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Concentrically Braced Frames

Design of SeismicSeismicResistant Steel


Building Structures
Concentrically Braced Frames

Description and Types of Concentrically Braced


Frames

Basic Behavior of Concentrically Braced Frames


SNI Seismic Provisions for Special Concentrically
Braced Frames

Prepared by:
Djoni Simanta

Concentrically Braced Frames

Description and Types of Concentrically Braced


Frames

Basic Behavior of Concentrically Braced Frames

Concentrically Braced Frames (CBFs)


Beams, columns and braces arranged to form a
vertical truss. Resist lateral earthquake forces by
truss action.
Develop ductility through inelastic action in braces.
- braces yield in tension
- braces buckle in compression

SNI Seismic Provisions for Special Concentrically


Braced Frames

Advantages
- high elastic stiffness
Disadvantages
- less ductile than other systems (SMFs, EBFs, BRBFs)
- reduced architectural versatility

Types of CBFs

Single Diagonal

Inverted V- Bracing

X- Bracing

V- Bracing

Two Story X- Bracing

Concentrically Braced Frames

Inelastic Response of CBFs under Earthquake Loading

Description and Types of Concentrically Braced


Frames

Basic Behavior of Concentrically Braced Frames


SNI Seismic Provisions for Special Concentrically
Braced Frames

Inelastic Response of CBFs under Earthquake Loading

Tension Brace: Yields


(ductile)

Compression Brace: Buckles


(nonductile)

Columns and beams: remain essentially elastic

Inelastic Response of CBFs under Earthquake Loading

Compression Brace
(previously in tension):
Buckles
(nonductile)

Tension Brace (previously in


compression): Yields
(ductile)

Columns and beams: remain essentially elastic

Developing Ductile Behavior in CBFs


General Approach

Developing Ductile Behavior in CBFs


General Approach

Design brace connections for maximum


forces and deformations imposed by brace
during cyclic yielding/buckling

Developing Ductile Behavior in CBFs


General Approach

Design beams and columns (and column


splices and column bases) for maximum
forces imposed by braces

Design braces based on


code specified
earthquake forces.
Design all other frame
elements for maximum
forces that can be
developed by braces.

Maximum Forces Developed by Braces

Maximum Forces Developed by Braces


Braces in Compression - Axial Force

Braces in Tension - Axial Force:

P
For design:

Pmax = Py

Take Pmax = Ry Fy Ag

For design:

Presidual 0.3 Pcr

Take Pmax = 1.1 Ry Pn


( Pn = Ag Fcr )
Take Presidual = 0.3 Pn

Pmax

Maximum Forces Developed by Braces

Maximum Forces Developed by Braces

Braces in Compression - Bending Moment:

Braces in Compression - Bending Moment:

Plastic Hinges

P
Plastic Hinge

P
M

For "fixed" end braces: flexural plastic hinges will form at


mid-length and at brace ends. Brace will impose bending
moment on connections and adjoining members.

For design:

For "pinned" end braces: flexural plastic hinge will form at


mid-length only. Brace will impose no bending moment on
connections and adjoining members.

Take Mmax = 1.1 Ry Fy Zbrace (for critical buckling direction)

Must design brace connection to behave like a "pin"

Maximum Forces in Columns and Beams

Example

To estimate maximum axial forces


imposed by braces on columns and
beams:

Braces in tension:
Take P = Ry Fy Ag

Find maximum axial


compression in column.
Tension Braces:
Take P = Ry Fy Ag

Braces in compression:

Compression Braces:
Take P = 0.3 Pn

Take P = 1.1 Ry Pn or P = 0.3 Pn


whichever produces critical design case

Example

Example

Ry Fy Ag

Find maximum axial


tension in column.

0.3 Pn
Ry Fy Ag

Column Axial Compression =


[ (Ry Fy Ag ) cos + (0.3 Pn) cos ] + Pgravity
0.3 Pn
Ry Fy Ag

(sum brace forces for all levels


above column)

Tension Braces:
Take P = Ry Fy Ag
Compression Braces:
Take P = 0.3 Pn

0.3 Pn

Example

Example
Find maximum axial
compression in column.
0.3 Pn

Ry Fy Ag

Tension Brace:
Take P = Ry Fy Ag
Compression Brace:
Take P = 0.3 Pn

0.3 Pn

Ry Fy Ag

Column Axial Tension =


[ (Ry Fy Ag ) cos + (0.3 Pn) cos ] - Pgravity

0.3 Pn

(sum brace forces for all levels


above column)
Ry Fy Ag

Example

Example
Find maximum bending
moment in beam.
Tension Brace:
Take P = Ry Fy Ag
0.3 Pn

