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Building Structures

Concentrically Braced Frames

Frames

SNI Seismic Provisions for Special Concentrically

Braced Frames

Prepared by:

Djoni Simanta

Frames

Beams, columns and braces arranged to form a

vertical truss. Resist lateral earthquake forces by

truss action.

Develop ductility through inelastic action in braces.

- braces yield in tension

- braces buckle in compression

Braced Frames

Advantages

- high elastic stiffness

Disadvantages

- less ductile than other systems (SMFs, EBFs, BRBFs)

- reduced architectural versatility

Types of CBFs

Single Diagonal

Inverted V- Bracing

X- Bracing

V- Bracing

Frames

SNI Seismic Provisions for Special Concentrically

Braced Frames

(ductile)

(nonductile)

Compression Brace

(previously in tension):

Buckles

(nonductile)

compression): Yields

(ductile)

General Approach

General Approach

forces and deformations imposed by brace

during cyclic yielding/buckling

General Approach

splices and column bases) for maximum

forces imposed by braces

code specified

earthquake forces.

Design all other frame

elements for maximum

forces that can be

developed by braces.

Braces in Compression - Axial Force

P

For design:

Pmax = Py

Take Pmax = Ry Fy Ag

For design:

( Pn = Ag Fcr )

Take Presidual = 0.3 Pn

Pmax

Plastic Hinges

P

Plastic Hinge

P

M

mid-length and at brace ends. Brace will impose bending

moment on connections and adjoining members.

For design:

mid-length only. Brace will impose no bending moment on

connections and adjoining members.

Example

imposed by braces on columns and

beams:

Braces in tension:

Take P = Ry Fy Ag

compression in column.

Tension Braces:

Take P = Ry Fy Ag

Braces in compression:

Compression Braces:

Take P = 0.3 Pn

whichever produces critical design case

Example

Example

Ry Fy Ag

tension in column.

0.3 Pn

Ry Fy Ag

[ (Ry Fy Ag ) cos + (0.3 Pn) cos ] + Pgravity

0.3 Pn

Ry Fy Ag

above column)

Tension Braces:

Take P = Ry Fy Ag

Compression Braces:

Take P = 0.3 Pn

0.3 Pn

Example

Example

Find maximum axial

compression in column.

0.3 Pn

Ry Fy Ag

Tension Brace:

Take P = Ry Fy Ag

Compression Brace:

Take P = 0.3 Pn

0.3 Pn

Ry Fy Ag

[ (Ry Fy Ag ) cos + (0.3 Pn) cos ] - Pgravity

0.3 Pn

above column)

Ry Fy Ag

Example

Example

Find maximum bending

moment in beam.

Tension Brace:

Take P = Ry Fy Ag

0.3 Pn

R y Fy A g

(Ry Fy Ag ) cos + (0.3 Pn) cos + Pgravity

Compression Brace:

Take P = 0.3 Pn

Note

Based on elastic frame analysis:

Column Axial Force = Pgravity

Example

Example

resulting from application of

concentrated load at midspan

of ( Ry Fy Ag + 0.3 Pn ) sin

and add moment due to

gravity load

0.3 Pn

R y Fy A g

( Ry Fy Ag - 0.3 Pn ) sin

Note

Based on elastic frame analysis:

Moment in beam 0

Example

Example

Find maximum axial

tension and compression

that will be applied to

gusset plate.

net section fracture, gusset

block shear fracture, local

beam web yielding, etc.

beam web crippling, etc.

Tension Brace:

Take P = Ry Fy Ag

Compression Brace:

Take P = 1.1 Ry Pn

Ry Fy Ag

1.1 Ry Pn

10

Frames

Basic Behavior of Concentrically Braced Frames

Braced Frames

Section F1

Ordinary Concentrically Braced Frames

(OCBF)

F1.1 Scope

Scope

Basis of Design

Analysis

System Requirements

Members

Connections

11

Section F2

Special Concentrically Braced Frames (SCBF)

Scope

Basis of Design

Analysis

System Requirements

Members

Connections

F2.1 Scope

expected to withstand significant inelastic deformations

when subjected to the forces resulting from the motions

of the design earthquake.

F2.5 Members

Slenderness

KL

E

4

r

Fy

Fy = 36 ksi:

KL/r 114

Fy = 42 ksi:

KL/r 105

Fy = 46 ksi:

KL/r 100

Fy = 50 ksi:

KL/r 96

12

Slenderness

Example

KL

E

4

r

Fy

Exception:

compression strength of

column.

E

KL

200

Braces with: 4

Fy

r

are permitted in frames in which the available

strength of the columns is at least equal to the

maximum load transferred to the column

considering Ry times the nominal strengths of

the brace elements.

Example

All bracing members:

KL

E

4

r

Fy

strength =

Ry Fy Ag

0.3 Pn

+

[(1.2 + 0.2SDS) D + 0.5L]

Ry Fy Ag

Example

E

KL

200

Fy

r

strength =

Ry Fy Ag

0.3 Pn

+

[(1.2 + 0.2SDS) D + 0.5L]

Ry Fy Ag

OR

0.3 Pn

Ry Fy Ag

0 Q E

+

[(1.2 + 0.2SDS) D + 0.5L]

0.3 Pn

Ry Fy Ag

0 Q E

+

[(1.2 + 0.2SDS) D + 0.5L]

0.3 Pn

0.3 Pn

NOT PERMITTED

13

F2.5 Members

Basic Required Strength

Where the effective net area of bracing members is

less than the gross area, the required tensile

strength of the brace, based on a limit state of

fracture of the net section shall be at least Ry Fy Ag of

the bracing member.

