to un-check it. run conditions. you can return to the previous library using the Back button from the ribbon bar. Protecting a Single Data Set 1. Click here Notes: When the locked box is checked. when you start with the 3D suspension simulation. Locking Your Data CarSimEd is designed to make it easy to answer “What if?” questions. Data sets in linked libraries are not affected. CarSimEd shows you the most recently viewed data set. You will find that all pull-down menus next to blue links allow only the navigation option to go to the currently selected data set. etc. you might lock a Runs data set. inputs. try modifying a blue link or a yellow field.Chapter 4 The Basics of Using CarSimEd Notes: After using the GO menu. you might overwrite some data you meant to keep. This data set is not necessarily one that is used in the most recently made run. For example. Different menus are created for the GO button when you start the software. Check the Locked box in the upper-right corner of a data screen. and you will no doubt conclude that changing parameters is too easy! CarSimEd does have a means to protect your data from inadvertent changes. When you go to a library using the GO menu. To run with a GO menu that includes all data sets in CarSimEd. you could still go to the vehicle data linked to the run and change the vehicle data set if it is not locked. At any time. — 45 — . start with the data set Install (in the Startup library). Changing vehicle parts.

click the button in the ribbon bar or select the Tools menu Preferences command. 4. This brings up a dialog box with a few check boxes. From any CarSimEd data screen.6. 2. Automatically Locking All Data Sets As You Create Them 1. as shown in Figure 4.6. From any data screen in the library of interest. This brings up the floating palette shown in Figure 4. — 46 — .Chapter 4 The Basics of Using CarSimEd Locking Multiple Data Sets All At Once 1. except that you click the button Unlock Data Sets. Note: Multiple data sets can be unlocked using the same method. Library Editor. 3. Figure 4.7. click the button in the ribbon bar or select the Library Editor command from the Tools menu. Select the data sets to be locked from the list in the dialog box. Click the Lock Data Sets button. Click the upper-left corner of the floating palette window to close it.

4. Check the box Auto-lock every data set 3. This option does not change the status of any existing data sets. in the upper-right corner. Notes: When the Auto-Lock feature is enabled. Preferences window.Chapter 4 The Basics of Using CarSimEd 2 1 Figure 4.tbk). Go to the data set named Install (this is a data set included in the software as installed). 2. Automatically Locking All Data Sets in CarSimEd You can extend the above method to cause CarSimEd to lock all data sets. Follow steps 1 through 3 above. Close the dialog box by clicking the 1 2 . 3. Use the GO button in the ribbon bar to go to the CarSimEd startup screen (Startup. They will be locked after you visit them. every data set that you view will be locked automatically when you leave it. 1. Click the button Change Settings 2 . 2. This will hide the CarSimEd logo and reveal more buttons.7. This feature can be disabled at any time by returning to the preferences screen and un-checking this box. 1 2 3 — 47 — . including the ones shown here.

Chapter 4 The Basics of Using CarSimEd 4. It has controls for selecting data sets by their titles. Go to a data set in the library that is linked to the current Runs library. the library contains a single data set linked to the CarSimEd Runs library. Making Five or More Plots for a Single Run The Runs screen has links to set up four plots. Besides updating all PAR files. 5. To Delete the Current Data Set 1. Notes: You can by-pass the warning message by holding the Control key down when you click the Delete button.) — 48 — . shown in Figure 4. The Delete button cannot be used if the Locked button is checked. The data set must be unlocked before you can delete it. If you want to quickly generate five or more plots. 1 . This brings up the floating palette shown in Figure 4. and a button for deleting the selected data sets all at once. (As installed. CarSimEd will display a warning. 2. To Delete All Data Sets Except the Current One 1. CarSimEd will display a warning. 1. Click the button 16 in the ribbon bar or use the Batch Plotting command from the Tools menu. Click the Delete button in the ribbon bar. or only the unlocked data sets.6. To Delete an Arbitrary Group of Data Sets 1. Click the button Update All PAR Files buttons on every screen will be checked. This takes you to the Plot Setup: Batch library. delete all (including locked sets). Click the button in the ribbon bar or select the Tools menu item Library Editor. After the update is complete. return to the Runs screen by clicking the Start button or by using the GO button. you can use the Plot Setup: Batch screen. asking you to confirm that you want to delete the data.8. the Locked 3 Deleting Data Sets CarSimEd has several methods for deleting data sets. asking you whether you want to cancel. Click the Delete button in the ribbon bar while holding down the Shift key. Start from any CarSimEd data screen.

7. Click the New button runs. Two additional steps are: • In step 4. put the names of all Plot Setups of interest into the field named Selected Plots 11 .8. put more than one run into the field: Selected Data Files — 49 — 6 . The method is nearly identical to the one just described for making five or more plots for a single run.8. 5. exit the plotter. If you want to overlay data from more runs. Overlaying Plots for Multiple Runs The Runs screen has links to overlay data from three runs. shown in Figure 4. Using the Add 3 and Remove 4 buttons for the Data Files. 6. Setup for batch plotting. This starts the program WinEP and instructs it to make one plot for each item listed in the field Selected Plots 11 . After viewing the plots. 15 to create a new data set for your new combination of plots and 15 16 1 7 2 8 4 3 5 9 6 10 11 12 13 14 Figure 4. Click the Make Plots button 14 .Chapter 4 The Basics of Using CarSimEd 3. put the name of the run of interest into the field with Selected Data Files 6 . 4. you can use the Plot Setup: Batch screen. Using the Add 9 and Remove 10 buttons for the Plots. .

1. whose screen is shown in Figure 4. — 50 — . that is of interest. Making Many Plots in Batch Mode You can generate a standard set of plots for many runs. put more than one run into the field with Selected Data Files • Be sure the One Plot per Data File button 12 6 . 5. Again. Using the Add 3 and Remove 4 buttons. speed 100 Note: See Appendix F for a complete list of keywords recognized by the solver programs in CarSimEd. Note: The batch option is designed for stand-alone (EXE) solver programs. you will use the Plot Setup: Batch screen. Do not click the Run Simulation button. shown in Figure 4. Setting Up Multiple Runs It is possible to set up more than one run ahead of time. It is also possible to re-do a set of runs whose inputs have been modified. To do this. Set up the runs of interest by creating a distinct Runs data set for each combination of vehicle. stop time.Chapter 4 The Basics of Using CarSimEd • Be sure the One Plot for All Data Files button 13 is selected. enter the line: 10 to create a new data set for your combination of runs. speed. Batch operation for SIMULINK cannot be controlled from the CarSimEd database. The method is nearly identical to the one just described for making five or more plots. etc. start from the Runs library.8. 2. 3. Optionally enter parameters (with keywords) in the yellow fields 6 to override the parameters that are specified in the selected Data Sets to Run. input. is selected. put the name of the runs of interest into the field named Data Sets to Run 5 . Two additional steps are: • In step 4.9. Click the New button 4. For example to make all runs with a simulation speed of 100 km/h. Go to the Runs: Batch library. Get there by clicking the button 9 in the ribbon bar or use the Tools menu item Batch Runs.

Chapter 4 The Basics of Using CarSimEd 6. link to the braking input library and select the data set No Braking. Click the Make Runs button 8 to make the batch of runs. to make all the runs with no braking input. 2. 10 9 1 6 2 7 6 3 7 4 5 6 7 8 Figure 4. That way. then the individual run data sets are modified such that the link with the label Overriding Data (from Batch) is set to the batch data set. regardless of whether they came from the normal Runs data set or from the batch override. For example. 7. Notes: You can view the results from the individual runs data sets. Optionally use Links 1. — 51 — .9. The echo files generated for each run show the model parameters that were used in the run. and 3 7 to link to data sets that will override those specified in the selected runs. or use the batch plot library. you can go back to this data set (batch run) to see what parameters or links were applied when the run was made. Batch run screen. If you specified any parameters or links in steps 5 and 6.

2 1 4 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Figure 4. When you select a run. Click the New button 4. Start with any data screen in CarSimEd. Go to the Plot Setup: Single library. so long as the ERD file contains the variables that you want — 52 — . It’s easy to make more. Select a run from the library linked to the field named View Variable Names from File 10 . The run must have been made in order for the ERD file to exist. the output ERD file associated with the run is scanned and all of the variables are listed in fields 8 and 9 . 5.10. 3 2 in the ribbon bar to find a plot setup similar to what you to make a new data set. The Plot Setup screen. 3. Get there by clicking the button 5 in the ribbon bar or select the Tools menu item Plot Setup. 1. Use the navigation buttons want.Chapter 4 The Basics of Using CarSimEd Making New Plot Descriptions CarSimEd comes with about 30 plot descriptions. 2. Type a name for the new data set in the title field 1 .10. whose screen is shown in Figure 4. Notes: It doesn’t matter which run you use to build the file description. This name will later appear when you view the list of plots with the plot setup menus on the Runs screen.

if it is dimmed. the CarSimEd database has a provision for changing the linked libraries as needed. 1. repeat steps 2 through 8.) 7. Make sure the Advanced Mode (allow changing links) box is checked and then close the preferences window. — 53 — . select it. 2. all blue links are preset to the appropriate libraries. When you are through making new plot descriptions. However. only the short names are shown in fields 8 and 9 . 6. when you want to make a new data set. In general.) If the ERD file has more than about 150 variables. a. 11. To make another plot setup. 10. However. select the button next to the link of interest to display the pull-down menu. Clear the field called Data to Plot delete key. you should find an existing data set that has links in place to the intended libraries. The only reason an existing run is used to build the description is because it is more convenient to click on names in a list rather than typing in the names. Go to the preferences window by clicking the button in the ribbon bar or selecting the Preferences command from the Tools menu. (Select the contents of the field and then press the 6 . more information is shown. If the second item Pick Library is active. you must first change a global setting in CarSimEd. Browse your file system to locate the intended TBK file and select it. b. Add them to the list of data to plot 6 using the button 7 or by double-clicking in either field 8 or 9 . 6 . if you prefer to type. If it has fewer variables. (However. 8.Chapter 4 The Basics of Using CarSimEd plotted. a Windows File Select dialog box appears. you can type the names directly into the yellow field 6 . On any screen. Try step 1 again. c. Linking to Different Libraries As installed. Continue to build the list of data to plot 9. You can now plot the new plot using the same method as for the standard plots. leave the library by clicking the Back button 4 or using the GO button. Select X and Y channels of interest from fields 8 and 9 . When you select the menu item Pick Library.

You do this with the same pull-down menu. Alternatively. which will now display the names of the data sets in the newly linked library. Although you have linked to the library.Chapter 4 The Basics of Using CarSimEd Note: 3. Simply pull down the menu and pick a data set to link to. the blue field will read {No data set selected}. which will include the pathname to the TBK file. you still have to link to a data set within that library. — 54 — . After linking to a library. you can refer to the description in Chapter 9. If you are not sure where the library of interest is located. you can display the GO menu (see page 44) and view the relative path name of the TBK file of interest from the menu.

predicting motions. A solver program is run automatically whenever you click the Run Simulation button from the Runs screen. forces. and other output variables. a file created — 55 — . CarSimEd allows you to set up inputs to the programs and view their outputs without ever dealing with the details of how these programs work. When the program starts. They have the same appearance as a plain DOS text program. with no user interface other than the display of text and the acceptance of keyboard entries.1. The name of the program file is typically shown as the window title. The Solver Programs CarSimEd contains programs that solve the equations of motion for vehicle models. Screen display when solver program is running. The solver programs can be run interactively or in batch mode.1). Overview of Program Operation (Stand-Alone) The solver programs are so-called “console applications. it creates a window in which text is displayed. The mode is determined by the existence of a batch control file with the name Simfile. Figure 5. although they are technically 32-bit Windows programs (see Figure 5. it can sometimes be useful to understand how they read and write files.5.” Each behaves as a terminal console. However.

Otherwise. the program runs in batch mode. runs for the time needed to perform the simulation calculations. The SIMULINK model resembles the flow chart shown in Figure 3. Properties of the window created by the solver program can be adjusted by right-clicking while the cursor is positioned over the solver program (extension EXE. then quits and closes the window. an output ERD file name. then all file names are read from it.2 routes a few of the outputs to scopes to generate the time history plots shown. For example. except that the SGUI input and ERD file outputs are not visible (they are part of the CMEX code and cannot be modified in SIMULINK). the text that is shown in the program window for a standalone EXE CarSimEd program instead appears in the MATLAB window. and selecting Properties from the menu. it runs interactively.2 shows a simple model involving a CarSimEd S-function called is_cmx. the solver programs close their windows when they finish. the most recent program is ToolBook. the normal behavior is that the Solver program brings up a window. leaving you back at the Runs screen. It prompts you for an input file.Chapter5 The Solver Programs automatically by CarSimEd: if this file exists. — 56 — . If Simfile does exist. The program quits when Simfile is fully processed and the solver program writes the last output file. Therefore. which was showing the Runs screen from which the run was initiated. found in the folder CarSimEd\Programs) to display a pop-up menu. When a simulation run is made. CarSimEd creates Simfile and then launches the solver program that matches the type of vehicle selected on the Runs screen. visible in the background in Figure 5. As installed. the most recently accessed program comes to the top. and then initiating the run from within SIMULINK. How a Simulation Run Is Made in SIMULINK Simulation runs can be made by opening a SIMULINK model that includes the CMEX Sfunction. After the last file is written. Figure 5. Note: All normal runs in CarSimEd are performed in batch mode. the program quits.7 on page 29. When run normally from within CarSimEd. When the window is closed. and two output echo file names.2. The example model in Figure 5. If Simfile does not exist in the folder in which the program is located then the program runs in interactive mode.

. indmdl. As a user.Chapter5 The Solver Programs Ed Figure 5.m SIMULINK (e. you click the button Start SIMULINK on the Runs_cmx screen to launch SIMULINK.2.g.3. CarSimEd Runs_cmx Screen Matlab. A SIMULINK model with a CarSimEd CMEX S-function. Starting SIMULINK from within CarSimEd When the first run is made in a CarSimEd session.mdl) Figure 5.3 and described below. CarSimEd initiates the sequence shown in Figure 5. — 57 — .pif Startup. it is necessary to launch MATLAB/SIMULINK and then make the run. Transfer from CarSimEd to SIMULINK.

When you click the Start SIMULINK button.) there must be an independent PIF in its own folder.m is opened. CarSimEd creates a SIMFILE in the same folder that contains the PIF.m might have the single line: indmdl 5.g.dll which has the compiled CMEX model in the form of an S-function. the user. set up a new run by clicking the button Update on the Runs screen to create a new SIMFILE (step 1 above). the start time. When this process is completed (in a few seconds). e. the PIF pathname might be C:\CarSimEd. The directories used by CarSimEd must be properly communicated to MATLAB. the file C:\CarSimEd. MATLAB is running with a SIMULINK model in the foreground. it is up to you. to assure that inputs are properly updated before a run is made.. Because the input files from the CarSimEd SGUI are controlled from the CarSimEd Runs screen. The PIF is linked to your copy of MATLAB (see Figure 2. The file name mentioned in Startup. Making Additional Runs in SIMULINK After the first run is made. — 58 — . The SIMULINK model file in turn loads the DLL file is_cmex.m. it automatically loads the file and runs it. Discussion of SIMULINK/CarSimEd Integration There are two tricky parts about making a run with CarSimEd and SIMULINK together: 1. 2. 2. the stop time is read from the CarSimEd SGUI. and the simulation is controlled from the SIMULINK screen.Chapter5 The Solver Programs 1. it tries to run the command Startup. CarSimEd then sends a run command to the PIF. The integration method. For example. The CarSimEd S-function will read data from the CarSimEd database. C:\CarSimEd. For example.mdl. If you change any vehicle properties in the CarSimEd SGUI. indmdl will cause MATLAB to open the SIMULINK model file indmdl. it looks for a file in the working directory called Startup. and the time step are all obtained from SIMULINK.45\Matlab\is_cmex. etc. CarSimEd has a file with a single line that is the name of a SIMULINK model.2 on page 19). For example. using information contained in the SIMFILE.45\Matlab\is_cmex\Matlab. It launches MATLAB with the current working directory set to the folder containing the PIF. 4. Then make the new run by selecting the Start command from the Simulation menu in SIMULINK.45\Matlab \is_cmex\Startup. Start the run using the SIMULINK Start command from the Simulation menu.pif. When MATLAB starts. you might want to make more runs using different vehicle parameters. For each SIMULINK model (ABS controllers. To do so. If found. However. 3.

this is the folder Programs). (Controls from SIMULINK are added to the inputs from the SGUI.) All files associated with CarSimEd are located in that directory. Short summaries are provided below. Therefore. Because Simfile is automatically re-generated before each run. With respect to the second item. by clicking the Run Simulation button from a Runs screen).) To choose the source. Whenever you click the Run button. the user. it is overwritten. Simfile Simfile is the batch control file. all files associated with a run have the same base name and differ only in their extensions. The CarSimEd graphical user interface is used to define parameters and properties of the simulated vehicle.. select zero-valued inputs from the Runs_cmx screen. the main point is that you. a new Simfile is created in the same folder as the solver program (by convention. control inputs are also provided from SIMULINK. where the potential for conflict with other MATLAB files is minimal. If a file named Simfile already exists. — 59 — . it will repeat the last run made (if it is still in the Programs folder). if you run a solver program independently of CarSimEd. you must remember to click the button Update on the Runs_cmx screen to create a new SIMFILE before making a new run in SIMULINK.1 shows the files and their extensions. must be aware of the role played by CarSimEd and SIMULINK when they are combined. Details of the file types are provided in Appendix F. the PIF is used to set up a working directory without adding more paths to the MATLAB workspace. Control inputs can also be specified in the SGUI. File Types When run from the graphic interface in CarSimEd (i.e. it can be deleted at any time without loss of information.Chapter5 The Solver Programs With respect to the first item (directories). To run a program in the interactive mode. (Adding pathnames can cause conflicts and uncertainty about which version of a file is loaded. The base name is the current ID number displayed in the upper-right corner of the Runs screen. The Programs folder contains the Simfile used for the most recent run. However. you should “zero out” the contribution from the unwanted source. along with some examples. To eliminate the input from the CarSimEd SGUI. Table 5. you must delete or rename Simfile or launch the solver program from outside the Programs folder. Any time you change a vehicle property.

PAR Files The PAR file lists input parameters for the solver program. When the solver program runs. needed by plotter and animator programs. along with links to other PAR files. Program List of parameters.. Also contains initial conditions.1.BIN Runs <id>. stopt) The PAR file also includes references to other PAR files. written as output by program. SGUI Input file with parameter values and links taken from the Runs screen.Chapter5 The Solver Programs Table 5. Standard files created when a simulation is run.g. The files can be thought of as forming a tree. When you click the Run Simulation button. Can be used to continue a run. Can be used to repeat a run. Program Log of all input files. Program Numerical values of output variables.g.. Viewing the Tree of PAR Files The actual “tree” associated with any screen in CarSimEd can be viewed by clicking the Parstree icon in the ribbon bar . Name Simfile <id>.4 on page 26. Note that many of the input lines start with the word parsfile. and used in association with ERD files. the SGUI creates a new PAR file in the folder containing the Runs library (e. written as output by program. Every data screen in CarSimEd has an associated PAR file. The PAR file contains information from the Runs screen such as the title of the run.PAR Location Programs Runs <id>. Runs).LPO Runs <id>.LOG Runs Creator Description SGUI Batch control file. etc.ERD Runs <id>. including nested PAR files. such as the one shown in Figure 3. and input parameters (e. Clicking the button launches a program called Parstree that displays the PAR file associated with the current data screen. and are followed by pathnames to other files with more data. steer input. pathnames for the data sets linked to the run (vehicle. Program List of parameters and final conditions. stored in binary form. Program Header for ERD file.LPF Runs <id>. it reads the PAR file generated from the Runs screen. — 60 — .4 shows an example display window from the Parstree program. including the Runs screen.). and all other PAR files referenced within it. Figure 5.

the LPO file contains the initial conditions for the state variables in the simulation. By modifying the start and stop times. For example. whereas the PAR file contains pathnames of other files that contain the data (see Figure 5. One of these files is created before the run (LPO).4). LPO and LPF Echo Files When a solver program runs.Chapter5 The Solver Programs Figure 5. it creates summary files that list each and every parameter value. The BIN files contain numerical data organized by channel number and sample number. Those time histories are stored in a binary data file with the extension BIN. and the other is created at the end of the run (LPF). In addition. The LPF file is nearly identical to the LPO file. Also. — 61 — . it contains final values of the state variables. the initial conditions listed in the LPO file are normally not specified on input (they are assigned default values by the solver program). except that instead of initial values. An example Parstree for a Runs data set. an existing run can be continued (restarted). The difference between the PAR and LPO files is that the LPO file contains every parameter value in one file (see Appendix F for an example).4. ERD and BIN Files The main purpose of each solver program is to calculate time histories of variables of interest. the PAR file may not reference every parameter used by the solver program. The information in the LPO file is sufficient to exactly repeat a run. Both files contain all parameter values for a simulation.

the header information in the ERD file is followed immediately by the numbers. describes the layout of the BIN file and also contains labeling information for each variable. By itself. it writes the names into a LOG file. For example. this might be considered be misleading—the file has plain text and does not follow the ERD format. The format of an ERD file is described in Appendix C. ERD and BIN file pairs are simply called ERD files. Data processing programs for ERD files obtain most of the information needed from the file itself. the high level of automation in the animator and plotter exists because both were designed to work with ERD files. A companion file. Most users will never have occasion to look at the LOG files. with extension ERD. including text needed for preparing graphical plots of the data. You can also use CarSimEd to produce simple text output files. By convention. See the section Computation Parameters in Chapter 9 for details of how to generate text output files. written in text and there is no BIN file. As the solver processes the parameter files. a BIN file is useless. It has no structure. for export to spreadsheet programs and other analysis software. When you make a text output file. In this case. much like an INCLUDE directive in C or Fortran. Text Output Files CarSimEd can be made to produce text-only ERD files. It also contains the information that would normally be put into a log sheet summarizing the data. such as when changes are made to the directory structure of the CarSimEd libraries. and cannot be understood without the layout information contained in the ERD header file. — 62 — . Appendix J contains a list of all of the variables in the ERD and BIN files for one of the CarSimEd models. CarSimEd always uses the DOS file extension ERD for simulation output files. They exist because they can help to debug problems involving parameters not getting through. The name ERD is used because the Engineering Research Division at The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) designed the format. Log Files The input parameter files (extensions = PAR) can reference other PAR files.Chapter5 The Solver Programs similar to test data recorded on a multi-track recorder.

you can zoom out to shrink its apparent size. the look point. You might have the camera aimed at a fixed point in space. you see the vehicle move relative to its surroundings. The Animator CarSimEd includes a program for animating wire-frame figures to visualize vehicle motions.exe in the Animate folder in CarSimEd. and the 2D image that is recorded. the 3D system being animated. What you see depends in part on where you are located. In the animator. If the camera has a zoom lens. The animation is accomplished by drawing images similar to what would be seen with a video camera. Updates The animator program is used in a number of MSC software packages. More likely. The vehicle would only be visible while it is in field of the camera view. The latest version is generally available from the Internet at: http://www. Or. Or.” Figure 6. You could be standing on the ground. the camera is aimed directly at a “look point. and updating the images many times per second to show motion.html Updates of the animator program are “backward compatible. you can zoom in to fill the screen with the vehicle. your location is defined as the “camera point. you might be in another vehicle that moves with the vehicle. By playing back those images at the same rate (thirty times per second).” Your view is also determined by how you aim the camera. Thirty times per second. in which case your position would not change.” If you download a newer version.6. simply replace the file Animator. In the animator.1 shows the basic geometry and the relationships between the camera point. the camera records an image of the vehicle and ground as seen from your point of view.trucksim. — 63 — . imagine that you are aiming a video camera at a vehicle as it moves down the road.com/animator/index. you would move and aim the camera as needed to keep the vehicle in view. Overview of Operation To help understand the animator.

A group of points and objects that maintains a fixed relationship (i. In general. For example. by observing an animation. to build and modify descriptions of the system to be animated.e. Some of the wireframe objects are organized into groups that move together. left-front door.Chapter 6 The Animator Origin of global reference frame Look point Origin of moving reference frame 2D projected image Camera point Foc al le ngth Figure 6. In order to use the program effectively. the body of the vehicle is made up of the bumper.. However. For example. Although the reference frame might move and rotate. the user. the system shown in Figure 6. Figure 6.1 includes six reference frames: — 64 — . The animator allows you.1 shows the origins and axes for two reference frames: a global non-moving frame. and a frame that moves with a vehicle body. rear bumper. etc. the spatial relationships between objects in the reference frame do not change relative to each other. For example. it is not possible to tell how many reference frames exist by looking at a single image. Geometry of the camera point and the look point. In the animator. Each reference frame has a rectangular coordinate system that is used to describe 3D locations of points within that reference frame. it is helpful to understand the concept of a moving reference frame.1. it is sometimes possible to see the effects of all reference frames. all motions are associated with reference frames. that constitute a rigid body) is called a reference frame. Reference Frames The animator creates images based on a set of visible objects that includes a grid and arbitrary wire-frame shapes defined by a sequence of connected lines.

Given that the coordinate system is fixed in a moving reference frame. Those six variables are read from an ERD file that was created by a CarSimEd solver program. is described with keyword-based text files. as defined by up to six variables. • A moving frame is associated with the vehicle body. it follows that the coordinate system moves. That section also provides more information about Euler angles. • Each of the four wheels is associated with a separate reference frame. — 65 — . etc. shape information. The animator program reads two kinds of input files (see Figure 6. To perform the transformation. It is also possible for you. Appendix C provides details of the ERD file format. As noted above. Files When the animator is started from a CarSimEd Runs screen. The six variables needed to locate and orient the reference frame for the vehicle bodies and wheels are all computed as part of the simulation. all motion is due to movements of reference frames. The three axes of a coordinate system fixed in this reference frame are shown in the figure. an understanding of how the animator reads the necessary information from files might be helpful in understanding its operation. the user. Therefore. These files. Details for specifying reference frames are provided in Chapter 9 in the section Animator Reference Frames. the animator must know the location and orientation of the reference frame relative to the global reference frame. Wire-frame shapes are all defined using local X-Y-Z coordinates. However.Chapter 6 The Animator • A fixed global reference frame is used to locate a grid that shows the ground plane. The body is simply a series of lines drawn in this reference frame.2). The three axes of a coordinate system fixed in this reference frame are shown in the figure. vehicle information. This is defined by six variables: three coordinates (global X-Y-Z) and three rotation angles that are called Euler angles. etc. called PARSFILEs. to define new reference frames using combinations of the variables computed in the simulations. Other information such as program settings. typically with the extension PAR. reference frames. it is not necessary to know the names of the input files. A single top-level PARSFILE contains the names of other PARSFILEs with camera information. and Appendix J shows a list of variables contained in a typical CarSimEd ERD file. have the same general design as the input files read by the solver programs. The animator transforms the local X-Y-Z values to global X-Y-Z values in order to draw the shape. definitions of parts. the necessary files are automatically opened.

variables. CarSimEd uses meters for animation length units. Units The animator requires all angles to be in degrees. — 66 — . This means that a mixture of units can be accommodated.Chapter 6 The Animator PAR files ERD file Animator set up and shape information from data base Motion information from a simulation program Animator Figure 6. For example. if some coordinates have units of meters and others millimeters. the values in millimeters can be associated with a scale factor of 0. and groups of shapes in a reference frame. Appendix E describes the keywords used in the animator PARSFILEs.001 to convert them to meters. and all coordinates to be in the same units of length.2. See the sections Animator Reference Frames and Animator Shapes in Chapter 9 for details on how to set scale factors. The animator allows user-defined scale factors for all coordinates. Animator input files. The keywords are also mentioned in the documentation for the animator library screens contained in Chapter 9.

print from the other application. — 67 — . the animator will show the same motions as before. Open Parsfile… Select this command to open a PARSFILE (extension = PAR) with the Windows file browse dialog box. copy it to the clipboard using the Edit menu item Image Copy (Ctrl+C) 2. To print a graphic. If you read a new ERD file. This menu command creates a single PARSFILE with all of the information consolidated. Reload Current Files Use this command to restore the original settings by reloading the current ERD file and PARSFILEs.. shape descriptions. as described later in this chapter in the section Testing Animator Data Sets on page 77. The animator data from the CarSimEd SGUI are spread over the animator libraries described in Chapter 9. The keyboard command is Ctrl+O. as defined in the new PARSFILE. Besides restoring settings. paste it into another application (e. WordPad). and exit the program. Printing is not functional in the current version. this menu command can speed up the process of creating new shapes or other animator inputs. The keyboard command is Ctrl+E. etc. the animator will show motions from that simulation without changing the camera point of view.. Save Parsfile As. shape descriptions. and 3. etc. Multiple shapes and reference frames are commonly used. write files. If you read a new PARSFILE. Recall that the six variables needed to define each reference frame are obtained from the ERD file produced by a solver program. Open Simulation (ERD) File… Select this command to open an ERD file with the Open dialog box..g. using the new camera point of view.Chapter 6 The Animator File Menu The file menu is used to read files. 1. The keyboard command is Ctrl+R. Select this command to save most of the animator settings. which means that the animator program might read 20 or more PARSFILEs when it runs.

Exit Exits the animator program. Click to bring up the Windows file browse dialog box to search your directory system for a suitable folder. You can type a new pathname in this field or use the browse button 2 . 9 Check box for look-point definitions. 2 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 Pathname for the file to be created.Chapter 6 The Animator This PARSFILE can be used later as an input to the animator. — 68 — . 6 Check box for grid definitions. If checked when you click the Save button. When you select this command. If you select a folder using the browser. the resulting pathname is automatically entered into the file field 1 . in the same folder as the animator program. If checked when you click the Save button. the coordinates of the path will be included in the saved parsfile. to exactly recreate the current settings. 7 Check box for Path Definitions. The file can also be viewed in a text editor to debug inputs that cause problems. To use the keyboard. the current grid information will be included in the file. all vehicle shape and frame data will be included in the file. Click to create the Parsfile. The default is echo. the current camera reference frame and point coordinates will be included in the file. X or Ctrl+Q. or to obtain camera and look-point coordinates that were set interactively using the Coordinates menu. type the Windows-standard sequence: Alt+F. 4 Cancel button. This refers to the path input when a closed-loop driver model is used to steer the vehicle in a simulation. 2 Browse button. If checked when you click the Save button. Click to exit this dialog box without creating a file. 5 Check box for shape and frame definitions. it displays the following dialog box. the current look-point reference frame and coordinates will be included in the file. 3 Save button.par. If checked when you click the Save button. 8 Check box for Camera definitions. If checked when you click the Save button. The numbered items in the dialog box are described below.

Preferences.. When checked. If the frame rate is larger than the rate defined by the time step in the ERD file generated during a simulation run. 3 Default frame rate.. 4 Radio button for real time animation. 2 Check box to run after loading files. The frame rate can also be modified interactively (see Figure 6. the animation must be started by typing Ctrl+S or using the Animation menu. The preferences are stored in a file Prefs. When this button is selected.par. the animator will print messages to help diagnose errors in the input files. Image Copy Select this command to copy the screen display to the clipboard as a bitmap. select this button to slow it down to real-time. — 69 — . When checked. the animator starts running as soon as the files have been read. the animator will ignore this frame rate. If the box is not checked. The keyboard command is Ctrl+C. 1 Check box to display warnings. the animator accesses the computer clock and waits. 9 1 2 10 3 4 5 6 7 8 The numbered items in the dialog box are described below.3 on page 73). described in Appendix E. If the animation needs to be slowed down to real time. Select this command to set options for the animator that are saved when you quit the program. This value will be used when the animator is started. to avoid running the animation faster than real time. if necessary.Chapter 6 The Animator Edit Menu The Edit menu supports the clipboard and sets preferences.

Animation Menu The animation menu serves mainly to remind you of keyboard commands that control animation. — 70 — . Click this to close the dialog box without changing anything (keep the previous preferences). 6 End of run pause. The log the inputs (use the adjacent button file is sometimes helpful for debugging. 9 OK button. Click to close the dialog box and apply the new preferences. you can still use the Coordinates menu to move the camera around. Continue From Current Position Select this command to continue the animation if it has been stopped. the animator does not access the computer clock. The keyboard command is the space key. This is like being able to freeze time. and change the look-point.5 sec or more gives a visual indication that the run has ended. you will usually find it quicker to use the indicated keyboard commands. 8 Browse button. The keyboard command is Ctrl+D. 7 Log file. Although the menu items are functional. Click to bring up the Windows file dialog box to locate a destination folder for the log file 7 . Select this button if the animation is running slower than real time. While stopped. The keyboard command is Ctrl+S. Start From Beginning Select this command to restart the animation from the beginning of the simulation run. Enter a name for an optional file written by the animator as it processes 8 to select a destination folder). 10 Cancel button. allowing maximum display speed.Chapter 6 The Animator 5 Radio button for maximum speed animation. but it is not needed for normal operation. The animator delays this amount of time at the end of a run before looping to start over. When this button is selected. A pause of 0. Stop Select this command to stop (pause) the animation. zoom in and out.

For example. and the look point defines the direction in which the camera is looking. The keyboard command is the ‘x’ key. as if you are viewing the vehicle from a helicopter that rises. and is written in the animator status bar (at the bottom of the animator window). increasing the Z coordinate of the look point has the effect looking up. everything in view shifts down. like a frame advance on a VCR. The first six items are used to change the position of either the camera point or the look point.Chapter 6 The Animator Step Forward Select this command to step forward one increment in time. On the other hand. X-Coordinate Plus Select this command to increase the X coordinate of the camera or look point. The currently affected point is checked in the menu. depending on which is checked further down in the menu. The camera and look points are shown in Figure 6. The keyboard command is the ‘s’ key. Increasing the Z coordinate of the camera has the effect of raising the camera. Although the menu items are functional. The camera point defines where the camera is located. you will usually find it quicker to use the indicated keyboard commands. When you look up. Step Backward Select this command to step backward one increment in time. Coordinates Menu This menu serves mainly to remind you of keyboard commands that control the camera viewpoint. The keyboard command is Shift+S. — 71 — . consider changing the Z coordinate (height) of either point.1 on page 64.

— 72 — . The keyboard command is Shift+Z. Note: The keyboard commands are assigned so plain key commands increase things. Increase Focal Length Select this command to increase the camera focal length. and using the shift key decreases things. Look-Point Coordinates Select this command to cause the look-point position to be controlled by the first six menu items. The keyboard command is the ‘z’ key. For example. The keyboard command is the Shift+L key. Z-Coordinate Plus Select this command to increase the Z coordinate of the camera or look point. The keyboard command is the Shift+C key. The keyboard command is Shift+F. The keyboard command is Shift+X. Shift+X decreases it. The keyboard command is Shift+Y. The keyboard command is the ‘f’ key. Y-Coordinate Plus Select this command to increase the Y coordinate of the camera or look point. Z-Coordinate Minus Select this command to decrease the Z coordinate of the camera or look point. Shift+S steps backward. Camera Coordinates Select this command to cause the camera position to be controlled by the first six menu items. The keyboard command is the ‘y’ key. 's' steps forward. Decrease Focal Length Select this command to decrease the camera focal length. Y-Coordinate Minus Select this command to decrease the Y coordinate of the camera or look point. This is the same as zooming in. This is the same as zooming out.Chapter 6 The Animator X-Coordinate Minus Select this command to decrease the X coordinate of the camera or look point. 'x' increases an X coordinate.

Setting the frame rate. Select this command to display a dialog box for setting properties of the grid. Select this command to toggle the grid display. Set Frame Rate Select this command to display the following dialog box and control the rate at which the animator plays back a simulation run... Modify Grid. The keyboard command is Ctrl+F. Grid On The grid can be set to be displayed (on) or not displayed (off). 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 6 Figure 6. 1 Maximum frame rate possible. — 73 — . This value is for reference only.3.3 are described below. given the data in the ERD file. The frame rate is the reciprocal of the time step 2 .Chapter 6 The Animator Options Menu This menu has commands for setting several options in the animator operation. The items numbered in Figure 6.

3 Target frame rate for animation. When selected. Notes: The process of checking the computer clock introduces a small delay. frame rates of 10 to 30 frames per second can run in real-time on Pentium computers. the animator does not access the computer clock. the animation time step 4 is automatically changed (the frame rate is the reciprocal of the time step). This is the minimum time possible between animation frames. the computer will not be able to refresh the screen in real time and the animation will run in slow motion. the value in the file is used. If you change this value. if necessary.Chapter 6 The Animator 2 Time interval between stored data points from the ERD file header. you can enter a value of 0 in 4 and the animator will replace it with the value from the ERD file. Use a smaller time step to slow it down. you can specify a larger time step to speed it up. Typically. If the animation is running too slowly. Alternatively. 7 OK button. select this button to slow it down to real-time. Radio button for real time animation. to avoid running the animation faster than real time. you must decrease the frame rate 3 or increase the time step 4 . 4 Animation time step. The default frame rate is specified under the Preferences option in the Edit menu (see page 69). Click to exit the dialog box and apply the new settings. When this button is selected. 6 Radio button for maximum speed animation. — 74 — . the animator accesses the computer clock and waits. If the animation is already running slower than real-time. the animation frame rate 3 is automatically changed (the frame rate is the reciprocal of the time step). The delay depends on the computer and how your system is set up. allowing maximum display speed. If the target frame rate is very high (more than 100). select button 6 to eliminate the delay caused by checking the clock. This value is specified in line 2 of the header of the ERD file. Note: 5 If you specify a time step that is smaller than the value in the file 2 . 8 Cancel button. If the animation is running slower than real time and you want to speed it up. you can specify a lower frame rate to speed it up. To run with the minimum time step (show every frame possible). If the animation is running too slowly. If the animation is running too quickly. If you change this value. This value is for reference only. checking the computer clock will slow it down even more. Click to exit the dialog box without changing the settings. Also. you can use a higher frame rate to slow it down.

Chapter 6

The Animator

Superimpose Vehicle
Select this command to toggle an option to draw new images without erasing old ones.
This mode is useful with some configurations to show trajectories of vehicle motion, or
to show amplitudes of oscillations.

Modify Camera Locations...
Select this command to display the following dialog box. The numbered items are
described below.

1
2
2
2
3
3
3
5

4

Notes: These settings are similar to those contained in the Animator
Camera Setup library, described in Chapter 9.
Units of length should be compatible with the coordinates used
for shapes and reference as described in the section Units on
page 66.
1

Focal length. This is the distance from the camera point to the 2D plane used to
project the 3D objects. See Figure 6.1 for a description of the geometry.

2

X, Y, and Z coordinates of the camera point in its reference frame.

3

X, Y, and Z coordinates of the look point in its reference frame.

4

Cancel button. Click to exit the dialog box without changing the camera settings.

5

OK button. Click to exit the dialog box and apply the new settings.

Help Menu
This menu is standard in Windows for providing information about a program.

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Chapter 6

The Animator

About Engineering Animator...
Select this option to display the current animator version and creation date.

Pop-Up Menu
Click on the right mouse button to display the following menu.
All items on this menu are copies of items on the main menus and perform the same
functions when applied from the right-click pop-up menu. The menu is provided so you
don’t have to move the mouse as much to perform common actions.

Time Control Slider
Under the animator window there is a time-control slider that provides random access to
the animation. Use it to jump to any point in a run. This can be convenient when working
with long simulation runs, because you can go right to an event of interest without
viewing the early parts.

1

1

4

2

Start time from the input file.

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3

Chapter 6

The Animator

2

Finish time from the input file.

3

Current animation time. This is the simulation time associated with the currently
displayed animation view.

4

Slider control. The slider moves as the animation proceeds. Its relative position
indicates graphically the time associated with the currently displayed view. You
can use the left-button of the mouse to move the slider and change the current
animation time.

Testing Animator Data Sets
The animation setup information is contained in the CarSimEd database but is displayed
by the animator program. It is helpful to know how to use both the database and the
animator to test and debug new animator settings.

Viewing the PARSFILE Tree
As shown in Figure 6.2 on page 66, all information about shapes, camera position,
reference frames, etc. comes into the animator through PARSFILEs (CarSimEdgenerated files with extension PAR). At the top level, the animator receives the name of
an ERD file and the name of a PAR file. Both have the same base name—the number
appearing in the upper-right corner of the Runs screen, as shown below.

The top-level PAR file is associated with the Runs screen and includes references to
other PAR files. In fact, every blue link on the screen is represented in the PAR file with
the keyword PARSFILE followed by a full pathname to another PAR text file. If any of
those pathnames are not valid, the animator will generate an error message and quit
without showing an animation.
Bad pathnames can be quickly located by using the PARSTREE program in CarSimEd.
To run it, just click on the button with the tree icon:
. Alternatively, go to the Tools
menu and select the item View Parstree. The PARSTREE program brings up a window
with two panes, similar in format to the Windows Explorer.
For the example shown in Figure 6.4, the file 211.par is marked to indicate an invalid
reference. The panel on the right displays the contents of the selected PAR file, 212.par.
From reading the PAR file that references the nonexistent file, it is seen to be in the
animator FRAMES folder. Inspection of the FRAMES library should reveal that one of
the data sets is nonexistent, causing the bad link.

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Chapter 6

The Animator

Figure 6.4. Parstree window.

Toggling Between the Database and the Animator
The basic method for editing shapes and testing animator data sets is as follows:
1.

Create animator settings using the animator libraries described in Chapter 9.

2.

Link to the new settings on the Cars screen (via the Animator Group link). To test new
camera settings, link to the new settings from the Runs screen (via the Camera Setup
link).

3.

Go to the Runs screen and click the Animate button. The run should use the Car data set
with the link to the new animator settings.

4.

View the animation. When you are ready to modify the settings, stop the animation. Press
the space key or use the Stop command from the Animation menu.

5.

Without quitting the animator, switch back to the CarSimEd Runs screen. (Use Alt+Tab
in Windows to switch between running programs.)

6.

Within CarSimEd, navigate to the screen with the animator data to be edited (e.g., an
animator shape data set).

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Chapter 6
7.

The Animator

Edit the data in the CarSimEd data set. As soon as you modify any data and move the
cursor to another field, you will see a red circle in the upper-right corner of the window,
as shown below.

Click Here

8.

Click on the red circle in the upper-right corner. This causes CarSimEd to update the
PARSFILE using the new data from the screen.
Note:

9.

Normally, communication between the database and the
animator is transparent. All necessary files are properly updated
when you click the Animate button in the Runs screen. Here,
you are bypassing the normal operation, and must force the
SGUI to update the PARSFILE before it would normally do so.

Switch back to the animator (use Alt+Tab).

10. Select the menu item Reload Current Files under the File menu (or type Ctrl+R) to see
the effect of the new data.
11. Optionally switch back to the SGUI screen and repeat steps 6 through 9 as needed.

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7. The Plotter
You can view plots of the CarSimEd simulation results with a program called Windows
Engineering Plotter (WinEP). WinEP is a versatile tool you can use to plot any two
variables against each other. You can also overlay data from the same file or different
files.

Updates
The plotting program is used in a number of software packages. The latest version is
generally available from the Internet at:
http://www.trucksim.com/winep/index.html
Updates of the plotter program are “backward compatible.” If you download a newer
version, replace the file Winep.exe in the Plot folder in CarSimEd.

Overview of Operation
WinEP has a workspace defined by a main window with a menu bar. The main window
contains plot windows, each showing plots made with a single set of X-Y axes. Figure
7.1 shows the main WinEP window with four example plot windows.
Each plot window contains a graphical representation of one or more X-Y data sets. An
X-Y data set is a series of X and Y values obtained from a data file. The X-Y data sets
can come from the same file or from different files. The X values in each data do not
have to be the same, and the data sets do not have to contain the same number of points.
WinEP reads the data from ERD and text files and has completely automated scaling,
formatting, and labeling capabilities. However, labeling options are limited for non-ERD
text files.
Note:

If a file is not in ERD format, it can be converted by adding
several lines of text to the beginning of the file. A description of
the ERD file format is provided in Appendix C.

Once a plot window is created, the X-Y data sets can be transformed by subtracting
offsets or by applying high-pass or low-pass filters. However, the data sets cannot be
deleted or replaced. If you create a plot with different data sets, the new plot will have a
new window.

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There are no built-in limits to the number of active plot windows that can be maintained by WinEP. You can use linear or log scaling and you can choose from several axis types. symbols. CarSimEd starts WinEP in batch mode. the WinEP — 81 — . such as the colors of the lines. You start in this mode by double-clicking on the file Winep. WinEP initially creates one or more plots. The formatting can be set independently for each plot.1. When started in this way.exe. In the interactive mode you can view the plots. Batch and Interactive Operation WinEP can be started in one of two modes. It sends WinEP a file with information that you specified on the Runs screen. The WinEP workspace. When you click the Plot button from the CarSimEd Runs screen or the Make Plots button from the Plot Setup: Batch screen. WinEP reverts to interactive mode. print them. Once the initial batch of plots is made.Chapter 7 The Plotter Figure 7. etc. You can print the WinEP plots or copy them to the clipboard. In addition to the X-Y data. The only limits are imposed by computer memory. or both. each plot window has a set of formatting attributes. You can show the data points with connecting lines. You can also run WinEP as a normal Windows application. You can also create new plots. the type of grid. the size of the labeling text. Based on the contents of this file. and change their formatting. and changed interactively at any time.

or if you copy the WinEP program to another computer that does not have CarSimEd on it. Appendix D describes the batch control file for WinEP. You would need to re-establish the association only if you move the CarSimEd directory. This starts the WinEP program and automatically loads the selected ERD file. which is created automatically by CarSimEd. Figure 7. The maximum value in the zoomed plot of Figure 7.3 is rounded up to 5000. use the mouse to create a zoom rectangle. The new plot is drawn to include the full range of the rectangle you drew with the mouse. You must then pick X and Y variables from the file to create the first plot. For example. the maximum Y value from the zoom rectangle shown in Figure 7. then drag with the button still pressed to define the rectangle.exe must be associated with the file type ERD if you want to launch it by double-clicking on an ERD file. The rest of this chapter covers the interactive use of WinEP. and the keywords that are recognized by WinEP. A better way to start is by double-clicking on a file with the extension ERD.2 is about 4500. Zooming WinEP usually creates each plot window with the axes scaled to show all data points. Note: WinEP rounds off the maximum and minimum values for the axes. Press the left button to anchor one corner at the current cursor location.3 shows the same plot window immediately after the button is released.2 shows the appearance of a plot with a zoom rectangle drawn. The association is made automatically as part of the normal CarSimEd installation. Figure 7. Note: The file Winep. To zoom in. plus some additional range to round off the axes. release the button. When the rectangle covers the desired range. WinEP will redraw the plot using the region of the rectangle as the new limits for the axes. — 82 — . If you click in a plot window without drawing a rectangle. WinEP re-draws the screen without changing the scale.Chapter 7 The Plotter workspace is empty and you must use a menu command to define the data for the first plot. just before the mouse button is released.

Plot after zooming. Place the cursor over a button to read its function in a pop-up box and also in the status bar.2.3.Chapter 7 The Plotter Figure 7. Figure 7. Tool Bar WinEP includes a toolbar with buttons for applying some of the most commonly used commands. — 83 — . Plot before zooming.

Click on the Settings menu item to display a submenu. When the Display settings window appears. If the toolbar does not appear in your plot window. select the plot window of interest. The actions are described in the following descriptions of the menu items. 2. If there are more than one plot windows.Chapter 7 The Plotter All toolbar buttons provide actions that duplicate menu items. which you can size within the limits of your monitor resolution. using the Maximize box in the upper-right corner of the window and by dragging borders with the mouse. Select the control panel Display. Printing Plots Making a Hard Copy 1. Select the menu item Print from the File menu. The keyboard command is Ctrl+P. 3. click on the Settings tab. You adjust the window size as with any other window. 2. click on the View menu command Toolbar. To determine how a plot will be printed. Select the submenu item Control Panel to display a folder of control panels. The plot in the current window will be sent to the current Windows printer. • The Windows display settings. Click in the Windows Start button to display the Start menu. repeat steps 1 and 2 for each plot window of interest. To bring up this dialog box: 1. When printed. the size of the plot on paper depends on a number of factors. To print additional plots. When a menu item has an associated toolbar button. 4. Controlling the Printed Plot Size Plots in WinEP are scaled on the screen to fit in their windows. the button is shown in the heading for the menu item. • The window dimensions on the screen (height and width). select the menu item Print Preview under the File menu. — 84 — . 3.

Chapter 7 The Plotter Note: In general the Small Fonts setting is recommended for the CarSimEd software. Also. is found from the dialog box obtained by selecting Print Setup from the File menu. Problems sometimes occur with the display of CarSimEd screens with some combinations of hardware and monitor settings when Large Fonts are selected. it is more complicated to estimate the size of printed plots. — 85 — . Print reduction. select the Print Setup menu item from the File menu in WinEP. • The percent reduction. To specify the paper size and orientation. which can be specified on some printers (particularly PostScript printers). This brings up a dialog box with settings specific to the printer. if available. • The paper size and orientation (portrait or landscape).

Select the Load Plot Format command to load one of these format files. The keyboard command is Ctrl+O. When loaded. When loaded. batch plot files have the extension PLT and are located in the directory containing the library where the Plot button was clicked (either Runs or Batch\Plot_bat). After the file is opened. Load Plot Format. This command brings up the Windows file browser dialog box to open a file with the extension PAR. Select this command to process a batch plot file with the Windows file browse dialog box. Note: Format files created within the CarSimEd graphical user interface are in the CarSimEd folder Plot\Format. write files. print windows.Chapter 7 The Plotter File Menu The file menu is used to read files. and exit the program. These files can be created from within WinEP using the Save Plot Format command (from the File menu) and also from within the CarSimEd database (see the section Plot Format in Chapter 9)... The keyboard command is Ctrl+E. Load Batch File.. Formatting information for plots can be stored in files.. the batch file will cause WinEP to generate one or more plots. The keyboard command is Ctrl+B. WinEP will redraw the current plot with whatever new formatting information was loaded. When created automatically by CarSimEd. Load ERD File… Select this command to open an ERD file with the Windows file browser dialog box. — 86 — . a dialog box appears that you use for selecting variables from the file to plot.

two channels at a time. This command brings up the Windows file browser dialog box to open a file with the extension PAR (default file is PlotTran. The default extension is PAR. Use this command to save the current plot formatting information. The keyboard command is Ctrl+W. Save Channel List. show numbers. These files can be created from within WinEP using the Save Transform Settings command (from the File menu). WinEP will redraw the current plot with whatever new settings information was loaded. Close Top Window This closes the top (active) plot window. The default extension is PAR (the default file is PlotTran. When loaded. is available under the View menu for viewing the data.. Use this command to save the current X-Y data set in a text file. The settings can be applied in the future using the File menu command to Load Transform Settings. Select the Load Transform Settings command to load one of these settings files. Save Transform Settings Use this command to save the current data transforms and offset settings.Chapter 7 The Plotter Load Transform Settings Transform and offset information for plots can be stored in files.par). The keyboard command is Ctrl+I. the formatting file will cause WinEP to redraw the current plot with the new settings. The keyboard command is Ctrl+S. A similar option. When loaded. Save Plot Format. is available under the View menu for viewing the data.. When loaded.. Save Plot Data. This command creates a text file listing all of the channels in an opened ERD file.. A similar option. It is a handy way to extract data from an ERD file. WinEP brings up a dialog box for saving a text file with the list of channels. — 87 — . The formatting can be applied in the future using the Load Plot Format command from the File menu..par). Show Numbers. Save All Images Use this command to save all the plots as image files with BMP format. The keyboard command is Ctrl+T. the formatting file will cause WinEP to redraw the current plot with the new format.. The folder used for saving images can be set using the Edit menu command Preferences.