R y Fy A g

Column Axial Compression =


(Ry Fy Ag ) cos + (0.3 Pn) cos + Pgravity

Compression Brace:
Take P = 0.3 Pn

Note
Based on elastic frame analysis:
Column Axial Force = Pgravity

Example

Example

Compute moment in beam


resulting from application of
concentrated load at midspan
of ( Ry Fy Ag + 0.3 Pn ) sin
and add moment due to
gravity load

0.3 Pn

R y Fy A g
( Ry Fy Ag - 0.3 Pn ) sin

Note
Based on elastic frame analysis:
Moment in beam 0

Example

Example
Find maximum axial
tension and compression
that will be applied to
gusset plate.

Check gusset yield, gusset


net section fracture, gusset
block shear fracture, local
beam web yielding, etc.

Check gusset buckling,


beam web crippling, etc.

Tension Brace:
Take P = Ry Fy Ag
Compression Brace:
Take P = 1.1 Ry Pn

Ry Fy Ag

1.1 Ry Pn

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Concentrically Braced Frames

Description and Types of Concentrically Braced

SNI Seismic Provisions

Frames

Section F1 Ordinary Concentrically Braced Frames (OCBF)


Basic Behavior of Concentrically Braced Frames

Section F2 Special Concentrically Braced Frames (SCBF)

SNI Seismic Provisions for Special Concentrically


Braced Frames

Section F1
Ordinary Concentrically Braced Frames
(OCBF)

SNI Steel Seismic Provisions - OCBF


F1.1 Scope

Scope
Basis of Design
Analysis
System Requirements
Members
Connections

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Section F2
Special Concentrically Braced Frames (SCBF)
Scope
Basis of Design
Analysis
System Requirements
Members
Connections

SNI Steel Seismic Provisions - SCBF


F2.1 Scope

Special concentrically braced frames (SCBF) are


expected to withstand significant inelastic deformations
when subjected to the forces resulting from the motions
of the design earthquake.

SNI Steel Seismic Provisions - SCBF

F2.5 Members
Slenderness

Bracing members shall have:

KL
E
4
r
Fy

Fy = 36 ksi:

KL/r 114

Fy = 42 ksi:

KL/r 105

Fy = 46 ksi:

KL/r 100

Fy = 50 ksi:

KL/r 96

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Slenderness

Example

Bracing members shall have:

KL
E
4
r
Fy

Exception:

Find required axial


compression strength of
column.

E
KL

200
Braces with: 4
Fy
r
are permitted in frames in which the available
strength of the columns is at least equal to the
maximum load transferred to the column
considering Ry times the nominal strengths of
the brace elements.

Example
All bracing members:

KL
E
4
r
Fy

Required column axial compression


strength =

Ry Fy Ag

0.3 Pn

[ (Ry Fy Ag ) cos + (0.3 Pn) cos ]


+
[(1.2 + 0.2SDS) D + 0.5L]

Ry Fy Ag

Example

Bracing members with: 4

E
KL

200
Fy
r

Required column axial compression


strength =

Ry Fy Ag

0.3 Pn

[ (Ry Fy Ag ) cos - (0.3 Pn) cos ]


+
[(1.2 + 0.2SDS) D + 0.5L]

Ry Fy Ag

OR
0.3 Pn
Ry Fy Ag

0 Q E
+
[(1.2 + 0.2SDS) D + 0.5L]

0.3 Pn
Ry Fy Ag

0 Q E
+
[(1.2 + 0.2SDS) D + 0.5L]

Note: 0 = 2 for SCBF and OCBF


0.3 Pn

0.3 Pn

NOT PERMITTED

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F2.5 Members
Basic Required Strength
Where the effective net area of bracing members is
less than the gross area, the required tensile
strength of the brace, based on a limit state of
fracture of the net section shall be at least Ry Fy Ag of
the bracing member.

