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PAPER MATERIAL TESTS

LIBRARY OF A POET
1-2.

_____________________August 1990 - August 1991


Experiment date
Location_______
_Waseda University Department of
Architecture School of Science and
Engineering Tokyo, Japan

Performed by.

_Dr. Minoru Tezuka Mr. Kazuo Ito

The specimen (paper tube) was inserted beta


through the plates (Fig.2). This rod was faste
a rectangular timber member with a dial gaui
sure the dimensional changes in length
(Fig.3i rod was refastened to 310kgfcm, then
reran were also measured each time.
Measurement for the period of one year.
S100t=l*5

Steel plate
t-6
/
\
/

Test Report Profile

The purpose of this experiment was to determine the long-term effect of creep of the paper
tubes under a constant axial load. The paper tubes under constant load were left in a room,
and their dimensional changes in length were measured regularly over a period of one year.

Dimensional changes in length were


measured regularly over a period of one year.

FIGURE
Specimen
(mm!

j100 75--""-J"
1-------------- -

2
set

The rod w
fastened at
(29.2kgf/cn
by a torque

The Long-term Behavior of Paper Tubes under


Constant Axial Load

.Test Specimens
1-1.
Five paper tubes with a diameter of 100 mm, a wall thickness of 12.5 mm, and a length of
400 mm were used.
Axial force (=1000 kgf) was determined on the condition that it was less than a third of the
compressive strength of the paper tube, as shown in Table 1.

Compressive strength of the paper


tube was 103.2kgf/cm2.

l-3

Figures 4 shows the changes in temperatire


dimensional changes of the specimens. From I
centage of dimensional change in length is c
/sional changes due to creep are minimal.
100 0 90.0

TABLE 1 Compression test results with Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus measured at Pmax/3.
Specimen

A (cm ')

Ptkef)

6 max (kg/cm )

E (xloVg/cnt )

80.0 h

70.0

a-1
a-2

33.26
33.5

3335
3640

100.3
108.7

1.86

0.192

a-3
a-4
a-5
Averages

33.5
33.2
33.65

3405
3452.5
3405

101.7
104
101.2
103.2

1.88
1.89
1.82
1.86

0.18
0.197
0.187
0.189

gI

50.0

1 S 400 | gj
30.0 i- ^
20.0 10.0
0.0
0

Area of a paper tube (A) A=-^X (1027.5-)= 34.3crr


Axial force (N)

N=

Elastic deformation (aE) AE=


34.3cm X 103.2^ = llg0kgt _^ 10QOkgf

FIGURE 4 Changes of temperature and

50

100

150

1000kgtX4
-=0.0627cm
0cm
34.3cnvX1.86
4
^0.627mm ;
X10 kgf/(
Head of testing machii

Operation of axial force-applied torque


wrench. Its measured value equivalent
to 1000 kgf was 310 kgfcm.

;t!i
50

100

150

2O0

250

FIGURE 5 Dimensional changes in length of paper tube infer kmg*sr~ ma >

FIGURE 1 Measurement of tensile force


in steel rod by testing machine,

A large percentage of dimensions


is caused by relative humidity.

Library of a Poet/Paper House

PAPER HOUSE

Paper Tube Compressive Test


1-3.

Jest Results

Time of Experiment________________________October 14 - November 20, 1991


Location_________________________________Waseda University,
Department of Architecture School of
Science and Engineering Tokyo,Japan

ftrformed by_____________________________Chiba Polytechnic College


Housing Environment Department
Lectureship Dr. Minoru Tezuka
Lectureship Nobumichi Yamada Mr.
Kazuo Ito

Test Report Profile

The paper tubes are used as columns in Paper House. The purpose of this experiment
aas to investigate the short-term strength of the paper tube through a bending test, com pression test, and a single shear strength test (on the lag-screws of the single shear
ood-to-paper connections). Since moisture content has a great influence on paper
sfcengtti, the moisture content of each specimen was measured.

UR
E3

.Paper Tube Compression Test .Paper Tube


Bending Test .Single Shear Strength Test

All paper tubes' outer/inner diameter:

280mm/250mm

Paper Tube Compression Test

.Test Specimens
Failure conditions: Assuming that omax. is the compressive strength, the spedm
showed visible wrinkles at 0.88omax.
In particular, the specimen's ends were markedly warped, as though twisted. WrinM were
also apparent along the spiral winding edges of the machine-rolled paper. The cam of this
phenomenon is linked to the manufacturing process when machine-rolled paper wound
up on a steel core. In this process a space is left between the layers in order I
maintain the prescribed paper tube thickness.
Figure 4 shows load-strain relations. The marked curve represents longitude (negative
value), and the a marked curve represents lateral strain (positive va 1 load-strain relations
of the paper tube resemble those of concrete.
The data summary of the test results is shown in Table 1, with Young's mod Poisson's
ratio based on longitudinal and lateral strains measured at 1/3 com strength. The moisture
content on average was 8.8%.