This command brings up the Windows dialog box for changing printer information. you can click the in the upper right hand corner of this screen to return to the Runs screen. or Alt+F. However. The keyboard command is Ctrl+Z... Edit Menu The Edit menu has commands to support the clipboard and to set preferences. Use this command to make a hard-copy of the active plot using the current Windows printer. To use the keyboard. When a dialog box is in front. The keyboard command is Ctrl+P. Note: Alternatively. Print Preview This command opens a window showing how the active plot would be printed using the current print settings. Exit Use this command to exit WinEP. copy. the Edit menu cannot be used with the mouse. type the keyboard command Ctrl+Q. the keyboard commands are functional and can be used to cut.. — 88 — .Chapter 7 The Plotter Print.. or Alt+F4. Undo Undoes the most recent change in a dialog box. and paste within text fields. Print Setup. X.

Preferences This command brings up the Preferences dialog box. which stores these settings. the individual plot windows are smaller than the WinEP workspace and overlap each other. When you quit WinEP. If text is selected. The keyboard command is Ctrl+C. The graphic is copied as a bitmap. 1 Toolbar display mode. Modification of the graphic display is not supported. This item is only in effect when editing text in dialog boxes. When checked. — 89 — . the toolbar is displayed when the program starts. 2 Startup window mode. The keyboard command is Ctrl+X. 3 1 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 The numbered items in the dialog box are described below. Otherwise the toolbar is hidden and you must select the Toolbar item on the View menu to show it. this command copies currently selected text to the clipboard. If a dialog box is active. it is replaced by the contents of the clipboard. For the Maximize setting. Paste Pastes text from the clipboard into the current cursor location. The keyboard command is Ctrl+V. Modification of the graphic display is not supported. You use this menu to specify the initial appearance of the plot windows when WinEP is started in batch mode. Copy This command copies the plot from the active plot window to the clipboard.Chapter 7 The Plotter Cut Cuts currently selected text to the clipboard. the active plot window is maximized to fill the WinEP workspace. For the Cascade setting. the settings from this dialog box are automatically saved to a file named Epprefs. This item is only in effect when editing text in dialog boxes.txt.

4 Cancel button. For the Tile settings. WinEP will open the file browser starting with this folder. WinEP will open the file browser starting with this folder. 3 OK button. 6 Folder where WinEP creates temporary files. Click to close the dialog box without changing anything (keep the previous preferences). 9 Folder from where image files will be written by the File menu command Save All Images (CTRL+I). The keyboard command is Ctrl+H. 5 Folder from where the last format file was read. the menu item has a check mark. Click to close the dialog box and apply the new preferences. if you zoom in to exclude the zero and negative values. The next time the File menu command Load ERD File is used. However. — 90 — . The next time the File menu command Load Plot Format is used. WinEP will open the file browser starting with this folder. Log X Axis Use this command to toggle between linear and log scaling for the X axis of the active plot. 8 Folder from where the last batch file was read. the log option can be used for the data shown. Note: WinEP will ignore the X axis log option and revert to the linear option if there are one or more zeroes or negative X values in the data set.Chapter 7 The Plotter hiding any other plot windows. The next time the File menu command Load Batch File is used. 7 Folder from where the last ERD file (with numerical data to plot) was read. Format Menu This menu has commands for controlling the plot appearance. If the log axis is selected. multiple plots are tiled to fill the WinEP workspace.

The keyboard command is Ctrl+F. — 91 — .Chapter 7 The Plotter Log Y Axis Use this command to toggle between linear and log scaling for the Y axis of the active plot. 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 6 1 5 7 8 9 Click this tab to toggle the axes scaling and to type in the desired range of axes values in the next plot. if you zoom in to exclude the zero and negative values.. If the log axis is selected. the log option can be used for the data shown. Use this command to display a preferences dialog box for setting most plot formatting options. This dialog box is used for four sets of data. The keyboard command is Ctrl+R. as specified with the Customize Plot Format option under this menu. Re-Draw Original Scale Use this command to re-draw the active plot without any zooming. You can accomplish the same thing by clicking in the plot area with the mouse. The current scaling option is used. However. It is sometimes needed if the window display gets corrupted by another window being in front. Customize Plot Format.. Re-Draw Current Scale Use this command to re-draw the active plot with the current formatting. Note: WinEP will ignore the Y axis log option and revert to the linear option if there are one or more zeroes or negative Y values in the data set. The keyboard command is Ctrl+G. the menu item has a check mark. selected with tabs.

They duplicate the Format menu commands Log X Axis and Log Y Axis. This setting is provided for situations in which you wish to make plots with the same axes. 10 11 13 12 14 6 10 7 8 9 X-Y Data Set tab. 3 Autoscaling (X and Y axes). Click to close this dialog box and apply the settings as displayed. Click to close this dialog box and revert to the previous settings. Click this tab to show the settings that control the display of a data set. 8 The Apply button is not functional in the current release. Choose one to change the current symbol. When multiple data sets are shown in the same plot. 5 Range of data values covered by an axis. 9 The Help button is not functional in the current release. 7 Cancel button. 6 OK button. Check these buttons to scale an axis according to the range specified in the adjacent fields 5 . Specify minimum and maximum values for scaling the axes. This setting is recommended for routine use. 4 Manual scaling (X and Y axes). 11 X-Y Data set. 12 Symbol. These controls define whether the axis will be drawn with a linear or log scale. regardless of the range covered by the data. they can be distinguished by assigning them different display attributes.Chapter 7 The Plotter 2 X. Press the button to display a pull-down menu with the list of Y variables for each data set. Press the button to display a pull-down menu of available symbols. Each data set is represented graphically in a plot. These are used only when the manual scaling button 4 is selected. Check these buttons to cause WinEP to scan the data and size the axis to include the full range of data. Y axis type. Select the data set to display and optionally edit its attributes. This field shows the symbol currently associated with the data set 11 . Note: An X-Y Data set is a set of X and Y values from a specific file. — 92 — .

Then pick a color to change the display color of the line and/or symbols. Click this tab to show the settings that control the display of the axes. composed of components of Red. click the OK button to return to the format dialog box. — 93 — . This field shows the type of line currently associated with the data set 11 . Press the button to display a pull-down menu of supported types. and grid.Chapter 7 The Plotter 13 Line type. Press the button to display a palette of colors. After selecting a color. and Blue). This field shows the color currently associated with the data set 11 . 15 20 18 16 19 17 21 6 15 7 8 9 Plot Layout tab. in terms of RGB values (24-bit color. and choose one to change the way connecting lines are drawn between the data points. 14 Color. frame. Green. The RGB values for the selected color will be shown.

Press the button to display a menu with the choices: Axes or No Axes. A value of 0 is recommended unless you want all plots to be drawn in exactly the same place relative to the left edge of the window. 18 Grid. if set to 3.Chapter 7 The Plotter 16 Axes. WinEP draws the Y axis of every plot with enough space for 3-digit labels for the Y axis.4. Coarse Grid (grid lines at major tick marks). This is the number of digits set aside for the tick labels of the Y axis. 17 Max digits for Y axis. Names of plot labels. — 94 — . WinEP determines the spacing automatically. Press the button to display a menu with the choices: No Grid. Press the button to display a menu to choose among five possible locations for the legend used to identify the X-Y data sets in overlay plots. For example.4. If set to 0. Title Y axis label Legend X axis label Tick labels Figure 7. The No Axes option doesn’t work unless you also select No Grid with the Grid pull-down menu 18 and No Frame with the Frame pull-down menu 20 . The legend and other labels in the plot are shown in Figure 7. The sixth option is to let WinEp select the location automatically. or Fine Grid (grid lines at minor tick marks). 19 Legend location.

or click the Cancel button to keep the original properties.26 . The four types of labels. 22 23 24 25 26 27 6 7 8 9 22 Font tab. it uses whatever space is needed. are shown in Figure 7. This setting does not affect the plots unless: (1) there are at least two X-Y data sets being overlaid. 21 Size limit for legend. The options are No Frame.” and (3) the length of the longest label exceeds the specified percentage. as shown in Figure 7. this can limit the horizontal space available for the plot. Use this field to set a maximum amount of window space that can be taken for the legend. — 95 — . 23 Plot title font attributes. When WinEP draws the legend for overlay plots to the right of the plot area. After choosing the font properties. Press the button to display a menu to specify how the plot area is enclosed with a frame.Chapter 7 The Plotter 20 Frame. Click this tab to show the settings that control the text used to label the axes and data in the plot. The No Frame option doesn’t work unless you also select No Grid 18 . or if the window is small. Click the selector button to bring up a Windows font selection dialog box.4. The properties selected in the box will be applied to the plot title. click the OK button to make the change. controlled with items 23 . If the labels are lengthy. and Frame with ticks. Frame. (2) the specified position 19 is “Right of Plot.5.

5) are applied to the text used to label the X and Y axes. labels for the plot. 27 Apply to all check box. Font dialog box. — 96 — .Chapter 7 The Plotter Figure 7. This is similar to the plot title button 23 . except that the settings made using the Windows font dialog box (see Figure 7. 25 Tick labels. When this is checked. The commands involve the selection of X-Y data sets. Data Menu The Data menu has commands that involve the numbers to be plotted and the associated labels from the data files.5) are applied to the text used to label the individual data sets in the legend. possible transformation of the numbers. 24 Axes labels. This is similar to the plot title button 23 . 26 Legend labels. you must check this box before making the selection in the font dialog box shown in Figure 6. except that the settings made using the Windows font dialog box (see Figure 7.26 ) will change all of the text in the plot.5) are applied to the text associated with the tick marks. This is similar to the plot title button 23 . and viewing the numerical values using a cursor. Note: To use this function. changing font properties using any of the buttons ( 23 .5.5. except that the settings made using the Windows font dialog box (see Figure 7.

Use this dialog box to create a list of X-Y data sets to plot. 2 List of variables in the current ERD available for defining the Y coordinate in a plot. To select a variable for plotting on the Y axis. This .6 and are described below. click on its name. 3 List of variables in the current ERD available for defining the X coordinate in a plot. You cannot edit it directly. and (3) a file name. To select a variable for plotting on the X axis. The keyboard command is Ctrl+N. The numbered items in the dialog box are shown in Figure 7. Click to delete a selected data set from the list of data to plot button has no effect unless a line is selected in the list 1 . 1 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 3 10 Figure 7. — 97 — 1 . but can modify it using the buttons 2 . Channel Select dialog box. 1 List of X-Y data sets to plot.7 .Chapter 7 The Plotter Define New Plot… Select this command to bring up the Channel Select dialog box. 4 Delete button. Double-clicking in this list has the same effect as clicking the Add button 7 . click on its name.6. Each data set consists of three parts: (1) a Y channel. Double-clicking in this list has the same effect as clicking the Add button 7 . (2) an X channel. This list shows the data sets that will be plotted.

This button has the same effect as going to the File menu to select the command Load ERD File. but there is no reason to edit it directly. This field shows the title from the data file. The new data set has the currently selected Y channel 2 . Click to close the dialog box and make a new plot using the current list of XY data sets 1 . 10 Title. This field shows the name of the current data file. the File button is the only way to open a new file from within this dialog box. To change the file. Offsets… — 98 — . Therefore. The current settings are not cleared when you make a plot—they remain in place if you bring up the Channel Select dialog box again.Chapter 7 The Plotter 5 Clear button. The name can be copied to the clipboard. the currently selected X channel 3 . Click to delete all data sets from the list of data to plot 6 File button. and (2) the optional TITLE keyword is used in the ERD header. Click to add the selected X-Y data sets to the list of data to plot 1 . the WinEP menus cannot be used. 9 File name. Note: 1 . 8 Plot button. All ERD files created by CarSimEd models show the title of the corresponding Runs data set. Click to bring up the Windows file browser dialog box to choose an ERD file or text file with plot data. and comes from the currently open file (shown in 9 ). 7 Add button. if (1) the file is an ERD file. you must click the File button 6 . While the dialog box is displayed.

When this button is selected. no offset is applied. where the average is taken over some number that corresponds to the specified baselength 6 . 3 Low pass button. When this button is selected. 2 High pass button. Use this dialog box to filter the Y values in the data sets of the active plot using a moving average. It has the same units as the variable plotted on the X axis. A low-pass moving average filter transforms a series of numbers by replacing each number with the average value. the Y variables are processed with a band-pass filter. if the X variable is — 99 — . Filters… Select this command to bring up the Filters dialog box. 1 5 2 6 3 4 7 8 9 10 1 No filter button. removing high frequencies and passing low frequencies. The values you enter in these fields will be subtracted from the values obtained from the data file. This removes low frequencies.Chapter 7 The Plotter Select this command to bring up the Offsets dialog box. and then by a low-pass filter using the low-pass baselength 6 . The numbered items in the dialog box are described below. the Y variables are processed with a high-pass filter. When this button is selected. For example. the Y variables are processed with a lowpass filter. bias. divided by the interval between points. and then subtracting the smoothed points from the original. 4 Band pass button. The data are processed by a high-pass filter using the high-pass baselength 5 . The averaging process smoothes the data. A high-pass moving average filter works by applying a low-pass smoothing filter (with baselength 5 ). click the OK button. Use this dialog box to specify offsets for up to 20 data sets laterally (X) or vertically (Y). leaving deviations from the smoothed data. This is a reference used to define the scope of a moving average. and drift. 5 High-pass baselength. It leaves the high frequencies intact. The number of points used in the average is the baselength. For any fields left blank. When you are finished specifying the offsets. When this button is selected the data are not modified. These offsets will be applied to data in the active plot.

If this box is not checked. The field is sized to display the statistics for the two variables making up a single X-Y data set. 7 Filter using original data check box: check to apply the specified filters to the original data—the values read from the file. if the X variable is time with units of seconds. The numbered items in the dialog box are described below. If you choose to show the statistics for all data sets in the plot. 8 Help button. 9 Cancel button. 2 Statistics for specified data set. the data are processed every time the filter dialog box is displayed and exited with the OK button. When not checked. the baselength is the number of seconds covered by the moving average. This baselength is also used for band-pass filtering. Click to exit the dialog box and apply the specified filter to all Y variables in the active plot. Use the pull-down menu to pick the data set in the active plot whose statistics will be displayed. 6 Low-pass baselength. This is a reference used to define the scope of a moving average. the baselength is the number of seconds covered by the moving average. then the scroll bar can be used to view the statistics for the data sets after the first. Statistics… Select this command to display a dialog box with simple statistics for the plotted variables. the filters are applied to the data as modified by previous filtering. — 100 — . For example. 10 OK button. Click to display the following information. 1 X-Y data set name. It has the same units as the variable plotted on the X axis. Click to exit the dialog box without changing the data in the active plot.Chapter 7 The Plotter time with units of seconds. This baselength is also used for band-pass filtering.

7. — 101 — 8 . The keyboard command is Ctrl+L.7 shows the dialog box along with an example active plot. Labels… Use this command to display the Labels dialog box. and legend labels for the active plot. Figure 7. The circled numbers appear both in the plot and the dialog box.Chapter 7 The Plotter 3 1 4 2 3 OK button. Click to exit the dialog box. Labels dialog box. Y axis. Use this dialog box to edit the plot title. 4 Show All button. X axis. Click to display the statistics of all data sets in the active plot. to indicate the correspondence between the field in the dialog box and the plot. 1 3 1 2 3 5 4 6 5 2 7 Figure 7.

b. 6 Set button. 4 Names list. 4 to match the text in the Show Data Points This command toggles the mode of showing a cursor on the plot and the associated coordinates in the status bar. It can be edited in the dialog box. To change any of these labels: a. 2 X Label. Select it from the Names list 4 . 8 Cancel button. It can be edited in the dialog box. — 102 — . It can be edited in the dialog box. used to identify the X-Y data sets in the legend. Edit the name as it appears in the edit field c. This is the label written underneath the X axis. Click to close the dialog box without modifying the active plot.Chapter 7 The Plotter 1 Title. Click to set the name selected in the Names list edit field 5 . 7 OK button. The title is shown in the top of the plot and also in the title bar of the plot window. Click to close the dialog box and apply the new settings to the active plot. to apply the change. This is the label written above the Y axis. 5 Edit field used to change a name in the selected legend. The keyboard command is Ctrl+D. 3 Y Label. Click the Set button 6 5 .

Cursor Position Info This menu item displays a sub menu whose main purpose is to remind you of keyboard commands that move the cursor. you will usually find it quicker to press the indicated keys. For time history plots. However. the first point may be located somewhere else. All of the functions on the sub menu are also available as buttons on the tool bar. for cross-plots. For example.295 deg/s. Although the menu items are functional.4 sec. the cursor and X-Y values are always associated with the active window. Yaw velocity = –13. in the figure below. the first point is at the far left side of the plot. a cursor will appear at the first data point contained in the data file. Note: When there are multiple plot windows.Chapter 7 The Plotter When you select this option. The buttons are dimmed unless the option to Show Data Points is enabled. the cursor is at the point: time = 2. This is indicated visually in the toolbar by the button being “pushed in” as shown below. The X and Y values associated with the cursor are displayed in the status bar. — 103 — .

based on the order the X values are stored in the file. When the cursor is on the first point in the file. based on the order the X values are stored in the file. this command has no effect. Backward by 10 — use the left arrow key (←) plus the Shift key to move 10 points backward. this command has no effect. End of Data — use the End key to find the last point.Chapter 7 The Plotter Forward by 1 — use the right arrow key (→) to move one point forward. based on the order the X values are stored in the file. When the cursor is on the first point in the file. Next Data Set — use the Tab key to move the cursor between currently displayed data sets in overlay plots. Max Y Point — use the up arrow key (↑) to locate the point with the maximum Y value for the points currently displayed. then this command has no effect. Backward by 30 — use the left arrow key (←) plus the Shift key plus the Control key to move 30 points backward. Backward by 1 — use the left arrow key (←) to move one point backward. If the active plot has only a single data set. Start of Data — use the Home key to find the first point. When the cursor is on the last point in the file. this command has no effect. this command has no effect. based on the order the X values are stored in the file. Min Y Point — use the down arrow key (↓) to locate the point with the minimum Y value for the points currently displayed. When the cursor is on the first point in the file. Forward by 10 — use the right arrow key (→) plus the Shift key to move 10 points forward. this command has no effect. When the cursor is on the last point in the file. — 104 — . This is the same as pressing the left arrow repeatedly. this command has no effect. Forward by 30 — use the right arrow key (→) plus the Shift key plus the Control key to move 30 points forward. When the cursor is on the last point in the file. This is the same as pressing the right arrow repeatedly. based on the order the X values are stored in the file. based on the order the X values are stored in the file.

and to generate information about the data files. and the entire contents can be saved to file by using the Save Data button. Toolbar Toggle this item to display or hide the toolbar. it can take some time for the window to appear. If the plot includes many numbers. Show Numbers Select this item to view the currently plotted data in tabular form. the tool bar. Status Bar Toggle this item to display or hide the status bar at the bottom of the WinEP work space.Chapter 7 The Plotter View Menu Use this menu to toggle the display of the status bar. Numbers shown in the window can be copied to the clipboard. — 105 — .

Text shown in the window can be copied to the clipboard. Display Log. This displays an error message window sometimes used for debugging.. due to memory limitations. only some of the values will appear in the list. Unlike the short names shown in the Channel Select dialog box (see Figure 7. Note: Sometimes. these names are longer and include the units. use the Save Data button described in the next paragraph. — 106 — .Chapter 7 The Plotter The same function can be performed using the File menu command to Save Data. and the entire contents can be saved to a file by using the Save button. The same function can be performed using the File menu command to Save Channel List. Show Channel List Select this item to view all variable names from the current ERD file. When this happens..6).

as shown below for two windows.Chapter 7 The Plotter Windows Menu Use this menu to control the appearance of the plot windows in WinEP. Cascade Use this command to arrange all plot windows in a cascade. — 107 — . The new window will be displayed in front of the other windows. New Window Use this command to create a new window with the data and all format settings from the currently active window.

Use this command to tile the plot windows with vertical divisions. If there are four or more windows. Use this command to tile the plot windows with horizontal divisions. they are arranged in columns and rows.Chapter 7 The Plotter Tile Horz. as shown below for two windows. Tile Vert. they are arranged in columns and rows. as shown below for two windows. If there are four or more windows. — 108 — .

— 109 — . Help Menu This menu has a command to open the About WinEP dialog box. If there are more than two plot windows.Chapter 7 The Plotter Arrange Icons Use this command to tidy any “iconized windows” in the WinEP workspace. Next Window Use this command to change the active plot window. keep pressing the PageDown key until the desired window becomes active. Use it to obtain the version number and the current web site for updates. The keyboard command is the PageDown key.

Category field. and so on for other screens. Note: Data sets in different categories are still subject to the restriction that they cannot have the same names. to name the current data set. All data screens have the same set of controls at the top in a ribbon bar. The Category field is provided as a convenience for you to divide large numbers of data sets into logical groups in pull-down menus. This field shows text you use to create a sub-menu for listing the contents of the library. it typically serves to identify the vehicle and its properties. — 110 — .1. Note: 2 On the Runs screen this is where you give a unique name to the run of a specific vehicle. and (3) the length of the title is limited to 32 characters. The Ribbon Bar Almost every screen in CarSimEd has a standard ribbon bar at the top. Also. This field shows text entered by you. data screens with tabular data have a common layout. If the category field is blank then the title is shown in the top-level menu. as shown in Figure 8. In a vehicle screen. and simulation model. maneuver. the user.8. It contains the name of the data sets. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 23 24 1 25 22 2 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 26 Fields 1 Data Set field. (2) the title cannot include a comma (the software will automatically replace it with a semicolon). Design of CarSimEd Data Screens This section describes several standard elements in the CarSimEd design that are shared in many of the data screen. and a number of navigational controls. There are a few restrictions on titles: (1) each data set in the library must have a unique title. information about the last time the data set was modified. All have the same menu bar.

If the current data set is the last one. CarSimEd automatically performs housecleaning. • Press the Shift key when clicking the button to delete all data sets except the current one. two things happen: (1) the current data set as displayed on the screen is deleted. giving you a chance to change your mind after clicking the button. Click this button to go to the next data set. Thus. If the current data set is the first one. this button takes you to the first one (the ordering is circular). Click this button to go to the preceding data set. grouped by categories. There will be a confirmation message. There are two keyboard modifiers for the Delete button: • Press the Ctrl key when clicking the button to avoid the confirmation message. 7 Delete button. 6 New button.Chapter 8 Design of CarSimEd Data Screens Buttons 3 Library triangle button. The data sets in the library are ordered alphabetically first by category and then by title. Figure 8. Press this button to display a pull-down menu listing of all of the data sets in the library. 5 Library Right button. other data sets can be deleted even if their Locked boxes are checked. The data sets in the library are ordered alphabetically first by category and then by title.1. — 111 — . this button takes you to the last one (the ordering is circular). and (2) auxiliary files associated with the data set are also deleted. the Status Bar at the bottom of the window describes the above two keyboard modifications. except that the name 1 will be different (usually it will have a number appended to it). the Data Set field will be highlighted to encourage you to type a distinctive title for the new data set. Click this button to delete the data set. Be aware that if you go ahead. Also. Pull-down menu by the Data Set field. the Delete button cannot be used — there must always be a minimum of one data set in a library. Use this feature with care! Note: When you position the cursor over the Delete button. When you click the Delete button. The copy is identical to the original. Click this button to make a full copy of the data set. When the copy is made. If the library has only one data set. the Delete button will not work on the current data set if the Locked box 21 is checked. 4 Library Left button.

This can also be set to go to a text editor. 9 Back button. Note: The spectrum analyzer and the settings screen are not present in the standard CarSimEd package. 11 Text Editor button. or the History dialog box. Press this button to display a menu of all libraries in CarSimEd. 10 Number Tools button. — 112 — . control-click to get a file browser to locate the library and establish a link to it.Chapter 8 8 Design of CarSimEd Data Screens GO button. Highlight it to view more menu items. Control-click to get a file browser to make a different library the default. Note that the first item in the menu is More. as shown in the figure.exe. This is equivalent to the Tools menu Text Editor command.tbk. Select a library from this menu to leave the current library and go to the selected one. Click this button to go back to the previous library. If it is not currently linked. control-click to get a file browser to locate an executable program file and establish a link to it. the GO menu. 12 Library Editor button. This is equivalent to the Tools menu Spectrum command. The calculator screen is used to create and edit tabular data. Click this button to go to a utility library used to create and edit tabular data. The default is Sgui_lib\Calc. The default link is Programs\WinVI. The menu contains more items than will fit on a monitor with VGA resolution (640 x 480). This is equivalent to the Tools menu Calculator command. Click this button to go to the Spectrum Setup library with settings for a spectrum analyzer. such as the Windows Notepad program. 13 Spectrum Analyzer button. If it is not currently linked. The current library is automatically loaded into the editor window. This is equivalent to the Tools menu Library Editor command. Click this button to bring up a floating window that can be used to edit libraries. Click this button to go to the calculator screen. This is the library that you came from by using a link.

18 Parstree button. Click this button to go to the Plot Setup: Single library with plot settings that define plot variables. formats.tbk. This is equivalent to the Tools menu Runs command. The default link is Batch\Runs_bat\Runs_bat.2 shows the display for a data set from the Runs library. Control-click to get a file browser to make a different library the default.exe. Click this button to go to the Runs: Batch library. and the contents of that file are shown in the right pane.par is selected in the left pane. The file 94. The default link is Programs\Parstree. Click this button to run the Parstree program for viewing the contents of the PAR file associated with the current data set. Click this button to go to a Runs library with settings to make a single simulation run.Chapter 8 Design of CarSimEd Data Screens 14 Batch Plot button. This is equivalent to the Tools menu Batch Plotting command. — 113 — . 16 Batch Runs button. plus the PAR files for all of its linked data sets. Control-click to get a file browser to make a different library the default. The default link is Runs\Runs.tbk. Control-click to get a file browser to make a different library the default. This is equivalent to the Tools menu Plot Setup command. control-click to get a file browser to locate an executable program file and establish a link to it.tbk. Figure 8. The default link is Batch\Plot_bat\Plot_bat. Control-click to get a file browser to make a different library the default.tbk. Click this button to go to the Plot Setup: Batch library. The default link is Plot\Setup\Setup. 19 Print button. etc. 15 Plot Setup button. 17 Runs button. This is equivalent to the Tools menu Batch Runs command. For example. If it is not currently linked. Click this button to print a copy of the current screen display.

When checked. 30 Close. CarSimEd automatically locks every data screen when you leave it. data sets are locked only when you click the locked boxes 21 manually. When not checked. 28 Advanced Mode. Otherwise. you must live with the links the way they are. The Parstree window displayed by clicking the Parstree button. you can change links to connect with different libraries. This is equivalent to the Tools menu Preferences command. Un-check it if your display is limited to 16 or fewer colors.2. 30 27 28 29 27 Auto Lock. Check this box if your video display supports 256 or more colors. Click this button to bring up a floating window used to set global preferences for CarSimEd. 20 Preferences button. — 114 — . When checked. Click here to exit the Preferences window and apply the current preference settings. 29 Have 256 or more colors on monitor .Chapter 8 Design of CarSimEd Data Screens Figure 8.

Each data set in the library has a unique ID number. Click on the red circle to force CarSimEd to overwrite the PAR file immediately. You do not lose your notes when you hide them. This is set whenever the PAR file is updated. You also cannot delete the data set using the Delete button (unless you simultaneously press the shift key). As shown below. the Notes field is displayed. or when a field is changed and you leave the field by clicking somewhere else. Data sets are linked together approximately in a top-down hierarchical fashion as shown earlier in Figure 3. but does nothing to the contents. When checked. 6 . 22 Notes box. a file 131.4 on page 26. 26 Date of last change. etc. This button hides the Notes field. When you create a copy of a data set using the New button field are also copied. a data link has several components: — 115 — . such as when testing new animator settings as described in section Testing Animator Data Sets in Chapter 5 on page 77. using the Tab key. the contents of the Notes Data Set Information 23 Changed circle. When checked.Chapter 8 Design of CarSimEd Data Screens Check Boxes 21 Locked box. if the ID is 131. Data Links Each CarSimEd screen contains a data set that is part of a relational database. Click this box to check or un-check it. This is set whenever the PAR file is updated. The contents of a Notes field are strictly for your use in documenting data. even if the box is not checked. the data set is locked and you cannot change text in any of the edit fields or any links. 25 Time of last change. The number is used to automatically name the PAR files associated with the data set.par is created automatically by CarSimEd and located in the same folder as the TBK library file. Click this box to check or un-check it. it is hidden. a red dot appears when a link is changed. However. For example. Parts of a Data Link The object used to link data sets together is called a data link. The red dot indicates that the PAR file associated with the current data set will be updated when you leave the screen. Otherwise. They are not sent to the solver programs. The small circle is normally transparent. 24 ID Number.

In some cases. you can override the warning and make the link anyway. but has not yet been linked to a specific data set in that file. 2. • Pick Library. • The triangle button is used to display a pull-down menu. e. e.. e.g. Vehicle. If the TBK file that is selected does not contain the right kind of data. in bold typeface. • Most data links have labels. The browser may request a library of a certain type.g.g. C:\CarSimEd\Vehicles\Vehicles\Vehicles.g. Goes to the currently linked data set. Vehicle. Car (ind). {No data set selected} appears if the link is pointing to a library. If you want to pick a new library and the menu command is dimmed. Press the Ctrl key when clicking the button to get the full pathname of the linked library. Notes: {No library selected} appears in the blue field if the link is not pointing to anything. This is not recommended for beginning users. The Data Link Menu The items of the data link menu perform the following functions: • Go To Data Set. e. There are two keyboard modifiers for the triangle button: 1. a warning is displayed. This is usually quicker than using the menu.. Brings up the file browser dialog box to select a new TBK library file for the link. independent. that describe the type of data to which the link points. Press the Shift key when clicking the button as a shortcut for selecting the menu item Go To Data Set.Chapter 8 Design of CarSimEd Data Screens Link label Type Triangle button Data set name • The name of the linked data set is shown in the blue field.tbk. e.. additional information is shown in plain typeface..g. This will take you to the linked data set (it is the same as selecting the first menu item). However.. This menu item is dimmed when the preferences for CarSimEd are set with the Advanced mode disabled. you must go to the preferences window by clicking the — 116 — .

the Notes field is often located on top of the table of numbers 2 . the corresponding X and Y values are shown in the status bar. Figure 8. but. Except when the data set is locked. The new data points are not plotted until the Update Plot button 3 is clicked. The plot is based on the tabular data 2 . Note: For these data sets. This breaks the current link to a data set. There are four standard items on each screen with tabular data. The values are plotted to show the functional relation graphically and to help identify errors. If the current screen has the Locked box checked.Chapter 8 Design of CarSimEd Data Screens preferences button in the ribbon bar ( ) or selecting the Preferences command from the Tools menu. 1 Plot. — 117 — .3 shows an example data set. without a data set. to view the numbers in the table. Change the link to a different data set by selecting its name. when the mouse pointer is positioned over the plot. • Data Set Names. Clicking the left mouse button causes the currently displayed X and Y values to be appended to the table. The axes are scaled automatically to include the full range of numbers in the table. The other items involve changes in the data set and are not allowed. All of the menu items after the dividing line are the names of the data sets in the linked library. the Notes button must not be checked. The link to the library remains. only the Go To Data Set item is active. Tabular Data Some CarSimEd data sets involve tables of numbers. This brings up a dialog box: Make sure the Advanced Mode box is checked and then close the preferences window. Therefore. data from the library are not used in simulations. using the first number on each line for an X value and the second number for a Y value. This feature can be used to rapidly build a new data set. • [No data set selected].

Chapter 8 Design of CarSimEd Data Screens Figure 8. such as wind). Each line in this field should have an X value followed by a Y value. If the independent variable is less than the first value in the table. or disturbances. In the simulation. These numbers are passed to the solver programs exactly as they appear in the field. an error message is generated. flat-line extrapolation is used. values might extend beyond the range shown. 2 Table field. If the independent variable is greater than the last (highest) value in the table. the first value of the dependent value is used. For example. then the last value of the dependent variable — 118 — . Example screen for tabular data. If you attempt to make a plot or leave the screen with only one pair of X-Y points. the independent variable (time) would have a value outside the range covered by the table. if the simulation runs longer than 210 seconds. such as steering wheel input. Note: The table field requires at least two lines of data in order to create a plot 1 . Additional information can be added after a second comma. The solver programs in CarSimEd have two methods for extrapolating outside the range of a table. The numbers must be separated by a comma.3. • For variables that are inputs to the vehicle (controls. The plot 1 shown on this type of screen covers only the range of data.

— 119 — . the data shown in Figure 8. This operation is useful when tabular data are pasted into the edit field from some other source. the first or last two points are used for extrapolation by assuming their gradient for values outside the defined range. this menu is not used as much as in most Windows programs.0 to be used for values of time less than zero. • For variables that describe vehicle properties (for example. Open. deflection). In CarSimEd. spring force vs. 2 . Depending on whether the independent value is less than or greater than the range of the table. The keyboard command is Ctrl-O. For example. such as an echo file created by a CarSimEd solver program. Save Select this menu item to immediately save the current TBK file to disk. File Menu The File menu contains commands pertaining to library TBK files. The files are automatically saved whenever you move from one library to another. For values of time greater than 210 seconds. The keyboard command is Ctrl-S.. the steering wheel angle would be 230 degrees. Click this button to “clean up” the appearance of the numbers in the table field.3 would cause a steering wheel angle of 0. Select this menu item to open an arbitrary TBK library file. and additional information after a second comma is removed. so this command is used mainly when the machine stability is in doubt and you fear a program crash. Click this button to create a new plot of the data in the field 4 Tidy Table button. 3 Update Plot button. constant-grade extrapolation is used. A space is inserted after the comma. because the opening and saving of files is handled automatically.Chapter 8 Design of CarSimEd Data Screens is used..

eliminating space that was used by data sets that have been deleted. Over time. Print Data Set Select this menu item to print the current screen. Import Data from Other Library Select this menu item to import one or more data sets from another TBK file into the current one. or as large as 700K. This command is useful for transferring information between separate CarSimEd installations. Depending on the amount of graphic content. If a file is selected. The numbered items are described below. the TBK library files can grow more than expected. the contents are displayed in the following dialog box. It is also useful for importing data from an old version of CarSimEd into an updated version. Print Library Select this menu item to print all data sets in the current library. the normal size of a TBK file can be as small as 70K. the Windows File browser appears with a request to locate a TBK file with data to import. Select this menu item to select a Windows printer and optionally configure it.Chapter 8 Design of CarSimEd Data Screens Print Setup. Use this menu item if you notice that some of the TBK files have gotten very large. Compact Library This command causes ToolBook to compact the file. using the data screen layout.. Backup Library Select this menu item to make a backup copy of the current TBK library file. When the command is selected. because when you delete data sets the file space is not recovered.. The copy is given the extension BAK. — 120 — .

Click this button to import all data sets from the linked file (shown in 1 ). Due to a lowlevel interaction between ToolBook and Windows.Chapter 8 Design of CarSimEd Data Screens 1 2 3 4 1 Link to the selected “source” TBK file. the value is not copied. ToolBook will sometimes crash while trying to import many data sets. it is given a unique name by appending # and a number. and copying the values from the source to the target. a warning message appears warning of possible problems. 3 Import All button. The adjacent button can be used to select a different file. The importing process involves taking every record field (yellow or blue) that exists in both the source and target data sets. 2 Import Selected button. . the value shown in the current data set in the target is unchanged. Each data set in the source library is copied into the currently open “target” library. Note: 4 If you select more than 10 data sets to import. Click this button to import the data sets selected in the field 4 . If a field does not exist in the source. The process is the same as described above for the Import Selected button 2 . It is recommended that you import less than 10 data sets at a time. If the field does not exist in the target. List of data sets in the linked library indicated in — 121 — 1 . If a target data set already exists with the same name. and that you back up the library file that is the target of the import process.

Undo Select this menu item to undo the most recent entry or change in a text field. it is replaced by the contents of the clipboard. The keyboard command is the delete key. Clear Select this menu item to clear the currently selected text. Paste Select this menu item to paste the clipboard to the current cursor location. If text is currently selected. The keyboard command is Ctrl+V.Chapter 8 Design of CarSimEd Data Screens Exit Select this menu item or use the keyboard command Ctrl+Q to exit from CarSimEd. — 122 — . Cut Select this menu item to cut the currently selected text to the clipboard. Copy Select this menu item to copy the currently selected text to the clipboard. Edit Menu The Edit menu supports the clipboard and the Find command. The keyboard command is Ctrl+X. The keyboard command is Ctrl+C. The keyboard command is Ctrl+Z.

Although text formatting has no effect on how the simulations are run. Character Select this menu item to bring up a floating window to change the character properties of the selected text (Font. leading to errors that will corrupt your files.) of the selected text. The keyboard command is Ctrl+D. etc.. Find. etc. you can control the appearance of the text in notes and data fields if you wish.Chapter 8 Design of CarSimEd Data Screens Select All Select this menu item to select all text in the field where the cursor is currently located.g.). The keyboard command is Ctrl+A. The keyboard command is Ctrl+M. Font Style. WARNING: While you are using this option it is possible to trick the underlying ToolBook runtime system. — 123 — ... Paragraph Select this menu item to bring up a floating window to change the spacing (e. Note: The items in the Text menu apply only to the currently selected text in a single field. This command can be used by advanced users to locate information in CarSimEd data fields. Size. Spacing. Alignment. Text Menu The Text menu contains commands involving the display of text in edit fields and notes. Use this option with caution. Indentation.

Chapter 8 Design of CarSimEd Data Screens Regular Select this menu item to remove any special character properties of the selected text. The keyboard command is Ctrl+I. The keyboard command is Ctrl+K. Superscript Select this menu item to toggle the selected text between superscript and not superscript. Subscript Select this menu item to toggle the selected text between subscript and not subscript. such as bold. and also control of how the current data screen is viewed. The keyboard command is Ctrl+L. Strikeout Select this menu item to toggle the selected text between strikeout and not strikeout. underline. Italic Select this menu item to toggle the selected text between italic and not italic. — 124 — . Bold Select this menu item to toggle the selected text between bold and not bold. Page Menu This menu offers access to previously viewed screens (pages). Normal Script Select this menu item to remove subscript/superscript formatting. The keyboard command is Ctrl+B. Underline Select this menu item to toggle the selected text between underline and not underline. The keyboard command is Ctrl+Shift+L. The keyboard command is Ctrl+Space. etc. The keyboard command is Ctrl+U.

shown below. Tools Menu Use the Tools menu as an alternative to the buttons in the ribbon bar. However. Use this menu item to restore its appearance. If you happen to click on the Windows zoom icon. From the window you can select a library and go to it by double-clicking on it or clicking the OK button. Windows will fill your screen with the current window. the window doesn’t show any more information. was described in more detail starting on page 110.Chapter 8 Design of CarSimEd Data Screens History Select this menu item to bring up the following floating window to see a list of the libraries that you have visited during this session. — 125 — . The ribbon bar. Size to Page Select this menu item to set the CarSimEd window to its default size.

Library Editor Select this menu item to bring up a floating window used to edit existing libraries (same as 12 ). etc. (same as 15 ). 10 Text Editor Select this menu item to go to a utility library used to create and edit text files (same as 11 ). View Parstree Select this menu item to run the Parstree program and view the tree of PAR files that starts from the current data set (same as 18 ).Chapter 8 Design of CarSimEd Data Screens 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Calculator Select this menu item to go to the calculator screen (same as ). — 126 — . Runs Select this menu item to go to a Runs library with settings to make a single simulation run (same as 17 ). formats. Batch Runs Select this menu item to go to the Runs: Batch library (same as 16 ). Plot Setup Select this menu item to go to the Plot Setup: Single library with plot settings that define plot variables. Preferences Select this menu item to bring up a floating window used to set global preferences for CarSimEd (same as 20 ). Batch Plotting Select this menu item to go to the Plot Setup: Batch library (same as 14 ). Spectrum This item is reserved for the Spectrum Setup library (same as 13 ).

1 shows some of the keywords for the Cars data screen. The keywords are defined in this chapter along with the definitions for the parameters so you will know where to look for them in the echo files. and other user interface objects. Many of the parameters in the CarSimEd models are applied both on the front and the rear of the vehicle. Standard Objects Standard objects that were described in Chapter 8 are not covered again in this chapter. the same data screen is used to describe properties of all tires. For example. etc. Therefore. they are specified along with the parameter keyword. They are shown in parentheses in the Courier font. the buttons at the top of the screen (New. Conventions in This Chapter Each section shows an example data screen and describes its data fields. links. You can view the keywords in the PAR file directly by clicking the button in the ribbon bar. Alphabetical Library Reference This chapter describes all of the libraries in CarSimEd. For example. For example. with the indexing being defined with the keyword IAXLE. the entry for tire spring rate reads: Tire spring rate (keyword = KT (IAXLE). Figure 9. These echo files identify the parameters with keywords and list them in alphabetical order (see Appendix F for an example). buttons. Keywords Parameter values that are displayed in yellow fields will usually appear in the echo files produced by the solver programs. For example. Notice that the PARFILE shown in the figure has a couple of lines that read iaxle 1 — 127 — .) are the same in every library. based on the screen (window) title.9. Parameters that are repeated for each axle are called indexed parameters. Delete. The indexing keywords can be of interest to advanced users who override vehicle properties using the Miscellaneous fields scattered throughout the CarSimEd data screens. regardless of their location. They are listed in alphabetical order.

1. to get to the Animator: Camera Setup screen. This means that when any indexed parameters (including values read from other libraries) are read that involve the keyword IAXLE. A few lines down from the first occurrence. then follow a blue link to go to the Animator: Camera Setup screen. View of input PAR files using Parstree. Location of Library Each section ends with the location of the library explained from two points of view. If an indexed parameter is read again. followed by some pathnames. For example. start with the CarSimEd Startup screen. then press the Start button to go to the Runs screen.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference Figure 9. First is a list of the screens needed to reach the library using the user interface. the IAXLE keyword is repeated with a value 2. the value is applied to axle 2. they are applied to axle 1. This sequence is written at the end of the reference section as: Location in CarSimEd CarSimEd Startup Runs Animator: Camera Setup — 128 — .

and the properties of an optional grid. the absolute pathname would be something like C:\CarSimEd\Animate\Camera\Cameras. Besides drawing shapes and wheels. The animator program allows both the camera and look points to be associated with any userdefined reference frame. At each output time interval. The relative pathnames are useful to know even if you are not looking for a file. Your location (actually. the amount of zoom. Y.tbk). because they appear in the pulldown menu of the GO button (in the ribbon bar).Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference Note: The names shown under Location in CarSimEd match the window titles and the subheading titles in this chapter. In addition. If the simulation was run over a — 129 — . In CarSimEd. the animator generates a 2D image based on the relationships between the location and orientation of the simulated vehicle and the camera and look points (see the illustration on the data screen).g. the location of the camera you are holding) determines your point of view.g.. The reference frame can be fixed or it can be a vehicle part (e. a sprung mass. the direction in which the virtual camera is looking. From that point.. Animator: Camera Setup The Animator Camera Setup screen defines the location of the virtual camera in the animator. and the look point 4 . However. the animator program described in Chapter 6 simulates the motions that you would view with a video camera. If the camera has a zoom lens. but not always. Discussion Imagine you have a video camera and are viewing a vehicle as it moves down the road. However. and a target path on the ground. a relative pathname is given for the library TBK file (e. there is no physical vehicle to look at. Point locations are defined in 3D space with sets of X. the animator can draw a flat grid for the ground. and Z coordinates. For example. These pathnames are relative to the root directory of CarSimEd. Animate\ Cameras\Cameras. you will probably pan the camera to keep the vehicle in view. you might zoom in or out to control the size of the vehicle in the viewfinder. The locations and orientations of vehicle parts are determined by the solver program. Use the Animator Camera Setup screen to establish various camera positions and aiming strategies. you can aim the camera anywhere. a 3D grid for the ground. It is even possible to define a new moving reference frame using variables that are available in the simulation output files. They sometimes match captions of the blue links.tbk. The parameters in this library are associated with two geometric points illustrated on the screen: the camera point 2 . to go along with the simulated vehicles. The camera and look points are determined by the information provided in this data set.

as described in Chapter 6. and Z coordinates of the camera point (keywords = set_camera_x. — 130 — . See Chapter 6 for details. All of the numbers shown on this screen can be modified interactively when the animator is running. (Similar information about the target path is specified on the target path screen: Input: Target Path For Closed-Loop Steer Control. A large value produces a telephoto lens effect and a small value produces a wide-angle lens effect. The coordinates apply to the reference frame specified in 3 . Notes: Chapter 6 explains reference frames. Y. 6 7 8 1 9 10 2 4 11 12 3 5 13 User Settings 1 Focal length of the simulated camera (keyword = set_focal_length). the 3D input to the simulation is also used by the animator. 2 X. the section Animator Reference Frames in this chapter describes how you define them. set_camera_y. Focal length has units of meters.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference 3D ground surface. set_camera_z).) The grid can be turned off manually within the Animator. the animator draws a flat grid. The grid spacing is specified on this screen. These coordinates have units of meters. In addition. If not.

Unlike the camera reference frame. set_lookpoint_z). Y. The reference frame can be fixed or moving. you can select this button to slow it down to real-time. the animation runs at the default frame rate. Typically. then create a copy of the reference frame of interest. you can use a higher frame rate to slow it down. the look-point reference frame must be used somewhere else. Alternatively. if necessary.g. If this field is left blank. 4 X. — 131 — . (The reference frame description is not sent to the animator. the animator accesses the computer clock and waits.) 6 Target frame rate for animation—pictures per second (keyword = set_frame_rate).g. The reference frame used to define the camera coordinates cannot be used anywhere else. the computer will not be able to refresh the screen in real time and the animation will run in slow motion. If the animation is running faster than real time. it is Camera tracking X-Y). 100) is useful for viewing wheel lock-up during brake simulations. and Z coordinates of the Look Point (keywords = set_lookpoint_x. it is more common to define a custom reference frame. in order to avoid an error that occurs if the same reference frame name is used twice. Notes: The animator program requires each reference frame to have a unique name. a lower frame rate ensures that the animation runs approximately in real time.Chapter 9 3 Alphabetical Library Reference Link to the reference frame in which the camera is located. you can specify a lower frame rate to speed it up. If the animation is running too slowly. and link to the copy. frame rates of 10 to 30 frames per second can run in real-time on Pentium computers. Notes: The process of checking the computer clock introduces a small delay. If the target frame rate is very high (more than 100). set_lookpoint_y. The delay depends on the computer and how your system is set up. 5 Link to the reference frame in which the look point is located. It is typically the same as the camera point reference frame 3 .. When this button is selected. Although vehicle reference frames can be used for the camera. The camera must have its own named reference frame (in the example above. 7 Radio button for using the computer CPU clock (keyword = set_use_cpu_clock on). to avoid running the animation faster than real time. For handling simulations. the sprung mass). specified under the Preferences option in the Edit menu of the animator (see Section 5). The coordinates apply to the reference frame specified in 5 . The reference frame can be fixed or moving. If you want to position the camera in a vehicle reference frame (e. A high frame rate (e. because only the name is provided to the animator from this link.. give the copy a new name. These coordinates have units of meters.

When selected. Note: The X and Y directions are handled independently. (It superimposes images. To have the animator automatically determine the range for the grid. This is text that specifies the color of the grid.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference If the animation is already running slower than real-time. checking the computer clock will slow it down even more. Valid colors are provided in a pull-down menu. Location in CarSimEd CarSimEd Startup Runs Animator: Camera Setup File Location Animate\Cameras\Cameras. 13 Maximum X and Y values covered by the grid (keywords = set_max_x. If not specified. When this box is checked the animator does not erase each frame before drawing the next. set_max_y). To have the animator automatically determine the range for the grid. set_min_y). 9 Viewing mode check box (keyword = set_superimpose). The units for these values are meters. set the minimum and maximum values equal or leave them blank. you must decrease the target frame rate 6 . Also. 8 Radio button for maximum speed animation (keyword = set_use_cpu_clock off).) The values associated with the keyword (written into the text PAR file) are on and off. select button 8 to eliminate the delay caused by checking the clock. the default values are zero. In general you should select this box if the animation is running slower than real time on your computer. If not specified. If the animation is running slower than real time and you want to speed it up.tbk — 132 — . allowing maximum display speed. The units for these values are meters. the default values are zero. The units for these values are meters. the range for the other direction can be determined automatically. set_interval_y). Even if the range is set manually in one direction. 11 Grid intervals for X and Y (keywords = set_interval_x. 10 Grid color (keyword = set_color). set the minimum and maximum values equal or leave them blank. 12 Minimum X and Y values covered by the grid (keywords = set_min_x. the animator does not access the computer clock.

each shape or wheel is moved with a reference frame. Discussion The Animator draws several kinds of objects: a flat grid for the ground. 2. The multiple shapes can be fixed or moving. The grid properties are specified in the Animator: Camera Setup screen. By definition. there is always a single active reference frame. As explained in Chapter 6. suppose there is a reference frame with the title sedan body. Although shapes and wheels are always associated with the active reference frame. multiple shapes. the same wheel shape is usually linked to every moving wheel reference frame. a target path on the ground. Once the animator starts processing data for a particular reference frame. and then switch back to sedan body. In contrast. it is no longer possible to add shapes or wheels to reference frames that were previously processed. then process shapes for another reference frame. the target-path display properties are specified in the Input: Target Path For Closed-Loop Steer Control screen. However. Notes: 1. reference frames. each shape and wheel that is processed moves with this frame. there is only a single camera point and a single look point. Grouping Shapes Together Groups of shapes and wheels are grouped and associated with reference frames to build a detailed visual representation of a road or vehicle. a 3D grid for the ground. you should not have occasion to deal with them in an Animation: Groups data set. the camera and look-point coordinates are not. — 133 — . For example. and almost everything else is grouped using this screen. The reason that shapes and wheels are handled differently than camera and look-point data is that shapes and wheels can be duplicated. As the inputs to the animator are processed. and other groups.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference Animator: Groups The Animator: Groups screen is used to group shapes. this library can be used for several purposes. Due to the versatility of the animator. and multiple wheels. When the animator is reading input data. reference frames are used to define motions of vehicle parts. It is important to understand that all objects in a reference frame must be processed together. The animator will not allow some shapes to be processed for sedan body. For example. because the camera and look-point data are contained in the library Animator: Camera Setup.

Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference 3. this screen would include links to wheel data from an Animator: Wheels screen. the information needed to draw the tire/wheel objects is taken from the tire data sets. 4. For example. be aware that the data are sent to the animator in the same order they are numbered on the screen: top to bottom.2.2 and older versions.2 shows how the body of a car is assembled from many individual shapes. it should be the first one (Link 1). — 134 — . Figure 9. This is done when more links are needed that can be specified in one data set. but the most common one is to group several shapes or wheels together without associating them with a reference frame. In CarSimEd 4. An animator group can be set up several ways. Animator group for body assembly. In newer versions of CarSimEd. then left to right. When combining reference frames and other data sets. 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Figure 9. If one of the links is to a reference frame. This data screen is unusual in CarSimEd because it is common for one data set to have links to other data sets in the same library. That becomes the “active reference frame” until another one is defined. The Animator: Wheels library is no longer needed and has been eliminated.

to see by example how complex systems are assembled using this screen. Y. the PAR files for the vehicle data sets specify x_length using the wheelbase of the vehicle. If the simulated vehicle has a longer wheelbase than the value specified with x_ref_length. The PAR files for the suspensions specify y_length using the suspension track width. In CarSimEd. Note: The animator group is one of the more difficult to understand screens in CarSimEd. It may help to browse through the groups that are installed with CarSimEd. If the simulated wheelbase is shorter than the reference.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference Resizable Vehicle Shapes A recently added feature of the animator is the support of “resizable shapes. — 135 — . A portion of an Animator: Groups screen is shown below with reference X and Y lengths.” Coordinates in shapes associated with a reference frame can be re-scaled in the X. Therefore. and Z directions by these ratios: • X coordinates are multiplied by the ratio: x_length/x_ref_length • Y coordinates are multiplied by the ratio: y_length/y_ref_length • Z coordinates are multiplied by the ratio: z_length/z_ref_length The scaling is only performed in a direction if both the length and the reference length are specified. and the reference track width using the keyword y_ref_length. the animator will compress the shapes. the animator will stretch out the shape to fit the actual wheelbase. you can enable the animation data to be resizable by specifying the reference wheelbase using the keyword x_ref_length (use mm).

All Y coordinates will be negated for the current shape (using data from the preceding link). This section explains how you define animator reference frames within CarSimEd. which means there may be links to it from libraries other than those shown below. then all wheels and shapes are attached to the most recently introduced reference frame. These keyword values apply to the previously read data. shapes. enter the keyword set_scale_y followed by a value –1 (see Figure 9. The format is that each line has a keyword and value. — 136 — .tbk Animator: Reference Frames This screen is used to define animator reference frames and coordinate systems (moving or stationary). separated with white space (at least a single space). A group. These fields can be used to add to shape or wheel data. or shape appearing in one of these links is attached to the reference frame link most immediately above it. In order to effectively use the animator. If none of the links are made to a reference frame. Links are used to include other groups. Use these fields to assign values to arbitrary keywords. wheels.2). In CarSimEd this is done to stretch vehicle shapes according to wheelbase and track width. These fields are also used to define scale factors that are applied to an entire group of shapes. For example. Location in CarSimEd Note: This library can be applied in different ways. Note: The scale factors are reset to unity and the offsets are reset to zero whenever a new shape is introduced. CarSimEd Startup Runs Vehicles: Car Animator: Groups File Location Animate\Groups\Groups. and reference frames. which is found from the link immediately preceding the yellow field. (That reference frame is defined in a data set above this one.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference User Settings 1 Miscellaneous links. Chapter 6 introduces the notion. to mirror an object from the left to the right side. wheel. you need to understand the concept of a reference frame.) 2 Miscellaneous fields.

e. This conversion is defined by the global position of the origin of the moving coordinate system (its global X. When the relationships between a set of points does not ever change (i. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 In order to draw the wire-frame shapes. they are said to exist in the same reference frame. and Z coordinates). The orientation of a reference frame is defined by three consecutive rotations that are called Euler angles. they form a rigid structure). Y. along with the orientations of its three axes. The lines used to draw each wire-frame object may move relative to other objects. the coordinates that are provided for shapes are constants when based on a coordinate system fixed in the appropriate reference frame.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference Discussion The animator in CarSimEd shows moving and stationary wire-frame figures. but the spatial relationships between the lines in a single object are fixed. the animator must convert relative coordinates in a moving coordinate system to absolute coordinates in the global coordinate system. For vehicles.. Note: Appendix B includes a formal discussion of reference frames and coordinate systems in the context of defining output variables related to vehicle dynamics. Therefore. and roll (rotation about the “new-new” X axis). — 137 — . pitch (rotation about the “new” Y axis). the angles are commonly called yaw (rotation about the Z axis).

a reference frame is defined by six variables: three coordinates (X. pitch. These are short names in the ERD files associated with the variable C in Equation 1. X". Y. Finally. Y. Note that the values of the angles depend on the order of the rotations: different angles are required for sequential rotations about the X-Y-Z axes than about the Z-Y-X axes. associated with the variable A in Equation 2. In general. set_pitch_name. After reading the six variables. The animator reads the required six variables from the output files generated by the solver programs.0 is used. set_scale_var_y. These values are numbers used to replace the symbol Co in Equation 1. If no name is listed. then a constant value of 0. Although it might not be obvious at first if you are not experienced with 3D kinematics.0 is also used if the name is not found in the ERD file. set_offset_var_z). After this is done. Y. first rotate the frame about its Z axis by a yaw angle. rotate about the new Y axis. Y. set_yaw_name). about the most recent X axis. a value of 1.0 is used. 2 Offsets for coordinate variables for X. and Z). Y. and three Euler angles. but the X and Y axes are pointed in new directions.0 is used to compute the coordinate.0 is used. Y'. A value of 0. set_offset_var_yaw). the Y axis is still in the Y' direction. and Z axes of the moving frame are parallel with those of the global frame. set_y_name. any conceivable orientation of a reference frame can be described with three Euler angles.0 is also used if the name is not found in the ERD file. Co and Ao are the constant offsets. a value of 0. — 138 — . and Z (keywords = set_offset_var_x. User Settings 1 Names of coordinate variables for X. but the X and Z axes are pointed in new directions. set_offset_var_pitch. the moving frame can be oriented by consecutive rotations about its axes. by the roll angle. and SFa and SF c are scale factors (gains). by a pitch angle. the new Z direction is the same as the old. and Z (keywords = set_scale_var_x. each coordinate and Euler angle is calculated with a relationship of the form: coordinate = Co + C*SFc (1) angle = Ao + A*SFa (2) where C and A are the translation and angle variables obtained from the ERD file. If no number is entered. called X' and Y'. set_z_name). 3 Scale factors for coordinate variables for X. set_scale_var_z). and yaw (keywords = set_offset_var_roll.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference Starting such that the X. A value of 0. 5 Offsets for Euler angle variables for roll. and yaw (keywords = set_roll_name. These values are numbers used to replace the symbol SFc in Equation 1. pitch. If no name is listed (the field is left blank). and Z (keywords = set_x_name. After the pitch rotation. called X" and Z". 4 Names of Euler angle variables for roll. then a constant value of 0. These are short names in the ERD files. rotate a third time. Next. For example. If no number is entered. set_offset_var_y.

Thus. A constraint is that there cannot be two consecutive rotations about the same axis.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference These values are numbers used to replace the symbol A o in Equation 2. used for the spinning wheels. If no number is entered. only two sequences are common for vehicle dynamics: yaw-pitch-roll (used for large body motions). However. set_scale_var_yaw). These are the only two allowed by the animator. set_scale_var_pitch. and two for the third. These two options are selected from a pull-down menu. These values are numbers used to replace the symbol SFa in Equation 2. pitch. For the animator in CarSimEd. there are three choices for the first rotation. a value of 0.0 is used.tbk Animator: Shapes This screen is used to define one or more wire-frame shapes that are drawn by the animator. the value must be either the text yaw_pitch_roll or the text yaw_roll_pitch. 7 Rotation sequence for Euler angles (keyword = set_euler_angles). and yawroll-pitch. If no number is entered. Location in CarSimEd Camera Setup CarSimEd Startup Runs Animator: Camera Setup Animator: Reference Frames Vehicle Definition CarSimEd Startup Runs Vehicles: Car Animator: Groups Animator: Reference Frames File Location Animate\Frames\Frames.0 is used. — 139 — . 6 Scale factors for Euler angle variables for roll. There are 12 possible sequences of body-fixed orientation angles. a value of 1. and yaw (keywords = set_scale_var_roll. two for the second.

The animator starts with the first point. Scale factors can be used to change the size of a shape. Co is the offset. then all of the corresponding coordinates are given the opposite sign. All coordinates are assumed to be in a local coordinate system. For example. and draws connecting lines to each following point in a list. and SF is a scale factor (gain). If the scale factor is negative.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference 1 2 3 4 5 Discussion A shape is a set of points connected by straight lines.) The animator also supports offsets and scale factors. The shape library can handle two kinds of shape data: — 140 — . All of the coordinates are calculated using the equation: coordinate = Co + C*SF (1) where C is the original coordinate.0. to make a hood twice as long. For example. Scale factors can also be used to mirror a shape. Applying an offset has the effect of relocating the shape within the reference frame. Each point is defined by a set of three coordinates (X-Y-Z). (See the discussion on how shapes and reference frames are associated in the section Animator Groups. enter an X scale factor of 2. a left fender can be converted to a right fender by setting the Y scale factor to –1. The offsets and scale factors allow the shapes to be relocated and resized without requiring all of the coordinates to be changed by hand. associated with the active reference frame. on page 133.

fewer files are processed by the animator. 3 Coordinate Scale Factors (keywords = set_scale_x. Multiple shapes can be described. The units are meters. Each line should have the three coordinates of a single point. If not specified. separated with white space (at least a single space). 2 Coordinate Offsets (keywords = set_offset_x. If not specified. using the Miscellaneous field. 5 Miscellaneous field. All coordinates in the shape are adjusted by these offsets according to Equation 1.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference 1. the animator uses default values of 1. A single shape is described. 2. Blank lines are not allowed. The scale factors are dimensionless.tbk — 141 — . using the appropriately labeled fields. 4 Color (keyword = set_color). The second approach is useful if there are many shapes used to describe a complex body. See Appendix E for the animator keywords and some example files. set_offset_y. By putting the many shapes into one data set. the animator uses default values of 0. set_offset_z). This field is for advanced users.0. The field should look like a portion of a PARSFILE that can be processed by the animator. Valid colors are provided in a pull-down menu. The units are meters. set_scale_z). All coordinates in the shape are adjusted by these scale factors according to Equation 1. and they are unlikely to be used for any other purpose. User Settings 1 Coordinates of points that are connected by lines in the animation (keywords = set_coordinates to indicate the start and end_coordinates to indicate the end of the list). and there is less likelihood of accidentally modifying a group. Location in CarSimEd CarSimEd Startup Runs Vehicles: Car Animator: Groups Animator: Shapes File Location Animate\Shapes\Shapes.0. set_scale_y. The format is that each line has a keyword and value. This sets the color of the lines drawn to connect the points. The syntax is that each of the values is separated by at least one space. It can be used to enter multiple shapes.

separated by a specified thickness. It is generally used only to define the rods and the wheel in the five-link suspension model. 2 Radius (keyword = set_radius). In addition. 1 3 2 4 5 6 7 User Settings 1 Thickness (keyword = set_thickness).Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference Animator: Wheels The current version of the animator supports a single 3D graphic primitive—a cylinder. This should have units of meters. — 142 — . the corresponding nodes of the polygons are connected by lines.) Discussion The animator considers a wheel to be two polygons with a specified radius. 3 Number of points used for polygon approximation of circle (keyword = set_num_points). (Wheels on the vehicle are defined by the effective tire rolling radius from the Tires data screen. 4 Color of lines drawn by animator to show the wheel (keyword = set_color). Valid colors are provided in a pull-down menu. This should have units of meters.

and the other two can be used to resize the wheel. This check-box determines whether a line is drawn from the center of one of the polygons to the first node. This screen can be used to convert units for existing data. The values associated with the keyword (written into the text PAR file) are on and off.tbk Calculator Use this screen to create and edit tabular numerical data. Default values of 0. These are dimensionless scale factors in the X. Default values of 1. Location in CarSimEd CarSimEd Startup Runs: Suspension Analysis Suspensions: 5-Link Independent Animator Groups Animator Wheels File Location Animate\Wheels\Wheels. set_offset_z). For example (explained in detail later). To use the data. Note: This screen does not directly feed numbers to a solver program. and Z directions. set_scale_y. set_offset_y. If the X and Z scale factors are not equal. Y. It is available from a button on the ribbon bar and from the Tools menu. — 143 — . 6 Coordinates of center (keywords = set_offset_x. 7 Scale factors in three directions (keywords = set_scale_x. before the offsets 6 are added. These are the X. set_scale_z). They are multiplied by the coordinates of the wheel.0.0 are used if no values are provided. Discussion This data screen is a tool supplied in CarSimEd because there are many times that simple calculations are needed when preparing numbers for CarSimEd data sets.0.0 are used if no values are provided. or to create tables from scratch. Y.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference 5 Radial line option (keyword = set_radial_line). the wheel will be elliptical. centered at 0. The single line is useful for determining when wheels lock up during braking simulations. rather than circular. the screen display shows how a series of X-Y coordinates are created for a circular input path. and Z coordinates of the wheel center in the reference frame with which the wheel is associated. you must copy the numbers to the clipboard and then paste them into the appropriate data screen. The Y scale factor adjusts the thickness.

a few examples are provided to show you how they are used. All other items are unaffected. • It evaluates mathematical expressions involving values in a 2D table.3.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference 1 14 16 15 2 17 3 18 5 6 7 8 4 9 10 11 12 20 22 23 13 19 21 24 Figure 9. If this is not checked the items associated with the simple calculator ( 14 . offering the following capabilities: • It plots tabular data for one or more pairs of X-Y data points. updating the entire table with a single button click. The screen design is fairly complex.17 ). most of the items on the screen are hidden. For example. • It creates tabular data from scratch. you can convert the units for different columns in a table using different scale factors for each column. Only those involved with the simple calculator are not affected by this box ( 14 . After the settings are described. User Settings and Controls 1 Show Series Calculator check box. based on start and end conditions for a series.17 ) are hidden. The calculator screen. • It performs simple calculations by evaluating a mathematical expression and printing the numerical result. 2 Show Simple Calculator check box. — 144 — . If this is not checked.

Click to reverse the order of the columns of data in the tabular data field 3 . The text in this field specifies whether numbers are written with fixed decimal places or in scientific notation. The values in this field are shown graphically in the adjacent plot 18 . 19 . Click to ensure that all numbers in a row are separated with commas. they are removed. this has no effect. 5 Delete ‘. It also specifies how many digits are written to the right of the decimal point. Following are some example format strings and the effect they have on three example mathematical expressions. 8 Help button. or to transform existing values. 9 Format button. Each row should have the same number of items (columns). Click to bring up a window with a listing of functions that can be used in formulas in the calculators. The format string has the form: X.17 . separated by commas and/or spaces. If commas already exist. 4 Insert ‘.Chapter 9 3 Alphabetical Library Reference Tabular Data field. If numbers are already separated only by white space. E+ or e+ — Scientific notation with sign always used for the exponent. 6 Flip Rows button. determine whether commas separate the numbers. then numbers are written to their full precision. If the format field is blank.’ button. with each line in the field representing a row. This is where the tabular data values are created and edited. If commas exist. All values in the table must be numbers. The data are assumed to fit in a tabular organization. 7 Flip Cols button. 10 Format field. The only part of the screen that is not related to the tabular data field is the simple calculator. Click to format the numbers in the tabular data field format string 10 . The fields and buttons in the bottom area of the screen ( 13 . If used.24 ) are used to perform calculations to create the tabular data from scratch. Click to ensure that all numbers in a row are separated with white space only. The number of digits in the exponent is determined by the number of place holders. with items 14 . # — Same as 0 except the digit is not printed unless it is needed.’ button.X where the X’s represent a series of place holders: 3 according to the 0 — place holder for a digit. this has no effect except possibly to tidy the appearance of the table 3 .11 ) are used to change the precision of the numbers. Click to reverse the order of the rows of data in the tabular data field 3 . and to modify the column-row structure of the table. you must put place holders (0 or #) before and after the E+ or E-. The buttons underneath ( 4 . — 145 — .

In the first case. In this case.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference String none #.000000E+000 45/atan(1) 57. Click this to update the graphic 18 based on the current contents of the tabular data field 3 .6. 1. Thus. Initially.729578e+1 5.2.25 e+0 1.5 5. all definitions must involve only numbers and a single variable X. Y3.25 1. 9 5/4 1. 13 Formulas for items (Create or Transform). and 24 .2958 57.0000 #. and 24 ) and the mathematical definitions. It provides transforms of existing numbers that will be calculated when you click the Calculate button 19 and the Transform button 21 is selected. (Use the Delete ‘. In both cases..) In both cases. X is calculated automatically and given a value for each new row based on the three fields 22 .7 2. the definitions must involve numbers and the variables X. X is an arbitrary independent variable whose values are — 146 — . the field is cleared and all new numbers are put into it. 23 . . 23 . In this case.7 12 Plot button.250000E+000 or the Calculate button 11 Transpose button. The field is used for two distinctly different purposes: 1 . items (numerical results of the calculations) are separated by commas. and so on.2957795130823 57. The meaning is not always the same. Y2.3 Becomes 1. It provides mathematical definitions of the numbers that will be calculated and stored in the tabular data field when you click the Calculate button 19 and the Create button 20 is selected.0175 0.0175 1. Y is the second number. the tabular data field will have the same number of items as the mathematical definitions field.#### 0. 2.. In the first case.2958 5. Y2 is the third.745329E-002 The format field is applied when you click the Format button 19 . In the second case. against the values of column 1 on the X axis. the number of plots is N-1 where N is the number of columns.2500 1. Y.74532925199433e-2 0. This field is used to create or transform numbers in the tabular data field 3 . based on the series information ( 22 . the tabular data field is not cleared—the existing numbers are processed and then replaced by the values calculated from the formulas.’ button 5 to remove the commas if that is required. Click to transpose the columns and rows in the tabular data field For example: 1.6 3.######e+### 0. where X is the first number in each line of the tabular data field..25 1.745329e-2 1. the variable X can be included in the expressions.729578E+001 atan(1)/45 1. The graphic is created by plotting values of columns 2 and higher on the Y axis.

When selected. In the second 24 The variables Y. Thus. In addition to normal arithmetic operations. the fields 22 . 20 Create button. They should not be used when generating new numbers with the Create button 20 is selected. It is applied when you click the “=” button 15 . This displays the results of the calculation performed when you click the “=” button 15 . the operation depends on whether the Create or Transform button ( 20 . the fields 22 . and . As noted in the description of the formulas . This is the value assigned to X for the first row of numbers created in the tabular data field 3 when you click the Calculate button 19 . 14 and print the When the Create button is selected. 22 Start value. Several examples are provided in the following Examples subsection to indicate how you might use this field. 17 Calculator output field. The plot is not made automatically—you must click the Plot button 12 to create it or update it after modifying the tabular data 3 . X is the first number in the tabular data field 3 . the calculator has a number of built-in functions that are described in a later subsection and which can be displayed by clicking the Help button 8 . The syntax is the same as for the other format field 10 . 18 Plot. Enter a mathematical expression. described previously. 23 . and Step are obtained from the fields 22 . the number of plots is N-1 where N is the number of columns. the number of rows is the same in the table field is the same after the calculations are made. and 24 are displayed and the function of the Calculate button 19 is defined to create a new series using the definitions in the formula field 13 . then click the “=” button 15 to see the result in the calculator output field 17 . When selected. are recognized only in the second case. The format can be specified using the format string 16 . the number of rows created will be equal to (End – Start +1)/Step. and 24 are hidden and the function of the Calculate button 19 is defined to transform an existing series using the definitions in the formula field 13 . 19 Calculate button. 23 . and 24 . End. This field contains a format string used to control the round-off in the calculator output 17 . where the values of Start. Click to evaluate the expression in the input field result in the output field 17 . 15 Calculate button. The variables and function names used in this field are not sensitive to case: x and X refer to the same variable. 14 Calculator input field. 22 . Click to replace the contents of the tabular data field 3 with calculated numbers. 23 . against the values of column 1 on the X axis from 3 . — 147 — . When the Transform button is selected. Y2. 23 . This graphic is created by plotting values of columns 2 and higher on the Y axis. 21 ) is selected. etc. 16 Calculator output format.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference defined by the range and interval specified in the fields case. 21 Transform button.

Set End X 23 to 630 (the ending angle will be +630°. Click the Calculate button 4. Set Start X 3. This is the value assigned to X for the last row of numbers created in the tabular data field 3 when you click the Calculate button 19 .2. Examples Generate a Circle A circle can be approximated by a series of X-Y coordinate pairs. 152. Check your work by clicking the Plot button 19 21 . — 148 — : X*1. where X = R*cos(A).29578) 22 20 . and A is an angle.4 m (500 ft) and goes through the point X=0. do the following (see Figure 9. instead of specifying an increment of 2° for DX 23 . to –90 (the starting angle will be –90°). To generate a set of values that define a circle with a radius of 152. This is the interval used to calculate X for every row between the first and last in the tabular data field 3 when you click the Calculate button 19 . Rescale the Circle Suppose you want to increase the radius of the circle by 20% 1. Y = R*sin(A). Note: the x in the above formulas is the independent variable used to create the series. When making a series for the first time. and therefore the difference will be 720°—two times around the circle). 13 .2 . Set the format string 7. to cut the computation time by 90%. you might try a value of 20. 5.# 19 . Click the Calculate button 8. Set Step DX 24 to 2 (this will create a table with 361 points.3): 1. with X-Y coordinates for every 2° of arc).4*(1 + sin(x/57. 6. 18 . Check your work by clicking the Plot button Note: 10 to: 0. Y*1. For example. 4.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference 23 End value.4*cos(x/57. and makes two passes. R is the radius of the circle. 10 . Select the Transform radio button 2. It is not the X coordinate of the points on the circle. Define the transformation in the formulas field 3. Y=0. 24 Step. it is quicker to use fewer points.29578). Select the Create radio button 2. Define the two variables in the formulas field 13 : 152.

Y2 for the next.Z values on each line separated by spaces (no commas). hypotenuse(<length>. Enter the following definition into field 3. and 24 . exp(<number>) Exponent (2. Create an Animation Shape Data Set for the Circle The animator requires X.' button 19 5 13 : x. Y. acos(<number>) Arccosine (number in radians).<length>) Length of hypotenuse.Y. Available Functions The compute button processes standard arithmetic operations (+. A Z coordinate must be inserted for each line. Click the Calculate button 4. In addition. 0 . changes when you go from Create mode to Transform mode. floor(<number>) Rounds down to nearest integer. there is one independent variable X. In the second. /). — 149 — . *.7182818) raised to power of number. Select the Transform radio button 21 . cosh(<number>) Hyperbolic Cosine (number in radians). cos(<number>) Cosine (number in radians). Arctangent of <number1> divided by <number2> average(<list of numbers>) Returns the sum divided by the number of items in the list. atan(<number>) Arctangent (number in radians). Y is the name for the second. ceiling(<number>) Rounds up to nearest integer. The values generated above for the circle are X and Y coordinates. 23 . etc. the compute button can process the following functions: abs(<number>) Absolute value of number.. -. defined by the values in the fields 22 . X is the name for the first number in each row.g. 2.y. In the first case.<number2>) (numbers in radians). ln(<number>) Natural Log (base e).Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference Note: The interpretation of symbols X. atan2(<number1>. . X^2). 1. An exponential is indicated with the carrot character: ^ (e. asin(<number>) Arcsine (number in radians). and so on. Click the Delete '.

tan(<angle>) Tangent of an angle (in radians). After selecting the desired starting point. called Install. As installed. sin(<angle>) Sine of an angle (in radians). CarSimEd has four data sets. max(<list of numbers>) Highest value in list. sum(<list of numbers>) Sum of a list of numbers. min(<list of numbers>) Lowest value in list. truncate(<number>) Truncates to integer.tbk CarSimEd Startup This screen appears immediately after CarSimEd has been started. click the Start button to go to a Runs screen. 3D handling. It also includes settings that help configure CarSimEd for your particular installation. CarSimEd has three possible entry points. sqrt(<number>) Square root of a positive number. and suspension analysis. The other three provide entry points to the three kinds of simulation available in CarSimEd: 2D ride. One. round(<number>) Rounds to nearest integer. and you use this screen to choose the type of simulation. Location in CarSimEd Accessed from the Tools menu or the ribbon bar with the button: File Location Sgui_lib\Calc. tanh(<angle>) Hyperbolic tangent of an angle (in radians). sinh(<angle>) Hyperbolic sine of an angle (in radians). is required for the automatic installation to work.<base>) Log of number in base.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference log(<number>. — 150 — . Discussion This screen provides a starting point for the software.

.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference 2 1 3 Note: The CarSimEd Startup Screen has two possible appearances. Otherwise the solver programs will give error messages about files not being found. you may never need to change the settings contained in this library.g. you should install them in the Startup library. If you add any folders to CarSimEd. On the other hand. If you move the CarSimEd software to a new hard disk volume or folder. all of the text files used to communicate between CarSimEd data screens and the CarSimEd solver programs must be updated. you may want to create a new folder and create a second library.) 2. — 151 — . copyright information. If you make many data sets in a library (e. You may want to change the GO menu to show fewer libraries or re-order them. Click this button to go to screens with information about CarSimEd that involve the version.4. 3. etc. There are at least three reasons why you might someday want to modify the CarSimEd settings or make a new Startup data set with different settings: 1. a Runs library). (The settings are made automatically by clicking the Update button 13 shown in Figure 9. The above figure shows the simple display. User Settings (Simple Display) 1 More Info button.

3 Start button. However. All controls of the Startup screen. Click this button to go to a Runs library.4 shows the CarSimEd Startup screen after the Change Settings button 2 has been clicked. 16 5 4 6 7 8 10 9 11 12 13 14 15 1 2 3 Figure 9. Click this button to show additional settings that can be modified. the CarSimEd pictures are replaced with the settings shown in Figure 9. Note: Figure 9.4. then the partial pathname — 152 — . the four installed data sets point to the three Runs libraries in CarSimEd. Each data set in the Startup library can point to a different Runs library.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference 2 Change Settings button. if CarSimEd is in c:\Carsimed. The files are represented as pathnames relative to the CarSimEd root directory. This list is also used for other functions within CarSimEd — it tells CarSimEd what library files exist and where they are located. you can modify the function of this button as described below.4. When clicked. This is the most common way to start using the software. For example. As installed. The default is that clicking the button will take you to the most recently used data set in the Runs library. Additional User Settings and Controls 4 List of libraries for the GO menu.

In both cases. For example. 5 Add Default Libraries button. Click to add all of the library files included in the CarSimEd installation. — 153 — . it is not added again. Give it a new name and add it to the system. then delete all but one data set from the copy. It determines which files are listed in the pull-down menu that appears when you press the GO button in the ribbon bar 16 . TBK files selected with the browser are added to the list 4 . Lines in it can be selected by clicking on them. 6 Add Libraries button. 4 and if they actually This list cannot be edited directly. click the Cancel button. if you have so many data sets in a library that it is unwieldy.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference RUNS_3D\RUNS_3D. pathname for the file is This list is used by CarSimEd for two purposes: 1. It defines which files are affected when text data files are updated if you click the Update All PAR Files button 13 . Click the button to bring up the Windows Find File browser dialog.” If a default library file is already in the field 4 . the dialog re-appears. files are included only if they are listed in the field exist.12 . After you click OK. and the contents are manipulated by using the adjacent buttons 5 . When you are through adding files. Note: You can add more than one file at a time. Use this to add new libraries files to CarSimEd.tbk.TBK means the full c:\Carsimed\Runs_3d\Runs_3d. This button is provided as a way to undo damage and return to the status “as installed. 2. you can duplicate the TBK file and its folder.

or you can link to a particular data set within a library. to make the 3D Runs library the first item on the GO menu. You should do this if you move CarSimEd or rename any of the TBK files or folders. The operation initiated when you click this button will probably take a couple of minutes to complete. If you do not choose a data set. These files have absolute pathnames in them. Location in CarSimEd CarSimEd Startup — 154 — . Click to process all of the CarSimEd library files in the field 4 . Click to remove any selected lines from the list 4 . You can link to a library with no particular data set. even if they are not visible. then clicking the Start button takes you to the last data set visited in the library. The contents of the field usually extend beyond the visible area. For example. You might change this link if you move the Runs library. link to a different Runs library.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference 7 Remove Libraries From List button. Click to alphabetically sort all lines in the field 13 Update All PAR Files button. 4 . What if you have several Runs libraries? In that case. This link defines what happens when you click the Start button 3 . or if you create a new Runs library in a different folder. you moved CarSimEd from drive C to drive D). 4 . Clicking this button causes all lines to be selected. Click the New button to make a new data set. 8 Move to Top button. Click to hide all the user settings and return to the simpler view with the CarSimEd logo. The amount of time depends on the number of data sets in your CarSimEd installation and the speed of your computer. select the line RUNS_3D\RUNS_3D. Then. Click to move any selected lines in the list to the bottom. you can make several data sets in the CarSimEd Startup library. link to it here. The actual files are not affected by this—only the list is altered. 9 Move to Bottom button. 15 Done button. If any changes have been made to the file system (say. Each data set in the CarSimEd library has an associated text file with extension PAR that is used to communicate with the vehicle dynamics solver programs. in the new data set. and can only be viewed by using the scroll bar. 11 Deselect All button. Click to deselect all lines in the field 12 Ascending Order button.TBK in the list 4 and then click this button. This is the way CarSimEd is set when initially installed. 14 Data Set for Start Button link. Click to select all lines in the field 4 . Click to move any selected lines in the list to the top. the old pathnames won’t work. updating all text files. 10 Select All button. If you would like the Start button to always take you to a specific data set.

where the interval is called a time — 155 — . they approximate the integration using a numerical integration algorithm. they are related to the form of the output file used to store the computed results. They repeat the calculations at small intervals of simulated time. 1 2 3 Discussion The solver programs operate by numerically integrating a set of nonlinear differential equations over time. Taking relatively small time steps.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference File Location Startup. User Settings 1 Integration time step (keyword = STEP). Rather.tbk Computation Parameters Use this screen to set parameters for the numerical integrator and to control the frequency and format of the simulation output file. This data screen contains parameters that have little to do with the vehicle model or its inputs. The CarSimEd solver programs generate output files by solving equations of motion in a mathematical model of the vehicle.

it has a direct effect on the size of the output files and the time needed to load them into the plotter or animator. The time interval for the output files is the product of the step and this interval (IPRINT). to accurately see wheel rotations) use a small value. Less time is needed to run the simulation and view output.). step sizes of 0. A print interval between 10 and 30 typically works well. Make several runs changing only the time step. Notes: This parameter determines the resolution for plots and also the default speed for the animator. and less disk space is needed to store information.001 or smaller might be required. This option is the most efficient for using the integrated plotter and animator. etc.0005 second. binary files are not imported as easily into other software. If you increase the time step by a factor of two. The time needed to run a simulation is inversely related to the time step.002 seconds for handling runs. — 156 — .” For typical CarSimEd simulations. “sufficiently small” means about 0.) and mathematical analysis programs (MATLAB™. 0. TEXT — the solver program creates a simple text output file that can be imported into other software packages such as spreadsheets (Excel™. However. The first line contains short names for the output variables. Note: 2 If you are making many runs with a few vehicle descriptions. For example. etc. the program runs about twice as fast because it only makes half as many calculations. Use the pull-down menu to choose among the three options: BINARY — the solver program creates a binary output file (extension = BIN) and an ERD header file.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference step. and 0. Big files take longer! 3 Output file format (keyword = FORMAT). To run in slow motion (say. Lotus™. If the results at a large time step differ from those made with a small time step. Each row has all the values for a single point in time. plots of the same variables should overlay perfectly. For braking and acceleration runs (to and from zero speed).001. The following lines contain numbers separated by commas. This parameter has only a minor effect on the speed of a simulation run. However. and the contents cannot be viewed or printed with text editors. However. separated by commas. If the runs are valid. the calculation method is valid only for time steps that are “sufficiently small. you may want to determine how small the time step needs to be. Number of time steps between output printing (keyword = IPRINT). 0. the typical assumption is that the results made with the large time step are in error.002. The time step 1 determines how often calculations are made.004. try using values of 0. These files cannot be viewed with the animator.

Also. However. and the plotter and animator programs take significantly longer to read them. However. AutoSim users can create new models with the same architecture as those in CarSimEd. The solver programs take longer to write them. ERDTEXT — the solver program creates a text ERD file. Discussion All tables in the standard CarSimEd models are associated with libraries in the CarSimEd data base. If these new models involve tabular data with two independent variables. the output file generated by the solver program will have the same extension—ERD. Note: Text ERD files are not recommended for routine use of CarSimEd. but is provided in case you create a new solver programs with AutoSim and want to run it from the CarSimEd database. the file does not follow the ERD format described in Appendix C. although the plots contain less information because the file has no title.tbk Generic 2D Table Use this screen to store and display tabular data involving two independent variables for custom models. followed by the printed values of all output variables. — 157 — . Location in CarSimEd CarSimEd Startup Runs Computation Parameters File Location Comp_par\Comp_par. no units.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference WinEP can read text files. etc. they occupy about three times as much disk space as the binary files. Note: When the TEXT option is enabled. It has all the labeling information required by the animator and plotter. then this library can be used to store the data. This library is not used with the standard CarSimEd models. These files can be imported into other programs (with some editing of the header information) and they can also be viewed within CarSimEd using the standard CarSimEd controls.

This is possible because the keyword used by the simulation solver programs to identify tabular data is a part of the data set. For X and Y values outside the range of the table.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference 1 4 2 3 Unlike most of the libraries in CarSimEd. In order — 158 — . 3 Tabular data. It is a user-comment field. provided as a means for documenting the information on the screen. then the data will not be used. This label is not used by the solver programs. linear extrapolation is used. 1 Label for Y axis. Unlike most CarSimEd libraries. The first row has values of the first independent variable. 4 Keyword. If the keyword in this field is not recognized by the solver program. 2 Label for X axis. in the section 2D Tabular Data. the keyword is not hidden. provided as a means for documenting the information on the screen. User Settings Note: User settings that are common for all 2D tabular data screens are described in Chapter 8. each data set in this library can represent a different kind of data. It is a user-comment field. and all other numbers are the values of the dependent variable. This keyword is required for a solver program to make use of the data in the table 3 . Linear interpolation is used between rows and columns. This label is not used by the solver programs. the first column has values of the other independent variable.

Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference for the data to be used. — 159 — . Put the line “IAXLE 2” in a yellow field. The best way to determine how keywords are used to locate data sets is by viewing an echo file produced by the solver program you have used (see Appendix F for an example echo file). For example. Create sets of vehicle parameters that you want to apply as a group.tbk Generic Data Group Use this screen to create groups of data. For the standard CarSimEd package. Discussion There are at least three applications for this library. and a keyword is used to determine where the description of the component should be applied. V_STOP). and speed. be aware that the data are sent to the solver programs in the same order they are numbered on the screen: top to bottom. For example. The screen layout includes six pairs of yellow fields and blue links. Specify parameter values that do not fit in existing data screens. Many of the components are used more than once (tires. then you might want to use this library to set values for additional parameters that do not exist in the standard models. ROLL_STOP. steering.). such as combinations of braking.g. etc. When combining parameters and other data sets. without making a new vehicle data set. 3. However. File Location Generic\Gen2dtab\Gen2dtab. Therefore. dampers. you could make a group that overrides tire data normally associated with the simulated vehicle. 1. You can link to it from any blue field in the CarSimEd libraries. there are only a few (e.) Location in CarSimEd This library does not have a default position in CarSimEd. the keyword must be provided and it must be spelled correctly. the keywords are not case-sensitive. (However. it is possible to specify data for six different places. 2.. the keyword IAXLE is used to associate axle-related data sets to axles. Create sets of related inputs. if you add new vehicle models. springs. then left to right. and then any links that follow will be associated with axle 2.

Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 User Settings 1 Miscellaneous parameter set fields. Note: You can link to other generic data groups if the number of fields and links on the screen is not sufficient. You can link to it from any blue field in the CarSimEd libraries.tbk — 160 — . 2 Links are used to include other CarSimEd data sets. Enter keywords and the value you want assigned to them. Location in CarSimEd This library does not have a default position in CarSimEd. The format is that each line has a keyword and value. separated with white space (at least a single space). File Location Generic\Gendata\Gendata. The keyword values for the axle identified by the keyword IAXLE are used until the IAXLE keyword appears again in the inputs.

each data set in this library can represent a different kind of data.5. User Settings Note: User settings that are common for all tabular data screens are described in Chapter 8. This is possible because the keyword used by the simulation solver programs to identify tabular data is a part of the data set. 1 2 4 3 Figure 9. CarSimEd can be extended to include modified or new models. then this library can be used to store the data. Example generic table.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference Generic Table Use this screen to store and display tabular data involving a single independent variable for custom CarSimEd models. If the new models involve tabular data with one independent variable. in the section Tabular Data. This library is not used with the standard CarSimEd models. — 161 — . Unlike most of the libraries in CarSimEd. Discussion All tables in the standard CarSimEd models are associated with libraries in the CarSimEd data base. However.

then the data will not be used. It is a user-comment field. It is a user-comment field. 4 Tabular data. The second is the dependent variable. If you are in doubt about which method will be used. normally plotted on the X axis. such as brake pressure. provided as a means for documenting the information on the screen. or disturbances.tbk Input: Braking Use this screen to specify the input to the brake system in terms of control pressure as a function of time. File Location Generic\Gentable\Gentable. This keyword is required for a solver program to make use of the data in the table 4 . You can link to it from any blue field in the CarSimEd libraries. normally plotted on the Y axis. then the last value of the dependent variable is used. flat-line extrapolation is used.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference 1 Keyword. The method of extrapolation is built into the solver program and cannot be changed. (However.) 2 Label for Y axis. such as wind). Depending on whether the independent value is less than or greater than the range of the table. Each row in the table should have two numbers separated by a comma. spring force vs. the keyword must be provided and it must be spelled correctly. If the independent variable is less than the first value in the table. deflection). This label is not used by the solver programs. make sure the range of the independent variable in the table goes well beyond the range that can be covered in any simulation. 3 Label for X axis. the first or last two points are used to extrapolate by assuming the same gradient between the dependent and independent variables. the first value of the dependent value is used. provided as a means for documenting the information on the screen. constant-grade extrapolation is used. — 162 — . 2. If the keyword in this field is not recognized by the solver program. If the independent variable is greater than the last (highest) value in the table. The first number is the independent variable. Location in CarSimEd This library does not have a default position in CarSimEd. This label is not used by the solver programs. The solver programs in CarSimEd have two methods for extrapolating outside the range of a table. For variables that describe vehicle properties (for example. For variables that are inputs to the vehicle (controls. the keywords are not case-sensitive. In order for the data to be used. 1.

The brake pedal output is a control or application pressure that is applied to the brake system. If it is linked to a 2D ride or suspension analysis run. This input is described via a table look-up function of brake input pressure as a function of time. 1 2 Discussion You control braking by applying effort at the brake pedal. — 163 — . it’s recommended that the input always be converted to units of MPa.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference This screen is only used for the 3D car model. This screen also has a parameter that controls whether a simulation stops when the vehicle comes to rest. Note: Any units can be used so long as they are compatible with the data in the Brakes: Mechanical Properties screen. in the section Tabular Data.) However. the data are ignored. User Settings Note: User settings that are common for all tabular data screens are described in Chapter 8. (The units on the vertical axis of this screen must match the units on the horizontal axis in the Brakes: Mechanical Properties screen.

(The rollover limit can be specified in the Misc. — 164 — . with a separating comma. Location in CarSimEd CarSimEd Startup Runs: 3D Handling Input: Braking File Location Input\Braking\Braking. Data field on the Runs screen. Set V_STOP = -1 km/h To keep the simulation running after the vehicle has come to a complete stop. If you want to use CarSim to determine stopping distance or other measures of braking performance. If it is linked to a 3D car or suspension analysis run. Each line should have a value of time followed by a corresponding value of braking input.) • The absolute vehicle speed drops below a specified threshold (keyword = V_STOP). If the stop time continues after the vehicle comes to rest.1 km/h. the bouncing and other motions as the vehicle can be seen as it settles into equilibrium. For values of time larger than the range covered. This table needs at least two lines of data or else an error message is generated. This screen is only used for a 2D ride run. A typical value for this purpose would be V_STOP = 0.tbk Input: Road Profile Use this screen to specify the road input for a 2D ride run. A simulation continues until one of several conditions occurs: • The simulation time reaches the stop time specified on the Runs screen (keyword = STOPT). • The vehicle roll angle exceeds a specified limit that implies that a rollover was inevitable (keyword = ROLL_STOP). the first value of pressure is used. It is the last case that is associated with braking simulations. the last value of pressure is used. 2 Stop speed (keyword = V_STOP). the data are ignored. it is convenient to have the simulation stop when the absolute speed is close to zero. The solver programs use linear interpolation and flat-line extrapolation with this table. For values of time that are less than the range covered in the table.Chapter 9 1 Alphabetical Library Reference Two-column table of values of brake input pressure as a function of time (keyword = BRKIN_TABLE).

1 Table field for the road profile (keyword = ROAD_PROFILE_TABLE). Location in CarSimEd CarSimEd Startup Runs: 2D Ride Input: Road Profile — 165 — . 2 Link to an animation reference frame. This is typically the installed reference frame Fixed.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference Discussion This data screen is used both to specify the longitudinal profile for the ride model and also to specify an optional wire-frame description for viewing the input. in the section Tabular Data. 1 2 3 User Settings Note: User settings that are common for all tabular data screens are described in Chapter 7. The units are meters for both coordinates. Each line should have a X and Z coordinate for the road surface. 3 Link to an animator shape file that shows the bump or road profile.

Choose this library to apply a steering wheel angle described explicitly as a function of time. This screen is only used for the 3D car model. the data are ignored.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference File Location Input\Road\Road. and the vehicle will be steered in an open-loop mode. — 166 — .tbk Input: Steering Wheel Angle Use this screen to define the steering wheel input as a function of time for open-loop steering maneuvers via a table look-up. 2. If it is linked to a 2D ride or suspension analysis run. You make the choice on the Runs screen by linking to a data set from one of these libraries: 1. Choose this library to apply the steering controller from the CarSimEd model. Input: Target Path For Closed-Loop Steer Control. 1 Discussion You can choose between two different ways to control steering in CarSimEd. Input: Steering Wheel Angle (this angle).

Location in CarSim CarSim Startup Runs Input: Steering Wheel Angle File Location Input\Steering\Steering. User Settings Note: 1 User settings that are common for all tabular data screens are described in Chapter 8. Make sure you are not linked to an closed-loop path following data set. Link to this library using one of the input links on the Runs screen. the data are ignored. The sign convention in CarSimEd is that positive steer involves turning to the left. (See Appendix B for details of all CarSimEd sign conventions. This screen is only used for the 3D car model. Each line should have a value of time followed by a corresponding value of steering wheel angle. the last value of steering wheel angle is used. then you should: 1. — 167 — . For values of time that are less than the range covered in the table. To use the steering wheel input. the open-loop library must be linked as one of the inputs. However.tbk Input: Target Path For Closed-Loop Steer Control Use this screen to define the path the vehicle is to follow in a closed-loop steering maneuver using the CarSimEd driver model. with a separating comma. the first value of steering wheel angle is used. For values of time larger than the range covered. and 2. See the section Data Links in Chapter 8 for details on changing links. The table needs at least two lines of data or else an error message is generated. in the section Tabular Data.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference Steering control is an input that appears as a link on the left of the Runs screen. The easiest way to make a new run using steering wheel input is to find an existing run made with a steering input involving the vehicle type of interest and copy that run. Two-column table of values of steering wheel angle as a function of time (keyword = STEERSW_TABLE). If it is linked to a 2D ride or suspension analysis run. if there are no existing runs close to what you need.) The solver programs use linear interpolation and flat-line extrapolation with this table.

Instead. You make the choice on the Runs screen by linking to a data set from one of these libraries: 1. For each pair of X-Y coordinates. This new increment is added to the previous value of S: S1 ≡ 0Si = Si–1 + (Xi – X i–1 )2 + (Yi – Y i–1 )2 { for i > 1} X4. At the start of the path. Station and Path Mathematics The table on this screen is unusual in CarSim because it does not require the rows to have an ascending order in X. the closed-loop library must be linked as one of the inputs. Steering control is an input that appears as a link on the left of the Runs screen. defined as the distance along the path. Link to this library using one of the input links on the Runs screen. The X and Y coordinates from the input path are used to compute another variable called station S. Y1 X2. then you should: 1. and the vehicle will be steered in an open-loop mode. See the section Data Links in Chapter 8 for details on changing links. In this case the target path information is not used. Y2 S1 = 0 S2 — 168 — X3. However. S is defined as zero. Input: Target Path For Closed-Loop Steer Control (this screen). Make sure you are not linked to an open-loop steering-wheel angle data set. Y3 S3 S4 . Choose this library to apply the steering controller from the CarSimEd model. if there are no existing runs close to what you need. To use the path follower model.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference Discussion Modes of Steer Control You can choose between two different ways to control steering in CarSimEd. a corresponding increment of S is computed by using the Pythagorean theorem. Y4 X1. Input: Steering Wheel Angle. and 2. The easiest way to make a new run using the path follower is to find an existing run made with a path input involving the vehicle type of interest and copy that run. 2. Choose this library to apply a steering wheel angle described explicitly as a function of time.

Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference If the vehicle station is less than zero. If the vehicle station is higher than the largest value in the table. the line connecting the first two points in the table is extended in a straight line. The mathematics underlying the closed-loop controller are described in Appendix I. The path is valid for the full range of station numbers covered by the vehicle in the simulation. The yaw angle is oriented so the vehicle is initially traveling parallel to the path. Under normal conditions. 1 3 4 5 2 Animation The wire-frame animator will show the target path as a dashed line. The animator draws the path in a color specified on the screen. User Settings Note: User settings that are common for all tabular data screens are described in Chapter 8. — 169 — . the vehicle is placed with the middle of the front axle at on the path as defined on this screen. the last two points are extended in a straight path. in the section Tabular Data. even if it is nowhere close to the path.

A realistic value is about 0. — 170 — . The path is defined by connecting the X and Y coordinates listed in this table with straight lines (linear interpolation). This specifies the maximum steering wheel angle that is allowed for the driver model.2 seconds can be used to generate more aggressive steering to keep the vehicle on the target path. S. the short response time might lead to steering that is too aggressive and cause a loss of vehicle control. For variable paths. This results in the most accurate steering control. A shorter time causes the controller to steer more rapidly in response to deviations of the vehicle from the target path. As the lag increases. The longer times produce more stable results. longer preview times can sometimes be used. If you are attempting to follow a path closely. For constant lateral offsets. This is possible because the table is used internally to generate two other tables: X vs. without trying to simulate driver response dynamics. 2 Animator path color (keyword = set_path_color). the X and Y values are used to derive a third variable called station number. This is the look-ahead time used by the driver controller algorithm to steer the vehicle. Each line should have a value of X followed by a corresponding value of Y. A longer time causes the vehicle to look ahead more. The gradient is determined from the first two values of X and Y. the last point is used to extrapolate forward using the gradient between the last two X and Y. As noted above.15 sec. A realistic value is about 1 second. 3 Maximum SW angle (keyword = ASW_MAX). but lead to lateral offsets due to the curvature of the path.0 is recommended. where S is computed to ascend. a preview time of 1 sec is recommended to avoid over-steering by the controller. S and Y vs. The coordinates are based on an inertial reference. For negative values of S. a shorter preview time such as 0. Instead. a lateral offset can be specified to compensate for the curvature. (To get accurate tracking with maximum stability. this table is unusual in CarSim because it does not require rows to have an ascending order in X. S. steering more slowly in response to changes in the target path. to simulate the neuromuscular delay in people. 4 Preview time (keyword = TPREV). For constant-radius turns. For values of S larger than the range covered. If the table of S-L values 1 has discontinuous changes.) 5 Driver lag (keyword = TDLAG). Larger values can be used to simulated impaired drivers. Use this field to specify the color of the path as drawn by the animator.Chapter 9 1 Alphabetical Library Reference Two-column table of values for X and Y coordinates of the target path (keyword = YIN_TABLE). the driver-vehicle systems tends to over-correct to the point of instability. a value of 0. Steering wheel angles generated by the driver controller are delayed by this amount of time. The effect is fairly simple. with a separating comma. the first point is used to extrapolate the first gradient backward.