Objective: yield of gross section of


brace prior to fracture of net section

Example
gusset plate
double angle bracing member

Check double angle bracing member for


limit state of net section fracture

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Pu= Ry Fy Ag

Pu= Ry Fy Ag
Critical Net Section

Required axial tension strength


of brace for limit state of
fracture of the net section

A e = U An
Ae < Ag due to:
bolt hole (An < Ag ), and
shear lag (U < 1)

Pu= Ry Fy Ag

Pu= Ry Fy Ag

Limit state: fracture of net section

Limit state: fracture of net section

(0.75) Ae (Rt Fu) Ry Fy Ag

Pn = (0.75) Ae (Rt Fu)

Per Section 6.2: use expected tensile strength Rt FU when checking net section
fracture of bracing member, since Ry Fy of the same member is used to
computed the required strength

OR:

Ry Fy
Ae

Ag 0.75 Rt Fu

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Also check block shear rupture of bracing member....

Pu= Ry Fy Ag
Limit state: fracture of net section

Pu= Ry Fy Ag

Ry Fy
Ae

Ag 0.75 Rt Fu
For A36 Angles:

For A572 Gr. 50 Angles:

Ae
1.5 36 ksi

1.03
Ag 0.75 1.2 58 ksi

Ae
1.1 50 ksi

1.03
Ag 0.75 1.1 65 ksi

Pn = (0.75) Ubs Ant Rt Fu + lesser of

0.6 Anv Rt Fu
0.6 Agv Ry Fy

Need to Reinforce Net Section (Ae need not exceed Ag )

Reinforcing net section of bracing member....

Example

gusset plate
rectangular HSS bracing
member

Check HSS bracing member for limit state


of net section fracture

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Pu= Ry Fy Ag
Required axial tension strength
of brace for limit state of
fracture of the net section

Pu= Ry Fy Ag

Pu= Ry Fy Ag

Critical Net Section

Limit state: fracture of net section

A e = U An

(0.75) Ae (Rt Fu) Ry Fy Ag

Ae < Ag due to:


slot (An < Ag ), and
shear lag (U < 1)

OR:

Ry Fy
Ae

Ag 0.75 Rt Fu

For A500 Gr B rectangular HSS:


Ae
1.4 46 ksi

1.14
Ag 0.75 1.3 58 ksi

Need to Reinforce Net Section (Ae need not exceed Ag )

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Also check block shear rupture of bracing member....


L

Also check block shear rupture of bracing member....


L

t = design wall thickness of HSS

Pu= Ry Fy Ag

t = design wall thickness of HSS

Pu= Ry Fy Ag

Pn = (0.75) ( 4 L t x 0.6 x 64.2 ksi) 1.4 x 46 ksi x Ag


Pn = (0.75) Ubs Ant Rt Fu + lesser of
Ant 0

0.6 Anv Rt Fu
0.6 Agv Ry Fy
Ant = Agv = 4 L t

0.557 Ag
t

= minimum length of welded overlap


needed based on block shear
rupture in HSS bracing member

For A500 Gr B rectangular HSS: Rt Fu = 1.3 x 58 ksi = 75.4 ksi


Ry Fy = 1.4 x 46 ksi = 64.2 ksi

Reinforcing net section of bracing member....

F2.4.4a Lateral Force Distribution

Along any line of bracing, braces shall be deployed


in opposite directions such that, for either direction
of force parallel to the bracing, at least 30 percent but
not more than 70% of the total horizontal force along
that line is resisted by braces in tension..

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F2.4.4a Lateral Force Distribution

Width-Thickness Limitations

Deploy braces so that about half are in tension (and the


other half in compression)

Columns and braces shall meet requirements of


Section D1.1.b.

i.e.

columns and braces must be seismically


compact : ps

All braces in tension (or compression) NG

OK

Width-Thickness Limitations

Width-Thickness Limitations
plastic hinge

Columns: ps

Braces: form plastic hinge during buckling


With high b/t's - local buckling and possibly
fracture may occur at plastic
hinge region

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Width-Thickness Limitations
Bracing Members: ps
For rectangular HSS (A500 Gr B steel):
b
E
29000 ksi
0.64
0.64
16.1
t
Fy
46 ksi

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SNI Steel Seismic Provisions - SCBF

F2.6.c. Required Strength of Bracing Connections


Required Tensile Strength
The required tensile strength of bracing connections (including
beam-to-column connections if part of the bracing system) shall
be the lesser of the following:

Ry Fy Ag

1. Ry Fy Ag of the bracing member.


2. The maximum load effect, indicated by analysis that
can be transferred to the brace by the system.
Few practical applications of Item 2.
Note that oQE is NOT an acceptable method to establish
"maximum load effect"

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Consider load path


through connection
region:

Consider load path


through connection region

Pu = Ry Fy Ag

Pu = Ry Fy Ag

Uniform Force Method Vertical Component of Pu


transferred to column.
Vuc + Vub = Pu sin

Vuc

Pu cos

Pu sin

Vub

Pu sin

Pu = Ry Fy Ag

Uniform Force Method Horizontal Component of


Pu transferred to beam.