^t6

Specimen showed visible


wrinkles at 0.88 times the
compressive strength
results: (left) Failure condition, external view, (right) Interna) via*.

R*e paper tubes were provided as specimens for this experiment. All specimens were
accurately measured to obtain their inner diameter, outer diameter, and length. All paper
tebes were 600mm in length and the cross-sectional area of each specimen was 126.0cm\
The specific gravity of the paper tubes ranged from 0.81 to 0.82.
LATERAL STRAIN
LONGITUDINAL
STRAW

Four paper gauges (length=60mm) were bonded to the surface of each tube, as shown
in Figure 1, in order to measure Young's Modulus and Poisson's Ratio.

FIGURE 1 Compression test specimen (mm).

Paper Tube Compression Test

1-2____________________________________Test Procedures
Hie specimen was mounted between a base and a pressure plate on the testing bed. The
tests were made by operating a compressor (REH-200) at loading speed 5-7kg/cm 2/min at

compressive stress.

Machine-rolled paper is wound up on a


steel core with a space in between.
FIGURE 2 Compression test overview.

The average compressive strength of the


paper tube was 113.9kgf/cm2.

FIGURE 4 Compression test results:


Relationship between load and strain.
SPECIMEN NO.C - 1C - 2C - 3C - 4COMPRESSIVE
STRENGTH
oC (Itgf/cm-)
TABLE 1 Compression
test results.
108.1115.4 116.3114.9
AVERAGES 13.9YOUNG'S MODULUS .
12.552.402.342.45 (XlOTgf/cnrtAVERAG
E=2.41POISSON'S RATIO .
10.1130.1550.1500.135 | AVERAGES.
138MOISTURE CONTENT8.38.88.9 9.2
I
8.3 J1*1AVERAGE=8.8

PAPER MATERIAL TESTS

! moisture content has a great influence on the specimen's strength, a small chip i the
center of each specimen was cut and weighed after the test. The chips were dried in a
thermostatic chamber at 105 degrees Celsius for 7 days and were I again. To measure
the moisture content the following formula was used:
W1-W2
XlOO
i Content (%)=
W2
Wl: Weight of the chip after compressive test
W2: Weight of the chip after drying at 105'C for 7days

Paper Tube Bending Test

Jest Specimens
i paper tubes 4 meters in length were used, each having identical diameters, as men-I
previously. The span in the bending test was lengthened in order to minimize the I
deformation of the paper tube at supporting points and loading point.

2-2.

Paper Tube Bending Test

Jest Procedures
I wooden block was put on either side of the tube, 1860mm from the center of the load-;
point. The specimen was stressed by a vertical force (P) at the midpoint of its length.
! 5 shows the detail of the bending test. The loading speed was set out at 3-7kgf/ if/min
at extreme fiber stress. REH-200t was the test machine.
A small chip was cut out to record the moisture content of each specimen in the same way
as the specimens for the compression test.
OOEN LOADING JIG
BLOCK

WOODEN

FIGURE 7 (left) Loading


point at center of span.
FIGURE 8 (right) Bending
test results: Paper tub
(mm)
touching testingDISPLACEMENT
bed at
FIGURE 9 Bending test results: Relationship
between
load and displacement.
span
center.
Bending strength, Young's modulus: The central displacement relation was obtair
the average of 5B1 and 5B2 (between the wooden loading jig and testing bed!
(between the loading plate and testing bed) as shown in Figure 5. The di
between5A and5B is negligible. The value of 5B is more accurate. The range
surement of SB is below the maximum 20mm displacement, therefore the value o
subsequently used.

fb>1.42Xfc
LOADINGKATE/

"

Paper
Tube
Bending Test

.Test Results

FIGURE 5 Bending
test procedure (mm).

TABLE 2 Results
B - 1B - 2B - 3B 4B
of bending tests.
5172.4151.3158.4158.8165.7 a b
Due to partial deformation, Young's
(Kg/cm 2 ) AVERAGE=161.3
modulus was equivalent to 92% of
j2 .18 2.152.262.20 ( X
the
result
obtained
in
the
2
compression test.
10'Kg/cm ) AVERAGE=2.228.68.7 8.5(
%)AVERAGES.9

The bending strength is more than 1.42


times the compressive strength
FIGURE 6 Bending test overview.
Single Shear Strength Test

Jest Report

2-3

In the design of Paper House, the paper tubes act as cantilevered columns in case
earthquakes or strong winds. When this occurs, the connection to the floor at the ba of the
column is subjected to bending moment. The aim of this experiment was to obtain j the
effect of the single shear wood-to-paper connections on the strength of the lag screwX
Failure conditions: Figure 8 shows the paper tube at maximum stress just touching the
testing bed at the span center. The vertical force (P) on the specimen was increased until
it unloaded at this point of maximum stress. In review of the test results however, the
maximum strength under load is at the vertical displacement of 124mm from span center.
Results showed that wrinkles run along the spiral winding edge of the machine-rolled layers of paper. Further, the wrinkles are limited to the upper part of the span center.