1.tbk Input: Throttle Control Use this screen to define the throttle position as a function of time for a 3D handling run. Closed-loop speed control. This screen is only used for the 3D car model. the data are ignored. In this mode. you specify the vehicle target speed on the Runs screen and a controller is used to determine a drive torque that is — 171 — . 1 Discussion CarSimEd has two basic ways to control vehicle speed.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference Location in CarSim CarSim Startup Runs Input: Target Path for Closed-Loop Steer Control File Location Input\Path\Path. If it is linked to a 2D ride or suspension analysis run.

the only drive torque that is applied is proportional to the input on this screen. Two-column table of throttle input as a function of time (keyword = THROTTLE_TABLE). To run at any speed. The speed controller can be turned on and off using the keyword SPEED_ON_OFF.) In order to make a run starting from a low speed. Data field on the Runs screen the line: V_STOP -1 User Settings Note: 1 User settings that are common for all tabular data screens are described in Chapter 8. with a separating comma. (This allows the simulation to stop automatically in braking runs. That way. If you with to run at constant speed. The table needs at least two lines of data or else an error message is generated. but after the run starts. do not link to any data sets in this library from the Runs screen. Note that the simulation only runs when the absolute vehicle speed is greater than a threshold (V_STOP). set the threshold to a negative value. Location in CarSimEd CarSimEd Startup Runs: 3D Handling Input: Throttle File Location Input\Throttle\Throttle. The assumption is that the driver “does what’s necessary” to manipulate the throttle to control the speed. For values of time larger than the range covered. The throttle input specified with this table is multiplied by front and rear drive torque gains specified in the Driveline section of the Cars screen. including zero. This means that the speed specified on the Runs screen is used to set the initial condition. 2. in the section Tabular Data. In this mode drive torque on the wheels is proportional to a throttle input specifed on this screen. the first value of throttle is used. One way to do this is to type into the Misc.tbk — 172 — . the speed controller will remain enabled. This library (throttle control) automatically sets the controller off. the last value of throttle is used. For values of time that are less than the range covered in the table. The solver programs use linear interpolation and flat-line extrapolation with this table. the threshold must not be greater than the starting speed.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference applied directly to the wheels. Open-loop throttle control. Each line should have a value of time followed by a corresponding value of throttle.

— 173 — . In this case. This screen is only used for suspension analysis runs. the amount of time covered is not important because the typical outputs of interest are cross-plots of motion variables as functions of vertical position. in the section Tabular Data. 1 Discussion The 3D suspension model is called a kinematical model because it has zero dynamical degrees of freedom. It has a single input—vertical position—that is specified as an arbitrary function of time. If it is linked to a 3D handling or 2D ride run.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference Input: Wheel Height Above Ground Use this screen to specify vertical movement of the wheel carrier (spindle) for a suspension suspension analysis run. User Settings Note: User settings that are common for all tabular data screens are described in Chapter 7. the data are ignored.

are recommended. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 — 174 — . Because the simulation is not dynamic. They simply specify the minimum and maximum ranges to be covered in the kinematical simulation. Location in CarSimEd CarSimEd Startup Runs: Suspension Analysis Input: Wheel Height Above Ground File Location Input\spindlez\spindlez. and renaming operations.tbk Library Editor The Library editor is a tool built into CarSimEd to help you organize libraries by performing batch delete. Two-point tables. locking. the only purpose it has in the plot is to define a continuous change in height. such as the one shown above. Each line should have a value of time (seconds) followed by a corresponding height of the wheel center.Chapter 9 1 Alphabetical Library Reference Table field for vertical wheel height (keyword = BZ_TABLE).

3 Lock Data Sets button. if the root CarSimEd folder is c:\CarSimEd. 6 Delete button. When the editor is opened. User Settings and Controls 1 Link to a library. The pathname is relative to the root CarSimEd folder. 2 Triangle button. Use it to delete a group of data sets from the library. it is a link to the entire library.tbk refers to the file: c:\CarSimEd\Runs\Runs. However. Click this to change the category for all data sets currently selected in 7 . This button will remove all data sets currently selected in 7 . Click this to lock all data sets currently selected in 4 Unlock Data Sets button. lock and unlock multiple data sets. the current library is loaded into this link. This is the same as going to each data set and clicking the Delete button for that screen. For example.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference Discussion The Library editor is available from any CarSimEd library through the ribbon bar and the Tools menu. Note: 7 . When you bring it up. it shows a pathname to a library file. they are gone! 7 List of data sets from the linked library. — 175 — . or to organize data sets into categories. Rather than showing the name of a data set. it automatically links to the current library. Click this to unlock all data sets currently selected in 5 Change Category button. and this blue field shows the one that is active. Select data sets by clicking on them. The result is the same as if you went to each data set and changed the category field. and use control-click to select lines that are not consecutive. Be aware that there is no un-do option: once the data sets are deleted. A warning message appears. Note: Items 1 and 2 are similar to the standard blue link. giving you a chance to back out. then the relative pathname Runs\Runs. You can edit only one library at a time. instead of this being a link to a data set. Use shift-click to select a continuous range. 7 .tbk. Categories are solely for grouping the data sets in the library and have no effect on the data set name or parameter values. The buttons 3 through 6 affect the data sets that are highlighted. It calls up a dialog box for you to enter a new category name and then modifies the category field for the selected data sets. Press this button to bring up a command for changing the library link shown in 1 . It only affects how the data sets are grouped in pull-down menus. This change has no effect on parameter values.

Discussion The WinEP program supports a number of options for controlling the format of the generated plots. It is stored with SGUI code in Sgui_lib\Bootfile.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference Location in CarSimEd Accessed from the Tools menu or the ribbon bar with the button: File Location This editor is not contained in a conventional CarSimEd library file. Plot Format The format screen determines the style and layout properties of a plot. However.tbk. Every user setting on this screen can also be set interactively from within WinEP. These formats cover line style. the formatting information is stored in the CarSimEd database and can be applied easily to any plots — 176 — . and font properties. 5 2 1 3 6 4 7 9 8 10 This data screen is also used to specify plotting formats. As was described in Chapter 7. dialog boxes are used for setting all options interactively. and those options can be stored in text files for future use. axis and grid options. when set here.

click on a different line number. The button has a pull-down menu with three options: no grid. and the symbol for the selected line. 5 Change Fonts button. legend. a rectangular frame. linestyle. axes labels. 2 Axis selection. The current selection is shown in the white field. and tick labels. line style (dotted. line 2 is selected in the figure. a standard Windows dialog box for specifying font properties appears and is used to specify the font properties. colors). 6 Current font settings. color or symbol. or fine grid. The current selection is shown in the white field. 4 Grid selection. Clicking on a number or line will bring up the Plot Line palette. To change all of the lines at once.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference initiated from within CarSimEd (clicking the Plot button from the Runs screen or the Make Plots button on the Plot Setup: Batch screen). You cannot change the values shown directly — you must go through the Change Fonts button 5 . The palette applies to the highlighted line number. thick). — 177 — . or a frame with tick marks. This table shows the current font settings for the four types of labels appearing in the plot. 3 Frame selection. coarse grid. The current selection is shown in the white field. To change a different line. After making a pick from this screen. The button has a pull-down menu with three options: no surrounding frame. Figure 9. shown below. Choose the color. User Settings 1 Lines and symbol specifications (keywords = symbols. or use the up and down arrow keys. The button has a pull-down menu with two options: no axes or axes. Press this button to display a pull-down menu for selecting font properties for the title. hold down the control key when selecting the style.6 identifies these parts of the plot. For example. thin.

Variables overlaid in a plot are identified in a legend. In the event that at least one of the labels in the legend is long. When two or more data sets are overlaid. The button has a pull-down menu with five possible locations for the legend that identifies data sets in overlay plots. This setting has no effect unless three conditions are met: 1. The length of the longest label in the legend exceeds the specified percentage of the window width. the title option is recommended. Variables from the same file can be identified by the items provided in the pull-down menu. 9 Legend location. then little space is available for the plot. The two options available from the pull-down menu are file title and file name. The current selection is shown in the white field.6. The recommended setting is Auto Location. The legend is placed to the right of the plot (as specified in 9 ). 8 Data set identifier. 10 Legend size limit (keyword = legendpercent). and the legend is located to the right of the plot area. Because most ERD files generated with CarSimEd have numbers assigned by the database as their names. 3. 2. At least two data sets are overlaid in the plot. which instructs the plotter to choose one of the four locations within the plot space. WinEP sizes the plot area to leave just enough room to print the legend.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference 7 File identifier. This field is used to set a maximum percentage of the total window width that will be used for the legend. The choices are to the right of the plot. — 178 — . Labels in a plot. or on the four corners within the plot area. or that the window is not very wide. Title Y axis label Legend Tick labels X axis label Figure 9.

Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference If the above three conditions are met. then the plot area is size to leave exactly 30% of the width for the legend. Location in CarSimEd CarSimEd Startup Runs Plot Setup: Single Plot Format File Location Plot\Format\Format.tbk Plot Setup: Batch The batch plot screen is used to combine a list of runs with a list of plot conditions to automatically generate a set of plots. then the plot is sized giving the legend the specified amount. For example. Labels that are too long are truncated to fit in this space. if the limit is set to 30%. 1 7 8 2 3 4 5 6 9 10 11 12 13 14 — 179 — .

Double-click on a line to remove from the list. You use buttons 3 . Any line in brackets (<>) indicates a category heading. or (2) to pick a new library. — 180 — 2 to the Selected Data 8 to the Selected 11 . and the results from multiple runs to be overlaid. These are the plot setups that will be used for the plots. The linked library must be a runs or simulation library that has corresponding ERD files. User Settings and Controls 1 Runs Library link. Click to removes highlighted data sets from the Selected Plots list Shift-click to remove all. The dialog box will continue to request selections until you click the Cancel button. 7 Plot Setup link. This pull-down menu has two options: (1) to go to the currently selected library. 6 Selected Data Files list. button. When you pick a new library. The linked library must contain plot setup information. the field below is automatically updated to show the names of all of its data sets. List of all of the data sets in the currently selected Runs library. This list cannot be edited directly. the field below is updated automatically to show the names of all of its data sets.5 to modify the list. 8 Plot Setups list. However. 10 Remove button. Double-click on a line to remove it from the list. List of all of the plot setups in the EP setup library. Any line in brackets (<>) indicates a category heading. Shift-click to add all. use this library. Click to remove highlighted data sets from the Selected Data Files list 6 . Shift-click to add all. Click to add highlighted lines from the Plot Setups list Plots list 11 . This list cannot be edited directly. Double-click on a line to add it to the Selected Plots list 11 . Any line in brackets (<>) indicates a category heading. Click to add highlighted lines from the Runs list Files list 6 . 9 Add button. 5 Add ERD File. 3 Add button. This pull-down menu has two options: (1) to go to the currently selected library. or (2) to pick a new library. When you pick a new library.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference Description The standard Runs screen allows multiple plots to be specified. it is limited to four plot setups and three runs. Shift-click to remove all. List of the selected plot setups in the EP setup library. List of the selected data sets from the Runs list. 4 Remove button. Calls up a dialog box for you to select ERD files that are added to the Selected Data Files list 6 .. These are the data sets that will be plotted. Any line in brackets (<>) indicates a category heading. or overlay data from more than three runs. If you want to trigger more plots with one button click. You use buttons 9 and 10 to modify the list. 2 Runs list.. Double-click on a line to add to the Selected Data Files list 6 . 11 Selected Plots list. .

plot setups. 14 Make Plots button. The total number of plots will be the number of selected plots.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference 12 One Plot Per Data File button. The Plot Setup screen. Click to cause the next set of plots to be made with a separate plot for each combination of a run and plot setup.7. and filtering (transform) options. 13 One Plot For All Data Files button. The total number of plots will be the number of data sets multiplied by the number of selected plots.tbk Plot Setup: Single The data sets in this library each define a graphical plot with specifications of the data (channels and files) to plot. Location in CarSimEd Accessed with the Tools menu or the ribbon bar button: File Location Batch\Plot_bat\Plot_bat. Click to start the program WinEP and instruct it to make a series of plots based upon the selected runs. Click to cause the next set of plots to be made by overlaying all runs for each plot setup. — 181 — . 3 1 4 2 5 6 7 10 10 8 11 11 12 9 Figure 9. formatting preferences. and overlay options selected.

— 182 — . However. However. the plotter labels the axes based on keywords read from the header of the ERD files. CarSimEd will generate long names for display in the wide field below ( 4 ). memory limits can prevent the long names from being generated. and band pass. the associated ERD output file is scanned for labels that appear in the X and Y axis fields ( 4 and 5 ). The template is applied from the Runs screen and the Plot Setup: Batch screens. 7 Link to Runs library or ERD file. 2 button. names can also be inserted with mouse clicks ( 2 ) by scanning an ERD file. this adds a little time to the process of scanning the file. you can override those labels and specify your own. When the optional label is not specified. Each line contains the Y axis variable. This is for applying a filter to the data for plotting. the plotter labels the data set based on standard keywords obtained from the header portion of the ERD file. When a run is selected. Click to add the selected channels in the X and Y axis lists ( the Data to Plot list 1 . The blue field shows the title of the currently selected run or ERD file. On slow computers. just like any other yellow field. it can be selected from the Runs screen and applied routinely to all runs to generate plots. The available filters are moving average high. Once a template is defined. 8 Format link. When checked. The linked data set determines the look and scale of a plot. 4 and 5 ) to . If any text appears in these fields. This shows all the variables in the selected run or data file Double click on a line to add it and the associated line highlighted in the X Axis list to the Data to Plot list 1 . plus you can define new ones. 3 Check box to show long names and units. used to specify what a plot should contain and how it should look. 9 Transform link. the X axis variable.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference Discussion This data set is a template. 4 Y Axis list of variables. 6 Optional labels for the X and Y axes. This is the list of variables that will be plotted when a Plot is made. CarSimEd comes with about 30 installed plot templates. Normally. If the ERD file contains several hundred variables. User Settings and Controls 1 The Data to Plot list (keyword = plotchannels). Double click on a line to add it and the associated line highlighted in the Y axis list 4 to the Data to Plot list 1 . See the section describing the Plot Format screen for information about the format options. and an optional label for the data set. 7 5 5 X Axis list of variables This shows all the variables in the selected run or data file 7 . it will be used to label the axes instead of the information from the ERD file. You can modify any of these. See the section describing the Plot Transform screen for information about the transform options. low. The contents of this field can be edited manually.

11 X and Y Manual Scaling check boxes. 12 Minimum and maximum values for the axes. When one of these boxes is checked. For the X axis. Otherwise the scaling is linear. it is sometimes convenient to offset the plots. • CarSimEd Startup Runs Plot Setup: Single File Location Plot\Setup\Setup.Chapter 9 10 Alphabetical Library Reference X and Y Log Scaling check boxes. The options are to apply offsets (horizontally and vertically) and filtering (smoothing and unsmoothing). These values are used only if the manual scaling box is checked 11 . they are always visible because in some versions of CarSimEd the values are needed for plotting software other than WinEP. the corresponding axis is scaled to cover the minimum and maximum values specified below. If the data include zero or negative values. — 183 — . For the Y axis. these fields are hidden when the manual scaling box is not checked. Discussion Offsets When comparing many similar variables. linear scaling is used even if the Log box is checked. • Accessed from the Plot Setup: Batch screen. When one of these boxes is checked. When you are viewing plots on the screen. Note: Log scaling is only used if the box is checked and the associated values of the variables are all positive. the corresponding axis is drawn with log scaling.tbk Plot Transforms This screen is used for setting up plots in which the data transformed numerically. Location in CarSimEd This library is accessible from several places in CarSimEd. • Accessed from the ribbon bar with the button: • Accessed with the Tools menu. offsetting is probably not necessary because you can see the different colors and use the movable cursor to identify the different lines. Otherwise scaling is performed automatically to include the full range.

the same averaging is used. The output at T=1.76 to T=1. it is useful if you have occasion to view experimental data with WinEP. distinctions between similar traces are hard to see.0 is the average of all values from T=0. If the intent is to look at the high frequencies and remove the low frequencies. This screen has fields for specifying constants that are subtracted from the X and Y variables for each data set in the plot.8 compares plots of data subjected to a highpass filter and a low-pass filter to the original. while the low-pass emphasizes the underlying shape of the curve. the output value at T=1. Figure 9. — 184 — .Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference However. It’s most basic form is for smoothing. For example. For example.75 to T=1. if the plot will be printed in black and white. WinEP includes a simple algorithm called a moving average for filtering the data. Filtering Filtering is normally used to view measured data. This type of filter is called a Low-Pass because is filters out high frequencies while allowing low frequencies to pass through unaffected. as an additional step in the processing.26. the figure below shows how an offset of 5 is subtracted from four plots to separate them. However. if the baselength is 0. Notice that the high-pass focuses on the oscillations. It is not routinely applied to simulation results generated by CarSimEd models. However. As input it takes the original values of the variable plotted on the Y axis.25.01 is the average of all values from T=0.5. Each output point is an average taken of all the adjacent points that are within a specified interval called a baselength. the smoothed values are subtracted from the originals.

Filtering is commonly applied to experimentally measured data.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference High-Pass: 0.8. such as some accelerometers. Results of filters in WinEP. — 185 — . This type of filtering is called band-pass. High-pass filtering is used for variables that drift. Sometime both high-pass and low-pass filters are applied to the same variable. Because simulation results usually don’t have any measurement error (the exception would be if some of the inputs were taken from test results). Low-pass filtering is used for examining low-frequency behavior when the measurement was subject to high-frequency vibration and possibly noise from other sources.5 sec No Filter Figure 9. filtering is not commonly applied to CarSimEd simulation results. such as accelerometers.5 sec Low-Pass: 0.

one or both of the fields for defining baselengths are shown ( 2 . A shorter baselength results in less averaging. The units of the variables depend on what is being plotted. This field is hidden if the filter type is no filter or low-pass. 3 ). 2 Low-pass baselength. 4 Offset values subtracted from the variables being plotted. A long baselength performs more averaging and removes more high frequencies by smoothing. HiPass. this defines an interval used to smooth the plot by averaging. meaning that more of the original data are removed. — 186 — .Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference 4 1 2 3 User Settings 1 Filter type. with the choices of LoPass. As noted above. Press the adjacent button to display the pull-down menu shown in the figure. leaving more of the original content. This field is hidden if the filter type is no filter or high-pass. this defines an interval used to define a smoothed set of numbers that are subtracted from the original. A long baselength removes only the static values and very low frequencies. 3 High-pass baselength. If a filter is selected. This is a baselength for a moving average when the filter type is either low-pass or band-pass. One column has values subtracted from the variables plotted on the X axis and the other has values subtracted from the variables plotted on the Y axis. As noted above. BandPass. This is a baselength for a moving average when the filter type is either high-pass or band-pass. or no filter. A shorter baselength results in less averaging.

and Suspension Analysis) and the other is for running with SIMULINK. Three are for running the stand-alone solver programs (3D Car. 2D Ride.9 on page 189). These screens are nearly identical in appearance and function.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference Location in CarSimEd CarSimEd Startup Runs Plot Setup: Single Plot Transform File Location Plot\Transfrm\Transfrm.tbk Runs: 2D Ride The Runs screen is central to the user interface in CarSimEd. except for the title and the lack of a yellow field for specifying tire/ground friction. Please refer to the — 187 — . Discussion CarSimEd includes four Runs screens. The 2D Ride screen is identical to the 3D Car screen (see Figure 9. It is used to set up simulation runs and to view results with post-processing programs.

Regions of the Runs Screen Notice that the screen image is divided into three regions (see Figure 9. Note: The only meaningful input for the 2D Ride model is a road input (height Z as a function of longitudinal posistion X). Three are for running the stand-alone solver programs (3D Handling. — 188 — . you can change these shortcuts by Control-clicking the button in the ribbon bar. These screens are nearly identical in appearance and function.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference section for the 3D Car version for descriptions of the controls and settings of this Runs screen.tbk Runs: 3D Handling The Runs screen is central to the user interface in CarSimEd. This brings up the file browser dialog box. 1. Discussion CarSimEd includes four Runs screens. The Runs screen controls all aspects of a CarSimEd simulation.9). braking. discussions of steering. This section describes the 3D version in full detail. which you can use to identify the file Runs_2d\Runs_2d. Model Parameters & Inputs — this has links to inputs to the computer model. and throttle do not apply when using the 2D Ride model. and Suspension Analysis) and the other is for running with SIMULINK. Three other sections describe the differences between those screens and this one. It is used to set up simulation runs and to view results with post-processing programs. File Location Runs_2d\Runs_2d. Location in CarSimEd The Runs: 2D Ride screen can always be accessed from the GO menu and the CarSimEd Startup screen: CarSimEd Startup Runs: 2D Ride The Tools menu and the button in the ribbon bar will take you to one of the Runs libraries in CarSimEd. Therefore. As installed. these are shortcuts for getting to the stand-alone Runs screen. If you primarily use the 2D ride model.tbk as the default Runs library. 2D Ride. including the vehicle and control inputs.

3. In this case. show graphs of output variables). and (2) a new run can be made. However. The Runs screen (simple view). the data set defines the conditions covered by a run. At any time: (1) any of these inputs can be changed. In order to have an effect. Output & Post Processing — this has controls for viewing outputs generated by the run. The Runs screens is special within CarSimEd because it has several buttons that cause other programs to run and do things (run a vehicle simulation.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference 2. Computer Simulation (Math Model) Input Output 3 1 8 2 9 4 6 5 2 10 7 2 11 12 13 14 15 Figure 9. animate results. They define the inputs and parameters that will be used in the computer model if and when a run is made. — 189 — . changes must be made before a run is made. Data in the left-most two regions do not have anything to do with outputs of a run.9. Run Control — this includes parameters that control the extent of the run and a button to make the run. it defines a data set within a library. like all the other screens covered in this chapter. The solver program will always get its inputs using the current data from this screen.

and therefore has the lowest priority. in a top-down sequence. The Computation Parameters link 4. They only affect how the simulation results are viewed. The most complex is shown later.10). For example. 18 This link is visible only when the Show More box (see Figure 9. The Based On link Note: is first. 1. Which takes priority? The solver programs in CarSimEd handle inputs very simply: each line of input updates the simulation description. you might specify a speed in the yellow field 4 and also specify a throttle with one of the input links 2 .10). Here is the order in which the data from fields and links in the screen are sent to the solver programs.10 for the detailed view with all the links. This link is visible only when the Show More box (see Figure 9. the last input read is the one used. 2. . . 1. The first ones have the lowest priority. the last ones have the highest priority. When there are conflicting inputs. Therefore. The linked data sets control the appearances of plots and animations. The Misc. On the other hand. Changes in data in this region do not affect a simulation. The Speed 4 and Stop fields 5. (See Figure 9. — 190 — 19 15 is checked is last. The Input links on the left side of the screen 2 . The Vehicle link 1 15 is checked . Priorities of Data Links The main purpose of this screen is to set up conditions for a run. and therefore has the highest . those at the top are first and have lower priority than those at the bottom. 3. settings in the right-most region have no use until after a run is made.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference Note: The Runs Screen has several possible appearances depending on whether various check boxes are checked. Figure 9. Data field Note: 17 5 7 . after the basic controls have been described.) 1.9 shows the simplest display. Thus. It is possible to have conflicting information. the priorities for the inputs specified in the Runs screen are determined completely by the order in which they are sent to the solver programs. The Overriding Data (from Batch) link priority.

However. the 3D handling model will stop earlier under some other conditions: • The vehicle roll angle exceeds a specified limit that implies that a rollover accident was inevitable (keyword = ROLL_STOP). the type of integration. The type of vehicle is shown as a sub-title above the blue field. — 191 — . This link is visible only when the Show More box checked. For details. 3 Run Simulation button. in which cas the speed is used only to set the initial condition for the simulated test. and throttle. The vehicle model applies a closed-loop speed controller to maintain this speed until the brakes are applied. This is the main button in CarSimEd. The simulation normally runs until this time is reached. 15 is User Settings and Controls (Simple Display) 1 Link to vehicle data set from the library Vehicles: Car. 2 Links to screens for inputs and disturbances. The low-speed threshold (V_STOP) is set on the Input: Braking screen. see the section Computation Parameters in this chapter. one of the input fields 2 can be linked to a data set defining a throttle input. This parameter is used to scale the tire forces when the road-tire friction parameter. 7 Computation Parameters link. 6 Road-tire friction parameter (keyword = MU). the print interval. Alternatively. Click to run the appropriate vehicle solver program using the current model parameters and inputs.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference Notes: To see the details of how the inputs from the screen are passed to the solver program. Data field 17 described below. • The absolute vehicle speed dropped below a specified threshold (keyword = V_STOP). However. In the figure. Note: In CarSimEd there is just one kind of 3D car model. steering. The other parameter (or both) can be optionally set using the Misc. view ParsTree (use the Tools menu item View ParsTree or click the button . generally called µ. in the commercial version there are several kinds of vehicles and the type is shown here. 4 Speed (keyword = SPEED). the type is car. and related parameters. The linked data set specifies the integration time step. to be used for a run is different than the µ of the testing equipment used to generate the tables of the selected tire’s cornering stiffness and pneumatic trail. The main inputs used in CarSimEd are braking. 5 Simulation stop time (keyword = STOPT).

In order to generate more than one plot. Click to run the wire-frame animator program and view motions of the vehicle as predicted by the simulation. if the run has not yet been made). When checked it displays three plot setup links in addition to the first one 14 . you can Controlclick this button to bring up the file dialog and choose a different text editor. Up to four separate plots can be automatically generated (each with many variables. An error message will be printed if the output file does not exist (for example. This button opens a text editor with an echo file produced by the solver program. If you click this button and get an error message or a file browser dialog as shown below. — 192 — . For details see the section in this chapter called Animator: Camera Setup. 2. The plot(s) shown by the plotter are defined by the linked plot data sets 12 14 . 9 Camera Setup link.exe. The echo file has the extension LPF and is similar to the file listed in Appendix F.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference 8 Animate button. then the text editor will show a blank window. Click to view a plot of output variables calculated during the simulation run. If the run has not yet been made. or if it aborted without writing the LPF file. When checked. located in the Programs directory). 10 View Echo File (All Parameters) button. An error message will be printed if the output file does not exist. The linked data establish the camera parameters and motion. it allows you to create up to four plots with a single click of the Plot button 11 . The default text editor is a program called WinVI (Winvi32. the Multiple Plots box 12 must be checked. taken from up to three runs). This check box has two effects: 1. which usually indicates that the run has not yet been made. The plots are drawn by the WinEP program. Multiple Plots check box. If you want to change the default text editor. 11 Plot button. then CarSimEd could not find the text editor.

1 3 2 4 8 5 6 2 9 7 10 12 2 16 11 13 14 18 17 14 19 14 20 14 22 21 24 23 24 15 Figure 9. and 15 ). it allows data from up to three files to be overlaid. — 193 — . Only the first link is displayed if the Multiple Plots box 15 12 is not checked.10. When checked. they are just hidden. (One file is the output associated with the current Runs data set. This check box has a single effect: it shows more control objects. The linked data controls what information will be extracted from the output file and how that information will be displayed. as shown in Figure 9. Runs screen with all controls showing. 14 Plot Setup link.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference If the box is not checked. the additional links are not cleared. 13 . 13 Overlay Runs check box. Note: Figure 9. 2. the additional plot links are not cleared. to create four independent plots at a time. All possible data fields and links are displayed.) If the box is not checked. Show More check box. The other two are specified with the additional two links.10. When checked it displays two links for other runs or ERD files. Up to four plot setup links can be set.10 shows the Runs screen with all three display boxes checked ( 12 . This check box has two effects: 1. They are just hidden and are not used.

10 the simulation type is 3D Vehicle Dynamics).) When you click the Run Simulation button 3 . it is set to show only EXE files. The menu lists all of the installed simulation types. The table contains a corresponding pathname (e.g. use the Tools menu item Preferences or click the button in the ribbon bar. When you click the Run Simulation button. The menu also has options for deleting a simulation type. the CarSimEd database launches the EXE file associated with the type of vehicle indicated above 1 and the simulation type. and for locating a solver program (extension EXE). See the Chapter 5 section Changing A Solver Program for instructions on using this menu. change the extension in the dialog box from *. This shows the current type of simulation model. Note: CarSimEd supports multiple solver programs.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference Additional User Settings and Controls 16 Simulation Type link.) The triangle button displays a pull-down menu with options for adding and deleting simulation types. by using this pull-down menu to add a new simulation type. the menu is disabled unless the check box for Advanced Users is checked in the Preferences screen. In fact. Programs\3d_car. (To access the preferences. When the Windows file dialog box comes up.EXE to *. (Custom versions may have modified or extended models. they can be added to the system without replacing the old ones. and this link is the interface to them. If you want to link to a software package that requires arguments. the way to do it is to make a PIF with the desired properties and then link to that.exe) for the solver program associated with the vehicle type and simulation type. As installed. When new versions of solver programs are made. Unless you add new solver programs. you should never use this menu. and for specifying exactly which EXE file will be run when you click the Run Simulation button. CarSimEd allows you to associate EXE files and PIFs (Program Information Files) with the Run Simulation button.. — 194 — . If you want to link to a PIF.PIF in order to see the PIFs. CarSimEd has a single type.10 the vehicle type is independent) and also the Simulation Type (in Figure 9. CarSimEd searches a hidden table for an entry containing the current type of vehicle displayed above the blue link 1 (in Figure 9. followed by three utility commands.

or LPO (scan the file made with initial conditions). This field is provided (along with the supporting items 20 . roll angle. • to set some of the seldom-used parameters that are not contained in any of the CarSimEd libraries (for example. Based On link. which means that the new run will continue where the old one left off. rather than the normal PAR files associated with the SGUI screens). This blue field is normally not linked to anything unless a batch run has been made.) As shown by the sequence of items on page 190. This field can contain any text that would be recognized by the solver program. 22 . Data field 17 . This link is used by the system when batch runs are made using the Runs: Batch library. all model parameters and inputs from the old run will be read by the solver program before any of the inputs from this data screen are read. (Most users never need it. The final conditions from the other run are also read. such as distance traveled. you can show the final value of a state variable. and then the parameter value. If a run is made under batch control. This link is provided for special applications. such as confirming that the parameters specified in the screen are being processed by the solver program. • to make a run using a vehicle description whose parameter values have been lost (the based on method reads from an LPF echo file. This determines which echo file is scanned when a run is made or the Rescan File button is clicked. This field shows selected lines scanned from one of the output files. If a new run is made. and 23 ) to rapidly access information from the echo files produced when you make a run. • to continue a run. — 195 — . See Appendix F for a list of all the keywords and parameters that can be specified. or • for certain debugging operations. then a blank space. (This is described in more detail in the section for the Runs: Batch screen. the maximum roll angle that is allowed before the run is ended can be set here). 21 Excerpts from Output File. The format for each line of text should consist of a parameter name.) A few cases where you might consider using it are: 18 • to override a parameter to perform a quick “what if” run without making new data sets in other libraries. 19 Overriding Data link. The Chapter 5 section Continuing a Run explains some of the uses of this link. It is updated whenever a run is made or when the Rescan button 23 is clicked. Any inputs specified on this page will overwrite the data from the previous run. data from this link override everything else on the screen except the Misc. This is a field where any parameter can be set.Chapter 9 17 Alphabetical Library Reference Misc. perhaps after changing one or more model parameters (see Chapter 5 section Continuing a Run). etc. 20 File extension. Data field. The normal values are LPF (scan the file made with final conditions). For example. this link can be used to go to the batch data set. This link is sometimes used to base a new run on the data from an old run.

This is done automatically when a new run is made. Click this button to cause CarSimEd to scan a file for lines beginning with the keywords listed in the Keywords field 22 . measured test data). However. The file that is scanned has a root name matching the ID of the current data set and the specified extension 20 . look through an echo file (click the button View Echo File (All Parameters) 10 ). Note: The Runs Screen has several possible appearances depending on whether various check boxes are checked. 24 Overlay Run links. It CarSimEd Startup Runs: 3D Handling File Location Runs_3D\Runs_3D. use the menu command to open an ERD file. The most complex is shown in the next section Discussion CarSimEd includes four Runs screens. and lines beginning with those keywords will be placed into this field. This section — 196 — . Those lines are copied into the adjacent white field 21 . Figure 9.11 shows the simplest display. Any keyword from the file can be placed into the keywords list 22 . Location in CarSimEd The Runs screen can be accessed from the Tools menu and the ribbon bar button: can also be accessed from the CarSimEd Startup screen: . and Suspensions Analysis) and the other is for running with SIMULINK. It is used to set up simulation runs and to view results with post-processing programs. 22 Keywords field. Each line in this field is a keyword that will be used to scan an output echo file whenever a run is made or when the Rescan button is clicked. This is done mainly after changing the contents of the keywords field 22 . Three are for running the stand-alone solver programs (3D Car. These screens are nearly identical in appearance and function.tbk Runs: SIMULINK CMEX Version The Runs screen is central to the user interface in CarSimEd. link to this library (Runs) and then pick another run from which to extract variables to plot. To overlay variables from two or three simulation runs. These links are used to generate overlay plots. 23 Rescan button. you can click this button to force the program to scan the file immediately. To overlay variables with ERD files not from this library (for example.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference To do this. in which variables from the current simulation run are plotted with the same variables from other files. 2D Ride.

Use this if SIMULINK and MATLAB are not already running.) After clicking this button. select the Start menu item from the Simulate menu. In the figure. (These are the four numbered items in Figure 9. and must be licensed separately from The MathWorks. Runs: 3D Handling. The Runs screen for SIMULINK. along with the links to the vehicle and simulation type. 2 Start SimuLink button. you should see the model in SIMULINK. Note: As described in Chapter 2. 1 3 2 4 Figure 9. (They are not part of CarSimEd. Or.11.11. Click to launch SIMULINK with the model associated with the selected Vehicle 1 and Simulation Type 4 . The type of vehicle is shown as a sub-title above the blue field. This is the main button for the screen.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference describes two buttons that are unique to the SIMULINK version.) All other features are the same as in the stand-alone version and are described in the next section. the type is independent. When the simulation — 197 — . Type Ctrl+T to start the run. User Settings 1 Link to vehicle data set from the library Vehicles: Car. Inc. this button cannot be used unless MATLAB and SIMULINK are installed on your machine.

After completing a run. When you click the Start Simulink button 2 or the Update button 3 . If you will be making many runs using the same SIMULINK model. The new runs can be set up using the Update button 3 . In a typical CarSimEd/SIMULINK session. if you wish to make a new run using a different SIMULINK model. it is not necessary to exit MATLAB. This button does half the work of the Start Simulink button 2 . This shows the current type of SIMULINK model. it is likely you will add more SIMULINK models.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference runs. When the run is completed. 3 Update button. Unless you add new SIMULINK models. you can use this button to update the information that will be read by the program when it runs. 4 2 to Simulaton Type link. The triangle button displays a pull-down menu with options for adding and deleting simulation types. it is best to exit MATLAB before initiating the next run. you can view plots and animations from the Runs screen. or you can leave MATLAB and SIMULINK open. each SIMULINK model resides in its own folder. The folder has a program information file (PIF) that is associated with the MATLAB program. you should never use this menu. (To access the preferences. and return to this screen by typing Alt-Tab or by using the Windows Task bar. and then use the Update button for all subsequent runs. In fact. Also. you can quit MATLAB to return to this screen. you will use the Start Simulink button make the first run. As installed.) As described in Chapter 2. — 198 — . the CarSimEd module (a DLL file containing a CMEX S-function with the car model) reads all inputs from the CarSimEd libraries and proceeds. However. CarSimEd has two example SIMULINK models. and for locating a folder with the necessary SIMULINK files. but it does not launch SIMULINK. If SIMULINK is already open with the model you are using. It causes CarSimEd to update the information that will be read by SIMULINK. you can use any of the MATLAB analysis tools. Once you start using CarSimEd with SIMULINK. use the Tools menu item Preferences or click the button in the ribbon bar. the CarSimEd database writes the simulation control file (SIMFILE) into the folder associated with both the current simulation type and the vehicle type. the menu is disabled unless the check box for Advanced Users is checked in the Preferences screen.

and this link is the interface to them. When you use the Add menu item to link to a new MATLAB PIF. they can be added to the system without replacing the old ones by using the pull-down menu 4 to add a new simulation type.PIF in order to see the PIFs. CarSimEd searches a hidden table for an entry containing the current vehicle type displayed above the blue link 1 (in Figure 9. matlab\is_cmex\ matlab.tbk as the default Runs library. When you click Start Simulink or Update buttons. The table contains a corresponding pathname (e.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference The menu lists all of the installed simulation types. where the simulation type is Vehicle Model).g. you can change these shortcuts by Control-clicking the button in the ribbon bar. Note: CarSimEd supports multiple solver programs.tbk Runs: Suspension Analyses The Runs screen is central to the user interface in CarSimEd. It is used to set up simulation runs and to view results with post-processing programs. these are shortcuts for getting to the stand-alone Runs screen. and for specifying exactly which file will be run when you click the Start Simulink button. As installed.. See the Chapter 4 section Changing A SIMULINK Model for instructions on using this menu.11. When new SIMULINK models are made. This brings up the file browser dialog box.EXE to *.pif) for the MATLAB PIF associated with the vehicle type and simulation type.11 the vehicle type is independent) and also the simulation type (Simulation Type in Figure 9. Location in CarSimEd The Runs: SIMULINK CMEX Version screen can always be accessed from the GO menu and the CarSimEd Startup screen: CarSimEd Startup Runs_cmx The Tools menu and the button in the ribbon bar will take you to one of the Runs libraries in CarSimEd. change the extension in the dialog box from *. followed by three utility commands. If you primarily use the SIMULINK model (rather than the stand-alone solvers). — 199 — . The menu also has options for deleting a simulation type. File Location Runs_cmx\Runs_cmx. which you can use to identify the file Runs_cmx\Runs_cmx.

9 on page 189). because those parameters are not used in the suspension model. 2. The screen has a different title. The suspension screen does not have yellow fields for speed and friction. The Suspension screen is nearly identical to the 3D Car screen (see Figure 9. Three are for running the stand-alone solver programs (3D Car. 2D Ride. Therefore. and Suspensions Analysis) and the other is for running with SIMULINK. The system label is Suspension rather than Vehicle.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference Discussion CarSimEd includes four Runs screens. Location in CarSimEd The Runs: Suspension Analyses screen can always be accessed from the GO menu and the CarSimEd Startup screen: — 200 — . The differences are: 1. discussions of other inputs do not apply when using the suspension model. These screens are nearly identical in appearance and function. Please refer to the section for the 3D Car version for descriptions of the controls and settings of this Runs screen. Note: The only meaningful input for the suspension model is the spindle height as a function of time. 3.

Create a list of runs to be made library. The basic method is: 1. these are shortcuts for getting to the stand-alone Runs screen. It is handy for redoing a group of runs. File Location Runs_sus\Runs_sus. link to other data sets to override the conditions specified in the Runs data sets ( 6 . This brings up the file browser dialog box. 3 using existing data sets 2 from the Runs 2. It can also be used to change a parameter such as test speed.tbk as the default Runs library. and make a set of runs again using the new parameter.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference CarSimEd Startup Runs: Suspension Analyses The Tools menu and the button in the ribbon bar will take you to one of the Runs libraries in CarSimEd. Discussion This screen is used to set up runs and then execute them in batch mode. Define parameters. If you primarily use the suspension model. Click the Make Runs button . 3. 8 — 201 — . As installed. which you can use to identify the file Runs_sus\Runs_sus. 7 ). It also can be used to override parameters. you can change these shortcuts by Control-clicking the button in the ribbon bar. as necessary. and. say.tbk Runs: Batch The batch runs screen is used to set up several runs ahead of time and make them all at once. because a change was made in a vehicle parameter value.

Runs\Runs. For the batch run option to work. each affected run would have the following link set automatically: This link is made so you can get from the runs data set back to the batch data set and see what parameters and links were used when the run was made. the name of the data set is Example.tbk). in the figure above. and the names of all data sets are listed in the — 202 — . However. For example. each data set in the Runs library is modified to use the overriding data.g. When this data set is opened. a link is needed to an existing Runs library (e. User Settings and Controls 1 Simulation Library link.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference 1 6 2 7 6 3 4 5 7 6 7 8 If no overriding data values or links are provided in step 2. the linked library is automatically scanned by CarSimEd.. if any parameters are specified or links are made. If any runs were made. A link called Overriding Data (from Batch) is made to this data set. the effect is exactly the same as going to each of the data sets from the Runs library and making the run again.

This field should be left blank if you do not want to modify the input parameters or model descriptions for the runs to be made. If used. This is a list of all of the data sets in the Runs library whose local pathname is shown above 1 . or in data sets linked to the Runs data set. 7 ). 2. Any line in brackets (<>) indicates a category heading. Double-click on a line in brackets (<>) to add all runs in the category to the list 5 .. Click to add the currently highlighted lines from the Data Sets From Runs Library list 2 to the Data Sets to Run list 5 . and 3). The Data Sets to Run list. 2. For example. each line typically has a keyword followed by a value. Shift-click to remove all. and 3). Double-click on a line to remove it from the list. Double clicking on a line in brackets will remove the entire category. This is a list of the selected data sets from the Runs library. This is the same as selecting the line and then clicking the Remove button 4 . Any line in brackets (<>) indicates a category heading. 6 Parameter Sets (1. Note: 5 The Remove button only affects the list of Data Sets to Run 5 . This operation does not delete data sets from the database. If the data in the library can be applied to different parts of the vehicle (for example. This is the same as selecting the line and then clicking the Add button 3 . a tire description can be applied to either the front or the rear axle of the vehicle). Use these links to apply data from any other CarSimEd library. to set the speed to 60 km/h. 8 The Make Runs button. iaxle 1).g. These lists hold overriding data. See Appendix F for the keywords recognized by CarSimEd models. Click to remove highlighted data sets from the Data Sets to Run list 5 . 7 Links (1. a reference to a part of the vehicle must be specified in the preceding Parameter Set 6 with an appropriate keyword (e. 2 The Data Sets From Runs Library list. Any parameters specified in these fields will be used instead of the ones referenced in the Runs data set. The adjacent triangle button has a pull-down menu that can be used to link to a different Runs library. Location in CarSimEd Accessed from the Tools menu and the ribbon bar button: — 203 — . 3 The Add button. Double-click on a line to add that run to the list named Data Sets to Run 5 . Click to run all of the data sets listed in the Data Sets to Run list 5 . Hold down the control key to interrupt the runs in progress. These are the data sets that will be run using the overriding data to the right ( 6 . 4 The Remove button.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference field below 2 . Shift-click to add all runs. enter the line speed 60.

the direction of the line of motion is specified with a roll center height. The compliance is represented with linear coefficients. In contrast. Kinematical effects are represented with nonlinear tables.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference File Location Batch\Runs_bat\Runs_bat. These effects are commonly described using the concept of a roll center. The lateral movement affects the transfer of tire lateral force to the body and the resulting body roll. (The CarSimEd model divides the roll center height by half the track to determine the amount the wheel moves laterally as the suspension compresses. The mathematical models in CarSimEd do not include an actual roll center point—the wheels are assumed to move in a straight line as shown by the lines of motion in the kinematics section in Figure 9. a “solid axle” suspension has an actual axle or linkage system that cause both wheels to roll together. However. for compatibility with other models and data sets. Changes in steer due to compliance and suspension kinematics can drastically affect the response of a car with respect to steering inputs. The commercial CarSim package supports additional suspension types. Discussion In CarSimEd.12.tbk Suspensions: Independent Use this screen to specify the main properties of an independent suspension that affect the overall vehicle system response. (CarSimEd only includes independent suspensions.) Independent Suspension Properties The kinematics of the suspension linkages are described in terms of how a wheel moves laterally and longitudinally as the suspension deflects vertically. an “independent” suspension is one in which vertical movement of one wheel does not cause noticeable movement of the other wheel if the anti-roll bar is disconnected. — 204 — . As shown in Figure 9.12 for the lines of motion illustrating the ratio of longitudinal movement per unit of vertical movement of the wheel center.) The longitudinal movement has a similar effect involving pitch due to longitudinal tire force.

tires.12.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference 1 7 8 2 9 3 10 11 12 13 4 14 5 6 Figure 9. 2 Track width (keyword = LTK (IAXLE)). with a value between 0.12. 4 Wheelbase change per unit jounce (keyword = RAP (IAXLE)). The direction of the line of motion is specified with a roll center height solely to maintain compatibility with other models and existing data. and all parts that generally move vertically with the wheel as the suspension deflects. brakes.25 mm/mm. Lateral distance between centers of tire contact at the simulation load condition. This should be a positive number for both front and rear suspensions. you can add about half their masses to the overall unsprung mass. Mass of wheels. Independent suspension screen. 3 Height of axle roll center above ground at the simulation load condition (keyword = HRC (IAXLE)). User Settings 1 Unsprung mass (keyword = MUS (IAXLE)). This is typically a value between 0 and 200 mm for independent suspensions. — 205 — . The mathematical models in CarSim do not include an actual roll center point—the wheels are assumed to move in a straight line as shown by the lines of motion in the kinematics section in Figure 9. This value includes both wheels in the suspension. For parts such as driveline components and suspension linkages that have one end attached to the moving wheel and the other to the sprung mass.05 and 0.

In this case you would specify a negative value for auxiliary stiffness. The value is typically between 0. shown in Figure 9. The overall roll stiffness of a suspension is the roll moment (N-m) needed to roll the vehicle body one degree. with the other suspension disconnected. the mechanical advantage of the suspension. compliance in the suspension can sometimes result in less roll stiffness than would be predicted from the spring rates. because an additional parameter accounts for the mechanical advantage of the suspension 8 .0 (for some MacPherson strut suspensions). This determines the mechanical advantage of the suspension with respect to the spring. In the front. The total roll stiffness may differ from the rate calculated for the springs alone. 7 Ratio of spring jounce (compression) to jounce at wheel (keyword = RSPRING (IAXLE)). This is the linear rate of a single suspension spring. This coefficient is provided to account for the difference between the overall roll stiffness and the stiffness provided by the springs along. 9 Spring rate (keyword = KS (IAXLE)). anti-squat. positive toe is steer to the inside (left steer for the right wheels. this value is often negative. 11 Auxiliary roll stiffness.5 (for some SLA suspensions) and 1. rather than at the wheel. On the other hand. 6 Ratio of camber change per unit of suspension compression (keyword = RCAM (IAXLE)). This coefficient should be selected to represent the linear behavior near the nominal suspension compression. 8 Ratio of damper jounce to jounce at wheel (keyword = RDAMP (IAXLE)). — 206 — . As shown in the figure. You can take the rate of the isolated damper. 10 Damper rate (keyword = DS (IAXLE)). and the track width.5 (for some SLA suspensions) and 1. This is the linear rate of a single shock absorber. As shown in the figure. Suspension kinematics normally cause toe to vary in a complex way with suspension deflection. The springs provide a certain amount of roll stiffness. right steer for the left wheels). rather than at the wheel. 5 Ratio of toe change per unit of suspension compression (keyword = RTOE (IAXLE)). this is called anti-dive. Suspension kinematics normally cause camber to decrease with suspension compression.0 (for some MacPherson strut suspensions). including stabilizer bar (keyword = KAUX (IAXLE)). It is usually positive. positive camber is when the wheel leans out at the top. You can take the rate at the spring. Thus. Additional stiffness is provided by anti-sway bars and by over constrained suspension linkages. The value is typically between 0. is designed such that a positive value means the wheel moves away from the center of the vehicle as it moves up.12. because an additional parameter accounts for the mechanical advantage of the suspension 7 . In the rear.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference Note: The sign convention. This determines the mechanical advantage of the suspension with respect to the shock absorber. based on the spring rate. and the tires replaced with rigid elements.

to determine the compliance for the steering column (specified in the Cars data screen). a positive lateral force (to the left). Thus. The suspension elements usually deflect when a steering torque is applied to the wheel. If equal and opposite steering torques are applied to both the left and right road wheels. the compliance coefficient is nearly always positive. the steer axis is usually inclined to intersect the ground in front of the center of tire contact. This coefficient is therefore likely to have a small negative value for a steered wheel.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference 12 Coefficient for change in toe per change of tire longitudinal force (keyword = CTFX (IAXLE)). Location in CarSimEd CarSimEd Startup Runs Vehicles: Car Suspension Systems: Car Suspension File Location Vehicles\Susp_ed\Susp_ed. the angles for all five links are computed. Because the steer and moment have the same sign convention. Discussion CarSimEd includes a simulation program to compute changes in steer (toe) and camber as functions of vertical spindle position. and to compliance in the steering column. The suspension compliance is subtracted from the total steering compliance that would be measured for one wheel. Example results for this model have been published with the intention of providing a benchmark for validating new simulation codes. is should have a value close to zero. steering the wheel inward (positive toe). as are the X and Y coordinates of the wheel center.tbk Suspensions: 5-Link Independent Use this screen to specify the geometry for a five-link suspension. Therefore this parameter is likely to have a small but positive value. In addition. 13 Coefficient for change of steer angle per change of tire lateral force (keyword = CSFY (IAXLE)). For wheels which can be steered. the resulting deflection is mainly due to the suspension alone. — 207 — . usually causes some steer to the right (negative). Steering as a result of aligning torque is due both to compliance in the suspension. For rear wheels. 14 Coefficient for change of steer angle per change of tire aligning torque (keyword = CSMZ (IAXLE)). A forward tractive force tends to bend a suspension forward. acting behind the steer axis.

Chapter 9

Alphabetical Library Reference
M. Hiller and S. Frik, “Five-Link Suspension,” from Multibody Computer Codes
in Vehicle System Dynamics, Supplement to Vehicle System Dynamics, vol. 22,
1993. pp 254 - 262.

1

2
3

4

5

User Settings
1

Link to an animator group data set. The animator group should be set to provide a wireframe matched to the suspension parts.

2

Y coordinate of point B, the wheel center (keyword = BY). The X coordinate is defined as
zero, and the Z coordinate is a variable that is varied during a run. The Y value changes
during a run: the specified coordinate applies when the points (X1 to X5) are at their
specified locations 5 .

3

Wheel spin orientation (keywords = BSY, BSZ). The orientation of the spin axis is
defined by a second point, BS, lying outboard of point B. The Y and Z coordinates of this
point determine how the spin axis is oriented when the points (X1 to X5) are at their
specified locations 5 .

4

Coordinates of points fixed in the body (keywords = PX(1) - PX(5), PY(1) PY(5), PZ(1) - PZ(5)).

5

Coordinates of points fixed in the spindle body (keywords = XX(1) - XX(5), XY(1) XY(5), XZ(1) - XZ(5)). These locations define a nominal configuration for the
system.

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Location in CarSimEd
CarSimEd Startup
Runs: Suspension Analysis
Link-Type Independent Suspension

File Location
Vehicles\Susp_5L\Susp_5L.tbk

Tires: CarSimEd Model
Use this screen to change the constants and links to the table look-ups which define the
tire properties.