Consider load path through


connection region:
Pu = Ry Fy Ag

Hub is transferred directly to beam

Hub
Pu cos

Use caution in use of bolts


and welds.
Section 7.2:
"Bolts and welds shall not be
designed to share force in a
joint or the same force
component in a connection."

Huc + Hub = Pu cos

Huc

Pu sin

Vub is transferred indirectly to column


through beam and beam to
column connection

Pu cos

Consider load path


through connection
region:

Huc

Vuc is transferred directly to column

Vub

Huc is transferred indirectly to beam


through column and beam to
column connection

Pu cos

Pu sin

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SNI Steel Seismic Provisions - SCBF

Pu = Ry Fy Ag

If designed by uniform force


method - this connection
violates Section 7.2
Bolts and welds must transfer same
force components.

F2.6.c. Required Strength of Bracing Connections


Required Flexural Strength
The required flexural strength of bracing connections is
1.1 Ry Mp of bracing member.

Pu cos

Pu sin

Plastic Hinges

P
M

1.1 Ry Mp-brace

For "fixed" end braces: flexural plastic hinges will form at


mid-length and at brace ends. Brace will impose bending
moment on connections and adjoining members.

Mu = 1.1 Ry Mp = 1.1 Ry Fy Zbrace


(for critical buckling direction)

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SNI Steel Seismic Provisions - SCBF

F2.6.c.Required Strength of Bracing Connections


Required Flexural Strength
The required flexural strength of bracing connections is
1.1 Ry Mp of bracing member.
Exception:
Brace connections that can accommodate the
inelastic rotations associated with brace postbuckling deformations need not meet this
requirement.

To accommodate brace end rotation: provide "fold line"

Buckling perpendicular
to gusset plate

Line of rotation ("fold


line") when the brace
buckles out-of-plane
(thin direction of plate)

Plastic Hinge

For "pinned" end braces: flexural plastic hinge will form at


mid-length only. Brace will impose no bending moment on
connections and adjoining members.
Must design brace connection to behave like a "pin"

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2t

2t

Concrete floor slab


2t

25

2t

Concrete floor slab

Styrofoam

26

> 2t

> 2t

>2t

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SNI Steel Seismic Provisions - SCBF

F2.6.c Required Strength of Bracing Connections


Required Compressive Strength

1.1 Ry Pn

The required compressive strength of bracing connections shall


be at least 1.1 Ry Pn
Pn = Ag Fcr of bracing member
(per Chapter E of AISC Main Specification)
Check:
- buckling of gusset plate
- web crippling for beam and column

SNI Steel Seismic Provisions - SCBF

F2.4a V-Type and Inverted V-Type Bracing

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SNI Steel Seismic Provisions - SCBF

Example
F2.4a V-Type and Inverted V-Type Bracing

(1) Design beams for unbalanced load that will occur


when compression brace buckles and tension brace
yields.
Take force in tension brace:

Ry Fy Ag

wgravity = (1.2 + 0.2 SDS) D + 0.5L

0.3 Pn

Ry Fy Ag

Beam-to-column connections:
simple framing

Take force in compression brace: 0.3 Pn


Assume beam has no vertical support
between columns.

SNI Steel Seismic Provisions - SCBF

Example
F2.4a V-Type and Inverted V-Type Bracing
Forces acting on beam:
(2) Both flanges of beams must be provided with lateral
braces with a maximum spacing of Lpd

and
wgravity = (1.2 + 0.2 SDS) D + 0.5L

Both flanges of the beam must be braced at the point


of intersection of the braces.

( Ry Fy Ag + 0.3 Pn ) cos

( Ry Fy Ag - 0.3 Pn ) sin

Per Main AISC Specification (Appendix 1):

M
Lpd 0.12 0.076 1
M2

Fy

ry

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SNI Seismic Provisions - SCBF

F2.4b K-Type Bracing

K-Type Braces are not Permitted for SCBF

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