brace prior to fracture of net section

Example

gusset plate

double angle bracing member

limit state of net section fracture

14

Pu= Ry Fy Ag

Pu= Ry Fy Ag

Critical Net Section

of brace for limit state of

fracture of the net section

A e = U An

Ae < Ag due to:

bolt hole (An < Ag ), and

shear lag (U < 1)

Pu= Ry Fy Ag

Pu= Ry Fy Ag

Per Section 6.2: use expected tensile strength Rt FU when checking net section

fracture of bracing member, since Ry Fy of the same member is used to

computed the required strength

OR:

Ry Fy

Ae

Ag 0.75 Rt Fu

15

Pu= Ry Fy Ag

Limit state: fracture of net section

Pu= Ry Fy Ag

Ry Fy

Ae

Ag 0.75 Rt Fu

For A36 Angles:

Ae

1.5 36 ksi

1.03

Ag 0.75 1.2 58 ksi

Ae

1.1 50 ksi

1.03

Ag 0.75 1.1 65 ksi

0.6 Anv Rt Fu

0.6 Agv Ry Fy

Example

gusset plate

rectangular HSS bracing

member

of net section fracture

16

Pu= Ry Fy Ag

Required axial tension strength

of brace for limit state of

fracture of the net section

Pu= Ry Fy Ag

Pu= Ry Fy Ag

A e = U An

slot (An < Ag ), and

shear lag (U < 1)

OR:

Ry Fy

Ae

Ag 0.75 Rt Fu

Ae

1.4 46 ksi

1.14

Ag 0.75 1.3 58 ksi

17

L

L

Pu= Ry Fy Ag

Pu= Ry Fy Ag

Pn = (0.75) Ubs Ant Rt Fu + lesser of

Ant 0

0.6 Anv Rt Fu

0.6 Agv Ry Fy

Ant = Agv = 4 L t

0.557 Ag

t

needed based on block shear

rupture in HSS bracing member

Ry Fy = 1.4 x 46 ksi = 64.2 ksi

in opposite directions such that, for either direction

of force parallel to the bracing, at least 30 percent but

not more than 70% of the total horizontal force along

that line is resisted by braces in tension..

18

Width-Thickness Limitations

other half in compression)

Section D1.1.b.

i.e.

compact : ps

OK

Width-Thickness Limitations

Width-Thickness Limitations

plastic hinge

Columns: ps

With high b/t's - local buckling and possibly

fracture may occur at plastic

hinge region

19

Width-Thickness Limitations

Bracing Members: ps

For rectangular HSS (A500 Gr B steel):

b

E

29000 ksi

0.64

0.64

16.1

t

Fy

46 ksi

20

Required Tensile Strength

The required tensile strength of bracing connections (including

beam-to-column connections if part of the bracing system) shall

be the lesser of the following:

Ry Fy Ag

2. The maximum load effect, indicated by analysis that

can be transferred to the brace by the system.

Few practical applications of Item 2.

Note that oQE is NOT an acceptable method to establish

"maximum load effect"

21

through connection

region:

through connection region

Pu = Ry Fy Ag

Pu = Ry Fy Ag

transferred to column.

Vuc + Vub = Pu sin

Vuc

Pu cos

Pu sin

Vub

Pu sin

Pu = Ry Fy Ag

Pu transferred to beam.

connection region:

Pu = Ry Fy Ag

Hub

Pu cos

and welds.

Section 7.2:

"Bolts and welds shall not be

designed to share force in a

joint or the same force

component in a connection."

Huc

Pu sin

through beam and beam to

column connection

Pu cos

through connection

region:

Huc

Vub

through column and beam to

column connection

Pu cos

Pu sin

22

Pu = Ry Fy Ag

method - this connection

violates Section 7.2

Bolts and welds must transfer same

force components.

Required Flexural Strength

The required flexural strength of bracing connections is

1.1 Ry Mp of bracing member.

Pu cos

Pu sin

Plastic Hinges

P

M

1.1 Ry Mp-brace

mid-length and at brace ends. Brace will impose bending

moment on connections and adjoining members.

(for critical buckling direction)

23

Required Flexural Strength

The required flexural strength of bracing connections is

1.1 Ry Mp of bracing member.

Exception:

Brace connections that can accommodate the

inelastic rotations associated with brace postbuckling deformations need not meet this

requirement.

Buckling perpendicular

to gusset plate

line") when the brace

buckles out-of-plane

(thin direction of plate)

Plastic Hinge

mid-length only. Brace will impose no bending moment on

connections and adjoining members.

Must design brace connection to behave like a "pin"

24

2t

2t

2t

25

2t

Styrofoam

26

> 2t

> 2t

>2t

27

Required Compressive Strength

1.1 Ry Pn

be at least 1.1 Ry Pn

Pn = Ag Fcr of bracing member

(per Chapter E of AISC Main Specification)

Check:

- buckling of gusset plate

- web crippling for beam and column

28

Example

F2.4a V-Type and Inverted V-Type Bracing

when compression brace buckles and tension brace

yields.

Take force in tension brace:

Ry Fy Ag

0.3 Pn

Ry Fy Ag

Beam-to-column connections:

simple framing

Assume beam has no vertical support

between columns.

Example

F2.4a V-Type and Inverted V-Type Bracing

Forces acting on beam:

(2) Both flanges of beams must be provided with lateral

braces with a maximum spacing of Lpd

and

wgravity = (1.2 + 0.2 SDS) D + 0.5L

of intersection of the braces.

( Ry Fy Ag + 0.3 Pn ) cos

( Ry Fy Ag - 0.3 Pn ) sin

M

Lpd 0.12 0.076 1

M2

Fy

ry

29

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