Discussion
This screen provides a location for you to enter a number of tire properties needed in the
simulation. Tire vertical stiffness determines how the load varies as the tire bounces on
the road. You can specify a vertical stiffness value here. If you are simulating the 2D
vehicle ride response, this is the only tire parameter that will be used.
For small amounts of slip (lateral or longitudinal), the tire produces forces and aligning
moment proportional to the slip. The coefficients are highly sensitive to load, and
therefore the screen has links to other data screens that define the load sensitivity in
tabular form.
For braking, the dynamics of the spinning wheels are not of great interest. Without ABS
simulation, the wheels generally reach a spin value in which the longitudinal tire force
just balances the applied brake torque. The model uses a single coefficient to relate
longitudinal slip to force.
For cornering, a quick equilibrium is not reached, and the relation between lateral slip
and lateral force has a strong influence on the handling behavior of the vehicle. The
CarSimEd tire model is described in Appendix G. It is based on an analysis of tire
mechanics from Chapter 14 of the book Race Car Vehicle Dynamics, Milkier & Milkier,
SAE, 1995.
When a tire experiences a slip angle, it does not immediately generate a lateral force, but
must roll some distance to generate the lateral deflection necessary to sustain a force.
Under a step steer the force builds up like a first-order lag in distance. You can input this
distance, known as the relaxation length, on this screen.
At low speeds the determination of tire forces can become erratic because of numerical
problems in calculating the slip conditions. In order to avoid these problems, you can
specify a cut-off speed below which such mechanisms as relaxation length are modified.
All properties are specified for a single tire.

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8

5
6
9
10
11

12

1
13
2

14
3
4

7

User Settings
1

Longitudinal stiffness (keyword = KFX(IAXLE)). This coefficient defines the
relationship between longitudinal slip and force for small amounts of slip. Although the
coefficient is in reality sensitive to load, a constant value is used in the model because no
matter what the stiffness is, the longitudinal force will balance the brake torque. The
stiffness determines the amount of slip that occurs during that balance, and the
longitudinal slip does affect the cornering behavior for combined slip (see Appendix G).
However, given that the tire model is not adjustable in its combined slip behavior, a
single value for Kfx is considered to be adequate for most conditions.

2

Camber thrust coefficient (keyword = KFYCAM(IAXLE)). This coefficient defines the
relationship between wheel inclination and side force. The sensitivity to inclination is an
order of magnitude less than the sensitivity to slip (steer). Even though the coefficient is
known to be sensitive to load, a constant value is used in the CarSimEd model due to its
relatively small overall contribution to the tire force.
With the ISO coordinate system used in CarSimEd (shown in the screen figure), positive
inclination (leaning to the right) causes negative lateral force (the force also goes to the
right). Therefore, this coefficient should be negative.
Note:

With the SAE coordinate system this coefficient would be
positive. Therefore, check the sign if you are obtaining data from
a source where the SAE convention was used.

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Chapter 9

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3

Link to cornering stiffness data. The linked data set specifies cornering stiffness as a
function of load.

4

Link to cornering pneumatic trail data. The linked data set specifies pneumatic trail as a
function of load.

5

Undeformed rolling radius (keyword = HWC (IAXLE, ISIDE)). This is the distance
the tire rolls at zero load, divided by 2π. It is approximately the height of the wheel center
when the tire is unloaded (lightly resting against the ground, fully inflated). It is used in
the simulation model to relate rim speed of the tire to the forward speed at the wheel
center. This number is larger than the loaded radius by an amount: Fz / K t (vertical force
divided by linear spring rate).

6

Linear tire vertical spring rate (keyword = KT (IAXLE, ISIDE)). This coefficient is
used in the model to calculate change in vertical load due to tire compression. The
behavior is linear until the load reaches zero. Once the tire lifts off the ground, the force
remains at zero unless contact is made again.

7

Tire relaxation length (keyword = LRELAX (IAXLE)). This is about one-third the
distance that the tire must roll before side force due to slip angle builds up to its full
value. It can be thought of as a spatial version of a time constant.

8

Spin moment of inertia of one wheel (keyword = IW (IAXLE)). This should include all
parts that rotate with the wheel as a single rigid body, including the tire, brake rotors, and
possibly driveline elements.

9

Cutoff speed for tire relaxation equations (keyword = VLOW_ALPHA (IAXLE)). The
concept of relaxation length is valid for a range of speeds, but leads to strange behavior
as speeds approach zero because the time constant associated with the dynamic lag goes
to infinity. The time constant associated with relaxation is frozen when the speed drops
below this value.

10

Cutoff speed for longitudinal tire forces (keyword = VLOW_KAPPA (IAXLE)). The
classic model for predicting longitudinal force eliminates a direct dependency on speed
by using a normalized longitudinal slip. However, the definition of longitudinal slip is
singular at zero speed. At speeds approaching zero, the classic model can predict
maximum tractive force, oscillating in the forward and rearward directions. This behavior
is reduced in the CarSimEd model by attenuating the slip when the wheel is locked by the
brakes and the speed drops below the level specified in this field (see Appendix G for
details).

11

Cutoff speed for wheel spin acceleration (keyword = VLOW_SPINA (IAXLE)). Brake
torque is the result of friction and always opposes the wheel spin. When the wheel spin
approaches zero (lock up), a numerical instability can occur due to the reversal of the
direction of the brake torque. To avoid numerical problems, the wheel spin equation is
modified when the effective speed (spin multiplied by rolling radius) drops below the
level specified in this field.

12

Thickness of wheel object drawn by wire-frame animator (keyword =
set_thickness). This dimension is used for creating the wire-frame animation, but is

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Alphabetical Library Reference

not used by the solver programs. Unlike most yellow fields, this must be given a value
because the library automatically converts the units from mm to meters.
13

Number of points in polygons used to represent the wheel in wire-frame animations
(keyword = set_num_points). This value is not used by the solver programs.

14

Color of wheel object drawn by wire-frame animator (keyword = set_color). Select
the button next to the field to access a pull-down menu with the valid color names. This
information is not used by the solver programs.

Location in CarSimEd
CarSimEd Startup
Runs
Vehicles: Car
Tires: CarSimEd Model

File Location
Vehicles\Tires_ed\Tires_ed.tbk

Tires: Cornering Stiffness
Use this screen to define the cornering stiffness of a tire as a function of vertical load.

Discussion
For small levels of lateral slip, tires produce lateral force that is proportional to negative
slip angle. The coefficient is called cornering stiffness. It is strongly dependent on load.
The CarSimEd model accounts for the load sensitivity with a tabular function.
For large slip angles, the CarSimEd model reduces the lateral force to account for friction
limits. Details are provided in Appendix G.

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1

User Settings
Note:

1

User settings that are common for all tabular data screens are
described in Chapter 7, in the section Tabular Data.

Table field for cornering stiffness (keyword = KFY_TABLE). Each line should have a
value of cornering stiffness (N) followed by a corresponding value of trail (N/deg).
Although lateral force and side slip have opposite signs, cornering stiffness is typically
defined as a positive quantity, and therefore, all numbers in the table should be positive.
The solver program uses linear interpolation and flat-line extrapolation with this table.
For values of load that are less than the range covered in the table, the first value of
cornering stiffness is used. For values of load larger than the range covered, the last value
of cornering stiffness is used. The table needs at least two lines of data or else an error
message is generated.

Location in CarSimEd
CarSimEd Startup
Runs
Vehicles: Car
Tires: CarSimEd
Tires: Cornering Stiffness: Kfy

— 213 —

This distance acts as a moment arm. Therefore. the shear force usually acts behind the center. This screen is used to describe this sensitivity to load. Discussion The line of action for the shear force produced by a tire is generally not exactly through the center of tire contact.tbk Tires: Pneumatic Trail Use this screen to specify pneumatic trail as a function of vertical load. It is called “self-aligning torque” or aligning moment. For small lateral slip angles. 1 — 214 — .Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference File Location Vehicles\Tires\Kfy\Kfy. The pneumatic trail is a function of the shape of the contact patch between the tire and road. producing a torque that opposes the steering. pneumatic trail is sensitive to inflation pressure and vertical load.

The table needs at least two lines of data or else an error message is generated. in the section Tabular Data. Location in CarSimEd CarSimEd Startup Runs Vehicles: Car Tires: CarSimEd Tires: Pneumatic Trail File Location Vehicles\Tires\Trail\Trail. This value is also passed to the animator (keyword = x_length) to re-size the wire-frame shape longitudinally if the wheelbase is changed. (The 2D Ride solver program ignores the parameters associated with roll and yaw motion. For values of load larger than the range covered.Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference User Settings Note: 1 User settings that are common for all tabular data screens are described in Chapter 7. and component properties (links) for the vehicle used in both the 2D Ride and 3D Braking and Steering simulations. Discussion One of the useful features of CarSimEd is that you can develop a whole fleet of vehicles but have to define the characteristics of each particular component only once. 2 Wheelbase (keyword = LWB). Longitudinal distance from the center of the front axle to the center of the rear axle. mass properties. the first value of trail is used. these same vehicles can be used in both the 2D Ride and 3D Braking and Steering simulations. For values of load that are less than the range covered in the table. Furthermore. Each line should have a value of load (N) followed by a corresponding value of trail (mm).) User Settings 1 Height of the mass center of the entire vehicle above the ground (keyword = HCG). Table field for pneumatic trail (keyword = TRAIL_TABLE). the last value of trail is used. The solver program uses linear interpolation and flat-line extrapolation with this table. You can then use this particular component in any of your vehicles simply by linking to it with this screen.tbk Vehicles: Car This screen is used to define the dimensions. — 215 — .

normal to a Y axis (lateral) that is parallel with the ground when the vehicle is at rest on a flat level surface. The moment is taken about the mass center of the entire vehicle. These two values added together give the total mass of the vehicle. This value can be entered directly. normal to a Z axis (vertical) that is parallel with the gravity vector when the vehicle is at rest on a flat level surface. and is defined as the negative of the volume integral: I xz = –∫V ρ x z dv — 216 — . 6 Yaw Moment of Inertia of entire vehicle (keyword = IZZ). or it can be calculated using an estimated radius of gyration 12 and the associated button Estimate Iyy 10 .Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference 14 1 15 2 3 16 4 9 5 8 10 6 11 17 7 12 12 18 13 13 3 Vehicle mass supported by wheels (keyword = MF for front two wheels and MR for rear two wheels). or it can be calculated using an estimated radius of gyration 11 and the associated button Estimate Ixx 10 . The moment is taken about the mass center of the entire vehicle. or it can be calculated using an estimated radius of gyration 13 and the associated button Estimate Izz 10 . The moment is taken about the mass center of the entire vehicle. 7 X-Z Product of Inertia of entire vehicle (keyword = IXZ). 4 Roll Moment of Inertia of entire vehicle (keyword = IXX). These are the masses that would be measured when the front and rear of the car are alternatively driven over a scale. The product is taken about the mass center of the entire vehicle. normal to an X axis (longitudinal) that is parallel with the ground when the vehicle is at rest on a flat level surface. 5 Pitch Moment of Inertia of entire vehicle (keyword = IYY). This value can be entered directly. This value can be entered directly.

These are the ratios between brake torque (N-m) and brake input (MPa). 11 Yaw Radius of Gyration (not a parameter). 13 Link to the screen for the tire properties. 10 Pitch Radius of Gyration (not a parameter). Iyy. The animator group should be set to provide a wireframe matched to the vehicle. or Izz from the radii of gyration Rx 11 . 12 Link to the library Suspension Systems: Independent to use an independent suspension model with CarSim data format. If used. RMYBK(2)). 18 Link to an animator group data set. RMYTH(2)). 16 Brake gains (keywords = RMYBK(1). The effect due to suspension compliance is subtracted from that measurement. Location in CarSimEd CarSimEd Startup Runs Vehicles: Car File Location Vehicles\Cars_Ed\Cars_Ed. a guess for Ry might be half the wheelbase. Ry. It is calculated by measuring the steer at a road wheel due to applied steering torque. and Izz are not available but Rx. If used.tbk — 217 — . This is the compliance in the steering column and other places not accounted for by the suspension compliance. 8 Calculator buttons. These are the ratios between drive torque (N-m) and dimensionless throttle input. Use if Izz is not available and Rz can be estimated. each inertia parameter can be estimated by combining the radius of gyration with the total mass: I = M*R2 9 Roll Radius of Gyration (not a parameter).Chapter 9 Alphabetical Library Reference The product is positive when the principal X axis tilts down (looking forward). a guess for Rz might be half the wheelbase. Use if Ixx is not available and Rx can be estimated. 15 Steering system compliance (keyword = CSMZF). or Rz 13 . Click one of these buttons to calculate Ixx. Sometimes measured values for Ixx. with the steering wheel fixed. Use if Iyy is not available and Ry can be estimated. In this case. a guess for Rx might be a third of the vehicle width. and Rz can be estimated. 14 Steering gear ratio (keyword = RSW). Iyy. Ry 12 . This is the ratio defines as the steering wheel angle divided by the road wheel angle. If used. 17 Driveline gains (keywords = RMYTH(1).

(To open it. You will then be prompted to name the new simulation type and to locate an associated Matlab PIF for the current vehicle type. Each SIMULINK model folder contains a shortcut to the MATLAB program. (See the next subsection about accessing PIFs from the Windows file dialog box. to allow CarSimEd to make all of the entries into the internal table. The descriptions in this chapter are similar to those in Chapter 4 — each section is fairly compact.Advanced Topics This chapter explains how to perform tasks in CarSimEd that might be helpful after you have some experience. As you work with CarSimEd in SIMULINK.) Rename the MDL file. you will no doubt create new SIMULINK models with new controller designs or output options. if you want to make a new model with the basic model. Duplicate the folder containing the model. 4. 2. Creating a New SIMULINK Model The integration between CarSimEd and SIMULINK is done with software contained in the folder Matlab. Choose among the existing SIMULINK models for the one most similar to the envisioned new model. (Optional. The CarSimEd database accommodates an almost unlimited number of models.) Linking to the New Model 1. duplicate the folder Matlab\cmx_mdl. you must also open the text file Startup. a CarSimEd CMEX solver module (DLL file). and some extra support files. Adding a New SIMULINK Model CarSimEd is installed with a SIMULINK CMEX plug-in DLL file that has the same equations of motion as in the stand-alone solver (EXE) program.) Notes: This step must be repeated for each vehicle type. If you do this. For example.10. double click the Matlab PIF in the new folder. 3. It also comes with several example SIMULINK models files (MDL) that make use of the DLL. Edit the MDL file as desired.3) to choose the option: Add. To make a new model: 1. which in turn contains one folder for each SIMULINK model. — 218 — . Use the pull-down menu 3 (see Figure 10.m and change the name of the MDL file to match the new name. covering just the essence of how to accomplish a task.

seen in DOS as files with LNK extensions. 2. From the desktop or Windows Explorer. find the file Startup. If CarSimEd launches. Change the extension in the dialog box from *. 1. so long as you do not modify the structure within the CarSimEd directory. the following steps describe a method that will work. Cause CarSimEd to regenerate text files used to communicate with the plotter. PIFs are used to access MATLAB. you must make two additional changes: 1. Therefore. You must associate the file type TBK with the file Tb40run.PIF in order to see the PIFs. the program that runs the SGUI part of CarSimEd. They have largely been replaced by shortcuts. Accessing PIF Shortcut Files Early versions of Windows used Program Information Files (PIFs) to provide shortcuts to programs. ToolBook. does not recognize LNK files but does recognize PIFs.exe.exe. more likely. However. and solver programs. Runtime ToolBook The CarSimEd database is managed by a program called Tb40run. Double-click the file to try to open it. If you move the folder containing Tb40run. you might copy CarSimEd from a network server to a personal computer. Installing CarSimEd in a New Directory You can move CarSimEd to a new place in your file system. the Windows file dialog box comes up for selecting EXE file. then you must inform Windows of the new locations. you can move the root CarSimEd folder from drive C to drive D. Or. Inform Windows of the new location. If you know how to do this. and will bring up a dialog box that looks something like this: — 219 — . animator. They appear in file browsers as files with the extension PIF. the Tb40run program is registered with the file extension TBK. congratulations! No work is needed. For example. go ahead and do it. in order to start CarSimEd using the runtime ToolBook software. located in the Tb40 folder in CarSimEd. Windows will not know how to open the file.Chapter 10 Advanced Topics The new program will not be used until you select the new simulation type for a new run. If not.tbk in the CarSimEd folder. and then you can link to one of them. If you move the CarSimEd files after the initial installation. When you use the pull-down menu 3 to choose the option: Add or Find Solver For Type.EXE to *. As part of the CarSimEd installation.

3. — 220 — . Click the button Other. in the folder Tb40 in CarSimEd. The previous dialog box should now show the program. click the Open button to complete the selection and close the dialog box. Locate the file TB40run. After selecting the file. This brings up the next dialog box.exe.Chapter 10 Advanced Topics 2.

Go to the data set Install. — 221 — . Click the OK button to close the dialog box.tbk). Make sure the box “Always use this program to open this file” is checked. do the following: 1. After you have moved the root CarSimEd folder to a new location. then all pathnames are automatically set to begin with “c:\mycar”. and CarSimEd creates them “behind the scenes” using PAR text files. 5. if it is in folder c:\mycar. You have now associated the file type TBK with the program Tb40run in its new location. to regenerate the absolute pathnames. you must instruct CarSimEd to regenerate all of the absolute pathnames in the PAR files. it “looks” at its location and generates many files using that location to create pathnames. Use the GO button in the ribbon bar to go to the CarSimEd startup screen (Startup. When CarSimEd is installed. For example.Chapter 10 Advanced Topics 4. If you move the CarSimEd directory. 2. Update Pathnames in PAR Files The solver programs require absolute pathnames.

1. CarSimEd will bring up a file browser dialog box. Click the Update All PAR Files button Note: 5. 1. 3. Another reason might be that CarSimEd is installed on several computers.1. Importing Data from Another Copy of CarSimEd There are several occasions where you may want to import data from another copy of CarSimEd. Lower-right corner of Startup screen. the two files have the same name but are in different folders. Select a library TBK file of the same type as the current one. This will hide the CarSimEd logo and reveal more buttons. 2. To import data. and you want to import data from one installation into the other.Chapter 10 Advanced Topics 1 2 3 Figure 10. — 222 — . this is how you transfer data entered in the older version. including those shown in Figure 10. 1 . Click the Start button to resume your work. Click the Change Settings button 2 . if the current library contains tire data. Go to the File menu and select the item Import Data from Other Library. The process of updating all PAR files to generate new absolute pathnames can take several minutes on some computers. you should open only another tire library file. For example. The time required depends on the speed of your computer and the number of data sets you have in the CarSimEd database. Often. If you obtain an update for CarSimEd. Go to the library in CarSimEd from which you want to receive the imported data. 3. 4. both installations of CarSimEd must be accessible from the same computer. Any data screen in that library will do.

d. 5. Click the START button. Use the GO button to go to the startup screen (Startup. the names of the linked data sets are copied. Notes This method is 100% reliable for libraries with only yellow data fields. It is recommended that you import less than 10 data sets at a time. This is because the groups and camera settings are linked to frames and shapes. import reference frames and shapes before importing groups or camera settings. to avoid invalid links when importing from “high level” libraries. Click the Change Settings button. If you are importing data from several libraries. The instructions (page 221) can be summarized as: a. Advanced Topics Click OK. e. and that you back up the library file that is the target of the import process. then the links are not valid and must be reset by hand. go to the startup screen and update the PAR files. — 223 — . if the data sets do not exist in the new CarSimEd installation. ToolBook will sometimes crash while trying to import many data sets. After importing the data. Two methods are described below. b.Chapter 10 4. c. the copy is given a unique name by appending a number.tbk). For libraries with blue links. a warning message appears warning of possible problems. the software also has provisions for exporting simulation results to other software packages for analysis and viewing. Exporting Data to Other Plotting and Analysis Software CarSimEd is designed for rapid viewing of simulation results using the installed plotting and animation software. CarSimEd will copy each data set of the old library and paste the contents into the new one. Go to the data set Install. For example. Due to a lowlevel interaction between ToolBook and Windows. However. However. you should import from the “low level” libraries first. Click the Update All PAR Files button. If a data set already exists with the same name. If you select more than 10 data sets to import. when importing animation data.

3. 1. Alternatively. 5. with the extension ERD (e. Select the menu item Show Numbers under the View menu. — 224 — . 4. Creating Text Output Files from within the Plotter The WinEP plotter has the capability of displaying data in text form. 3. With this option. Select the new Computation Parameters data set before making a run to generate text output files. Click the Plot button to launch the WinEP program. 4. 2. Click the New button to create a new data set. The header has the same information as in the default configuration with binary files. The text portion of the file can be imported into other programs. This capability can be used to export a subset of variables to other software.ERD). 231. • The ERDText option will cause the simulation to create a text output file with a detailed header followed by columns of numbers. Return to the Runs screen by clicking the Back button. Go to a run data set that involves output variables to be exported. the installed plotter and animator work the same as with the binary option. 5. the output data can be generated into text files. This speeds up reading and writing and also conserves disk space. 1. The items on each line will be separated by commas. Select a plot window in WinEP involving variables of interest. Go down to the linked Computation Parameters data set. Choose a plot setup involving variables of interest. Start from the Runs screen. This file contains all output variables and can be imported into other software. Start from the Runs screen. The default location of the output files is CarSimEd\Runs. These files can be imported into spreadsheets and analysis programs that allow comma-delimited columns. • The Text option will cause the simulation to create a simple text output file with a 1-line header followed by columns of numbers.g.. The name of the output file is the ID number shown in the upper-right corner of the Runs screen. although it might be necessary to delete the header lines at the start of the file.Chapter 10 Advanced Topics Creating Text Output Files from the Solver programs By default the output files generated by the solver programs store numerical values in binary format. Change the output file format to Text or ERDText (use the adjacent button to access a pull-down menu). However. 2. they cannot be plotted or animated using the built-in CarSimEd tools. This displays a dialog box called Show Numbers with a scrollable list with numbers separated by spaces.

The text file can later be read into other software.7 on page 181). whether a grid is shown. Another way to get to the library is through the GO menu. Then go to the other software and paste the numbers into a field or spreadsheet. every plot description is linked to a format data set with the title Default Settings. the size of text. only some of the values will appear in the list. Copy the contents of the field in the dialog box to the clipboard. Or. Note: By doing this. 3. use the Save Data button described in the next paragraph. 2. As shipped. all subsequent plots will be made using these modified settings. Look for the menu item Plot\Format\Format.7 on page 181). If you change the default settings. Changing Plot Formatting Plot appearance is controlled by a format data set.Chapter 10 Advanced Topics Note: 6. but it will only be used if you set links to it from the Plot Setup screen. Each plot description is linked to a format data set (see 7 in Figure 9. 4. Sometimes. Go to the Plot Format library by following the link Note: 7 ) (see Figure 9. etc. When this happens. 1. Go to the Plot Setup: Single library by clicking the plot setup icon in the ribbon bar ( or use the Plot Setup command from the Tools menu. Transfer the numbers: a. all future plots will have a new appearance. Modify the data set whose title is Default Settings. You use the formatting to assign the colors of lines. due to memory limitations. click the button Save Data. You can make a new data set.tbk. Refer to the description of the Plot Format screen in Chapter 8 for information about how you can control the plot appearance from the these settings. WinEP will prompt for a file name for a text file with the contents of the field in the dialog box. b. — 225 — .

Create a new data set with the desired offset values. — 226 — . the figure below shows four plots that are offset by 5 units. it is sometimes convenient to offset the plots vertically. 9 ) or use in Figure 9. Routinely Making Plots With Offsets 1. Refer to the description of the Plot: Data Transforms screen in Chapter 9 for information about how you can subtract constant values from each data set to apply offsets.) 2. Make a plot of the variables of interest in WinEP. For example. 3. (Click on it even if it is highlighted. Making One Plot With Offsets 1. Use the Data menu command Offsets to bring up the Offsets dialog box. Enter values for the offsets in the dialog box.7 on page Another way to get to the library is through the GO menu.Chapter 10 Advanced Topics Creating Offset Plots When comparing many similar variables. Make sure the window with the plot of interest is the active one by clicking on it. Go to the Data Transforms library by following the link (see 181). Click the OK button to view the revised plot.tbk. 2. Look for the menu item Plot\Transfrm\Transfrm. 4. Go to the Plot Setup library by clicking the plot setup icon in the ribbon bar ( the Plot Setup command from the Tools menu. Note: 3.

Select the entire contents of the tabular data field the Edit menu (Ctrl+A) is helpful for doing this. to make a tire 20% stiffer. For example. Click the Calculate button 7. suppose the X values are in inches and Y values are in pounds. 2. The menu command Select All under .4482216152605*Y. you can use a built-in calculator tool to convert the units. to confirm that the conversion was performed as you expect. B*Y where A and B are numerical scale factors. For example. The definitions should have the form: A*X. 5. to perform the transformations. Paste the tabular data into the tabular data field 4. Set the Data Transforms link 6. use the definition: 25. This process is as follows. Click the Plot button 8. click the calculator tool button in the ribbon bar or select the Calculator command from the Tools menu. Copy the tabular data to the clipboard.’ commas (e.Chapter 10 Advanced Topics 4. Go back to the Plot Setup: Single screen and go to the plot setup for the plot in which you want to apply the offsets. 12 to the newly created screen. 1. 2 if the numbers should not be separated with 1 — 227 — . Click the button Remove ‘. 4.g. Type definitions for the transformed X and Y values into the definitions field 4 . From any CarSimEd data screen. Go to the Runs screen and make plots using this modified Plot Setup data set. 3 5 1 of the calculator data screen. To convert to a table where the X values are in millimeters and the Y values are in Newtons. 9.. 6. Optional. 5. If the units used for the data do not match the requirements for the CarSimEd data screen. for animator shape data).4*X. Select the Transform button 6 to configure the calculator for transforming an existing series of numbers (as opposed to creating a new series of numbers). Re-Scaling Tabular Data You may have occasion to import measured tabular data into CarSimEd. Click here 3. You might also want to take an existing table of number and re-scale it.

However. Select the Copy command from the Edit menu (Ctrl+C). Go to the data screen where the tabular data will be stored. Colors The CarSimEd screens look best when 256 or more colors are supported. number of colors. create one using the New button and give it a name. CarSimEd has a setting to produce yellow and blue — 228 — . See Chapter 9 for details on using the calculator data screen. and default font size. the screens should be readable for any valid setting. 1 2 3 4 5 6 11. Paste the clipboard contents into the field used to store the numbers. 12. If a data set does not exist for the transformed data. Font Size The CarSimEd data screens look best when the system display properties are set for Small Fonts.Chapter 10 Advanced Topics 10. Improving the Appearance of the CarSimEd Screens Windows has many settings for screen size. If your machine is set to support 16 or fewer colors. 13.

From any CarSimEd data screen. check the box Have 256 or more colors on monitor 1 . click the button in the ribbon bar or select the Preferences command from the Tools menu. press the F11 key or use the Size to Page command from the Page menu. Close the dialog box by clicking the X 2 in the upper-right corner. and the space around the main part is filled with gray. 1. If your monitor has a larger display area than VGA. the result is that the menu bar is put at the top of the total screen. Size of CarSimEd Data Screens The CarSimEd data screens are designed to fit on a VGA display (640 x 480). pull-down menus associated with triangle buttons do not appear in the correct locations when the buttons are pressed. Otherwise. — 229 — . In the maximized display mode. 1. To return to the normal CarSimEd display. If your machine is set up to support 256 or more colors. 3. Note: If you have modified the window size by dragging the window borders. Note: 2. the main part is centered.Chapter 10 Advanced Topics fields using dot patterns rather than solid colors. The middle button “maximizes” the window to fill the monitor screen (see Figure 10. This brings up a dialog box with a few check boxes. 2 1 2. un-check this box. the F11 key (or Page menu) is the only way to restore the size. A global setting is used to control whether CarSimEd uses solid colors or patterns. The upper-right corner of the window has three Windows-standard buttons: .2).

— 230 — . etc. For example. tire blow-out. See Chapter 9 section Runs for a description of how priorities are determined. Some applications of this are: • You can simulate a drastic change in the vehicle properties. changing just a few parameters of interest to rapidly investigate vehicle sensitivity to any of the modeled properties. • You can change controller strategies. Appearance of a data screen that has been maximized. Note: It is helpful to know which settings on the Runs screen have priorities over others. specify a hard step-steer input for a second and then resume the run with the driver model trying to bring the vehicle under control.Chapter 10 Advanced Topics Figure 10.2. such as a brake failure. However. Continuing a Run The solver programs in CarSimEd are capable of starting a new run right where a previous one left off. in the new run. • You can reproduce an existing run. you are free to change anything you want.

If you do this. in the figure it is 6).. Click the button New to copy the data set.g. type startt time where time is the stop time from the first run. 2. (The simulation runs from startt to stopt. 8. Make sure that the Show More 4. (Optional) To make the time scale for the new run start where the previous run left off. Make the new run. . Go to the Runs data set for the run you want to continue. Select the first turn for the Overlay Run #2 link — 231 — 6 .Chapter 10 Advanced Topics The way to continue a run is to use the Based On link of the Runs screen to select an existing run. a. Use the Based On link 5. 3.) 6. to select the run that will be continued. change the stop time (parameter name stopt) to a larger value (e. it was 1.g. Check the Overlay Runs box 5 . Change any inputs that you want to be different for the new run. (Optional) You can set up overlay plots to show both runs. shown in the Stop field 1 (e.. 7. 2 4 box is checked.8 in the original run Step Steer (car)). 1 5 2 3 6 4 1. b.

and one for working with SIMULINK. This brings up a find file dialog box. Select the desired Runs library. (As installed.tbk 3.tbk. and the other is the button in the top region of every data screen. — 232 — .tbk 2. However.tbk. 1. Runs_2d\Runs_2d. start with any data screen in CarSimEd. Runs_3d\Runs_3d. As shipped. There are two built-in shortcuts to jump directly to a default Runs library. To assign a new Runs library. This section explains how to install it. the menu item and the button are linked to the Runs library used for running the stand-alone 3D car solver program. Control-Click here 2. Runs_sus\Runs_sus. Runs_cmx\Runs_cmx.Chapter 10 Advanced Topics If you made the start time for the new run coincide with the stop time for the first. 4. all plots will show the entire time histories covered in both runs. Control-click on the computer icon in the ribbon bar. the four options are: 1. you might wish to change the default link to go to the other Runs library. If you primarily run CarSimEd with SIMULINK. Changing a Solver Program You will probably never have occasion to add new programs to CarSimEd. One is the Tools menu item Runs. However. Changing the Default Runs Library CarSimEd is shipped with four Runs libraries: three for using stand-alone (EXE) solver programs. or are working with someone who is making custom versions of the CarSimEd models. if you use the AutoSim code generator. Note: Some of the subsystems perform initializations that prevent perfect continuity. you might be given a new solver program. the continuity is close enough for most purposes.

3. Replace the old EXE file with a new one.exe) for a solver program that will be run when the Run Simulation button 2 is clicked. 1 2 3 Figure 10. in Figure 10. To access the preferences. For example. Link to a solver program. — 233 — .g. all stand-alone (EXE) solver programs reside in the folder Programs. Note: To see the type of simulation. The table contains a corresponding pathname (e.Chapter 10 Advanced Topics CarSimEd supports multiple solver programs.3. Replacing an Existing Program With Another Program If the New Program Has the Same Name As the Old Program 1. Programs\3d_car.. When you click the Run Simulation button on the Runs screen. Note: As installed. use the Tools menu item Preferences or click the button in the ribbon bar. you must check the Show More box at the bottom of the Runs screen. CarSimEd searches an internal table for an entry containing the current type of vehicle and the current type of simulation. the vehicle type displayed above the Vehicle blue link 1 is car and the Simulation Type 3 is 3D Vehicle Dynamics. Note: The utility functions on the Simulation Type menu 3 are visible only if you have specified Advanced Mode in the CarSimEd preferences.

Removing a Simulation Type If you want to delete a simulation type from the menu Simulation Type 1. the default text editor is a program called WinVI. Use the pull-down menu that you want removed. 3. Changing the Default Text Editor The View Echo File (All Parameters) button on the Runs screen automatically loads a text file into an editor. Make a run to confirm that the new program is used. The new program will not be used until you select the new simulation type for a new run. 2. You will then be prompted to name the new simulation type and to locate an associated EXE file for the current vehicle type. Make a run to confirm that the new program is used. keep going. — 234 — . you will then be prompted to locate the EXE file associated with the currently select vehicle and simulation types. The Delete menu item only removes an item from the menu. You can replace WinVI with a different Windows editor if you prefer. In the case of a new stand-alone program. To assign a new editor. Notes: This step must be repeated for each vehicle type. Locate the new EXE file and select it. Adding An Alternative Program 1. you will then be prompted to locate the EXE file associated with the currently selected vehicle type. Use the pull-down menu 3 to choose the option: Find Solver For. start with any data screen in CarSimEd. As installed. to allow CarSimEd to make all of the entries into the internal table. Note: 3 3 . If the New Program Has a Different Name Than the Old Program 1. Type where Type is the desired simulation type. If not. Use the pull-down menu 3 to choose the option: Add. Repeat step 2. along with the simulation type CarSimEd will not delete any EXE files.Chapter 10 Advanced Topics 2. Locate the new EXE file and select it. you’re done. In the case of a stand-alone program. Type where Type is the desired simulation type. If so. then: to choose the option: Delete. Use the pull-down menu 3 to choose the option: Find Solver For.

Advanced Topics Control-click on the text icon in the ribbon bar. Control-Click here This should bring up the following dialog box. 2. Link to a text editor using the above dialog box. Click the OK button after you have selected the desired text editor. — 235 — .Chapter 10 1. 3.

pathnames written in hundreds of text file are no longer valid (they reference the old folder name and location). the animator. error messages are generated. 3. If you click the Run Simulation button and the solver stops with an error message that a file can’t be found. or when you change the name of a data set that is referenced from elsewhere in the database. the database. The key steps in this process are: 1. 2. All parts of the software are susceptible to problems related to filenames. error messages. If CarSimEd attempts to access non-existent files. along with suggested solutions. then there are two possible solutions. and a few utility programs. making this kind of error reasonably easy to prevent. be sure to follow the instructions in the Chapter 4 section Installing CarSimEd in a New Directory. CarSimEd has a way to automatically update all filenames. However.Trouble Shooting This chapter lists some problems that can occur with CarSimEd. — 236 — . 1.11. and therefore this topic is addressed first. Go to the CarSimEd startup screen. File System Errors Information is passed between the various parts of the CarSimEd through text files. First. Changing Names of Data Sets The same kind of problem can occur when you import data from another copy of CarSimEd. and crashes are organized by the type of program in CarSimEd. The potential warnings. Click the Change Settings button to reveal more buttons. the plotter. Click the button Update All PAR Files. go to the startup screen and click the button Update All PAR Files as described above. CarSimEd is an integrated collection of programs: solver programs. Moving CarSimEd to a New Location When you move CarSimEd to a different folder. It is also possible that the ToolBook program needed to run the database will not be found. To avoid errors when you move CarSimEd.

Bad links are indicated with the symbol . so that would be the place to look for the bad link. the figure below shows the ParsTree display for a vehicle PAR file with a bad link for the tire (repeated twice). Most users have never experienced a crash of ToolBook. The version being used in CarSimEd includes 16-bit library routines which can crash. you should be able to identify the library containing the non-existent data set from the error message. You need to figure out which library has the bad link. click on the button with the tree icon: . Tires are selected from the car and data screen. Database (ToolBook) Problems The database in CarSimEd is run under a program called ToolBook. In the second case. The problem is not reproducible. then the problem is probably with a tire data set. To run it. there is probably a link to a data set that no longer exists because the original was deleted or renamed.Chapter11 Trouble Shooting 2. go to the Tools menu and select the item View Parstree. The ParsTree program brings up a window with two panes. Alternatively. — 237 — . For example. if the non-existent file is in the folder Vehicles\Tires\Tires_ed\. Bad links can be quickly located by using the ParsTree program in CarSimEd. If that doesn’t work. but it does exist. For example. from Asymetrix. similar in format to the Windows Explorer.

duplicate Startup_. Recovery From a Crash If ToolBook crashes.tbk.tbk. the file is automatically saved. and 6. CarSimEd includes a backup copy of the Startup. it usually disables the part of Windows that supports 16-bit code. Sometimes. It can lead to internal ToolBook conflicts and should not be used casually. and 3. requiring that Windows be restarted. — 238 — . delete the old (corrupt) file. rename the copy as Startup. named Startup_. We recommend you use this option. The problem has something to do with memory management within ToolBook.tbk file. import the new data sets from the old (corrupt) Startup. You should change this to Read/Write permission before trying to use CarSimEd. exit ToolBook.Chapter11 Trouble Shooting Whenever you switch from one ToolBook library to another one. you can copy the Startup. If you lose the backup in the CarSimEd folder.tbk.tbk has been corrupted. Therefore if a crash occurs you will not lose any data from libraries other than the one that is open. Windows will give the “Read Only” file permission because it comes from a CD.tbk. If the main one gets corrupted. The fix is: 1. open the duplicate file in ToolBook (double click its icon). delete the old (corrupt) file. do not import more than 10 data sets at a time. If you made new data sets in your Startup library.tbk file from the CarSimEd CD. however. you will be given a warning and the option to Quit the second instance. rename the copy as Startup. Risky Operations Here are the operations that appear to carry some risk. • CarSimEd includes a Find option in ToolBook. 3. 2. the simplest fix is to do the following: 1. duplicate Startup_. 5. you can import the data sets.tbk. If you launch CarSimEd and it is already running. • Having two copies of ToolBook running is risky and should be avoided. and save the ToolBook file after each one.tbk file. To reduce the risk. Usually this is all that is needed. when you restart CarSimEd you will get a message that the file Startup. 4. 2. • Importing data sets into a library from another CarSimEd library can crash ToolBook.

The plotter reads a similar file (with extension PLT) and also the ERD files. the solver programs have three methods of stopping. The problem is usually due to bad input parameter values that cause the system to become unstable. Repeat the run using a smaller time step. Neither is likely to corrupt any of your data. as described on page 236.) 2. To help track down the problem: a. and a maximum distance traveled. plus it reads the ERD files created by the solver programs. The potential problems fall into two categories: the file system and numerical errors. In this case the solver program quits at the end of the run. View the echo file made prior to the start of the run. causing an excessively large number to be passed to the CPU. If the run made some progress before crashing. This is usually due to a non-existent file name. etc. In this case the window for the solver program stays visible. use the animator and plotter to try to figure out what part of the model misbehaves first. a minimum speed threshold. Plotter and Wire-Frame Animator The plotter and animator viewer programs do not create data nor do they open data files with write permission. 1.Chapter11 Trouble Shooting Solver Programs Once a run starts. locate and open the LOG file. described in Chapter 5. in which the simulated test is completed. A controlled stop due to an input error. and which file caused the problem. like a very low mass. b. If this does not solve the problem. and is corrected by going to the Startup screen and updating the text files. and use it to determine how many input files were read. with an error message displayed. c. File System Problems The animator reads the same PAR files as the solver programs. returning you to the Runs screen where you can click a button to view an animation or inspect plots. negative spring rate. Look over the parameters for something that is not right. (There are several parameters that are checked to see if the run should stop: the stop time. An uncontrolled stop. In this case a Windows system-level error message is generated. The echo file has the extension LPO and is described in Chapter 5. a maximum roll angle. either viewer will show an error message and quit. 3. A normal stop. The worst they can do is crash. The problem is usually numerical. If any of these files have been deleted or renamed. Here is a quick check list: — 239 — .

either viewer will show an error message naming the missing PAR file. see if the results from the run in question cause problems with both the animator and plotter. (Make the run using one of the other output file formats: Binary or ERD Text. If the output file format is set to Text.Chapter11 Trouble Shooting • Has the run been made? If a run has not yet been made. • For the animator. it crashes. Check the Computation Parameters data set used for the run. When either viewer reads those numbers. If it crashes right away. To check for this. The viewer will show an error message naming the missing ERD file. and all links “down the tree?” If not. Try to locate the problem using the Parstree program as described earlier on page 236. If so. you can simply restart the animator. then there is no ERD file to read. • Are the links from the Runs screen valid. have you moved the camera point inside the vehicle? Usually this is safe. then the viewers will not work. Here are two possibilities: • Was the simulated test stable? It is possible for a solver program to write invalid numbers into the output file. Occasionally it will try to divide by a zero or otherwise perform an illegal numerical operation. • Was the output simulation file specified to be plain text? If so.) Numerical Problems The animator performs 3D coordinate transformations using data from the shape files and from the simulation output file. neither viewer will work right. try choosing a different camera setup from the Runs screen. If this happens while changing the camera location interactively. — 240 — . the problem is really with the solver program and is probably due to bad model parameters or a time step that is too big. but it will occasionally create a singularity in the 3D transformations (Divide By Zero) and cause the animator to crash.

Animator — a program in CarSimEd that is used for animating simulation results as wire-frame representations of vehicles.trucksim.Appendix A — Glossary This appendix contains a glossary of words that have specific interpretations in the context of CarSimEd. CarSim comes with more detailed vehicle dynamics models that include a driveline. A data screen is where you enter the parameters that define your target simulation. Data sets are contained in library files and edited in data screens. and variable ground friction.com. The echo file documents the conditions that were simulated in a run. Each represents a link to another data set. and the triangle button is used to display a pull-down menu (see Link). AutoSim originated at UMTRI. Data set — a collection of parameter values and related information. All echo files made — 241 — . produced by a solver program. Data screen — a view of a data set contained in the CarSimEd data base. CarSim Educational — see CarSimEd. CarSim™ — the commerical version of CarSimEd. Files with this extension contain library code that is loaded into memory as needed. organized for display on a CarSimEd screen. DLL — dynamic link library. wind. Blue field — Blue fields with adjacent triangle buttons are common in CarSimEd. maintained. and supported by MSC. AutoSim™ — a code generator that was used to create the solver programs in CarSimEd. CarSim can be licensed in several forms from MSC. The name of the data set is shown in the blue field. that lists every input parameter. 3D ground input. CarSimEd (short for CarSim Educational) is free and can be downloaded from the MSC web site: www. and is now licensed. It is a data set as viewed through a graphical user interface. Echo file — a text file. The CMEX versions of the CarSimEd models are contained in DLL (dynamic link library) files. CarSimEd database — the collection of all data libraries within CarSimEd. CarSimEd™ — an integrated software package for automotive vehicle dynamics simulations. Many of the linear coefficients in the CarSimEd models are replaced with nonlinear tables in order to accurately simulate a wider range of conditions. Unless otherwise noted. CMEX — an executable module for MATLAB/SIMULINK that was created by compiling C code. the name CarSimEd refers to the basic package with stand-alone solver programs (EXE files) and MATLAB/SIMULINK DLL plug-ins.

Inc. Go — in the context of CarSimEd. MATLAB® — a mathematical computation and visualization package available from The MathWorks. and SpeED all appear the same to the solver programs). The triangle button next to the data set title is used to transfer to different data sets within the same library. maintains. The menu can also be used to “follow the link” and go to the data set. Numerical integration — a computation method used to solve the differential equations that define a mathematical model of vehicle dynamics. to restart (continue) a run. An add-on module called SIMULINK can optionally be used with CarSimEd. Keywords cannot include spaces. SPEED.Appendix A Glossary by CarSimEd solver programs are written in the PARSFILE format (see Appendix F). Echo files can also be used as inputs to the solver programs for future runs. Library — a file containing one or more data sets of the same type. plus a standard graphic interface for viewing these data sets. Link label Type Triangle button Data set name The adjacent button has a pull-down menu that can be used to rapidly change the link to a different data set or library. Output variables produced by the models in CarSimEd are based on internal variables that are calculated over time using numerical integration of state equations. all vehicle parameters are identified in input files with keywords. The plotter and animator programs in CarSimEd read ERD files. MSC — Mechanical Simulation Corporation. Keywords in CarSimEd are not case dependent (speed. ERD file — a file stored in a standard format that supports automated plotting. the group at UMTRI that originated this format. ERD stands for Engineering Research Division. and other forms of post-processing. The company that licenses. here is a link to a vehicle data set. and is used to transfer to different libraries. All CarSimEd library files have the extension TBK. (A Go button is in the ribbon bar of every data screen. The new data set could be from the same library or a different one. For example. Link — a connection from one data set to another. Output files produced by CarSimEd solver programs are written in ERD format (see Appendix C). In CarSimEd.) Keyword — a “word” comprised of letters and other characters that is recognized by a computer program. — 242 — . and supports CarSim and CarSimEd. or library means having CarSimEd change the screen display to view a different data set. animation. indicated with a blue field and an adjacent triangle button. screen. going to a different data set.

All necessary TBK files are provided in the CarSimEd installation. In addition. The architecture of CarSimEd (data screens. They handle all required calculations and input/output. simulating. SIMULINK and MATLAB are available from the MathWorks. The CarSimEd solver programs are customized with the equations of motion for specific vehicle models. the LPO and LPF files list all parameter values used in a run. and they are managed automatically by CarSimEd. The running of ToolBook code and management of ToolBook libraries is done by the ToolBook runtime package. “look at a run”). which is included with CarSimEd.. and analyzing dynamical systems in general.) Ribbon bar — the collection of buttons and user controls displayed at the top of nearly every CarSimEd data screen. “make a run”). Inc. Screen — short for “screen layout associated with a library. Variables. are continuously computed by the solver programs and are usually viewed with the plotter and animator. solver programs. Inc. PARSFILE (parameter file) — a keyword-based text file used to communicate between various CarSimEd programs. Run — Shorthand for “run a simulated test” (e. you click on the button using the left mouse button to display a pull-down menu. Versions of the CarSimEd models (CMEX DLL files) are provided for users who wish to run in the SIMULINK environment.” This manual has many references to the act of going from one screen to another. (For example. Also used to refer to the “outcome of a simulated test run” (e. It runs under MATLAB®. (See Appendix F for details about the format. SGUI — Simulation Graphical User Interface.g. “Changing the screen” means taking an action that changes the view to show data in a different library. TBK files — binary files that contain the CarSimEd libraries. ToolBook™ — a “Visual Authoring System” from Asymetrix. Triangle button — a button with a triangle icon ( ).. but some files have different extensions yet follow the PARSFILE format. usually located adjacent to a field. animator) has been used for other software packages.g. SIMULINK® —a software package for modeling.) Most have the DOS extension PAR. Any numbers that you see on a data screen are either scalar or tabular parameters. created at UMTRI and currently developed and maintained by MSC. — 243 — . The SGUI is largely programmed within ToolBook.Appendix A Glossary Parameter — parameters are quantities that remain constant during a run. Solver program — a program that numerically solves the equations of motion of a vehicle model to simulate a test. is called the SGUI. plotter. The generic architecture. some of the code needed to make the CarSimEd buttons work is stored in TBK files. TBK files are native to the ToolBook software. on the other hand.

Yellow field — a rectangular box for text or numerical information on a data screen that you can edit directly. find the yellow field. WinVI — a public-domain text editor included with CarSimEd that is used for editing and viewing text files. WinEP — the Windows Engineering Plotter is the plotting program in CarSimEd. Variable — an output quantity computed by the CarSimEd vehicle models. For example. and is used to view simulation results. — 244 — . Output variables can be plotted with WinEP. It makes X-Y plots from data read from ERD files. the plotter embedded in CarSimEd. UMTRI — The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. click on the field.Appendix A Glossary TruckSim™ — an integrated software package (similar to CarSimEd) available from MSC for simulating and analyzing the braking and handling behavior of trucks and tractor-trailer combinations. a variable can change with time in a way that must be simulated using a detailed vehicle dynamics model. Most of the modeling and simulation technology in CarSimEd are based on knowledge and methods developed at UMTRI. It can also be used to view data from other sources. Some of the output variables are read by the animator embedded in CarSimEd to create an animation of the simulated vehicle motion. to change the vehicle wheelbase. such as test data. In contrast to a parameter. and change the value using the mouse and keyboard.

etc. The definitions draw on two sources: 1. Although the parts of J670 that are related to coordinate systems and basic terminology are complete. rather than component based. followed by symbols when they exist.). Road vehicles — Vehicle dynamics and road-holding ability — Vocabulary (1991). respectively.Appendix B — Vehicle Dynamics Terminology This appendix defines specialized terms applicable to vehicle dynamics solver programs. ISO 8855. SAE J670e was last updated before solver programs existed for complex models. last updated 1976). the definitions in this appendix are thought to be compatible with the future version of J670. Note: SAE is in the process of replacing J670e with a version that includes more modern definitions. SAE Recommended Practice J670e. in parentheses. but is limited in scope. ISO 8855 is more simulation-oriented. maintaining compatibility with SAE and ISO when practical. — 245 — . Terms that are defined in this document are written in italics. Terms are not defined unless they are necessary for describing vehicle solver programs such as those that are supplied by Mechanical Simulation Corporation. The terminology applies to all simulation software developed and maintained by Mechanical Simulation Corporation (CarSimEd. This appendix is provided because neither of these two sources fully define the terminology that is now common in the field of vehicle dynamics simulation. Conflicts with SAE or ISO are described in numbered notes at the end of this appendix. it is the practice of SAE to discourage distribution of draft material. This appendix is intended to establish useful conventions for vehicle dynamics simulation. Vehicle Dynamics Terminology (first issued 1952. 2. Definitions that are taken from SAE J670e and/or ISO 8855 are designated SAE and ISO. terms are defined without reference to specific models. To obtain generality. Exceptions are noted when they occur. TruckSim. Nonetheless. The level of detail is matched to models that are system based.

(Formally. — 246 — . (Line up your right-hand thumb with the axis direction. Angular velocity vector— vector describing the absolute 3D angular velocity of a reference frame with respect to the inertial reference. in the plane containing both lines.) Sometimes an angle is defined between a plane and a line.1 for an angle between plane ABC and line AD. The direction of the axis defines the sign convention of the angle. Vector — an object that has a direction in 3D space and a magnitude. the reference point is the origin of the earth-fixed coordinate system. based on a right-handed rotation. as shown in Figure B. Angles An angle implies a rotation from a reference line to another line. the angle is taken from a projection of the line into the plane. Unless specified otherwise. it is a quantity that satisfies the equation: r˙ = ×r where r is a vector fixed in a reference frame and reference frame.Appendix B Vehicle Dynamics Terminology Vectors and Angles Vectors Acceleration vector (linear) — time derivative of the velocity vector of a point.) is the angular velocity vector of this Position vector — vector describing the position of one point relative to a reference point. and your fingers curl in the direction of a positive rotation. about an axis that is perpendicular to both lines. In this case. Velocity vector — time derivative of the position vector of a point. Angular acceleration vector — time derivative of the angular velocity vector of a reference frame. The existence and meaning of a vector are not dependent on the choice of coordinate or axis system.