Wrinkles are limited to the upper part of the


span center.
3-1.

Jest Specimens

Paper tubes cut into 600mm lengths were used as specimens. Wooden joints of wes
hemlock were connected to the paper tubes by lag screws. Eight 12mm lag (D=12mm)
were used in each specimen. The space between lag screws and from I edge of the

paper tube was 7D. Wax was applied to the points of contact between I paper tube and
the wooden joint.

Lag screws were used in the single shear


wood-to-paper connection.

INDUSTRIAL PLYWOOD JAS FIRST GRADE


(t=12mml

FIGURE 10 Test specimen (mm).

Paper House/Paper Dome.


Single Shear Strength Test

.Test Procedures
TABLE 3 Results of single shear strength test.
J-1
4625

J-2

MAXIMUM LOAD

LOAD AT 2mm OF

1611

1424

SPECIMEN NO.
LAUAN
80mmXS

PLYWOOD

lt.4mml

J - 3
4500

J-4

J-o

AVERAGE=4650

DISPLACEMENT
LAG SCREW PILOT HOLE
8mm DIA. (L=35mm)

MOISTURE CONTENT

AVERAGE=1573
9.4
9.1
AVERAGE=9.2

9.5

OF PAPER TUBE

LAG SCREW PILOT HOLE


12mm DIA. IL=50mm)

1561

1483

8.8

9.3

The single shear strength was

581kgf per lag screw.


MOISTURE CONTENT OF THE
WESTERN HEMLOCK JOINT J-l.
J-2, J-3: 473 kgf/cm;, 20.6% J-4, J5: 454 kgf/cm!. 18.5*

PAPER DOME
Experiment

date.

Location________

July 1997
.Chiba Polytechnic College Housing Environment Department
.Assistant Prof. Dr. Minoru Tezuka

Performed by_
thod followed that of the compressive test. Relative displacement between paper
d wooden joint was assumed to be the same as the displacement between the
bed and loading plate. The loading speed was 1.5-2.5 kg/cnf/min.
Single Shear Strength Test

.Test Results
Test Report Profile

The paper tubes are used as


purpose of this experiment
of the paper tube through a
compression test, bending
test, and compression tests at
different moisture contents,
and to

. ' 1 

arch members in the Paper Dome. The


was to investigate the short-term strength

determine the connection strength through a shear test and bending test.
The paper tubes are manufactured under a constant production process in order to
achieve high strength. Each paper tube is made from recycled paper, rolled at 74.5
degrees in 2mm intervals using a polyvinyl compounded bond. The bond accounts for 710% of the total tube weight. The data in Table 1 is provided by the paper tube manu facturing company.

conditions: Figure 11 shows the deformation of the


tube under low pressure, pre 12 shows the failed
condition of the
specimen. The tube was greatly
deformed at 1 head of the lag screw, as it was no
longer perpendicular to the paper tube with ng
load.

.Paper Tube Compression Test .Paper Tube


Bending Test Compression Test of Paper
Tubes at .Different Moisture Contents
.Connection Shear Strength Test .Connection
Bending Strength Test

DISPLACEMENT
TABLE 1 Mechanical
(mm)
i
14
Loadproperties
of original methodsBasis weight
displacement
ItemsResultsTesting
paper,
relationship.
11
(left) Condition of specimen
tg/niM521IIS P 812-11976Thickness
at the start of the experiment.
(mm)0.728JIS P 8118-1976Bulk
density
12
(middle)
Condition of
specimen
after the experiment.
(g/cnp.)(1.72
Moisture
i%)JIS P 8127
1979Tensile
13MR*
(right) Failed condition of
strength ikgf/cm>>i
the
wooden joint after the
CD"891)JIS P 811.11971;Compressiveexperiment.
strength
M D (kgf/cnr)
CD" 232
142JIS P 8126-1987Stock igt sizing
The outer/inner diameter of all paper tubes:
degreeaction.
(sec.)1545JIS
P 8122
Note:MD'
CD*':Cross
direction.
1976MD"70
-80CD20-25JIS I of
8113
280mm/250mm
:Machii
articles:Method
ng
199S Related
sampling
(JIS P 8110-1965).
paper fo Conditioning of paper and
for test paperboard JIS: Japanese
(JIS
P Industrial Standard.
811]