SAE J670e has Z pointing down.Appendix B Vehicle Dynamics Terminology C B Angle of interest (shaded) D Angle is between plane ABC and line AD plane containing lines AD and AE A E line AE is normal to plane ABC Figure B. and Y pointing to the left-hand side of the vehicle. Angle between a plane and a line. TruckSim. X show a top view of vehicle trajectories. The resultant moment vector depends on the location of the point where the resultant force is assumed to apply. Resultant Force and Moment Vectors All actions on a body that would cause it to accelerate in translation or rotation if not opposed by other actions can be combined into a single resultant force vector and a single resultant moment vector about a point at which the resultant force vector is assumed to apply. X show a side view of vehicle trajectories. X pointing forward. Axis Systems and Coordinate Systems Discussion Multibody vehicle dynamics models are typically generated using right-handed axis systems and coordinate systems. • vertical tire forces are always positive. The Z-up convention is used in CarSimEd. With the Z-down convention. and impacts with other objects. and • wheel spin rates are positive for forward vehicle speeds. the air. The axis orientation for ISO 8855 has X pointing forward.1. Resultant force and moment vectors are used to describe actions on the vehicle due to the ground. and other MSC vehicle models for several reasons: • Plots of Y vs. Z pointing up. • plots of Z vs. all of these signs are reversed. — 247 — . and Y pointing to the right.

Y.) (ISO. SAE) — 248 — . For example. and intermediate axis systems. and Z refer to an arbitrary orthogonal axis system. In a right-handed system. Figure B. the sign conventions of many variables are dependent on the directions in which the axes are pointing.3 shows the tire and wheel axis systems. Definitions of Terms Axis system — a set of three orthogonal X. Y is lateral.Appendix B Vehicle Dynamics Terminology Alternative right-handed systems are theoretically compatible with the following definition. ZE points up in the MSC and ISO systems. Earth. with Z-down (SAE). X is in the vertical plane containing X V 3. (See Figure B. Z is parallel to Z E 2. Y. ZE) — right-handed orthogonal axis system that serves as the global.) Coordinate system — a numbering convention used to assign a unique ordered trio of numbers to each point in a reference frame. X. The intermediate axis system is used the most for vehicle-level definitions. Z = X × Y. positive yaw implies a right-hand turn. Figure B. and Z axes. Earth-fixed axis system (XE. yaw angle is always a rotation about the Z axis. With Z-up (ISO. The angle between X Eand X is ψ (yaw) Figure B. so long as X is longitudinal.2 shows the three axis systems associated with the entire vehicle. The ZE direction is parallel to the gravity vector. inertial reference frame. vehicle. However.2.2. and Z is vertical. positive yaw implies a left-hand turn. MSC). ZE g ZV YE Z y YV Y X XV x XE Notes 1. A typical rectangular coordinate system consists of an axis system plus an origin point. and an X axis that is in the same vertical plane as the vehicle longitudinal axis. (Here. It has a Z axis that is parallel to the gravity vector. YE.

a different ground plane can exist for each tire. YG.2. Ground axis system (XG. Its origin normally lies somewhere on the Earth’s surface.) (SAE. Y. Tire and wheel axis systems. ISO)2 Vehicle plane of symmetry — the lateral center plane of the vehicle. and whose Y axis is perpendicular to both ZE and XV. Inertial (Newtonian) reference — a reference frame that is assumed to have zero acceleration (both linear and angular) and zero angular velocity.3. Vehicle reference frame — reference frame associated with the vehicle body. Intermediate axis system (X.) (ISO) Reference frame — a geometric environment in which points remain fixed with respect to each other at all times. a different ground axis system can exist for each tire. Vehicle axis system (XV. at the center of tire contact.2. ISO1) Ground plane — a reference plane tangent to the ground surface at the tire contact center. The ZV axis is vertical and the Y V axis is lateral. The XV axis is primarily horizontal in the vehicle plane of symmetry and points forward. Z) — right-handed orthogonal axis system whose Z axis is parallel to ZE.) (SAE. Y V. (See Figure B. — 249 — . ZV) — right-handed orthogonal axis system fixed in the vehicle reference frame.Appendix B Vehicle Dynamics Terminology ZW ZG = normal to the ground surface at CTC γ Wheel plane YW = wheel spin axis Wheel center YG XW Center of tire contact (CTC) Velocity vector of CTC α XG Figure B. (See Figure B. Z G) — right-handed orthogonal axis system whose ZG axis is normal to the ground. For uneven ground. Earth-fixed coordinate system — coordinate system based on the earth-fixed axis system .(See Figure B.3. For uneven ground. The directions should coincide with the earth-fixed axis system when the vehicle is upright and aligned with the XV axis parallel to the XE axis. and whose XG axis is perpendicular to the wheel spin axis (YW). This axis system can be obtained by rotating the Earth-fixed axis system about ZE by the vehicle yaw angle (ψ). It is typically defined to coincide with the undeformed body of the vehicle body structure. The YV direction is normal to this plane.

the X axis of the vehicle reference frame (XV). and ZW have a different meaning in ISO 8855. YW. YW. ZE Vehicle XV. Table B. Y V. the direction normal to the ground at the center of tire contact (ZG). Z (Z= ZE) Wheel XW. as defined by the direction of the gravity vector (–ZE). YV and ZV.Y. ZG (X G =XW) X Direction XE Y Direction YE Z Direction ZE XV YV ZV ZE × XV ZE × X V ZE ( ZE ( ZE × XV ) × ZE × XV ) × ZE or or XE cos(ψ) + YE sin(ψ) YV cos(ψ) – XE sin(ψ) YW × Z R YW × Z R YW × Z R YW × Z R YW ZR × ( YW × Z R ) ZR × ( YW × Z R ) ( YW ( YW × Z R ) × YW × Z R ) × YW ZG Note: the axes names X W. Entire vehicle Size Wheelbase LWB— the distance between the centers of tire contact on one side of the vehicle.1.Appendix B Vehicle Dynamics Terminology Wheel axis system (XW. 2. Y W. Axis system definitions. 3. Y E. vertical. Y G.) Mathematical Definitions All of the coordinate systems and axes are built from four reference directions: 1. Table B. YE and ZE. Wheelbase usually varies slightly with suspension deflection. and 4.1 defines the intermediate.3. and ZG. (ISO) — 250 — . wheel. XV. and ground axis systems in terms of XE. (See Figure B. ZW) — right-handed orthogonal axis system whose Y W axis is parallel with the spin axis of the wheel and whose XW axis is perpendicular to ZG. ZW Ground XG. the Y (spin) axis of a wheel of interest (YW). Y W. ZV Intermediate X. Two equivalent definitions are provided for the X and Y directions (intermediate axis system). Name Earth XE.

Y position Y — YE coordinate of the C. ISO)4 Longitudinal acceleration A x— X component of acceleration vector of the C. Aerodynamic reference point — a point in the vehicle reference frame that lies in the intersection of the vehicle plane of symmetry and the ground plane. (ISO) Roll — X component of moment or rotational motion vector.G.5 Longitudinal velocity V x — X component of velocity vector of the C. (ISO) Pitch — Y component of moment or rotational motion vector.G. (Center of gravity) — a point in the vehicle reference frame that coincides with the center of mass of the entire vehicle when the suspensions are in equilibrium and the vehicle is resting on a flat level surface. Vertical position Z — ZE coordinate of the C. Lateral — Y component of force or translational motion vector. (ISO) 4. (ISO) 4.6 Angles Aerodynamic sideslip angle βaero — angle from X to velocity vector of air relative to the vehicle reference frame.6 Vertical velocity Vz — Z component of velocity vector of the C. when the suspensions are in equilibrium and the vehicle is resting on a flat level surface.G. (ISO) 4.G.G.G. (ISO) Yaw — Z component of moment or rotational motion vector.G.G. (SAE) — 251 — .G. and motion vectors for the entire vehicle are commonly decomposed into three rotational and three translational terms. (ISO) Points C. (ISO)4. ISO)4 Lateral velocity Vy — Y component of velocity vector of the C.5 Vertical acceleration Az — Z component of acceleration vector of the C. (ISO) Longitudinal — X component of force or translational motion vector.Appendix B Vehicle Dynamics Terminology Components of vectors Forces.G. X position X — XE coordinate of the C. moments. (SAE. The following adjectives should be used. mid-way between the front and rear axles. (SAE. Translational Motion Lateral acceleration Ay — Y component of acceleration vector of the C. (ISO) Vertical — Z component of force or translational motion vector.

β = tan −1 Vy Vx (SAE. ISO) Yaw ψ — angle from XE to X. and a single resultant aerodynamic moment vector taken about the aerodynamic reference point . (SAE.Appendix B Vehicle Dynamics Terminology Euler angles (ψ. Y. Note that φ is not identical to roll (φV). Sideslip angle β — angle from the X to the projection of the C. Sideslip can be calculated from the lateral velocity Vy and longitudinal velocity Vx. ISO) Aerodynamic Forces and Moments Forces and moments acting from the air on the vehicle are summed into a single resultant aerodynamic force vector. (SAE) — 252 — . (SAE) Aerodynamic longitudinal force Fxaero — X component of aerodynamic resultant force. 8 Roll acceleration αx — X component of angular acceleration vector of the vehicle reference frame. (SAE. and XV axes to convert from the earth-fixed axis system to the vehicle axis system. about Y. It can also be calculated from the Euler angles θ and φ: φ V = sin –1(cos(θ) sin(φ)). (SAE. about Z (SAE. about Z.G.7 Pitch velocity ω y — Y component of angular velocity vector of vehicle reference frame. φ) — sequence of consecutive rotations about ZE. ISO) θ can be calculated using a vector dot product: θ = –sin–1(X V • ZE) Roll φV — angle from XE × YE plane to YV. ISO) The relationship is: φ = sin –1(sin(φV)/cos(θ)) Pitch θ — angle from X to XV. about X. ISO)3 Roll can be calculated using a vector dot product: φV = sin–1(Y V • ZE) . (SAE. (SAE) Aerodynamic vertical force Fzaero — Z component of aerodynamic resultant force. velocity vector onto the X × Y plane.7 Roll velocity ω x — X component of angular velocity vector of vehicle reference frame. 8 Yaw acceleration αz — Z component of angular acceleration vector of the vehicle reference frame. ISO) Angular Velocity and Acceleration Pitch acceleration αy — Y component of angular acceleration vector of vehicle reference frame. θ. (ISO) Yaw velocity ω z — Z component of vehicle angular velocity vector of the vehicle reference frame. Aerodynamic lateral force Fyaero — Y component of aerodynamic resultant force.

Appendix B Vehicle Dynamics Terminology Aerodynamic pitch moment M yaero — Y component of aerodynamic resultant moment. the midpoints of the centers of tire contact for each side are used. ISO) Compliance steer δc — portion of steer due to tire forces (except vertical) and moments. Size and Weight Track LTK — distance between the centers of tire contact for one axle. (SAE) Kinematics Camber — outward angular lean of wheel relative to vehicle reference frame : angle from ZV to the XW × ZW plane. outward lean is positive. the term suspension refers to one side. The symmetric sign convention is convenient for describing certain kinematical and compliance relationships for both sides of the vehicle. For independent suspensions. (Also defined as camber minus compliance camber. ISO)9 Compliance camber — portion of camber due to tire forces (except vertical) and moments. In case of dual wheels. (SAE. (ISO) Unsprung weight — portion of weight supported by a tire that is considered to move with the wheel. ISO) Damper mechanical advantage R d — Ratio of damper compression per unit of wheel jounce. (SAE. and with no suspension movement. (SAE. This usually includes a portion of the weight of the suspension elements. There is no standard definition of zero jounce. This ratio is usually less than unity. Jounce is positive for compressive movement (wheel moving up relative to the body). (SAE 17) Kinematical camber — camber measured with no tire forces or moments other than vertical. Driver steer δd — portion of steer due to steering wheel angle. (SAE18) Suspensions and steering For solid axles. with no forces or moments applied by the ground to the tires. Jounce — vertical movement of wheel or axle relative to the vehicle reference frame. Regardless of the choice of coordinate systems. (SAE18) Aerodynamic yaw moment Mzaero — Z component of aerodynamic resultant moment.10 — 253 — .)9. the term suspension normally refers to the suspension for both sides of the axle. The term axle suspension always refers to both sides. (SAE18) Aerodynamic roll moment M xaero — X component of aerodynamic resultant moment. Track typically varies slightly with suspension jounce.

— 254 — . Note: this definition of pitch center does not take into account the “wind up” effects of drive train torque applied to the wheels from the vehicle body. (ISO.5.4.4.5. Spring mechanical advantage R s — ratio of spring compression per unit of wheel jounce. Roll center — imaginary point in the YV × ZV plane containing the two wheel centers of an axle. Side view of tires for vehicle Centers of tire contact Lines perpendicular to trajectories Pitch center Trajectories of center of tire contact for vertical suspension movement Figure B.) Front view of tires for an axle Centers of tire contact Lines perpendicular to trajectories Roll center Trajectories of center of tire contact for vertical suspension movement Figure B.)9.Appendix B Vehicle Dynamics Terminology Kinematical steer δk — steer measured with zero steering wheel angle and no tire forces or moments other than vertical. SAE) An alternate definition is that the roll center is the intersection of the two lines shown in Figure B. (Note: the figure shows a nonequilibrium position of the vehicle. This ratio is usually less than unity.10 Pitch center — imaginary point in the XV × ZV plane through the lateral center of the vehicle reference frame at which a longitudinal force applied to the vehicle body is reacted without producing suspension jounce (front or rear). at which a lateral force applied to the vehicle body is reacted without producing a suspension roll angle. An alternate definition is that the pitch center is the intersection of the two lines shown in Figure B. Pitch center. Roll center. (Also defined as steer angle minus compliance steer and minus driver steer.

3. The symmetric sign convention is convenient for describing certain kinematical and compliance relationships for both sides of the vehicle. See Figure B. A positive moment causes positive vehicle roll.) (SAE.3.Appendix B Vehicle Dynamics Terminology Steer δ — angle from X to XW. Suspension roll moment M roll — total static roll moment applied to sprung mass due to suspension roll angle. Tires and wheels Kinematics Center of tire contact — point at intersection of a line passing through the wheel center and the ground. (SAE.3. Spring force Fs — compressive force applied to the vehicle body by a suspension spring. inward steer is positive. (SAE. ISO) — 255 — .) (SAE. ISO) Inclination γ — lean (angle) of wheel relative to ground plane: angle from ZG to ZW. Regardless of the choice of coordinate systems. divided by the effective circumference of the tire at that speed and load condition.) (SAE. (SAE. (The center of tire contact is not necessarily at the center of the tire contact patch. ISO) Toe — inward steer of wheel relative to the vehicle reference frame: angle from X to XW. normal to the spin axis. about XG.3. A positive moment causes positive vehicle roll. ISO)11 Forces and Moments Auxiliary roll moment M aux — the suspension roll moment minus the moments due to the suspension forces from the two sides. (See Figure B. ISO) Spin axis YW— axis of rotation of wheel about spindle. (See Figure B.) (SAE. (See Figure B. about ZG. ISO)13 Slip angle α — angle from XG to the velocity vector of the center of tire contact. (SAE. (See Figure B.) (SAE. ISO12) Longitudinal slip — the ratio: ω −ω 0 ω0 where ω is the angular velocity of the wheel about its spin axis and ωo is the free rolling angular velocity of the wheel that would be measured at zero slip angle and zero inclination. ( ω o is the longitudinal velocity of the wheel center. about Z.) (SAE) Wheel center — intersection of spin axis and wheel plane. ISO) Suspension roll angle — angle from line joining the wheel centers of an axle to the XV × YV plane in the vehicle reference frame. Damping force Fd — compressive force applied to the vehicle body by a damper. where the line is parallel with ZW.3. ISO) Wheel plane — central plane of wheel.

ISO) Driving moment— Y W component of moment applied by the vehicle to the wheel about the spin axis.) 4. ISO) Rolling moment M y — Y G component of ground resultant moment. Aligning moment Mz — ZG component of ground resultant moment. ISO 15) Vertical tire force Fz — ZG component of ground resultant force. although both clearly involve the body. SAE defines “longitudinal” velocity and acceleration as the XV component. 5. 10. ISO15) Longitudinal tire force Fx — X G component of ground resultant force.Appendix B Vehicle Dynamics Terminology Forces and Moments Forces and moments acting from the ground on the tire are summed into a single resultant force vector and a single resultant moment vector taken about the center of tire contact.” — 256 — . Neither SAE nor ISO is explicit about the reference frame for the vehicle coordinate system. SAE defines “normal” velocity and acceleration using the ZV axis. SAE and ISO define camber relative to ZE. 2. ISO15) Notes 1. (SAE. 7. rather than ZV. ISO) Overturning moment M x — X G component of ground resultant moment. ISO defines them as second derivatives of Euler angles. except ISO does not account for inclined ground surfaces. 8. ISO defines them as derivatives of Euler angles (only the roll derivative is measurable). (SAE. (This appendix emphasizes vehicle roll. (SAE14) Lateral tire force F y — Y G component of ground resultant force. ISO defines “camber angle change due to wheel travel kinematics” and “steer angle change due to wheel travel kinematics. which is measurable. SAE does not define angular accelerations. 9. (SAE16. (SAE. SAE and ISO call this angle “vehicle roll. The Z components of acceleration and velocity are not covered. The X component of acceleration is not covered. and “forward” velocity as the X component. (SAE. SAE defines angular velocities about the XV. (SAE14. Y V and ZV axes.” and both use the term roll to denote and Euler angle. 3. The ISO “wheel” axis system is similar to the “ground” system defined in this document. Neither SAE nor ISO define the point whose velocity and acceleration vector are being described. 6. whereas the Euler angle is not.

ISO uses the symbol SXw instead of K (K is used by Pacejka).” 16.” “rolling resistance moment.” “longitudinal force at wheel.” and “driving moment. ISO and SAE define both a toe angle and a toe displacement.Appendix B Vehicle Dynamics Terminology 11. 13. 15.” and “vertical force at wheel.” 17. ISO uses the names “lateral force at wheel. SAE uses the name “normal force” for negative force (relative to the SAE Z direction) and “vertical load” for the negative of “normal force.” “rolling moment. SAE does not define a sign convention for toe angle. — 257 — . 12. SAE calls compressive suspension deflection “compression.” and “wheel torque” for “aligning moment.” respectively. 14.” 18. SAE defines longitudinal slip with units of percentage (a factor of 100 higher than the ISO definition). SAE does not define the point about which aerodynamic moments are taken. The ISO definition of inclination is relative to absolute vertical (ZE) rather than the vector normal to the ground (ZG). SAE uses the names “aligning torque.

— 258 — . The second line of the file shown in Listing C. The Header The ERD file header consists of a series of conventional text lines that are human readable. if the data are in binary format. Versions of EP exist for the Mac and Windows platforms. Any number of optional lines can be included between line #2 and the END line. that the data storage format is type 1 (4-byte binary). and data from various analysis programs. However.1 shows that the file contains data for 2 channels. The Windows version is called WinEP.Appendix C — ERD File Format The ERD file format was developed by the Engineering Research Division (ERD) of the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) to facilitate automated plotting of simulation data. Required Lines As a minimum. The numbers can be written in either text or binary form. if the header file is named Out. two files are used. and describes the parameters used in line #2 to describe the numerical data. stored as 1 binary record consisting of 4232 bytes. both files must lie in the same folder. experimentally measured data. and the data section contains only numbers. For example. If the data section is in text format. then both the header and the data are kept in a single file. The animator program embedded in CarSimEd is also designed to work with ERD files. Table C. For use in the plotter and animator programs in CarSimEd. The second line describes the way that the numerical data are stored in the data section of the file. and the data are in a file with the name of the header file and the extension BIN. These lines contain the information used by post-processing tools to read the numerical data. with 529 samples/channel. and that the status of the auxiliary numbers is -1. The first line identifies the file as following the ERD format.erd the name Out. that the interval between samples is 1.00.1 summarizes the lines in an ERD file. The text form is convenient for viewing and editing data with a word processor. the header contains three lines of text. The header is in an ordinary text file with the extension ERD. The header contains only text. the header and the data. whereas the binary form provides more efficient access for automatic processing.bin must be used for the data file. An ERD file contains two independent sections. The third required line is an END statement that indicates the end of the header portion. A freely available plotter called EP (Engineering Plotter) has been developed for viewing data in ERD files.

The total number of sampled values in the data portion of the file is NCHAN × NSAMP. Summary of records in an ERD file header. 10 = 2-byte integer (binary). STEP [real] = sample interval (e. the data are stored with all samples for the first channel together. Thus each record contains NBYTES × NCHAN numbers (for KEYNUM=5). time step) KEYOPT [integer] = auxiliary number used by some programs • Last Line Optional records.g. If KEYNUM=10. where K is an integer and B is the number of bytes/number (B=2 for integer. use –1. 1. followed by information associated with that keyword. KEYOPT — use commas to separate numbers NCHAN [integer] = Number of data channels NSAMP [integer] = Number of samples for each channel.00 — identifies file as having ERD format 2 NCHAN. NBYTES. and 5.1. text data: Number of samples per record.11. ) (If unknown. STEP. For KEYNUM=10. then all samples for the second channel. 0. etc. NRECS.1. 15 = Formatted floating-point (text). NBYTES = K × NCHAN × B. For KEYNUM=0. 5. If KEYNUM=0. Table C.1. then all channels for the second sample.11.. use –1. this should be NSAMP × B. (If unknown. Description 1 ERDFILEV2. this should be chosen such that each record begins with channel 1: that is.) NBYTES [integer] binary data: Number of bytes per record. END — indicates the end of the header — 259 — . B=4 for floating-point). The format must be specified using the FORMAT keyword. KEYNUM. and 15. KEYNUM[integer] Indicates how the data are stored. 11 = 4-byte floating point (binary). or 5. the data are stored with all channels for the first sample together. (record ≈ line) Ignored for text data (KEYNUM = 5.2 lists keywords that have been used to date.) NRECS [integer] = Number of records of data. NSAMP.Appendix C ERD File Format Table C. etc. Each record begins with an 8-character keyword. Line No.or 15.

-1.141667E-02 0.133333E-02 0. Listing C. TITLE 1993 RPUG Study.6) PROFINSTDipstick HISTORY Converted to ERD format at 23:46. Short Header for an ERD File with Binary Data.Appendix C ERD File Format Listing C. 1.775000E-02 -0.133333E-02 0. Section 1. Dipstick. ERDFILEV2. ERDFILEV2. 1. RElev. Measurement 1 SHORTNAMLElev.00000. 1. and 80-character names. 529. 1.00000.416667E-03 -0.558333E-02 -0.00 2.166667E-02 -0.916667E-03 0. 1994 END 0.625000E-02 -0. Note that the data begin immediately after the END line of the header.658333E-02 -0. 4232. 1.000000 0. 4232. floating point (real) numbers. Section 1. Measurement 1 SHORTNAMLElev. 529. Typical Header for an ERD File with Text Data. 8-character names.825000E-02 Optional Lines with Keywords Optional lines in the header begin with an eight-character keyword that defines a particular type of data contained in the remainder of the line. Oct. TITLE 1993 RPUG Study.00 2. LONGNAMELeft Elevation Right Elevation UNITSNAMft ft GENNAME Profile Elevation Profile Elevation XLABEL Distance XUNITS ft FORMAT (2G14. 23. The number of data items is either — 260 — . UNITSNAMft ft XLABEL Distance XUNITS ft END Listing C.000000 0.2 shows a longer header for a file with its data in text form.750000E-03 -0.458333E-02 -0. RElev.300000E-02 -0.2. -1. 1.500000E-02 -0.1.583333E-03 0. 32-character names. Keywords are associated with one of five general data types: integers. Dipstick.666667E-03 0.416667E-03 0.

4) Gains for channels. an arbitrary number N (e.. the names are padded with blanks as needed so that — 261 — . TITLE of data set in the file).. When more than one name is on the same line. time) Name of ind. variable in ERD file (e. keyword VERSION <none> &n GENNAME LONGNAME SHORTNAM TITLE UNITSNAM XUNITS XLABEL FORMAT GAIN OFFSET PROFINST RIGIBODY SPEEDMPH TESTID XSTART Description Line 1 in header file. Line 2 in header file.. in mile/hr. names associated with a keyword are shorter than the space allowed. (The following 6 lines are used by EP and are recommended for inclusion in all ERD files) Generic names for variables. FORMAT statement for text data. Force). See Table C. At each sample i.g. Keywords in ERD file.) Usually required for integer*2 data. Number used to identify a test.2 lists common keywords recognized by most post-processing tools. of Values 1 7 Variable Type char*32 int.2.g. Ex: (4F10.) Usually required for integer*2 data.. or repeatable.. Short names for channels. Units of channels.g. (Default = 1.1 and Listing C.g. real NCHAN char*32 NCHAN NCHAN 1 NCHAN 1 char*32 char*8 char*80 char*8 char*8 1 1 NCHAN char*32 char*32 real NCHAN real 1 NCHAN 1 1 1 char*32 char*32 real real real Often. used for labeling Y axis when several variables are plotted on the same axis (e.2 for details. Used to break long lines into multiple short lines. Table C..g.2. Long names for channels. e. Units of independent variable (e. indicates that the previous line ended in column n and is continued in this line in column 9.g. Continuation keyword. Offsets for channels. one per channel (e. The use of some of these keywords is demonstrated in Listing C. (default = 0. variable. Title used for file.g. Table C. (The following line is required for EP to create Channel 0. time).Appendix C ERD File Format one per file (e. sec). the X value is: X = (i-1) * STEP + XSTART No. Instrument or model associated with data Body or part associated with each channel Speed associated with data. static axle loads for N axles). Starting value of ind. a short name for each channel)..

1. as identified with the keyword UNITSNAM. organized into columns and rows. The file of numbers can be made into an ERD file by inserting a 3-line header at the beginning of the file. ft.2000 3. the tab character. The only restriction on free format numbers is that adjacent numbers must be separated. or when numbers are to be edited using a text editor.Appendix C ERD File Format following names begin at the correct column positions. Binary Data Reading and writing binary data is efficient because the computer does not need to perform any conversions or transformations as the data values are moved between the file — 262 — .01E-01 14.0000-2.1). the computer must work hard to translate the text numbers into binary form. Second. there are penalties for using text representations of numbers. However. It is also convenient when numbers are typed in manually. with the numbers beginning immediately after the header. and sometimes even for reading the same file with different programs on the same computer. or a comma. The Data Section The data section of the ERD file contains nothing but numbers. The total number of values that will appear in the data section is NCHAN × NSAMP. because the third and fourth numbers touch. The form in which the numbers are stored depends on the value of the KEYNUM parameter from line 2 of the header (see Table C.2 shows an example of numerical data in text form. has only two characters. text files take up much more disk storage than binary files. it is the same as if the FORMAT is a blank. Another option is available when the numbers are always separated by delimiters such as spaces or commas. Text Data The text format can be used for transporting data in ERD files between different computers. the file is assumed to contain numbers in free form. it is followed by six spaces so that the name for the second channel. It takes about 10 times longer to read a text file than a binary equivalent.0000 4. begins in the correct column position. the numbers are kept in the same file as the header. The name of units for the first channel. First. If the header of the ERD file does not contain a line with the FORMAT keyword.3 The following line is not. Thus. and there can be no missing values. For example. For example.3000 Numbers may be separated by one or more spaces. All of the numbers in the data portion are stored in the same format. The ERD file in Listing C. the header shown in Listing C. When this occurs for a text file.2000 3 4 -2. This occurs when the numbers are obtained by a commercial analysis program or when they are "captured" from another computer.1 includes names of the units for each channel. the following line is valid for representing 5 numbers: 1. When data are stored in text form.01E-01 14. ft.

Appendix C

ERD File Format

and the computer memory. When a binary format is used, the data portion of an ERD file
is a direct copy of a portion of the computer memory, corresponding to a twodimensional array having dimensions sized to the number of channels and the number of
samples. As indicated in Table C.1, two forms of binary data are currently supported: 2byte integer and 4-byte floating point. 2-byte integer data are typically obtained by dataacquisition systems. Each integer value is a sampled reading obtained from a digitizer
during a test. For most engineering applications, data are stored (in the computer
memory) in 4-byte floating point format, also known as single-precision floating point.
The 4-byte floating point format is commonly used for data generated by computer. The
maximum efficiency for data processing is usually obtained when the 4-byte floating
point format is used.
The ERD file format is used on a variety of computer systems and for a variety of mass
storage media. On some systems, binary data are stored in discrete records. A computer
program reading such a file needs to know how many bytes each record contains, and
how many records are in the file. Thus, the header contains these two parameters.
Disk files on workstations and desktop computers are not structured: a binary file is
simply a continuous stream of bytes that continues to the end of the file. Thus, technically
correct parameter values for the header could be one record, containing all of the bytes
for the file. Also, there is a certain amount of overhead associated with reading a record.
The time needed to read the data for a file is minimized if a single read operation is
performed for the entire file.
On the other hand, if the file is large, the memory needed to read the entire file in one
chunk may not be available with some programs. A second problem can occur if the true
number of bytes in the file is less than the number as inferred by the parameters NBYTES
and NRECS (i.e., the total size of the file should be NBYTES x NRECS). The last
"record" is not read, resulting in a loss of data. If the records are large, this loss could be
significant. These problems are reduced if a value of NBYTES is specified such that it
divides the data into NRECS records of smaller chunks of data.

— 263 —

Appendix D — Plotter Files and
Keywords
When WinEP is run from CarSimEd, it receives the information that describes a plot or
set of plots from a text file. The passing of information between a CarSimEd data screen
and WinEP is automatic, and the details of the files used to transfer information do not
have to be understood by the user for normal use of CarSimEd. The information in this
appendix is provided to aid in debugging, and for those wishing to use WinEP outside of
CarSimEd.

PLT Batch Control Files
Most plots made in CarSimEd are generated when you click the Plot button on the Runs
screen or the Plot Setup: Batch screen. When this occurs, the CarSimEd library creates a
text file with the extension PLT and sends that file to WinEP. The PLT file is similar to
the PAR files used in CarSimEd to transfer information from the database to the
simulation solver programs. It is a plain ASCII text file that contains keywords with file
names, variables names, and other pieces of information that tell WinEP how to make a
plot.
Listing D.1 shows an example PLT file and Table D.1 summarizes the format.
Listing D.1. Example PLT batch plot file.
FILELIST
FILENAME C:\CARSIMED.45\RUNS\894.ERD
FILENAME C:\CARSIMED.45\RUNS\808.erd
PARSFILE C:\CARSIMED.45\plot\setup\814.par
RUN Screen
FILENAME C:\CARSIMED.45\RUNS\894.ERD
FILENAME C:\CARSIMED.45\RUNS\808.erd
PARSFILE C:\CARSIMED.45\plot\setup\795.par
RUN Screen
FILENAME C:\CARSIMED.45\RUNS\894.ERD
FILENAME C:\CARSIMED.45\RUNS\808.erd
PARSFILE C:\CARSIMED.45\plot\setup\817.par
RUN Screen
FILENAME C:\CARSIMED.45\RUNS\894.ERD
FILENAME C:\CARSIMED.45\RUNS\808.erd
PARSFILE C:\CARSIMED.45\plot\setup\810.par
RUN Screen
END

— 264 —

Appendix D

Plotter Files and Keywords

The lines in the PLT file are grouped into plot sets, separated by lines beginning with the
RUN keyword. For example, Listing D.1 has four sets, defining four plots. Lines within a
plot set can be arranged in any order.
The PLT file is normally read by WinEP when you click a Plot button from the Runs
screen or from the Plot Setup: Batch screen. Although less common, you can also read
one interactively in WinEP by selecting the File menu option Load Batch File.
Table D.1. PLT batch plot file format.
Keyword
FILELIST
FILENAME ERDfile

PARSFILE filename
RUN screen
END

Instruction to Program
Line 1: Identify this as a list of plot descriptions*.
Read the file ERDfile for data to plot. ERDfile should follow
the ERD format. (Simple text files with tables of numbers can
also be specified.)
Open the file filename and read a parsfile with information
about what variables to plot, format, transforms, etc.
End the plot set.
Stop reading data from the PLT file.

* In order to support real-time plotting in other software packages similar to CarSimEd,
this keyword is no longer tested by WinEP. Anything on line 1 will be accepted.

Plot Setting Files
A plot setting file contains a list of variables to extract from the data files, along with
formatting information. Setting files are normally created automatically by the CarSimEd
library Plot Setup: Single and are stored in the same PARSFILE format used throughout
CarSimEd. Listing D.2 shows an example PARSFILE with information to define a plot.
Listing D.2. Example plot template file.
PARSFILE
PLOTCHANNELS Vx,Time,
PLOTCHANNELS Vx_LF,Time,
PLOTCHANNELS Vx_LR,Time,
PLOTCHANNELS Vx_RF,Time,
PLOTCHANNELS Vx_RR,Time,
PARSFILE C:\CARSIMED.45\PLOT\FORMAT\31.par
PTITLE Vx -- wheel speeds
END

Note:

Because a PARSFILE can reference other PARSFILEs, the list
of channels and the plot formatting can be spread over several

— 265 —

Appendix D

Plotter Files and Keywords
files. For example, formatting information can be placed in the
template file or in the format file described below.

Plot Transform Files
WinEP supports modest transformations of the data being plotted. Offsets can be added
to each variable (X and Y). The variables plotted on the Y axis can also be filtered with a
moving average to smooth the data (low-pass filtering), remove low-frequency content
(high-pass filtering), both (band-pass filtering), or neither.
WinEP can plot up to 20 data sets, meaning that there are potentially 40 offsets to
specify. Listing D.3 shows an example PARSFILE with a few of the 40 offset keywords.
If not specified, the default offset is 0.
Listing D.3. Plot transform settings.
PARSFILE
FILTER BANDPASS 10, 1
OFFSET_X1
OFFSET_Y1
OFFSET_X2
OFFSET_Y2
OFFSET_X3

PTITLE Vx
END

0
0
0
0
0
-- wheel speeds

The valid values associated with the keyword FILTER are: None, Hipass, Lowpass,
and Bandpass. For a value other than None, the baselength(s) associated with the filter
should follow on the same line.
Note:

Because a PARSFILE can reference other PARSFILEs, the list
of channel offsets can be spread over several files.

Plot Format Files
The initial appearance of a plot is read from a format file. Format files are plain ASCII
text files which contain keywords with parameters that tell WinEP how to format a plot.
All format files follow the PARSFILE format and have the extension PAR. The
keywords used in a format file are described in Table D.2.

— 266 —

Appendix D

Plotter Files and Keywords
Table D.2. Format keywords and descriptions.

Keyword
PARSFILE
END
XLINEAR type
YLINEAR type
XMAXMIN type

YMAXMIN type

SYMBOLS s1,s2, ...,s20

LINESTYL s1,s2,s3,...,s20

TITLEFONTSIZE ps
TITLEFONTNAME name
TITLEFONTSTYLE style
LEGENDEFONTSIZE ps
LEGENDFONTNAME name
LEGENDFONTSTYLE style
LABELFONTSIZE ps
LABELFONTNAME name
LABELFONTSTYLE style
TICLABELFONTSIZE ps
TICLABELFONTNAME name
TICLABELFONTSTYLE style

Description
Specifies the start of the format file.
Specifies the end of the format file.
X axis type. Valid values are log and linear.
Y axis type. Valid values are log and linear.
Either a keyword specifying that the X axis is auto-scaled,
or two numbers: the minimum and maximum values for the
axis.
Either a keyword specifying that the Y axis is auto-scaled,
or two numbers: the minimum and maximum values for the
axis.
Symbols used for each X-Y data set. There must be a total
of 20 symbols indicated. Symbol key:
0 = No symbol
1 = Square
2 = Triangle
3 = Diamond
4 = Cross X
5 = Plus
6 = Circle
Line style for each X-Y data set. There must be a total of 20
styles indicated. Line style key:
0 = No Line
1 = Solid Line
2 = Dotted Line
3 = Heavy Solid Line
4 = Dash Line
5 = Dash Dot Line
6 = Dash Dot Dot Line
Size of the title font: ps = font point size.
Name of the title font (Arial, etc.).
Style of the title font ( Regular, Italic, Bold, Bold Italic)
Size of the legend font: ps = font point size.
Name of the legend font (Arial, etc.).
Style of the legend font ( Regular, Italic, Bold, Bold Italic)
Size of the axis label font: ps = font point size.
Name of the axis label font (Arial, etc.).
Style of the axis label font ( Regular, Italic, etc.)
Size of the axis numbers: ps = font point size.
Name of the axis number font (Arial, etc.).
Style of the axis number font ( Regular, Italic, etc.)

— 267 —

Appendix D
LEGENDLABEL b1, b2, b3, b4,
b5, b6

LEGENDLOCATION name

GRID type
COLORS c1,c2,c3,...,c20

Plotter Files and Keywords
Names to use in creating the legend. Values are 0 (do not
use) or 1 (use). The sequence is: b1= shortname, b2 =
longname, b3 = genname, b4 = rigidbody name, b5 = file
title, b6 = file name.
Location in plot window for legend. Options are
AutoLocation, RightOfPlot, OnPlotUpperLeft,
OnPlotUpperRight, OnPlotLowerLeft, and
OnPlotLowerRight
Type of grid. Options are NoGrid, CoarseGrid, and
FineGrid.
Color for each channel. There must be a total of 20 colors
indicated. Color key:
0 = Black
1 = Maroon
2 = Red
3 = Green
4 = Bright Green
5 = Dark Blue
6 = Light Gray
7 = Light Blue
8 = Blue
9 = Muddy Yellow
10 = Yellow
11 = Gray
12 = Purple
13 = Teal
14 = Bright Purple

To apply the format settings from a file, load the format file using the File menu
command Load Plot Format.
To create a format settings file, use the File menu command Save Plot Format.

— 268 —

45\PLOT\image startup-window-mode tile-vert startup-toolbar-mode false plot-window-position 10.45\PLOT\format last-imagefile-path C:\CARSIMED. Plain text files can be made by the solver programs in CarSimEd to simplify the importing of data into spreadsheets or other programs. The first line should contain labels.txt is used to set and save information that is retained between WinEP sessions.45\PLOT last-batchfile-path C:\CARSIMED.10. Text Files Although WinEP is mainly intended to plot data contained in ERD files. so it is not necessary to be concerned with its format. Listing D. Listing D.4. Also. If this form of output is chosen.45\PLOT\tmp last-formatfile-path C:\CARSIMED. This information includes the window positions and paths to directories. WinEP can still be used to view the results (althought the labeling is not as nice). WinEP can be used to view data exported from spreadsheets or other mathematical packages. — 269 — . ep-prefs temp-folder-path C:\CARSIMED.4 shows an example preferences file.727. and following lines should have numbers. The information can be viewed and edited using the Edit menu command Preferences.550 end The preferences file is created automatically by WinEP whenever the program quits. Listing D.45\PLOT\tmp last-datafile-path C:\CARSIMED. Example Preferences file.Appendix D Plotter Files and Keywords Preference File Format The preference file Epprefs. The numbers should be separated by at list one white space and/or commas.5 shows part of a text file that can be read by WinEP. it is also capable of reading numerical data from tables stored in plain text files.

0. -0. 0. -0. -0.200000. 0.041291. -0. -0. -0.019510.000990. -0. 0.002178. 0.050576.041170.096683. "AAy_RF ". 0.010514.500000.300000.Appendix D Plotter Files and Keywords Listing D. 0. 0. 0. Portion of a text file with data to plot. -0. "AAy_LF 0.096175. 0.071838.000949. -0. -0.049884. 0.5.250000. -0.040227. 0. -0.000582.001043. 0.032560.003566. 0.009256.050000.400000.002229. 0.019438.004626. -0. — 270 — "AAy_RR ". 0.032437. -0.050680.650000. ". 0.000000.002020.073881.001971. -0. -0.104285. … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … .000000. -0. 0.000000. 0. 0. -0.450000.100000. "Time".001096.098771.002610.550000.350000. 0.000000.003693.010540. 0.004606.096122. -0. 0. -0.018365. 0. -0. "AAy_LR 0. 0. -0. ".003102. -0. -0.098988. 0. 0.150000. 0. 0.073669. 0.600000.031484.

typically with the extension PAR. A single top-level PARSFILE contains the names of other PARSFILEs with camera information. Overview of a PARSFILE Most information about objects and how they are viewed is read from an input PARSFILE. All of the settings specific to the animator are read from keyword-based text files. Animator input files.1 shows part of a PARSFILE. reference frames.1. and Appendix J shows a list of variables contained in a typical CarSimEd ERD file. Appendix C provides details of the ERD file format. Listing E. These files follow the PARSFILE format used throughout CarSimEd. etc. — 271 — . vehicle information. PAR files ERD file Animator set up and shape information from data base Motion information from a simulation program Animator Figure E. The motions predicted in a simulation are defined by variables that are written in the ERD file that is written by the solver programs whenever a run is made.Appendix E — Animator Files and Keywords The animator program reads two kinds of input files. as indicated in Figure E.1.

Through the use of these parsfile links.000000 set_camera_z 0. followed by the data sets for the moving reference frames. Blank lines and lines with unknown keywords are skipped when the file is read.000000 set_camera_y 50.000000 set_focal_length 0. It should begin with a line containing the single keyword.Appendix E Animator Files and Keywords Listing E. white space immediately following the keyword is skipped. and the remainder of the line is interpreted as the value to be assigned to an internal variable. — 272 — . data for each object can be contained in a separate file.. In all cases.000000 set_lookpoint_z 0. the end keyword is optional.. The PARSFILE Keyword Links to other PARSFILEs are provided with the parsfile keyword: parsfile pathname where pathname is the path to another PARSFILE. However. The PARSFILE is similar to those used by the solver programs. The entire animation data can be just a set of parsfile links to the non-moving parts. body). and (4) pathnames for linked PARSFILEs with more data. parsfile . PAR file with some animators settings. end A PARSFILE can contain several kinds of information: (1) numerical constants such as coordinates of points. (3) names associated with objects (e. The data set for a reference-frame can be in a file that contains a parsfile link to each part associated with the frame.000000 set_use_cpu_clock off set_superimpose off .1.g. each part data set can be placed in a separate file. It should end with a line containing the single word end.. Spaces are significant after the first non-blank character following the keyword.500000 set_lookpoint_y 0. (2) names of variables in the ERD file that must be read by the animator. parsfile. Multiple lines with the same keyword are permitted. ** parsfile generated: 10/13/99 12:04:09 ** set_camera_reference_frame camera tracking x-y-z set_camera_x -1. For example. If not present.100000 set_lookpoint_reference_frame body set_lookpoint_x -1. the animator reads to the end of the file.

all following inputs are said to fall within the scope of that reference frame. After a new reference frame is introduced. the animation shape data should be organized by reference frame. and shapes.Appendix E Animator Files and Keywords Organization of Animator Inputs At the top level. it must be associated with a specific reference frame. For example. This brings up a dialog box with check boxes associated with different kinds of information. Overall. the animation input data should be organized as follows: parsfile <information about grid. go to the File menu and select the item Save Parsfile As. This is helpful for debugging and documenting an animator setup.. as needed> end Making an Example PARSFILE The animator has the capability of writing a single PARSFILE with all of the current settings. camera. Check all of the boxes and save the file. and target path> < information associated with fixed frame> add_reference_frame {name1} < information about first moving reference frame> add_reference_frame {name2} < information about second moving reference frame> < more reference frame and associated information. When a shape is introduced. reference frames.. — 273 — . To make a file. a shape is in the scope of a reference frame if its coordinates are defined by the animator as being fixed in that reference frame.

Most of these are sent from the Animator: Camera Setup screen described in Chapter 9. and Sign Conventions The animator uses the sign conventions and Euler angle definitions described in Appendix B.1. In CarSimEd. Keywords for the animator camera settings. Both variable and static coordinates can be converted using scale factors.1 lists the keywords that are used to specify camera settings. Table E. if necessary. and must be the same. The camera focal length must also have the same units (meters). Camera Settings Listing E. Y is to the vehicle left. all coordinates in the output file have the units of meters. Keyword set_camera_reference_frame Value name of reference frame numbers set_camera_x set_camera_y set_camera_z set_lookpoint_reference_frame name of reference frame set_lookpoint _x numbers set_lookpoint _y set_lookpoint _z set_focal_length number set_use_cpu_clock on or off set_superimpose on or off — 274 — Description reference frame in which the camera is situated coordinates of the camera location in its reference frame reference frame in which the look point is situated coordinates of the lookpoint in its reference frame focal length of camera (distance from point of viewer to 2D image on screen) option to slow animation down to real time by using the clock option to superimpose all images—don’t erase between animation frames . Scale factors are used to convert to degrees if the variables in the ERD file have different units such as radians or revolutions. Z is up.Appendix E Animator Files and Keywords Units. Table E.) All coordinates have units of length. All Euler angles must be expressed in degrees.1 on page 272 shows part of a PARSFILE that has the animator settings that are related most directly to the camera setup. Coordinates. (X is forward.

Z coordinates of the reference frame specifies the variables to be read from the ERD file and associated with Euler angles scale factors for data read from the ERD file (default = 1.0) sequence of rotation by Euler angles used to define orientation of the reference frame yaw_roll_pitch x_ref_length y_ref_length z_ref_length x_length y_length z_length numbers reference lengths associated with the coordinate of points in parts associated with the reference frame actual lengths to be used by the animator to scale coordinates of points in parts within the reference frame numbers The keyword add_reference_frame has three effects: 1. — 275 — .0) offsets added to coordinates and Euler angles (default = 0. It ends the scope of the previous one. Chapter 6 introduces the concept and the Chapter 9 section Animator: Reference Frames explains how you define a reference frame within CarSimEd.2. (Appendix B also defines reference frame to the extent needed to define vehicle dynamics terminology. It starts the scope of a new reference frame. Y. 2.) Table E.2 lists keywords associated with reference frames. Keywords for the animator camera settings. Keyword Value add_reference_frame name of new reference frame set_x_name names of variables set_y_name in ERD file set_z_name set_pitch_name names of variables set_roll_name in ERD file set_yaw_name set_scale_var_x numbers set_scale_var_y set_scale_var_z set_scale_var_roll set_scale_var_pitch set_scale_var_yaw set_offset_var_x numbers set_offset_var_y set_offset_var_z set_offset_var_roll set_offset_var_pitch set_offset_var_yaw set_euler_angles yaw_pitch_roll or Description gives name to new reference frame and starts its scope specifies the variables to be read from the ERD file and associated with X.Appendix E Animator Files and Keywords Reference Frames Understanding the concept of a reference frame is important if you wish to effectively use the animator. Table E.

etc. In the example listing. the animator uses a value of zero for that variable. a reference frame is defined by six variables: three coordinates (X. each coordinate and Euler angle is calculated with a relationship of the form: coordinate = Co + C*SFc angle = Ao + A*SFa where C and A are the translation and angle variables obtained from the ERD file. you should specify one or more objects. they do not affect the scope of the current moving reference frame. if the line ends before eight characters are read. It assigns a name to the new frame that can be used with the set_ camera_reference_frame and set_lookpoint_reference_frame keywords (see Table E. Co and Ao are the constant offsets. including spaces.) The scale factors are commonly used to convert angles to degrees (from radians or revolutions). The offsets are used in some other applications to convert relative coordinates to absolute coordinates. White space between the keyword and the short name is ignored by the animator. All six are optional. The keywords add_wheel and add_part have the effect of starting the scope of a new object.2 (set_offset_var_x. the animator pads the short name with spaces until it is eight characters long. Scope of the Reference Frame The scope of a reference frame begins when the keyword add_reference_frame is encountered. and Z). Each reference frame must have a unique name. set_offset_var_y. If not specified. There are two options: yaw_pitch_roll (used for vehicle sprung-mass reference frames) and yaw_roll_pitch (used for rolling-wheel reference frames). Each time. Y. — 276 — .Appendix E Animator Files and Keywords 3. as defined by the previous add_reference_frame command.1). The animator reads the required six variables from the output files generated by the solver programs. Within the scope of each moving frame. The keyword set_euler_angles is used to specify the type of transformation used. descriptions of parts and wheels are contained in other PARSFILEs. After reading the six variables. and three Euler angles. Position and Orientation of the Reference Frame Overall. However. They also have the effect of ending the scope of the previous object. and then the next eight characters are taken literally. and continues until this keyword is used again to start the scope of a different reference frame. and SFa and SF c are scale factors (gains). the value associated with the keyword is applied only to the current reference frame. However.2 can be repeated several times in a file. The six keywords used to specify ERD file short names determine how the three coordinates and three Euler angles are defined. identified with pathnames following the parsfile keyword. The offsets and scale factors are specified by the keywords shown in Table E. All of the keywords shown in Table E.

is defined by a reference length and an actual length. a list of XYZ coordinates. The conversion is: Xnew = X • x_length x_ref _length Where X new is the newly scaled coordinate. x_length is the wheelbase used in the model and x_ref_length is the reference wheel base. Y. There are four properties that can be set for a part: a name. Each point is defined by a set of three coordinates (X-Y-Z). All coordinates are assumed to be in a local coordinate system associated with the active reference frame. Parts (Shapes) A part is a set of points connected by straight lines. This is used in CarSimEd to stretch or shrink vehicle bodies based on wheelbase and track width. line thickness. and are described in the Chapter 9 section Animator: Shapes.Appendix E Animator Files and Keywords Resizable Objects The animator has a provision for re-scaling all parts within the scope of a reference frame. and color. Listing E. Otherwise. and Z coordinates of all parts associated with the reference frame. The scaling is done only if both the length and reference lengths are specified. shown for the X direction. The keywords are defined in Table E. The animator starts with the first point.3. and draws connecting lines to each following point in a list.2 shows an example PARSFILE containing a complete part description. For the X direction the keywords are x_ref_length and x_length. the re-sizing is omitted and the original coordinates are used to define the points. The relation. Parts are called shapes in the graphical database. Separate scale factors are used for X. X is the coordinate from the part or wheel description. — 277 — .

Keywords for describing parts.8721 -0.2.6273 -0. magenta.7803 0.7038 0.8874 -0. dark gray.4131 0.6885 0.6579 -0.4896 -0.5355 0.5355 -0. green.7191 0.4131 0.0000 0.7191 0.8874 -0. light gray integer list of coordinates: 3 numbers per line numbers set_line_width set_coordinates end_coordinates set_scale_x set_scale_y set_scale_z set_offset_x set_offset_y set_offset_z numbers Description starts scope for new part (the name itself is treated like a comment) color used for lines drawn to connect the points in this part sets thickness of lines drawn for this part coordinates of the points making up the shape scale factors applied to all coordinates in the part offsets added to all points in the part — 278 — . white.2601 0.9027 -0. Part data description parsfile add_part hood set_Color blue set_coordinates -0.6885 0. yellow.7344 0.5202 0.2601 0.7344 0.7803 -0.7344 0.6579 0.6885 0. red.3.4590 -0.0000 0.6885 0.8721 end_coordinates set_scale_x 1 set_scale_y 1 set_scale_z 1 set_offset_x 0 set_offset_y 0 set_offset_z 0 end Table E.0000 0.6273 -0.6732 0. Keyword add_part Value name of part set_color color (9 choices): black.6273 0. blue.6426 0.Appendix E Animator Files and Keywords Listing E.6579 -0.0000 -0.8721 0.

or reference frame is added. The offsets allow a user to change the location of a part within the reference frame without calculating new values for the coordinates. the commands shown below add_wheel are optional. and therefore. as defined by the previous add_part command. The color and line thickness default to values of black and 1. The scope of a part begins when the keyword add_part is encountered. Y. The part name is used only to make the PARSFILE more readable. Values associated with most of the keywords shown in Table E. the name is not necessarily unique. The coordinates are assumed to apply to the current reference frame. set_scale_y.Appendix E Animator Files and Keywords It is sometimes convenient to use the same part in more than one reference frame. There is no default set of coordinates. The listed coordinates for the part are transformed by the equations: x new = xo + sx x y new = yo + sy y znew = z o + sz z where xo.3 are applied to the current part. so the list must be provided. color. There are five properties that can be set for a wheel: name. — 279 — . the name is not necessarily unique. respectively. thickness. and sz are scale factors specified with the keywords set_offset_x. there must not be blank lines. Wheels A wheel is approximated by drawing an object consisting of two polygons whose corresponding vertices are connected by lines. the commands set-line-width and set_color are optional. An optional radial line is drawn to show the wheel rotation angle. All properties except the name have a default value. wheel. and possibly to provide more detailed error messages in future versions. the scale factors default to values of 1 and the offsets default to 0. set_offset_z. and Z coordinate. sy. By setting a scale factor to -1. It is likely that the same wheel definition will be used several times. The keywords for scale factors and offsets are optional. comments. and zo are offsets and sx. until the list ends with a line containing the keyword end_coordinates. Therefore. linethickness. Within the block defined by the keywords set_coordinates and end_coordinates. or other keywords. a user can easily mirror a part. Therefore. and the presence of a radial line. set_scale_x. and therefore. and set_scale_z. For each part. Each following line should contain an X. and continues until another part. separated by white space. radius. set_offset_y. y o. The list of coordinates begins with a line containing the keyword set_coordinates.

4 are applied to the current wheel. — 280 — . Table E.3 shows an example PARSFILE. wheel. as defined by the previous add_wheel command. Keyword add_wheel Value name of wheel set_color set_num_points color (9 choices): black. and continues until another part. light gray integer set_radius set_thickness set_line_width set_radial_line number number integer on or off set_scale_x set_scale_y set_scale_z set_offset_x set_offset_y set_offset_z numbers numbers Description starts scope for new wheel (the name itself is treated like a comment) color used for lines drawn to connect the points in this part sets number of points in polygon used to approximate a circle radius of wheel thickness of wheel sets thickness of lines drawn for this part if on.5 lists the keywords and Listing E. Keywords for describing a wheel.4. or reference frame is added.Appendix E Animator Files and Keywords Table E. or it can be based on 3D shape data used for the ground in CarSimEd. The grid can be flat. white. red. If not specified. magenta. yellow. blue. then there is no grid. draw radial line to help show how fast wheel is spinning scale factors applied to all coordinates in the part offsets added to all points in the part The scope of a wheel begins when the keyword add_wheel is encountered. Grid and 3D Ground Surface The animator will draw a grid fixed in the global reference frame. Values associated with most of the keywords shown in Table E. green. dark gray.

000000 set_min_y -5. PARSFILE with grid information. 0. ** parsfile generated: 10/13/99 12:04:09 ** add_grid set_interval_x 5. 5. parsfile . white. The 3D ground is defined over the range of all possible X and Y values (it is not limited to the range covered in the table).000000 set_max_y 5.000000 z_ground_carpet 3 0.1. 0. 0. yellow. 0. The table lookup function used in the vehicle programs — 281 — . 0.0. 0. It is described in the Chapter 9 section Input: 3D Ground Surface Elevation. the grid is sized automatically in that direction) 3D ground information.1. endtable -10. blue.000000 set_interval_y 5. 0. light gray numbers set_min_x set_max_x set_min_y set_max_y z_ground_carpet first line: number of columns endtable next lines: ground data Description tells animator to draw a reference grid spacing used for drawing the grid lines color used for the grid lines size of the grid in the X and Y directions (if the min and max are set equal. dark gray. 15. 25. magenta. 10.5. red. 10. Keyword add_grid Value <none> set_interval_x set_interval_y set_color numbers color (9 choices): black. 0. The 3D ground information is read from the same file used by the vehicle simulation programs.1. 20. 0. 0. Keywords for describing parts. 0.1. 0.3. as used by vehicle models Listing E.000000 set_max_x 135.Appendix E Animator Files and Keywords Table E.000000 set_color light gray set_min_x -5. green. 0.

To view detailed ground features.Appendix E Animator Files and Keywords is also used in the animator to generate coordinates at the intersection of the X and Y grid lines. The grid spacing is not always compatible with the 3D ground data. and continues until a part. Table E. The target path (including the lateral offset) is drawn by the animator with dashed lines. dark gray. Keyword set_path_color yin_table endtable ltarg_table endtable Value color (9 choices): black. The scope for set_color begins when the add_grid keyword is encountered. a design path.6. If the z_ground_carpet table has closely spaced features. they will not be seen in the grid. and an offset to the design path. white. as described in the Chapter 9 section Input: Target Path For Closed-Loop Steer Control. The ltarg_table input is not used in CarSimEd (it is present in the commercial CarSim and TruckSim packages that use the same animator program). it is best to create a part description associated with a nonmoving reference frame. Keywords for describing parts. There are three kinds of input recognized by the animator: the color of the path. and the design path (without the lateral offset) is drawn with solid lines. Target Path The animator can show target paths specified as inputs to the driver model in CarSimEd. green. or reference frame is added. The scope of the grid information is unlimited for all of the keywords except set_color. — 282 — . The three keywords shown in Table E. wheel.6 can appear anywhere in the input PAR files. magenta. red. yellow. The target path for the controller is the combination of the design path plus the offset. light gray list of X-Y coordinates: 2 numbers per line list of S-L coordinates: 2 numbers per line Description color used for design and target paths coordinates of design path lateral offset of the target path from the design path (S=distance along design path. blue. L=lateral offset to the left) The scope of the target path inputs is unlimited.

Standard files created when a simulation is run. the program obtains all necessary input and output file names from it. List of parameters and final conditions.1 are created. written as output by program. It also lists an example echo file with the keywords recognized by the CarSimEd solver programs. — 283 — . One file always has the same name—Simfile. written as output by program. Header for ERD file. Simfile Simfile is a batch control file.PAR <id>. the program will prompt you for an input file name.LPF Runs Program <id>.LOG Runs Program Description Batch control file. Can be used to repeat a run. The other six all have the same base name— the current ID number displayed in the upper-corner of the Runs screen. List of parameters. the seven files listed in Table F. List of parameters.1. If the file is not found. stored in binary form.Appendix F — Model Files and Keywords This appendix describes the input and output files associated with the solver programs in CarSimEd. If Simfile is found. it looks for Simfile. needed by plotter and animator programs. File Types Every time a new run is made from the Runs screen. When a solver program starts. Also contains initial conditions.LPO Location Programs Runs Runs Creator SGUI SGUI Program <id>. read as input by program.ERD Runs Program <id>. Numerical values of output variables.BIN Runs Program <id>. List of all PARSFILEs that were processed to make a run. Name Simfile <id>. An example Simfile is shown below. Table F. Can be used to continue a run.

45\INPUT\BRAKING\75. PARSFILE parsfile parsfile parsfile parsfile parsfile stopt 2 speed 80 C:\CARSIMED.45\INPUT\FRICTION\23. Example PAR file.45\RUNS\575.45\RUNS\575.45\ANIMATE\CAMERAS\244.par C:\CARSIMED.ERD LOGFILE C:\CARSIMED.par C:\CARSIMED.45\RUNS\575.par * used by animator program PARSFILE C:\CARSIMED.45\INPUT\STEERING\27. the individual solver programs are capable of creating any names allowable under the file operating system. If a file with the name simfile already exists.LOG END Although it is a convention in CarSimEd to use the same root name for all files.par * used by plotting programs PARSFILE C:\CARSIMED.45\RUNS\575.Appendix F Model Files and Keywords Listing F.LPF ERDFILE C:\CARSIMED. Whenever you click the Run button.45\RUNS\751.par C:\CARSIMED.2. Example Simfile. Notice that the names in Simfile are full pathnames.45\COMP_PAR\41.1.45\RUNS\575. this is the folder Programs). Listing F. SIMFILE INPUT C:\CARSIMED.plt testid 751 title Base test END — 284 — .PAR ECHO C:\CARSIMED. it is overwritten. a new Simfile is created in the same folder as the solver program (by convention. The individual files can be located anywhere on the computer or a network where volumes are accessed using the DOS convention. PAR Files The PAR file is read by the solver program and provides values of model parameters for the forthcoming run.LPO FINAL C:\CARSIMED.par C:\CARSIMED.45\VEHICLES\VEHICLES\58.

The keyword PARSFILE is similar to the INCLUDE directive in C or FORTRAN: it instructs the program to open the specified file and to continue reading from the new file.) Figure F. Then. To use it. In order to view all of the parameters used in a simulation run.Appendix F Model Files and Keywords When you click the Run button. Each link seen in the Runs screen is represented with a full pathname to an existing data file. As shown in the following example. PARSFILEs are often nested five or six layers deep.tbk file).PAR. In the above example. Display of nested PARSFILEs with Parstree. When the new file has been scanned to its end. in the directory C:\CARSIMED. a new PAR file is created in the folder containing the Runs library (i. Open any files identified with the keyword PARSFILE. — 285 — .45\VEHICLES\VEHICLES. the data from the selected vehicle is contained in the file 58.1. just click the Tree button in the ribbon bar: . open the input file and view any parameter values in it. The PAR file contains information from the Runs screen. A program called Parstree is included in CarSimEd to rapidly inspect the “tree” of PARSFILEs. the Runs. the file is relatively short.e. which contains Runs. the program continues reading from the original file. and continue the inspection. you could trace the input files the same way as the program: start with the Simfile to find the name of the input (PAR) file.. (See Chapter 5 for more information.

45\INPUT\STEERING\27. The list of all files is contained in the LOG file. The information in the LPO file is sufficient to exactly repeat a run.45\INPUT\BRAKING\75. If that PARSFILE includes the keyword PARSFILE. with extension ERD. it creates summary files that list each and every parameter value that is being used in the current simulation. An example LPO file is listed later. ERD and BIN Files Generally. LOG Files The input parameters for the simulation models are spread over many screens in the CarSimEd database. When the solver program executes. The format of an ERD file is described in Appendix C. Each data set is written in a PARSFILE. By modifying the start and stop time parameters. and the list of all parameter values is contained in both the LPO and LPF files. to show all of the keywords recognized by a CarSimEd model. it writes a record of every PARSFILE into a LOG file. This is mainly used for debugging—most users will never have occasion to look at LOG files. describes the layout of the BIN file and also contains labeling information for each variable. When the solver program reads the inputs. using only the LPO file as an input. the input parameter values are typically spread over many files.2 contains PARSFILE keywords that identify other files with more specific types of data. Vehicle parameters are obtained by reading the file C:\CARSIMED. For example. a braking input is obtained by reading the file C:\CARSIMED. Both contain all parameter values used in the simulation. These even include parameters that were not given values (in these cases the default values are listed). an existing run can be continued if the LPF file is used as the input file for the simulation solver program. it contains the final values of the state variables. A companion file.par. it reads the PARSFILE specified in the SIMFILE. In addition. the top-level file shown in Listing F. Appendix J contains a list of all of the variables contained in the ERD and BIN files for one of the CarSimEd models.45\VEHICLES\CARS\58. These time histories are stored in a binary data file with the extension BIN. the main purpose of each solver program is to predict time histories of variables of interest. except that instead of the initial values. — 286 — . One of these files is created before the run (LPO). steering input data are obtained by reading the file parsfile C:\CARSIMED. and the other is created at the end of the run (LPF). the named file is opened and the program continues reading from the newly opened file.Appendix F Model Files and Keywords However.par. LPO and LPF Echo Files In CarSimEd. the LPO file contains the initial conditions of the state variables in the simulation model. there are faster ways to get the information. When a solver program runs. The LPF file is nearly identical.par.

45\VEHICLES\VEHICLES\58. are associated with the table. Tabular data are written with keywords in front of the table to indicate which axle. — 287 — . Then. Go to the Runs library. side. e.par" Front Wheel Steer .3 shows the top portion of a LOG file. Parameters are identified by keywords. 2. 430.45\VEHICLES\AERO\34. and find a run involving the vehicle of interest. If the run has not already been made. 430). Viewing a Complete List of Parameters The list of parameters in the next section was created from within the software for a particular run. and various vehicle properties. use a file browser such as Windows Explorer to find the files with the ID numbers as a name with extensions LPO and LPF (e. with data for suspensions. Viewing Keywords The files read by the solver programs in CarSimEd are scanned for input data. etc. look at the ID number in the upper-right corner of the Runs screen (e.par" Include PARSFILE "C:\CARSIMED..Appendix F Model Files and Keywords and so on. the program finds more references to other PARSFILEs.PAR" Include PARSFILE "C:\CARSIMED..LPO. Indexed Keywords Many of the parameters in the CarSimEd models are applied in several places on the vehicle.. To create a similar list for other runs. tires. Either one contains all keywords recognized by the solver program. Include PARSFILE "C:\CARSIMED.par" Include PARSFILE "C:\CARSIMED. MUS(1) indicates the unsprung mass of axle 1.. Listing F.45\VEHICLES\STEER\STRS_CAR\40. Click the View All Parameters button to view the file in a text editor.g.45\VEHICLES\STEER\STR_4W\12.g. 3.. do the following: 1. The location of the wheel is specified with the additional keywords IAXLE and ISIDE. Listing F. 430. Example LOG File. starting with the file named in the SIMFILE. For example. The LOG file is a list of every PARSFILE that was referenced.45\RUNS\603. Parameter values such as an axle mass are written in the PARSFILE with numerical indices.par" Example aero data (full) Include PARSFILE "C:\CARSIMED. click the Run button. Alternatively.3.LPF).g. each tire has a similar set of parameters. The same data screen is used to describe a tire whether it is on a left-front or right-rear wheel. When the vehicle file is read.

001 . * Copyright 1996-2000. 20.75 . Rear damper rate. * Generated by AutoSim 2. Front suspension compliance: d(steer)/d(Fy) (deg/N) 0 . Undeflected height of rear wheel center (mm) 1. Rear suspension compliance: d(steer)/d(Fy) (deg/N) 0. Nominal height of entire vehicle C. simulation start time (s) 0. * All rights reserved.004 . Spin moment of inertia of rear wheel (kg-m2) 400 . simulation stop time (s) * PARAMETER VALUES ASW_MAX CSFY(1) CSFY(2) CSMZ(1) CSMZ(2) CSMZF CTFX(1) CTFX(2) DS(1) DS(2) HCG HRC(1) HRC(2) HWC(1) HWC(2) IW(1) IW(2) IXX IXZ 360 . at shock absorber (N-s/mm) 0. 2000. Steering system compliance: d(steer)/d(Mzl + Mzr)/2) (deg/N/m) 0.75 . number of time steps between output printing (counts) 0 . (mm) 100 .G.0003 .002 . simulation time step (s) 10 . Both have the same equations of motion. TITLE Step steer (car) * Input File: C:\CARSIMED.1 . Nominal height of front axle roll center (mm) 100 . Front suspension compliance: d(toe)/d(Fx) (deg/N) 0 .PAR * Run was made 12:23 on Jan. Undeflected height of front wheel center (mm) 285 .0004 . Rear suspension compliance: d(steer)/d(Mz) (deg/N/m) 0. 2000 FORMAT BINARY IPRINT STARTT STEP STOPT 20 . PARSFILE * CarSimEd 3D vehicle.1 . Maximum allowed steering wheel angle (in driver model) (deg) -0. and use the same keywords to identify parameters and tables. Spin moment of inertia of front wheel (kg-m2) 1. Mechanical Simulation Corporation. at shock absorber (N-s/mm) 550 . Rear suspension compliance: d(toe)/d(Fx) (deg/N) 0. Front suspension compliance: d(steer)/d(Mz) (deg/N/m) 0.Appendix F Model Files and Keywords Keywords and Parameters for the 3D Car Model CarSimEd has two separate programs for solving the equations of motion of the 3D car model: one is a stand-alone program (the file extension is EXE) and the other is a dynamic link library (the file extension is DLL) for use with MATLAB/SIMULINK.45\RUNS_3D\627. Product of inertia of entire vehicle (kg-m2) — 288 — .0025 . Moment of inertia of entire vehicle (kg-m2) 0 . Nominal height of rear axle roll center (mm) 285 . Front damper rate.81 (PPC Dev) on January 20.

Rear suspension spring stiffness (at spring) (N/mm) KT(1) 200 . Front wheel ratio of brake torque to pedal input (N-m/MPa) RMYBK(2) 4 . Front auxiliary stiffness. including anti-sway bar (N-m/deg) KFX(1) 100000 . Wheelbase change per unit jounce at rear axle (-) RCAM(1) 0 . Starting station number (beginning of simulation) (m) — 289 — . Steering gear ratio (-) RTIME 0. Moment of inertia of entire vehicle (kg-m2) KAUX(1) 500 . including anti-sway bar (N-m/deg) KAUX(2) 350 . Rear axle track width (mm) LWB 2700 . Vehicle mass supported by front axle (2 wheels) (kg) MR 700 . Rear tire longitudinal stiffness (N) KFYCAM(1) -60 .0 -> off. Wheel camber change per unit jounce at front axle (deg/mm) RCAM(2) 0 . Rear wheel ratio of brake torque to pedal input (N-m/MPa) RMYTH(1) 500 . Rear ratio of suspension jounce to spring compression (-) RSW 16 . CALC .Distance from F axle to total vehicle CG (mm) LRELAX(1) 600 . Vehicle mass supported by rear axle (2 wheels) (kg) MT 1700 .1 . Rear wheel ratio of drive torque to throttle input (N-m) ROLL_STOP 45 . Wheelbase (mm) MF 1000 . sec) (-) RTOE(1) -0.006 . CALC .Ratio: proportion of load on front axle (-) RMR 0. Rear tire vertical stiffness (N/mm) LCGT 1111.76 . Rear axle unsprung mass (2 wheels) (kg) RAP(1) 0. Front wheel ratio of drive torque to throttle input (N-m) RMYTH(2) 0 .Appendix F Model Files and Keywords IYY 2704 . Front ratio of suspension jounce to spring compression (-) RSPRNG(2) 1 . Vehicle forward speed (kph) SPEED_ON_OFF 1 . Front tire vertical stiffness (N/mm) KT(2) 200 .798 . Front tire camber stiffness (N/deg) KFYCAM(2) -60 . Moment of inertia of entire vehicle (kg-m2) IZZ 3136 .006 . Front axle unsprung mass (2 wheels) (kg) MUS(2) 80 .Computational efficiency (sec/sim. Tire/ground friction coefficient (-) MUS(1) 100 . 1.1 . Front axle track width (mm) LTK(2) 1500 . Rear auxiliary stiffness. Front tire longitudinal stiffness (N) KFX(2) 100000 . Rear ratio of jounce at wheel to damper stroke (-) RMF 0. Wheel toe change per unit jounce at rear axle (deg/mm) SPEED 100 . Rear tire camber stiffness (N/deg) KS(1) 30 . Front suspension spring stiffness (at spring) (N/mm) KS(2) 20 .411765 .75 . Speed control switch (0. CALC . Roll angle for stopping the simulation (deg) RSPRNG(1) 1 .0 -> on) (-) STARTS 219. Front ratio of jounce at wheel to damper stroke (-) RDAMP(2) 1 . Wheel camber change per unit jounce at rear axle (deg/mm) RDAMP(1) 1 . Front tire relaxation length (mm) LRELAX(2) 600 . CALC -. CALC .Ratio: proportion of load on rear axle (-) RMYBK(1) 10 .588235 .Total vehicle mass (kg) MU 0. Wheel toe change per unit jounce at front axle (deg/mm) RTOE(2) 0.1 . Wheelbase change per unit jounce at front axle (-) RAP(2) 0. Rear tire relaxation length (mm) LTK(1) 1500 .

1097 6000. 1253 8000.Appendix F Model Files and Keywords STOPS 10000 . 181 1000. 356 2000. Rear low-speed threshold for modified wheel spin equations (kph) V_STOP -1 . 0 500. 356 2000. Table ID number KFYA_TABLE 0. 1250 ENDTABLE IAXLE 2 . Rear low-speed threshold for modified longitudinal slip equations (kph) VLOW_SPINA(1) 2 . Front low-speed threshold for modified longitudinal slip equations (kph) VLOW_KAPPA(2) 2 . NIL (-) * Brake input vs. 1097 6000. 0 500. Rear low-speed threshold for modified tire relaxation equations (kph) VLOW_KAPPA(1) 2 .798 . 673 3000. Stopping station number (stop simulation when this is reached) (m) TDLAG 0 . 0 ENDTABLE * Cornering stiffness vs. 673 3000. time BRKIN_TABLE 0. 922 4000.078 . Front low-speed threshold for modified tire relaxation equations (kph) VLOW_ALPHA(2) 5 . load (30 pts max) IAXLE 1 . NIL (-) YDESIGN 142. Table ID number KFYA_TABLE 0. 0 10. 181 1000. 1253 — 290 — . Front low-speed threshold for modified wheel spin equations (kph) VLOW_SPINA(2) 2 . Lag time used by driver model (s) TPREV 1 . Preview time used by driver model (s) VLOW_ALPHA(1) 5 . Low-speed limit for stopping the simulation (kph) XDESIGN 219. 922 4000.

Table ID number TRAIL_TABLE 0. 12 2000. 15 4000. 0 0. 52 ENDTABLE * FINAL CONDITIONS XO YO ZO YAW 219. 23 6000. Z trans. X trans. Y trans.003076073890054 . Abs. Abs.8114951976 . 0 2. of S0 (m) 0. Abs. 30 3. 23 6000.1095052499 . 52 ENDTABLE IAXLE 2 . 12 2000.1. of Spp (deg) — 291 — . of S0 (m) 142. ENDTABLE Model Files and Keywords 1250 * Steering wheel input vs. Z rot. 0 ENDTABLE * Pneumatic trail vs.51149098427 . Abs. 36 8000. 15 4000. Column 1 = time (sec).Appendix F 8000. time THROTTLE_TABLE 0. time. of S0 (m) 67. 30 ENDTABLE * Throttle input vs. Column 2 = * steering wheel angle (deg). Table ID number TRAIL_TABLE 0. load (30 pts max) IAXLE 1 . 36 8000. STEERSW_TABLE 0.

Slip angle tan of RF tire. of WRR0 rel. Rotation angle of RF wheel (deg) ROTRR 55983. Abs.02247700439532 . to S (m/s) JNCR_WRR 3. Slip angle tan of RR tire.936770925572e-005 . Mechanical Simulation Corporation.4610040621 . with time lag (-) TANLR -0. to S (m/s) AVY_LF 15.2306196465965 . speed of S (deg/s) AVX -0. to WLFJ (m) JNC_WLR -0. Spin rate of LF wheel (rev/s) AVY_LR 15. Abs.Appendix F Model Files and Keywords PITCH -0. Integral of velocity error for speed controller (m) VXS 27. with time lag (-) TANRR -0. Trans. Abs.01828318644881 . * Copyright 1999. Y rot. Rotation angle of LF wheel (deg) ROTLR 55628. speed of WRR0 rel. speed of S (deg/s) JNCR_WLF -9. Spin rate of LR wheel (rev/s) AVY_RF 15.0242091532937 . Slip angle tan of LF tire. TITLE Sine Sweep * Input File: C:\CARSIMED\RUNS_2D\640.77553913376 . of WRF0 rel. with time lag (-) IVERR 0. Vehicle forward speed (m/s) VYS -0.0004862471536275 . 1999.PAR * Run was made 17:31 on Jul. Y rot. to S (m/s) JNCR_WLR 5. All rights reserved. speed of SCMC (m/s) AVZ 6. to Sp (deg) JNC_WLF -0. to S (m/s) JNCR_WLR -2. Y trans.8 on February 26.11428731 . of WLF0 rel. Trans. Slip angle tan of LR tire. to Spp (deg) ROLL 1. speed of S (deg/s) AVY 0.01654330461462 . to WLRJ (m) JNC_WLR 0.15443978 . Trans. Trans. Abs. Z trans.486989249608e-005 .771926099055 . Abs.85102808 .56005195726 .514535513897 .02750321007954 .518184953048e-005 . of WLR0 rel. X rot. Spin rate of RF wheel (rev/s) AVY_RR 15. Trans. 23. speed of SCMC (m/s) VZS 0. 1999 FORMAT BINARY — 292 — .358694147682e-006 .963382153352 . of S rel. * Version created by AutoSim 2. Rotation angle of RR wheel (deg) TANLF -0. with time lag (-) TANRF -0. Trans. to WRRJ (m) ROTLF 55688. speed of WLR0 rel.47666753711 .73084637 .00224071736904 . Z rot. to WRFJ (m) JNC_WRR 0. speed of WRF0 rel.02625441847659 . Trans. Rotation angle of LR wheel (deg) ROTRF 56038.01650853050917 . speed of WLF0 rel. Trans.03409684625009 . Spin rate of RR wheel (rev/s) END Keywords and Parameters for the 2D Car Model PARSFILE * 2D Simple ride model dynamic simulation. X rot.57431795697 .03168883381219 . of Sp rel.181071087701 .

to S0 (m) — 293 — . X trans. Wheelbase (mm) 1000 . Front tire vertical stiffness (N/mm) 200 . Z trans.043 ENDTABLE * FINAL CONDITIONS XO 260.0025 . Front ratio of damper stroke to suspension movement (-) 1 . of S0 (m) PITCH -0. at shock absorber (N-s/mm) 0.02440359257162 .) ROAD_PROFILE_TABLE 0. Abs. vs. of S (deg) JNC_WLF -0. -0. 0 1. simulation stop time (s) * PARAMETER VALUES DS(1) DS(2) HWC(1) HWC(2) IYY KS(1) KS(2) KT(1) KT(2) LTK(1) LTK(2) LWB MF MR MUS(1) MUS(2) RDAMP(1) RDAMP(2) RSPRNG(1) RSPRNG(2) RTIME SPEED 0. Front axle unsprung mass (2 wheels) (kg) 80 .Computational efficiency (sec/sim. Rear ratio of damper stroke to suspension movement (-) 1 . Vehicle forward speed (km/h) * Road profile (Z coord. simulation time step (s) 13 . 0. number of time steps between output printing (counts) 0 .002 … 259. Height of front wheel center (used only for animation) (mm) 2704 . Rear suspension spring stiffness (at spring) (N/mm) 200 . Front ratio of spring compression to suspension movement (-) 1 . Rear axle track width (used only for animation) (mm) 2700 . Vehicle mass supported by rear axle (2 wheels) (kg) 100 . X coord. CALC -. Height of front wheel center (used only for animation) (mm) 285 . simulation start time (s) 0. Abs. Front damper rate. Abs. at shock absorber (N-s/mm) 285 . of WLF0 rel. Front axle track width (used only for animation) (mm) 1500 . 0 2.5.01780941709876 .0313110352 . Rear tire vertical stiffness (N/mm) 1500 . Rear ratio of spring compression to suspension movement (-) 0 .75 . Z trans.99. Front suspension spring stiffness (at spring) (N/mm) 20 . Vehicle mass supported by front axle (2 wheels) (kg) 700 . Rear damper rate. of S0 (m) ZO -0. Y rot. sec) (-) 72 . Rear axle unsprung mass (2 wheels) (kg) 1 .Appendix F IPRINT STARTT STEP STOPT Model Files and Keywords 1 .003454771125689 .4. Moment of inertia of entire vehicle (kg-m2) 30 .75 .

speed of S (deg/s) JNCR_WLF 0. X coordinate of chassis point (mm) -300 .Appendix F Model Files and Keywords JNC_WLR 0. -220 . X coordinate of chassis point (mm) -90 .783175468445 . 1997. number of time steps between output printing (counts) 0 . * Copyright 1989-1996 The Regents of The University of Michigan. mm) 1.58 on February 6.01 . X coordinate of chassis point (mm) -240 . Y coordinate of wheel center (mm) BZ_TABLE ht of point B vs. TITLE Suspension * Input File: C:\CARSIMED. All rights reserved. speed of SCMC (m/s) AVY 4. 19100 CFORMAT binary IPRINT STARTT STEP STOPT 1 .837102413177 . Abs. simulation time step (s) 1 .07862732559443 . Y rot. Z coordinate of point on wheel spin axis (mm) 770 . Z trans. of WLR0 rel. simulation stop time (s) * PARAMETER VALUES BSY BSZ BY 690 .04939780384302 . * Version created by AutoSim 2.9013347029686 . point in table: (s. speed of WLR0 rel.PAR * Run was made 12:11 on Jan. to S (m/s) END Keywords and Parameters for the 3D Suspension PARSFILE * Echo file created by: * Kinematic simulation of 5-point suspension. simulation start time (s) 0. point in table: (s. Y coordinate of chassis point (mm) — 294 — . Abs.45\RUNS_SUS\641. Y coordinate of chassis point (mm) 430 . to S (m/s) JNCR_WLR 1. 220 . time 0. Z trans. Z trans. Y coordinate of point on wheel spin axis (mm) -1 . to WLRJ (m) VZS -0. mm) ENDTABLE PX(1) PX(2) PX(3) PX(4) PX(5) PY(1) PY(2) -60 . 21. speed of WLF0 rel. Z trans. X coordinate of chassis point (mm) 210 . X coordinate of chassis point (mm) 410 .

Y coordinate of carrier point (mm) 650 . X rot. X coordinate of carrier point (mm) -190 . of R5 rel. CALC--Abs. Y coordinate of carrier point (mm) 350 . of R2p (deg) 11. X rot.983953 . of WCp rel. of WC rel. Y coordinate of carrier point (mm) 640 . CALC--Abs.65248 . X rot. CALC--Z rot. X coordinate of carrier point (mm) 0 . of R2 rel. Z coordinate of carrier point (mm) -130 .9715 . to R3p (deg) 36.4151 . Z coordinate of chassis point (mm) 0 . to R5p (deg) END — 295 — . to R4p (deg) 36.3664 . CALC--Z rot. CALC--Abs. X coordinate of carrier point (mm) -120 . Z coordinate of carrier point (mm) 340 . of R4 rel. Y coordinate of chassis point (mm) 390 . to R2p (deg) 41. to R1 (deg) 4. CALC--Z rot. Y coordinate of chassis point (mm) 380 . to R1p (deg) -50. of R4p (deg) 0. CALC--Z rot. CALC--Abs.55033 . to WCp (deg) 59. of R1p (deg) 11. Z coordinate of chassis point (mm) -100 . of R3 rel. X coordinate of carrier point (mm) 0 . CALC--Y rot. X rot. of R1 rel. X coordinate of carrier point (mm) 640 . Z coordinate of chassis point (mm) 290 . CALC--Z rot. of R5p (deg) 0.0164 . X rot. Z coordinate of carrier point (mm) -20 .1251 .3276 . Z coordinate of chassis point (mm) -60 . Y coordinate of chassis point (mm) 330 . of R3p (deg) 3. CALC--Z rot.0191 . to WCpp (deg) -9. Z coordinate of carrier point (mm) -130 . Y coordinate of carrier point (mm) 740 .6627 . CALC--Abs. Z coordinate of chassis point (mm) -110 . Y coordinate of carrier point (mm) 740 .967013 .Appendix F PY(3) PY(4) PY(5) PZ(1) PZ(2) PZ(3) PZ(4) PZ(5) XX(1) XX(2) XX(3) XX(4) XX(5) XY(1) XY(2) XY(3) XY(4) XY(5) XZ(1) XZ(2) XZ(3) XZ(4) XZ(5) Model Files and Keywords 370 . Z coordinate of carrier point (mm) * FINAL CONDITIONS Q(1) Q(2) Q(3) Q(4) Q(5) Q(6) Q(7) Q(8) Q(9) Q(10) Q(11) Q(12) Q(13) 60. CALC--X rot. of WCpp rel.45457 .

Segel and other early researchers in the 1950’s developed linear equations by hand. Rocard. Automotive manufacturers and many others now use multibody programs to perform simulations of automotive handling and braking behavior [8]. The advantage of the detailed multibody programs for development engineers is that they can fine-tune designs by modifying component-level details. The more detailed models involved many years of development. involving generalized movements of wheels relative to the body. and solved them using frequency-domain analysis [3]. Starting with the mid-1980’s. and therefore. Portions of both appendices have been published previously [1] (numbers in brackets refer to documents listed at the end of this appendix). or. with a minimal number of parameters and variables and just three degrees of freedom (DOF). the efforts and potential errors associated with deriving equations and coding them were nearly eliminated. and coded by hand in computer language for numerical solution in specialized programs. The new computer models were more complex. and mass properties of individual parts. However. movements of the body relative to the ground. Introduction It is often said that an automobile is controlled by forces developed in just four small patches. Segel’s classic model reduced the vehicle behavior to its essence. Engineers who do — 296 — . In the 1940’s and 1950’s. The tire model is described in Appendix H. Olley. typically with 10 to 20 DOF [4. 5]. not counting the efforts spent in validation and verification. in which many automotive simulation programs were developed and refined by research engineers. and Segel developed an understanding of how tire forces are generated and affect the steering and braking behavior of the vehicle [2]. From the 1960’s to the early 1980’s. engineers started using newly available multibody simulation programs to describe the model geometrically. the proliferation and improvement of analog and then digital computers led to a new phase of vehicle modeling. In contrast. each the size of a man’s hand. Modelers no longer had to derive equations. researchers such as Lanchester. the earlier custom programs were more systems-oriented. Inputs include coordinates of most joints between parts. The tendency has been to include nearly all moving parts in the suspensions and steering systems. even more simply. “assembling” the system model from components [6. Equations were still formulated by hand. 7].Appendix G — The 3D Car Model This appendix describes the modeling assumptions that were used to build the 3D car model in CarSimEd. Rieckert and Schunk. the detailed models also have some disadvantages. where the tires contact the road. The additional complexity accounted for nonlinearity and more detailed suspension kinematics.

1 shows a free-body diagram of a four-wheeled vehicle as viewed from the top. due to steering compliance. For models with a complexity similar to the one presented in this appendix.1. The aligning moment has a negligible direct effect on the vehicle yaw. the programs run slower than custom programs that are less complex. There are just three governing equations: the sum of the tire shear forces must equal the vehicle mass times its acceleration in both the vehicle X and Y directions. A vehicle is also subject to aligning moments in the tire contact patches. Primary factors influencing vehicle system motions. the run-time performance is much slower even for comparable models. The simulation program obtained by AutoSim has run-time performance comparable with (and usually better than) that of a hand-coded program based on the same model. performs coding optimizations. Although the modern models are often highly detailed.Appendix G The 3D Car Model not work for car manufacturers may not have access to the geometric design data. the main objective of the vehicle model is to accurately predict tire shear forces. — 297 — . This appendix is intended to convey some of the ideas and concepts used in earlier vehicle models for applications using modern multibody programs. Thus. The model that will be described was implemented using the AutoSim multibody code generator [8.) The creation of CarSimEd was motivated in part by the thought that something has been lost during the evolution from the older models to the newer. AutoSim generates equations symbolically. f1 f2 r2 f4 r4 dV dt mass center r1 r3 f3 d dt dV x • ∑f i = x • M dt dV y • ∑f i = y • M dt y z • ∑ ri × f i = z • I zz d dt x Figure G. The insight and expertise that underlay the old hand-written models are often lacking in modern multibody models. Overview of Factors Affecting Vehicle Behavior Figure G. and generates a custom simulation program. a numerical multibody programs might be a couple orders of magnitude slower than a hand-written program specialized for a specific vehicle dynamics model. but. their accuracy in predicting vehicle response to steering and braking inputs is sometimes not as good as that obtained 40 years ago. 9]. and the moment of those forces about the vehicle mass center must be equal to the product of the yaw acceleration and the vehicle yaw moment of inertia. Even when the full set of input parameters is assembled. (With some multibody programs.

the origins of the front and rear wheels are separated by the vehicle wheelbase. For the vehicle with front and rear independent suspension. and jacking [10]. but are relatively easy to add to multibody models. the wheels move out laterally as the suspensions are compressed. anti-pitch. Lwb. Ltk. roll and pitch moments due to suspension reaction forces have been written with coefficients with names such as antiroll. they are separated by the vehicle front and rear track widths. the only forces and moments acting on the vehicle are due to aerodynamic effects. — 298 — . to account for the vertical movements allowed by the suspensions.r . For most vehicles. anti-dive. such that track width increases with suspension compression. They have a secondary influence. If the influence of compliances in the suspension and steering system linkages are removed. each with a single translational DOF.Appendix G The 3D Car Model it can have a significant influence in determining the all-important shear forces. anti-squat. Rigid Body Kinematics The model is based on a rigid body that represents the main body of the vehicle and has six DOF. The wheels also move out longitudinally. Laterally.2). Besides the tire/road interactions. and these motions contribute to the vehicle transient response. each wheel center of a real vehicle follows a trajectory through 3D space. In hand-written equations. an additional four bodies are added. Due to the kinematics of the suspension. as the suspension moves up and down. relative to the car body. Longitudinally. such that the wheelbase increases with suspension compression. The wheel bodies are positioned such that the origins of their local coordinate systems are nominally at the locations of the centers of tire contact (see Figure G. the trajectory is usually not purely vertical. Mechanical energy is transfered to the sprung mass as the vehicle pitches and rolls.f and Ltk. Another behavior that influences the vehicle response involves the rotary motion of the car body in roll and pitch. The direction of the wheel trajectory (relative to the main body) determines how tire shear forces in the ground plane are transmitted to the vehicle body through reaction forces in the suspension linkages.

A simple approximation is to assume the movement is in a straight line.f sy + R p. and the secondary subscripts f and r indicate parameters for the front and rear.Appendix G The 3D Car Model WCLR WCRR W0LR z WCLF y W0RR x WCRF W0LF W0RF z Direction of suspension travel 1 Rp. the — 299 — .f sx) Ltk.f s + Rp. Locations and movements of wheels.r s – Rp.f x Rp. However. the directions of the movements of the four wheels are: left-front: dir(sz + 2Hrc.r y (1) where dir is a function that returns the direction of a vector. for compatibility with this convention.r sx) Ltk. the roll kinematics are often analyzed to define a point called a roll center [10].r Side view Hrc Front view Figure G.r y right-rear: dir(sz – 2Hrc. sz).r s – Rp. Using an axis system based in the vehicle sprung mass (sx. as shown in Figure G. The independent suspension model in CarSimEd does not use the roll-center concept.r Lwb y Ltk 1 Hwc.r sx) Ltk.f y left-rear: dir(sz + 2Hrc.f sx) Ltk. In the traditional suspension analyses. sy.2.2. The multibody model accounts for the interaction between tire shear forces and roll and pitch moments so long as the movement is constrained to follow the proper path.f z Hwc.f right-front: dir(sz – 2Hrc.

. zero DOF).) It is much easier to measure inertia properties for the entire vehicle than for the body alone. dampers. In each case. Suspension Force Effects Movement of a wheel along the line of motion allowed by the suspension kinematics is affected by suspension springs. and usually includes some of the mass of the suspension elements. bringing the mass and inertias of the main body down to those of the sprung mass alone. a dynamic analysis to calculate a roll center was not included in the CarSimEd models. and they are fully constrained with respect to the main vehicle body (i. — 300 — . This is done by adding four more bodies and giving them negative masses. These four bodies should be placed at the same locations as the wheel body mass centers. Note: The existence of a roll-center parameter should not be interpreted to mean the CarSimEd model has a roll center. will in effect subtract the masses and inertia properties. As with real vehicles. The multibody program. bump stops. and anti-sway bars. and that it does not correspond to a physical part of a real vehicle. The mass centers are located at the wheel centers. the XY and YZ products are defined as zero. A single coefficient (Rp) is used to define the longitudinal inclination of the wheel movement. including the XZ product of inertia. This value is commonly called the unsprung mass. Given that the roll center is not used in the model. (Due to lateral symmetry. their masses are set to the negative values of the unsprung masses. the actual roll center moves in the CarSimEd model once it is out of the equilibrium condition.e. The multibody program can be made to calculate the mass and inertia properties of the sprung mass from measurements made for the entire vehicle.Appendix G The 3D Car Model inclination of the wheel movement in the roll direction is defined by the ratio of a roll center height to the half-track distance. In CarSimEd the moments of inertia of the wheel bodies are defined as zero. Masses and inertias The user of a vehicle model must provide mass and inertia parameters for the bodies in the model. nominally a height H wc above the ground. The mass of each wheel body should be set to that portion of vehicle mass supported by the tire that is considered to move with the wheel. in accounting for the full constraint of these four bodies. The inertia properties are also required. However. The mass of the main body (the sprung mass) is set to the mass of the entire vehicle minus the unsprung masses.

3. multiplied by its change in compression. consider the spring shown in the suspension of Figure G. using a different ratio Rd. for example. If the wheel moves vertically an amount of ∆ relative to the body. The spring exerts a force Fs on the lower control arm.3.. — 301 — ..g. This principle of mechanical advantage is used to include components such as springs and dampers in the vehicle dynamics model without requiring details about their points of attachment or the complex suspension linkage geometry. Mechanical advantage of suspension component. spring force = Fs displacement at spring = Rs ∆ non-working reacton force displacement at wheel = ∆ working force at wheel = Rs Fs Figure G. For example. and some is reacted at the wheel by the vertical tire force. some of the force is reacted at other points or in other directions that do not move and therefore cannot affect the transfer of mechanical energy.Appendix G The 3D Car Model some of the force generated by a component (e. a spring) acts to move the wheel. Conservation of work requires that the change in force at the wheel center multiplied by its movement must be equal to the change in spring force. where Rs is a coefficient that defines the mechanical advantage of the spring relative to the wheel. affecting the transfer of mechanical energy to and from the sprung mass. and 3. The effect of a suspension component at the wheel is calculated in three steps: 1. the spring is compressed by a lesser amount. as shown in the figure. say.g. compression) to determine the force generated by the component. multiply the suspension compression (measured at the wheel) by the kinematic ratio to determine the compression at the component. apply a known functional relationship (e. A similar analysis can be made for the damper. Rs ∆. spring force vs. the effect of the spring at the wheel is Rs Fs. In addition. Some of the force is reacted at the connection to the body. 2. Thus. multiply the component force by the kinematic ratio to obtain an effective vertical force at the wheel.

has 10 multibody degrees of freedom. the three steps can be combined to define an effective spring rate at the wheel: Ks Rs2. trans coord = Q(9) RR wheel (WRR). parent=S. Q(6) LF wheel (WLF). and the magnitude is a spring rate multiplied by the vertical movement difference between the two points. the damper mechanical advantage Rd. Q(5). Q(3). (The folders are contained in the CarSimEd Matlab folder.Appendix G The 3D Car Model For a linear spring. For nonlinear relations.) Multibody Model Descriptions CarSimEd 3D vehicle is represented mathematically by 33 ordinary differential equations that describe its kinematical and dynamical behavior. it is necessary to perform all three steps.) Input and output variables from the README file are listed in Appendix J. trans coord = Q(8) RF wheel (WRF). parent=S. The effect of the anti-sway bar is modeled for the independent suspension with a linear spring between the two wheels linked by the bar. The two points are on the two wheels. The details are presented for the CMEX version of the allindependent vehicle model. parent=N. 4 auxiliary speeds. The parameter is a torsional spring rate. (The only differences between the CMEX and stand-alone models are that the CMEX versions include additional inputs that can be defined in the SIMULINK work space. MATLAB PIF. trans coord = Q(10) WLFN. rot coords = Q(4). trans coord = Q(7) LR wheel (WLR). A similar treatment is made for the shock absorber. using the derivative of the suspension displacement. Other information is listed below. and a functional relation between damper force and stroke rate. 10 multibody coordinates. It is composed of 9 bodies. Q(2). 10 multibody speeds. the direction of the force is sz. parent=S — 302 — . and has 22 active forces and 4 active moments. It is converted to a translational spring rate by the simulation solver program. parent=S. Summary of Major Model Variables The CarSimEd models are documented in README text files in the folder with the CarSimEd DLL. 9 Bodies Entire vehicle (S). parent=S. 9 auxiliary coordinates. trans coords = Q(1). parent=S WRFN. and SIMULINK model.

to WRRJ :Q(10) (m) ROTLF: Rotation angle of LF wheel: Q(11) (deg) ROTLR: Rotation angle of LR wheel: Q(12) (deg) ROTRF: Rotation angle of RF wheel: Q(13) (deg) ROTRR: Rotation angle of RR wheel: Q(14) (deg) TANLF: Slip angle tan of LF tire. Z rot. speed of S :U(4) (deg/s) AVY: Abs. of WLF0 rel. to WLRJ :Q(8) (m) JNC_WLR: Trans. speed of SCMC :U(2) (m/s) VZS: Abs. of Sp rel. Y trans. of Spp :Q(4) (deg) PITCH: Y rot. parent=S Multibody Coordinates XO: Abs. of WRR0 rel. of WLR0 rel. of WRF0 rel. X trans. X rot. with time lag: Q(18) (-) IVERR: Integral of velocity error for speed controller: Q(19) (m) Independent Speeds VXS: Vehicle forward speed :U(1) (m/s) VYS: Abs. of S rel. of S0 :Q(2) (m) ZO: Abs. parent=S WRRN. to Spp :Q(5) (deg) ROLL: X rot. speed of S :U(6) (deg/s) — 303 — . speed of S :U(5) (deg/s) AVX: Abs. Z trans. with time lag: Q(15) (-) TANRF: Slip angle tan of RF tire. Y rot. of S0 :Q(1) (m) YO: Abs. with time lag: Q(16) (-) TANLR: Slip angle tan of LR tire. to WRFJ :Q(9) (m) JNC_WRR: Trans. to WLFJ :Q(7) (m) JNC_WLR: Trans. of S0 :Q(3) (m) YAW: Abs. with time lag: Q(17) (-) TANRR: Slip angle tan of RR tire. Z rot. to Sp :Q(6) (deg) JNC_WLF: Trans. Y trans. speed of SCMC :U(3) (m/s) AVZ: Abs.Appendix G The 3D Car Model WLRN. Z trans.

FSRR: RR suspension spring force. Direction = [sz]. Magnitude = FM(4). Acts on the entire vehicle from the rr wheel through RR upper suspension attachment point. Direction = [sz]. Direction = [sz]. Magnitude = FM(7). Direction = [sz]. Magnitude = FM(9). Magnitude = -FM(6). Acts on the entire vehicle from the lr wheel through LR upper suspension attachment point. speed of WRR0 rel.Appendix G The 3D Car Model JNCR_WLF: Trans. FSLR: LR suspension spring force. Magnitude = FM(3). to S :U(9) (m/s) JNCR_WRR: Trans. Acts on the entire vehicle from the lf wheel through LF upper suspension attachment point. Acts on the lf wheel from the rf wheel through mass center of the lf wheel. speed of WLR0 rel. Magnitude = FM(2). speed of WLF0 rel. Acts on the entire vehicle from the lf wheel through LF upper suspension attachment point. Direction = [sz]. Magnitude = -FM(8). Magnitude = FM(1). FDLR: LR suspension damper force. FSRF: RF suspension spring force. Acts on the entire vehicle from the rf wheel through RF upper suspension attachment point. FDRR: RR suspension damper force. FAUXF: Front anti-sway-bar force. to S :U(8) (m/s) JNCR_WLR: Trans. Magnitude = FM(10). Direction = [sz]. to S :U(7) (m/s) JNCR_WLR: Trans. to S :U(10) (m/s) AVY_LF: Spin rate of LF wheel: U(11) (rev/s) AVY_LR: Spin rate of LR wheel: U(12) (rev/s) AVY_RF: Spin rate of RF wheel: U(13) (rev/s) AVY_RR: Spin rate of RR wheel: U(14) (rev/s) 22 Forces FSLF: LF suspension spring force. Direction = [sz]. — 304 — . Acts on the lr wheel from the rr wheel through mass center of the lr wheel. FDLF: LF suspension damper force. Direction = [sz]. Magnitude = -FM(5). FDRF: RF suspension damper force. Acts on the entire vehicle from the rr wheel through RR upper suspension attachment point. FAUXR: Rear anti-sway-bar force. speed of WRF0 rel. Acts on the entire vehicle from the lr wheel through LR upper suspension attachment point. Acts on the entire vehicle from the rf wheel through RF upper suspension attachment point. Direction = [sz]. Direction = [sz].

Magnitude = FYRF. Direction = (z(189)*[nx] + z(186)*[ny]). Acts on the rf wheel from the inertial reference through CTCRF. Direction = [nz]. FYRR: RR tire side force. Acts on the lr wheel from the inertial reference through CTCLR. Direction = [nz]. FZLR: LR vertical tire force. Magnitude = FXRF. Magnitude = FYRR. Direction = (z(215)*[nx] + z(212)*[ny]). Acts on the lf wheel from the inertial reference. Acts on the rr wheel from the inertial reference through CTCRR. FXRF: RF longitudinal force. Magnitude = FXLR. Magnitude = MZLF. Magnitude = FXLF. Direction = (-z(234)*[nx] -z(231)*[ny]). FZLF: LF vertical tire force. Magnitude = FM(13). Acts on the rr wheel from the inertial reference through CTCRR. Magnitude = FM(14). Acts on the lf wheel from the inertial reference through CTCLF. Magnitude = FYLR. Magnitude = FXRR. Acts on the lf wheel from the inertial reference through CTCLF. FZRR: RR vertical tire force. Direction = (z(228)*[nx] + z(225)*[ny]). Magnitude = FM(12). 4 Moments MZLF: LF tire aligning moment. Acts on the lr wheel from the inertial reference. FYLR: LR tire side force. FXLR: LR longitudinal force. Acts on the lr wheel from the inertial reference through CTCLR. Magnitude = FM(11). — 305 — . Acts on the lf wheel from the inertial reference through CTCLF.Appendix G The 3D Car Model FXLF: LF longitudinal force. Direction = [nz]. Direction = [nz]. MZLR: LR tire aligning moment. Direction = [nz]. Direction = (-z(252)*[nx] -z(249)*[ny]). Acts on the rf wheel from the inertial reference through CTCRF. Direction = (-z(246)*[nx] -z(243)*[ny]). Direction = (-z(240)*[nx] -z(237)*[ny]). Acts on the rf wheel from the inertial reference through CTCRF. FYLF: LF tire side force. FXRR: RR longitudinal force. FZRF: RF vertical tire force. Magnitude = MZLR. Magnitude = FYLF. FYRF: RF tire side force. Acts on the rr wheel from the inertial reference through CTCRR. Direction = (z(202)*[nx] + z(199)*[ny]). Acts on the lr wheel from the inertial reference through CTCLR. Direction = [nz].

. Chace.” Journal of Guidance. L. London. D. 1977. Vol.W. et.” Vehicle System Dynamics. 7. 860574. T. Nov/Dec 1991. Han. Wade Allen. No. Segel. Control. 3.” The Institute of Mechanical Engineers. eds. R. Swetz and Zeitlinger. Magnitude = MZRR. Sayers and D. 6. 770053. Warrendale. M. 9. Vol. Direction = [nz].Appendix G The 3D Car Model MZRF: RF tire aligning moment. ASME Publication AMD. 1976 5. J. SAE. References 1. “Vehicle Dynamic Handling Computer Simulation – Model Development. Magnitude = MZRF. Correlation.S. 1240-1250. 1986 8. Vol. “Theoretical Prediction and Experimental Substantiation of the Response of the Automobile to Steering Control. 14. Antoun. 10. Acts on the rr wheel from the inertial reference.S. “Simulation Of A Vehicle Suspension With The Adams Computer Program. Segel. Lisse. June 1992.” SAE Paper No. F. and M. Fundamentals of Vehicle Dynamics.” National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. and Dynamics. “Keynote Address: Some Reflections on Early Efforts to Investigate the Directional Stability and Control of the Motor Car. 1993. 4. 25 supplement. 1956.” Transportation Systems. Gillespie.A.W. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Direction = [nz]. N... 6. 108. and Application Using ADAMS. Jindra. M. MZRR: RR tire aligning moment. 1992 — 306 — .” SAE Paper No. Vehicle Dynamic Stability and Rollover. Sharp. Sayers. Orlandea... Kortüm.W. L. 1996... Acts on the rf wheel from the inertial reference. “Mathematical Model of Four-Wheeled Vehicle for Hybrid Computer Vehicle Handling Program. Henry T. Szostak et. “Symbolic Vector/Dyadic Multibody Formalism for Tree-Topology Systems. DOT HS 801800.. al. 1990. Multibody Computer Codes in Vehicle System Dynamics. al. R. DOT HS 807 956. 2. PA. “A Generic Multibody Vehicle Model for Simulating Handling and Braking.

FX. in which the — 307 — . F Z and MZ are applied to the axles and reacted by the ground. and the point of application of tire forces. (2) establish the unit vector directions for the tire X and Y directions (t X and tY. Center of Tire Contact The tire model in CarSimEd makes use of a point called the center of tire contact (CTC) for the definition of the location of the tire on the ground. and an aligning moment (MZ ). FZ is determined by assuming the tire behaves as a linear spring when deformed vertically. respectively) given the ground normal (rZ ). as shown in Figure H.1. F Y.1. Tire/Wheel Kinematics Most of the arithmetic operations in the expressions for tire forces and moments arise from deriving expressions for various kinematical quantities associated with the tires/wheels. F Y and MZ are more complicated to compute. a vertical force (FZ ). Tire points and axes.Appendix H — The Tire Model wz HCGA Wo rz Wc Wc Fy Fx tx Mz tx ty VC vy vx ty Fz Figure H. These steps are explained below. The interaction of each tire with the ground is modeled by a longitudinal force (FX). In the nominal configuration. and (3) determine expressions for κ and α. It is necessary to (1) define a point where the tire forces act on the multibody model. F X. a lateral force (FY). Overturning moment (MX) and rolling resistance moment (MY) have an insignificant influence on vehicle braking and handling behavior and are ignored. the calculation of slip angles.

Y and Z coordinates of WC are zero for independent suspensions. In nearly all vehicle dynamics models that have been developed by hand (without multibody programs). but point CTC is used as the point of application for the resulting tire forces. 2 2 . rZ determines the instantaneous tire deflection. For a flat surface. (The general solution of the location of CTC on an arbitrarily shaped surface requires an iterative solution at each time step. CTC remains in the ground plane as the wheel moves up and down. The X. The spin axis for a wheel is: wY = cos(δ) a Y – sin(δ) aX (1) Point WC is located in the wheel plane and is nominally coincident with the precise definition of CTC (see Figure H. calculating the location of CTC becomes even more complex. the complexity of the exact equations requires many mathematical operations per time step during numerical integration. However. Point WC is used to determine the slip angle. CTC corresponds to the point W C shown in Figure H. The exact expressions can be obtained easily with the aid of a multibody program. For the solid-axle suspension. approximations to CTC for a flat surface have been used. but at the same time.1.1). wY. LTK is the axle track to the center plane of the wheel. Most of the complexity arises from terms that are negligible. level surface. the kinematical expressions for calculating the position and velocity of CTC are well defined. the wheels are steered with angles δL and δR relative to the axle Y axis. the coordinates in the axle body are: WCX = 0 WCY = ± L TK 2 (2) WCZ = –HCGA Here. When the ground surface is permitted to take on an arbitrary shape. The algebraic signs of the terms in the Y coordinate depend on the side of the axle (left: + — 308 — L TK L . This is because r Z is a function of the global location of CTC. Wheel Plane Each tire has an associated wheel plane that is perpendicular to the wheel spin axis. CarSimEd uses a point W c fixed in the wheel or axle body (depending on whether the wheel is in an independent or solid axle suspension). right: – TK ).Appendix H The Tire Model vehicle is at rest in equilibrium on a flat.) To obtain shorter run times and avoid the complexities associated with the precise definition of CTC. which in turn affects the location of CTC. For the front axle. but complex.

t X and t Y. lie in the plane of the road (t Z = rZ ). YC) is a function of XC and YC that returns the four variables shown in braces. ∆Τ is the vertical distance between point WC and the road. Tire Axes The tire X and Y axes. The wheel spin. the ground normal rZ is determined as a function of the location of point Wc: rZ = X RZ nX + Y RZ nY + ZRZ nZ (4) [ZGROUND . Vertical Tire Deflection Vertical tire deflection (∆ T ) is needed to calculate F Z . and FZ act on the axle or wheel through a point CTC that is nominally coincident with W c . ZRZ ] = func(X C. This movement of the force application point provides a slight correction to the moment arm of the forces. Three moments are considered: drive torque MYDV. tX = w Y × rZ w Y × rZ tY = rZ × t X rZ × t X (7) Wheel Spin The wheel spin equation is a simple balance of moments about the spin axis. For a flat level surface. XRZ .Appendix H The Tire Model Ground Geometry The coordinates of the absolute position of WC in the global frame N are: XC = nX • pos(WC) YC = nY • pos(WC) (3) ZC = nZ • pos(WC) For a three-dimensional ground surface. is described with a differential equation: — 309 — . and the moment of longitudinal tire force acting with a moment arm equal to the deflected tire radius. rZ = nZ . but which moves vertically by the displacement ∆Τ in the a Z direction. ω. t x is defined as being perpendicular to the wheel spin axis. in the plane of the wheel: ∆T = Z GROUND – Zc (6) FX. YC) (5) where and func(X C. brake torque MYBK. YRZ . FY. Thus.

The forces do not develop instantaneously. The wheel spin is integrated to calculate the wheel rotation angle needed for making animations of the rotating wheels. but build as the tire rolls [1]. Figure H.2 shows how FY builds in response to a step change in slip angle. Longitudinal Slip Longitudinal slip (κ) is normally defined as κ= ω ωo (9) where ω o is the zero-slip angular speed of the wheel: ωo = Vx (10) HCGA The slip angle (α) for each tire is defined in terms of the X and Y velocity of WC.∆ T ) + sign(MYBK . Tire Relaxation Tires develop shear forces in response to deformation of the tire structure. and Iw is the polar moment of inertia of the spinning wheel. ω)] Iw (8) where H CGA . — 310 — .Appendix H The Tire Model ˙ = ω MYDV – [ Fx (HCGA . expressed in the ground plane: v x = t x • vel(WC) v y = t y • vel(WC) (11) The slip angle is the arc-tangent of the ratio: vY / vX. VX and VY. For example.∆Τ is the instantaneous tire radius (moment arm of FX about the wheel center).

Appendix H The Tire Model α x Fy 5% x 3L Figure H. the above equation does not work well because the time lag goes to infinity. αL = tan–1(τ) (12) A state variable is added for each wheel and defined with a first-order differential equation: VX  VY  dτ  = −τ  dt L RELAX  VX  = VY −τ VX L RELAX (13) The absolute value of VX is used to maintain continuity in case the vehicle spins out and VX assumes a negative value At very low speed. Second. In this method. A method described by Bernard [2] is used to account for the lag in tire response. αL is defined as the arc tangent of an auxiliary state variable. a lagged slip angle. The second approach is used in CarSimEd because it offers two practical advantages. Lag is introduced into the slip angle such that the instantaneous response calculated for the lagged slip angle yields the lagged side force and aligning moment. or (2) use a static (steady-state) tire model with a separate filter to account for the lag. Tire relaxation. it simplifies the calculation of the kinematical variables used as inputs to the tire model.2. it allows the use of any static tire model from the literature independently of the method used to introduce lag. Two methods are commonly used for including the tire lag in a vehicle model: (1) use a tire model with the dynamics built in. τ. First. Therefore the “gain” on the derivative is increased according to the equation: — 311 — .

Aligning moment is defined as the product of lateral force and a moment arm called pneumatic trail: Mzo = Fyo • Ltrail(Fz) — 312 — (18) . Longitudinal force is mainly determined by the brake torque and rolling radius for sublimit behavior. and then the values are reduced to account for frictional limits using a normalization method described by Radt [3] and summarized in the equations below. Tire Forces and Moments Once expressions are obtained for the needed kinematical quantities. The tire seeks a spin in which the torque balance of equation (11) is maintained. and aligning moment that would be obtained in the absense of friction limits. Vertical Tire Force Vertical tire force is proportional to the tire deflection: FZ = max (0. lateral force. F Y and MZ depend upon it. For the purpose of producing a longitudinal slip that is within an order of magnitude of the correct one. F Z must be calculated first. Pure Longitudinal and Lateral Slip A relatively simple tire model is used in CarSimEd to predict the linear cornering behavior and the nonlinear limit behavior.Appendix H The Tire Model  v  dτ dτ  ← • 1 + 50 • 1− x  dt dt   vαo  (14) where vαo is a cut-off speed—a parameter that can be set by the user. They are obtained first. The use of the max function prevents the magnitude of the force from going negative when the tire leaves the ground. F yo. a simple equation for longitudinal tire force is used: Fxo = K fx κ (16) Lateral force is determined for a the combined effect of camber and lateral slip: Fyo = –Kfy(Fz) α + Kfγ γ (17) where K fy is a nonlinear table-lookup that defines cornering stiffness as a function of load. The tire model mainly determines how much longitudinal slip occurs to generate the longitudinal force. the tire force and moment magnitudes can be calculated. Fxo. The above definition of FZ establishes the force to be in equilibrium when the vehicle is in the nominal configuration. because FX. FZSTAT + K T ∆ T ) (15) where FZSTAT is the static tire load and KT is the vertical tire stiffness. and Mzo are values of longitudinal force.

F=K– K K K3 + 3 27 (21) Plot of equation 20. the following terms are defined. To account for friction limits. longitudinal and lateral slip are combined: K= (K T ) + (K ) 2 Fy eff 2 Fx µFZ (20) where µ is the tire/road friction coefficient. M =K – KK + K 3 K K3 – 3 27 Plot of equation 21. lateral slip and inclination angle are combined: Teff = tan( − K Fy ) KFy (19) Next. — 313 — (22) . A different shape function is used to define normalized aligning moment.Appendix H The Tire Model where Ltrail is a nonlinear table-lookup that defines trail as a function of load. A normalized force is defined to provide a shape for the transition from linear to sliding. First.

For example. If (K > 2π) then ν=1 1. else 1 K K K ν = 2 (1 + KFy – (1 – KFy ) cos( 2 ) Fx Fx (23) A force scaling factor is defined: µF Z F0 = 2 + ( Teff ) (24) 2 The scaled forces and moment are: Fx = Fy = – MZ = F F0 Teff F F0 Ltrail Teff M F0 (25) Camber Effect The small effect of inclination is handled by modifying the slip angle. Both coeffients are evaluated at the instant vertical load Fz. One problem is numerical—equations might have the speed in the denominator of an expression.Appendix H The Tire Model A coefficient “ν” is defined to transition between linear and full sliding: 1. by an amount: αeff = tan–1(τ) + γ • Rγ Rγ = Kγ Kα (26) where Kγ is a linear camber-thrust coefficient and Kα is the cornering stiffness. the longitudinal slip definition (see Equation 9) is singular at zero speed. but acts in the direction opposite — 314 — . Low-Speed Exceptions Models of the rolling tire can become unrealistic when the rolling stops. Vx ) (27) Low-Speed Instabilities A general challenge in mechanical simulation occurs whenever a large force or moment is largely insensitive to the magnitude of motion speed. This problem is solved by using limiting the speed used in the equation to a small ε value: If Vx HCGA < ε Then ω ο = sign(ε.

Another instability occurs when a wheel is locked and the vehicle speed approaches zero. If MYBK > | F x • (HCGA . To prevent violent longitudinal oscillations when the vehicle should be at rest. There is no oscillation. The undeflected rolling radius is used to convert VLOW_SPINA to ω ao. exactly equal to the amount necessary to prevent motion. It is sometimes called a “bangbang” instability because the large friction force is applied fully in opposite directions with each time step. In order for the alternate equation to be applied. For example. the wheel spin and braking moment change sign. There are two friction-like instabilities associated with zero speed. leading to a positive change in speed. causing the predicted wheel spin to be negative for the next time step. the numerical integration calculations predict a negative change in speed. Note: The low-speed threshold is provided by the user with the parameter VLOW_SPINA with units of kph. the oscillation does not diminish either. Then. Because the amount of brake torque does not diminish with the spin magnitude. the instability described above exists when the wheel spin approaches zero due to brake torque. the wheel must be moving slowly and locked up (or approaching lockup). An alternate to Equation 8 is used when the brake torque is greater than the moment of the tire braking force plus the driving moment. the longitudinal slip is reduced.Appendix H The Tire Model the motion. First. to generate reduced longitudinal force and to “use up” less of the combined lateral and longitudinal slip. and a positive speed for the next time step. the calculated increment in speed is likely to overshoot zero. If | ω | < | ωο | And | ωο | < ω κo Then κ←κ•  ωo • π  1   1− cos 2   ω κo   — 315 — (29) . As long as the wheel is spinning. Each time step. braking torque resists the direction of wheel spin but is not dependent on the magnitude of the spin rate. brake torque for a locked up wheel is a reaction torque. Each time step. because it is inevitable that the wheel is about to lock up.∆Τ ) | And MYBK > | MYDV | And | ω | < ω ao Then ˙ ←ω ˙ • ω ω ωao (28) where ω ao is a low-speed threshold for spin acceleration. But when the wheel spin reaches zero. the brake torque acts in opposition to the negative speed and causes a positive acceleration. The above problem occurs when friction is modeled. the brake torque causes angular acceleration that slows the wheel. In the real mechanical system. The longitudinal slip (see Equation 9) predicts full longitudinal force in opposition to the vehicle longitudinal motion. Specifically.

Sign Conventions For the above definitions of longitudinal and lateral slip. When the longitudinal speed of the wheel center is negative. The various quantities necessary for the tire equations are calculated in the following sequence: 1. 4. 5. • Calculate the time derivatives of τ. positive generates negative FY.Appendix H The Tire Model where ω κo is a low-speed threshold. Calculate terms that depend on t x and t y: • Apply forces FX and F Y to the axles. the X axis remains pointing towards the front of the vehicle and the Y axis continues pointing to the vehicle left. positive (small) generates positive MZ . Compute δ. Determine tx and t y . At the beginning of each time step. the values of all of the state variables are known. Compute FZ . and 3. — 316 — . The nominal rolling radius is used to convert VLOW_KAPPA to ω κo . including the effect of steer compliances coupled with tire actions of FX. the conventions for tire X and Y axes would be reversed according to standard tire kinematics conventions. 2. FY and MZ . Sequence Of Calculations The vehicle simulation is run by numerically integrating a set of ordinary differential equations. which depend only on the state variables. including the τ variables. The sign of Fy is not reversed due to the use of |v x | in the definition of tan(α). positive κ generates positive FX. F Y and MZ with the static tire model (table look-up/combined slip theory) using τ. Compute FX. 2. 1. Therefore the signs of Fx and Mz are reversed when the wheel speed is negative. in the CarSimEd models. However. 3. Note: The low-speed threshold is provided by the user with the parameter VLOW_KAPPA with units of kph.

1995.Appendix H The Tire Model References 1.” Chapter 14 of Race Car Vehicle Dynamics.L. SAE.. Cornering Stiffness and Relaxation Length of the Pneumatic Tire. Loeb.. H. et. “Tire Modeling for Low–speed and High–speed Calculations. Bernard. 1995 3. 950311. Radt. al. Milliken and D. 473-487. Milliken. — 317 — .” SAE Paper No. 900129.F. J.” SAE Paper No. L. E.. pp. J. “Tire Data Treatment. W. “Lateral Stiffness. C. Clover. 1990. 2.S.

u and y could be arrays involving more than one control and/or output variable. numerical integration is the method used in the driver model. Optimal Control Theory The algorithm is intended to provide optimal control for a linear system: x˙ = A x + B u (1) y=Cx+Du (2) where x is an array of n state variables. The control objective is to determine the optimal value of u to causes the predicted output y(t) to match a target trajectory ytarget(t). This is called the free response. C. the D matrix is not used. namely. However. Thus. and A. or by numerical integration. over some previewed time T. In the above equations. y is an output variable of interest. and D are matrices with constant coefficients. B. Each coefficient in the matrix is the portion of state variable i at time t that is linearly related to state variable j at time 0. There is a further simplification. In the general case. The technique was developed by Charles MacAdam of UMTRI in 1980 [1. It can be calculated with a power series. — 318 — . Thus. in this derivation. (As will be described later.) The product of the state transition matrix (eAt) and the array of initial conditions (x o) is an array of length n with the part of each state variable at time t due to the initial conditions of the system at t=0. In recent research for the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). the algorithm has been streamlined and re-formulated to work with roadway centerline geometry. with eigenvectors. The integral defines a contribution to each state variable due to the constant control u over the time interval. B is a n x 1 matrix and C is a 1 x n matrix. A is an n x n matrix. the only case considered is the one in which u and y are scalars. If the system has initial conditions x o at time t=0 and a constant control input u. 2] and has been used in various forms in many computer programs since then. It is called the forced response. that the output y does not depend explicitly on u. its time response has the known solution: x(t) = e At x o + ∫ t 0 eAη B u dη (3) The term e At is an n x n matrix called the state transition matrix.Appendix I — The CarSimEd Steer Controller This appendix describes the theory and application of an algorithm used to control a road vehicle to follow a prescribed path. u is a control input.

re-written using the newly introduced terms. a quadratic performance index J is defined. to relate the control input u over the interval t to the output variable y at time t. { } 2 1 T y (t) − y(t) W(t)dt target ∫ T 0 J= (9) where W(t) is an arbitrary weighting function. The value of u which minimizes J can be found by substituting Equation 8 into 9 and taking the partial derivative of J with respect to u. is: y(t) = F(t) x o + g(t) u (8) To determine the optimal control. the minimum occurs when the derivative ∂J/∂u is zero. ∂y(t) f i(t) ≡ ∂x (0) i F(t) = C eAt (5) A control-response scalar g is also defined. A control u is considered optimal if it minimizes J—the squared deviation of response variable y(t) relative to the target function ytarget(t) . T { } 2 1 J = ∫ F(t)x o + g(t)u − ytarget (t) W(t)dt T0 (10) ∂J 2 = 0 = ∫ F(t)x o + g(t)u − ytarget (t) g(t)W(t)dt ∂u T0 (11) T { } Solving for u gives the following: T ∫ {y target u= } (t) − F(t) xo g(t)W(t)dt 0 (12) T ∫ g(t) 2 W(t)dt 0 — 319 — .Appendix I The CarSimEd Steer Controller Combining Equations 2 and 3 gives the response of the output variable: y(t) = C x = C eAt x o + C [ ∫ t (4) eAη dη] B u 0 A free-response array F (a 1xn matrix) is defined to simplify some of the following notation. Because J is quadratic. F relates the state variables at time 0 to the resulting output variable y at time t. g(t) = C [ ∫ t g(t) ≡ eAη dη] B 0 ∂y(t) ∂u (6) Note that g(t) is related to F(t) by integration: g(t) = [ =[ ∫ ∫ t 0 C eAη dη] B t 0 F(η) dη] B (7) The response equation.

and the stop time may be set to anything from a few milliseconds to several minutes. ∑ {y } m u= i =1 − F ix o g i target i (14) m ∑g 2 i i =1 Application to Vehicle Control The general control method is programmed in the UMTRI driver model to generate a steering wheel angle in a vehicle solver program. uo Figure I. The simplified equation is shown below for future reference. g.1. A further simplification will be made in the application below.Appendix I The CarSimEd Steer Controller In practice. the integrals over T can be replaced with finite summations: ∑ {y m u= i =1 target i } − F ix o g iW i (13) m ∑g W 2 i i i =1 where the time dependencies of Equation 12 are replaced with an index i.1. Vx. and the driver control is calculated — 320 — . Yv. where m is an integer number of intervals within the preview time T. the arbitrary weighting function will be set to unity. the current time is defined as zero. The complexity of the vehicle simulation is largely hidden from the driver model. The meaning here is that index i applied to F. and y target refers to the value at time t=iT/m. the vehicle is described with a simple model having two degrees of freedom. The start time of the simulation is usually set to zero. In the world of the driver model. The algorithm flow is shown in Figure I. Algorithm flow. ψ. Given a target path. described in terms of X and Y coordinates. ψ. Full response target path driver model uc + Full vehicle dynamics simulation Σ + uo . Xv. It moves on a 3D surface following a prescribed path that may be simple or complex. W. The vehicle dynamics simulation is usually a complex nonlinear model involving thousands of calculations and tens of degrees of freedom (DOF). the driver model computes a steering wheel angle given the current state of the vehicle. Vy.

to simulate a wellknown dynamic characteristic of human drivers. there is a unique set of X. and the steer control due to factors outside the driver’s direct control (u o). Table lookup routines are used to provide X. are calculated with the recursive equation: Si = Si–1 + [(Xi – Xi–1) 2 + (Yi – Yi–1) 2] 1/2 (16) This calculation is done when the X and Y values are read as inputs. and 3. station is a spatial independent variable. For station numbers outside the range of the table. For any given value of station. In a road design.) The driver control algorithm can be divided into three types of calculations: 1. A simplification is made in the driver model that the path is composed of straight lines connecting points defined as a sequence of X-Y values. the yaw angle and yaw rate (ψ and ψ˙ ). and Z coordinates. uc. Because the path connecting two points is assumed to be a straight line. and ∂Y/∂S as functions of S at various places in the driver model. from i=2 to Npts . the partial derivatives ∂X/∂S and ∂Y/∂S can be calculated with finite-difference equations: ∂X ∆X i Xi +1 − Xi = = ∂S i ∆Si Si +1 − Si ∂Y ∆Y i Y i +1 − Y i = = ∂S i ∆Si Si +1 − Si (17) The forward-difference form of Equation 17 means that the ith derivative applies for the line segment after the i th point (between points i and i+1). such as superelevation. They are: the X and Y coordinates of the front axle of the vehicle (Xv and Y v). 2. etc. Station The target path is normally provided as a sequence of Npts X and Y coordinates. ∂X/∂S. it delays the driver steering control u c by a constant time τd. Y. As shown in the figure. Y). the driver model requires only seven variables as feedback. The starting value of S is set to match the initial X value: S1 ≡ X 1 (15) Subsequent values. — 321 — . After the calculation. the last values of ∂X/∂S and ∂Y/∂S should be held constant to extrapolate X and Y as needed. There may also be other values associated with that position.Appendix I The CarSimEd Steer Controller to optimize the vehicle response over the preview time T. X. it synthesizes the target path over the preview time. (The term uo usually represents steering due to suspension kinematics and compliance. it calculates the optimal steer u to minimize deviations of the path of a point (the center of the front axle) from a target path and subtracts u o to obtain the steering needed by the driver. each point in the path is represented with three numbers (S. typically a road centerline. Y. Y) instead of two (X. road width. the vehicle-based longitudinal and lateral components of the velocity vector (Vx and Vy). Station (also called station number) is the distance along a reference line. The X-Y values are specified at run time.

At time t=0. In the world of the driver controller. Y ∆S So. m. Geometry used to calculate new station. Xv.i = S + iV x T m (20) where i = 1.. the origin of the X and Y axes coincide with the center of the vehicle front axle. the target position is needed at each point being considered in the summation. The axes are fixed in the inertial reference.2 shows the relationship between the last station number So. it is essential to know the current value of S. The value of S obtained with Equation 18 is the station number of the vehicle at its current position. and the current vehicle location as defined by the coordinates X v and Yv. and the axes are aligned with the longitudinal and lateral axes of the vehicle. assumed within the world of the driver model to be constant . The new station S is S = So + ∆S (18) ∆x ∆y + (Y V − Yo ) ∆s ∆s 2 2  ∆x   ∆y  +  ∆s   ∆s  (19) where ∆S = (X V − Xo ) To calculate the optimal steer control u c with Equation 14. Figure I.. Yo Figure I. and are rotated from the inertial axes by the — 322 — .2. Target Position The controller calculations are made using a special axis system..Appendix I The CarSimEd Steer Controller Because S is treated as the independent variable for determining the current path geometry. X. with corresponding coordinates X o and Yo.3. Yv ∆x/∆s ∆y/∆s ∆y/∆s ∆x/∆s S. The station for a target location is Starg. and Vx is the forward vehicle speed. shown in Figure I. Xo. the vehicle movements will be predicted relative to these axes.

x 2 = Yaw angle of vehicle. ψ. M is the total vehicle mass. and x 4 = Yaw rate. x 3 = Vy. The vehicle speed (Vx) is constant and the vehicle is assumed to be described by four state variables: x 1 = Y coordinate of the vehicle mass center.3. the time is 0. T.Appendix I The CarSimEd Steer Controller vehicle yaw angle. and the target path is known from time zero to the preview time. in the driver model axis system. The target lateral translation in this coordinate system is calculated by first getting the inertial X and Y coordinates of the path as functions of the station at the target location (Starg ). a is the distance from the front axle to the mass center. b is the — 323 — . the lateral component of velocity in the vehicle axis system. The A and B matrices are defined as follows: 0 0  A= 0  0  0 0 0 0 1 0 −(C f + C r ) MV x Cr b − C f a I zz Vx Vx   1 C r b − Cf a  − Vx MV x  2 2 −(C f a + Cr b )   Izz V x 0  0  C  B= f  M C a  f I   zz  (22) where C f and Cr are tire cornering stiffness coefficients for the front and rear axles. Axis system of driver model. and then applying the transformation Ytarg = [Y(Starg ) – Y V] cos(ψ) – [X(Starg ) – X V] sin(ψ) (21) Calculating the Optimal Control Within the world of the driver model. The initial lateral displacement of the vehicle and the initial yaw angle are both zero in the driver model axis system. the vehicle always is located at the origin of the axes shown in Figure I. Yv (inertial coordinates) Predicted path (constant steer) Driver model X axis Figure I. in the driver model axis system.3. Inertial Y Driver model Y axis ψ Inertial X Target path Mass center Origin (front axle) b a Xv.

(The coefficient gi defines the deviation of the vehicle at the end of interval i due to a sustained steer angle of unity. The weighted sum is g i. using Equation 14 and the target location from Equation 21. u c. and gi2 depend only on speed. using Equation 7.3 shows that the initial values of x 1 (lateral coordinate Y) and x2 (yaw angle ψ) are identically zero in the axis system of the driver model.. The values are calculated for i=1. the C matrix is defined as: C = [1 a 0 0] (23) The task performed by the driver model is to calculate a new value of steering angle at the front wheels as the simulation proceeds. For a given speed. Figure I. (Terms can be added for 4-wheel steer. except that the initial conditions for the 2-DOF model are that x4=1 and all other variables are 0. and do not need to be recomputed unless the vehicle speed has changed. The coefficients Fi. and f2i accounts for initial yaw rate (x4).) An extra state variable is added whose derivative is y. Although the internal 2-DOF vehicle model has four state variables.. The free-response coefficients in F i are also used to compute the control response coefficients g i. Its integral at the end of each interval i is multiplied by B3 for the initial condition of x 3 = 1.. for an initial value of x 3 = 1. The free-response coefficients in the array F i define the lateral position of the vehicle at the end of interval i due to non-zero initial conditions. and I zz is the polar moment of inertia of the vehicle in yaw. The coefficient f 1i represents the value of y at the end of interval i. Each time the driver model is called. The solution involves a summation over m intervals (m is presently programmed as 10). is divided by a steering gear ratio to obtain the corresponding angle at the steering wheel. and its integral for the initial x4=1 is multiplied by B 4. u c. The 2-DOF model is then simulated using an Euler integrator from t=0 to t=T.) The output variable of interest is the lateral position of the front axle. The initial values of all state variables except x3 are set to zero and x3 is set to unity. Therefore. The process is repeated to determine the values of f2i. Thus.Appendix I The CarSimEd Steer Controller distance from the rear axle to the mass center. The driver steer angle. Transport Delay The steer angle from the driver. and values of the lateral position are saved at the m locations used in the summation. Previous research has shown the transport delay — 324 — . Equation 14 is used to determine the optimal control steer. it is provided xo and the information needed to determine y targ for each interval. Consider the terms needed to make the calculation. The control u is the steer angle of the front wheels. V x is the forward component of vehicle speed. The steer due to factors other than the driver is provided as uo. the relation between interval i and time is fixed (t=iT/m). applied to the front wheels. the choice of axis systems simplifies the calculations. g i.m using numerical integration. only two coefficients are needed in array Fi: f1i accounts for initial lateral velocity (x 3). is given a pure transport delay to simulate the neuromuscular delay of a human driver. and subtracted from the optimal control to obtain the steer needed by the driver..

and Control. Measurement. C. Vol.C. 3. — 325 — . "An Optimal Preview Control for Linear Systems. 2. No.Appendix I The CarSimEd Steer Controller to be an important parameter in determining the dynamics of the closed-loop manmachine system [1]. and Cybernetics. Vol. Sept. References 1." IEEE Transactions on Systems. June 1981." Journal of Dynamic Systems. 1980. C. MacAdam. Man. MacAdam. 102. ASME. "Application of an Optimal Preview Control for Simulation of ClosedLoop Automobile Driving.C. 11.

The ERD file contains a large table of numbers. and each row corresponds to a value of time. Types of Output Variables The ERD file contains variables that fall into three groups: 1. and z are used to identify directions. which are defined in the ERD file standard as having exactly 8 characters. Names can have up to three parts: 1. Acceleration. (See Appendix C for a full description of the ERD format. angular velocity. The letters s and d are used to identify Spring and Damper forces. x.Appendix J — Model Input and Output Variables The main output of the vehicle solver programs in CarSimEd is a pair of files (extensions = ERD and BIN) with time histories of variables computed during the simulation. or z after the prefix. the two files together are called an ERD file.) The simulation is performed by calculating new values of vehicle variables as functions of simulated time. 2. By convention. Additional variables needed to create animations for viewing vehicle motions. with the component being identified with an x. 3.1. A prefix of first one or more letters to identify the type of variable (Force. 2. etc.) The variables are named using a convention that is summarized in Table J. they are identified by their short names. all variables can be plotted against any other variable. and tire force.). — 326 — . (Shorter names are padded with blanks. Controls and disturbances that are the inputs to the mathematical vehicle model. The ERD file contains components of these vectors. Output variables have short and long names. For example the letters. A following letter further clarifies the type of variable. y. y. where each column corresponds to a different variable. Vehicle variables that characterize its behavior during the run. These include acceleration. Notes: Many quantities of interest are vectors. However. Although the ERD file is organized by discrete time steps. plus other information that is used by the plotter. The values from this file are read by the plotter and animator programs in CarSimEd.

Table J. Therefore 30 variables in the ERD file are needed to produce full animations. As shown in Table J. Suspension compression Tire longitudinal slip Moment component (torque) Tire-road friction coefficient Pressure Pitch angle of rigid body Roll angle of rigid body Rotation angle of wheel about Y axis (similar to pitch.y. however the Rot variables apply to the rolling wheels and have units of revolution. — 327 — . LR. The remaining characters identify the part of the vehicle with which the quantity is associated. y. z x. Z Yaw Example AAy_LF Alpha_LF Avx Ax Beta Fd_LF JounceLF Kappa_LF Mybrk_LF Mu_LF Prk_con Pitch Roll_WLF Rot_WLF Steer_LF Vx_LF X_WLF Yaw_WLF Description Angular acceleration component Tire lateral slip angle Angular velocity component Acceleration component Vehicle lateral slip angle Force component. The most common are LF. or. y. y. Y. for wheels. 3. six independent variables are needed: X-Y-Z coordinates and three rotation angles. Each requires six variables to animate. Pitch and Rot both involve the same conceptual rotation (about a Y axis). Right-Front. rather than degrees.Appendix J Model Input and Output Variables The letters c and t are used for centripital and tangental when used to identify acceleration components. y. Roll. The rotation variables begin with the names Yaw.1. Left-Rear. z X. and RR to identify the four wheels (Left-Front. and Rot. except it involve very large angles) Steer angle Velocity component of a point. the coordinate variables begin with the letters X. z brk x. Naming convention for output variables. For example.s. RF. spin converted to velocity Coordinate of a point Yaw angle of rigid body Animator Variables In order to locate and orient a rigid body in 3D space.1. the car model has five independent moving parts (the body and four wheels). Y. Pitch. z d.x. and Z.z x. and Right-Rear. y. Prefix AA Alpha AV A Beta F Jounce Kappa M Mu P Pitch Roll Rot Steer V 2nd Part x. z x. respectively).

gen-name = Wheel angular acceleration. (N-m). (deg). The text is taken straight from the file Matlab\cmx_mdl\Readme. External brake torque input (RF wheel) INPT(5): INPT_TBRK_LR. OUT(2) "AAy_LR" (rev/s2). These are also listed in the README file. — 328 — . gen-name = Wheel angular acceleration. LR wheel angular acceleration. This information is summarized in a README text file in each folder in the CarSimEd Matlab folder. The following two subsections list the inputs and outputs for the 3D car model. External brake torque input (LF wheel) INPT(4): INPT_TBRK_RF. OUT(3) "AAy_RF" (rev/s2).txt. gen-name = Wheel angular acceleration. the throttle (Throttle). External steering wheel input INPT(2): INPT_RSTEER. (N-m). the SIMULINK versions of the CarSimEd model include a block of input variables. rigibody name = LF wheel. External throttle input 195 Output Variables OUT(1) "AAy_LF" (rev/s2). (deg). External brake torque input (RR wheel) INPT(7): INPT_THROTTLE. it is necessary to know the index number. (N-m). External brake torque input (LR wheel) INPT(6): INPT_TBRK_RR. (N-m). rigibody name = LR wheel. LF wheel angular acceleration. rigibody name = RF wheel. and the brake input (Pbrk_con). 7 Input Variables INPT(1): INPT_STEER. RF wheel angular acceleration.Appendix J Model Input and Output Variables Inputs All vehicle controls that involve the driver are available for plotting: the steering wheel angle (Steer_SW). In order to view the variables from within SIMULINK. (-). Along with the block of output variables. External rear wheel steer angle input INPT(3): INPT_TBRK_LF. Inputs and Output Variables The output variables written into the ERD file are also defined as outputs of the CarSimEd S-Function for use in SIMULINK.

OUT(14) "AVy_RR" (rev/s). gen-name = Slip angle. acceleration. RF wheel angular velocity. gen-name = Slip angle. OUT(19) "Beta" (deg). without lag. gen-name = Slip angle.Appendix J Model Input and Output Variables OUT(4) "AAy_RR" (rev/s2). without lag. without lag. gen-name = Wheel angular velocity. OUT(16) "Ax" (g's). Vehicle vertical acceleration. gen-name = Wheel angular velocity. rigibody name = LR wheel. LR wheel angular velocity. gen-name = Slip angle. LF wheel slip angle. OUT(10) "AVy" (deg/s). OUT(13) "AVy_RF" (rev/s). rigibody name = RR wheel. RR wheel slip angle. RR wheel angular velocity. rigibody name = Vehicle CG. OUT(8) "Alpha_RR" (deg). OUT(18) "Az" (g's). gen-name = Pitch rate. gen-name = Roll rate. OUT(6) "Alpha_LR" (deg). rigibody name = Vehicle CG. gen-name = Lateral acceleration. RF wheel slip angle. — 329 — . rigibody name = LR wheel. OUT(15) "AVz" (deg/s). gen-name = Wheel angular velocity. Vehicle yaw rate. gen-name = Wheel angular acceleration. LF wheel angular velocity. gen-name = Slip angle. rigibody name = Vehicle. rigibody name = RR wheel. Body pitch rate. rigibody name = LF wheel. gen-name = Vertical acceleration. LR wheel slip angle. OUT(5) "Alpha_LF" (deg). rigibody name = Body. gen-name = Longitudinal acceleration. rigibody name = RF wheel. rigibody name = LF wheel. rigibody name = RF wheel. OUT(11) "AVy_LF" (rev/s). without lag. rigibody name = Body. Body roll rate. rigibody name = Vehicle CG. OUT(12) "AVy_LR" (rev/s). Vehicle lateral acceleration. gen-name = Yaw rate. OUT(9) "AVx" (deg/s). gen-name = Wheel angular velocity. Vehicle long. RR wheel angular acceleration. rigibody name = RR wheel. OUT(7) "Alpha_RF" (deg). rigibody name = Vehicle CG. OUT(17) "Ay" (g's). Vehicle slip angle.

gen-name = Tire longitudinal force. OUT(29) "Fx_LR" (N). rigibody name = LR damper. LF tire longitudinal force. rigibody name = LF tire. gen-name = Tire longitudinal force. gen-name = Spring force. gen-name = Tire longitudinal force. gen-name = Tire lateral force. rigibody name = LR spring. RF damping force. rigibody name = LR tire. gen-name = Tire longitudinal force. OUT(32) "Fy_LF" (N). gen-name = Spring force. RR spring force. rigibody name = LR tire. gen-name = Spring force. rigibody name = RR spring. OUT(23) "Fd_RR" (N). rigibody name = RF spring. OUT(33) "Fy_LR" (N). rigibody name = LF damper. OUT(34) "Fy_RF" (N). rigibody name = LF spring. OUT(21) "Fd_LR" (N). RR tire longitudinal force. gen-name = Tire lateral force. — 330 — . OUT(22) "Fd_RF" (N). RR damping force. LF spring force. LR spring force. OUT(26) "Fs_RF" (N). OUT(31) "Fx_RR" (N). gen-name = Damping force.Appendix J Model Input and Output Variables OUT(20) "Fd_LF" (N). LR tire longitudinal force. gen-name = Damping force. rigibody name = RF damper. rigibody name = LF tire. RF tire lateral force. OUT(27) "Fs_RR" (N). LF tire lateral force. RF tire longitudinal force. LF damping force. rigibody name = RR tire. OUT(25) "Fs_LR" (N). gen-name = Tire lateral force. OUT(30) "Fx_RF" (N). LR damping force. OUT(28) "Fx_LF" (N). RF spring force. gen-name = Damping force. gen-name = Damping force. gen-name = Spring force. rigibody name = RR damper. rigibody name = RF tire. LR tire lateral force. rigibody name = RF tire. OUT(24) "Fs_LF" (N).

gen-name = Longitudinal slip. LF brake torque. deflection. RF tire vertical load. rigibody name = LR Wheel. OUT(36) "Fz_LF" (N). deflection. gen-name = Jounce. RF tire longitudinal slip. OUT(42) "JounceRF" (mm). rigibody name = RR tire. OUT(40) "JounceLF" (mm). rigibody name = LF tire. OUT(39) "Fz_RR" (N). LF tire vertical load. rigibody name = LR suspension. deflection. — 331 — . OUT(45) "Kappa_LR" (-). OUT(43) "JounceRR" (mm). RR tire longitudinal slip. OUT(44) "Kappa_LF" (-). rigibody name = RF suspension. rigibody name = RR tire. comp. deflection.Appendix J Model Input and Output Variables OUT(35) "Fy_RR" (N). rigibody name = LF tire. rigibody name = LR tire. LR tire vertical load. LF tire longitudinal slip. gen-name = Jounce. rigibody name = RR tire. gen-name = Jounce. rigibody name = LF Wheel. LR brake torque. RR tire lateral force. rigibody name = LR tire. OUT(46) "Kappa_RF" (-). rigibody name = RF tire. gen-name = Longitudinal slip. OUT(47) "Kappa_RR" (-). gen-name = tire lateral force. comp. gen-name = Brake torque. comp. gen-name = Tire vertical load. gen-name = Tire vertical load. gen-name = Longitudinal slip. OUT(41) "JounceLR" (mm). RF susp. gen-name = Jounce. gen-name = Tire vertical load. OUT(48) "Mybrk_LF" (N-m). RR susp. comp. gen-name = Brake torque. LR tire longitudinal slip. rigibody name = RR suspension. RR tire vertical load. LR susp. gen-name = Tire vertical load. LF susp. rigibody name = LF suspension. OUT(37) "Fz_LR" (N). OUT(38) "Fz_RF" (N). gen-name = Longitudinal slip. OUT(49) "Mybrk_LR" (N-m). rigibody name = RF tire.

OUT(60) "Pbrk_con" (MPa). gen-name = Inclination angle. rigibody name = Body. gen-name = Line pressure. gen-name = Tire aligning moment. rigibody name = LR Wheel. gen-name = Drive torque. RF tire aligning moment. gen-name = Inclination angle. RF brake torque. OUT(57) "Mz_LR" (N-m). rigibody name = LF tire. — 332 — . rigibody name = Body. gen-name = Brake torque. rigibody name = RF tire. gen-name = Inclination angle. rigibody name = RR tire. rigibody name = RF Wheel. OUT(63) "Roll_WLF" (deg). Body pitch. LF wheel inclination angle. OUT(53) "Mydrv_LR" (N-m). Brake control input. OUT(58) "Mz_RF" (N-m). OUT(51) "Mybrk_RR" (N-m). LR ire aligning moment. OUT(54) "Mydrv_RF" (N-m). rigibody name = LR tire. rigibody name = LF wheel. gen-name = Drive torque. RF drive torque. rigibody name = RR Wheel. RR tire aligning moment. RR brake torque. gen-name = Tire aligning moment. OUT(56) "Mz_LF" (N-m). rigibody name = RF wheel. OUT(59) "Mz_RR" (N-m). gen-name = Drive torque. OUT(61) "Pitch" (deg). OUT(65) "Roll_WRF" (deg). OUT(62) "Roll" (deg). LR drive torque. gen-name = Tire aligning moment. RF wheel inclination angle. LR wheel inclination angle. rigibody name = LF Wheel. OUT(52) "Mydrv_LF" (N-m). rigibody name = Control. gen-name = Brake torque. rigibody name = RR Wheel. rigibody name = RF Wheel. RR drive torque. OUT(64) "Roll_WLR" (deg). Body roll. LF drive torque. LF tire aligning moment. OUT(55) "Mydrv_RR" (N-m). gen-name = Tire aligning moment. gen-name = Roll.Appendix J Model Input and Output Variables OUT(50) "Mybrk_RF" (N-m). rigibody name = LR wheel. gen-name = Drive torque. gen-name = Pitch.

rigibody name = LR wheel. OUT(75) "Steer_SW" (deg). gen-name = Effective rolling speed. rigibody name = Control. RF wheel rolling speed. gen-name = Steer angle (at road). Integrated velocity error. gen-name = Input. gen-name = Rotation of wheel. OUT(68) "Rot_WLR" (rev). Rotation of RR wheel. rigibody name = LF wheel. gen-name = Inclination angle. rigibody name = Control. rigibody name = RR wheel. gen-name = Effective rolling speed. LR road wheel steer angle. Throttle input. rigibody name = LR wheel. gen-name = Steer angle (at road). RF road wheel steer angle. OUT(78) "Vx_IErr" (m). rigibody name = LF wheel. LF road wheel steer angle. gen-name = Rotation of wheel. rigibody name = RR wheel. rigibody name = RR wheel. Rotation of LF wheel. OUT(67) "Rot_WLF" (rev). OUT(80) "Vx_LR" (kph). — 333 — . gen-name = Rotation of wheel. gen-name = Steer angle (at road). OUT(74) "Steer_RR" (deg). rigibody name = RF wheel. rigibody name = Control. gen-name = Translation. Rotation of RF wheel. OUT(72) "Steer_LR" (deg).Appendix J Model Input and Output Variables OUT(66) "Roll_WRR" (deg). OUT(71) "Steer_LF" (deg). RR road wheel steer angle. Steering-wheel angle. rigibody name = LR wheel. Vehicle longitudinal velocity. gen-name = Rotation of wheel. rigibody name = Vehicle CG. RR wheel inclination angle. OUT(73) "Steer_RF" (deg). gen-name = Effective rolling speed. OUT(70) "Rot_WRR" (rev). OUT(79) "Vx_LF" (kph). gen-name = Steering-wheel angle. rigibody name = RF wheel. OUT(76) "Throttle" (-). OUT(69) "Rot_WRF" (rev). gen-name = Steer angle (at road). Rotation of LR wheel. LF wheel rolling speed. OUT(81) "Vx_RF" (kph). gen-name = Longitudinal velocity. rigibody name = RF wheel. rigibody name = LF wheel. LR wheel rolling speed. OUT(77) "Vx" (kph).

X coordinate of RR wheel center. OUT(87) "X_WLF" (m). OUT(93) "Yaw_WLR" (deg). OUT(89) "X_WRF" (m).Appendix J Model Input and Output Variables OUT(82) "Vx_RR" (kph). rigibody name = RR wheel. rigibody name = RF wheel. X coordinate of LF wheel center. OUT(85) "Xo" (m). gen-name = Yaw. OUT(86) "X_CG" (m). gen-name = X coordinate of wheel center. OUT(88) "X_WLR" (m). Yaw angle of RR wheel. rigibody name = Vehicle CG. gen-name = X position. gen-name = X coordinate of wheel center. rigibody name = Vehicle CG. OUT(83) "Vy" (kph). gen-name = X coordinate of wheel center. RR wheel rolling speed. X coordinate of RF wheel center. gen-name = Yaw angle of wheel. rigibody name = LR wheel. rigibody name = Car body. Vehicle lateral velocity. gen-name = X position. OUT(96) "Yo" (m). Yaw angle of LF wheel. OUT(84) "Vz" (kph). Vehicle vertical velocity. OUT(90) "X_WRR" (m). X coordinate of LR wheel center. rigibody name = RR wheel. rigibody name = Vehicle CG. Vehicle yaw. gen-name = Yaw angle of wheel. rigibody name = LR wheel. Y position of car origin. OUT(94) "Yaw_WRF" (deg). gen-name = Y position. Yaw angle of RF wheel. gen-name = Yaw angle of wheel. rigibody name = Vehicle. gen-name = Effective rolling speed. gen-name = Lateral velocity. — 334 — . OUT(91) "Yaw" (deg). rigibody name = LF wheel. X position of car origin. rigibody name = RF wheel. rigibody name = RR wheel. rigibody name = Car body. OUT(92) "Yaw_WLF" (deg). X position of vehicle CG. gen-name = Yaw angle of wheel. OUT(95) "Yaw_WRR" (deg). Yaw angle of LR wheel. rigibody name = LF wheel. gen-name = X coordinate of wheel center. gen-name = Vertical velocity.

Y coordinate of RR wheel center. Creating Lists of Outputs A list of output variables can be created from within the software. gen-name = Z coordinate of wheel center. OUT(105) "Z_WLR" (m). rigibody name = LR wheel. OUT(103) "Z_CG" (m). Go to the Runs library. rigibody name = Car body. click the Run button. gen-name = Z position. OUT(101) "Y_WRR" (m). rigibody name = LF wheel. OUT(104) "Z_WLF" (m). gen-name = Y position. you might want to make the list for reference purposes. gen-name = Z coordinate of wheel center. OUT(106) "Z_WRF" (m). Z coordinate of LR wheel center. and find a run involving the vehicle of interest. OUT(99) "Y_WLR" (m). Click the Plot button to bring up WinEP. gen-name = Z position. rigibody name = LR wheel. gen-name = Z coordinate of wheel center. Y coordinate of LR wheel center. If the run has not already been made. rigibody name = RR wheel. Z coordinate of RR wheel center. Z coordinate of RF wheel center. This list is a subset of the information contained in the README files. Z position of car origin. 2. rigibody name = RF wheel. gen-name = Y coordinate of wheel center. rigibody name = Vehicle CG. OUT(107) "Z_WRR" (m). OUT(98) "Y_WLF" (m). OUT(100) "Y_WRF" (m). Y coordinate of RF wheel center. Z position of vehicle CG. rigibody name = Vehicle CG. rigibody name = LF wheel. gen-name = Y coordinate of wheel center. gen-name = Y coordinate of wheel center. 3. To make a list: 1. OUT(102) "Zo" (m). Y position of vehicle CG. rigibody name = RR wheel. gen-name = Y coordinate of wheel center. — 335 — . Y coordinate of LF wheel center. Z coordinate of LF wheel center. rigibody name = RF wheel. If you happen to use a version of CarSimEd that has been customized.Appendix J Model Input and Output Variables OUT(97) "Y_CG" (m). gen-name = Z coordinate of wheel center.

enter a name for the text file and save it in a directory where you can find it later. 6. To save a listing to a file. click the Save button. Click the Save button to create the file. 8. 5.txt. Select the menu item Show Channel List from the View menu. The Windows file browser will then appear. In addition to the list of channels. You will be returned to the WinEP graphics window.Appendix J Model Input and Output Variables 4. The default name is Chans. A list of all channels will appear. — 336 — . Exit WinEP. In the Windows file browseer. the window has two buttons: Cancel and Save. 9. 7.