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Wednesday, 20 June 2012

If some intruder tries to open the door of your house, this circuit sounds an alarm to alert you against the attempted intrusion. The circuit (Fig. 1) uses readily available, low-cost components. For compactness, an alkaline 12V battery is used for powering the unit. Input DC supply is further regulated to a steady DC voltage of 5V by 3-pin regulator IC 7805 (IC2). Assemble the unit on a general-purpose PCB as shown in Fig. 4 and mount the same on the door as shown in Fig. 3. Now mount a piece of mirror on the door frame such that it is exactly aligned with the unit. Pin configurations of IC UM3561 and transistors 2N5777 and BC547 are shown in Fig. Initially, when the door is closed, the infrared (IR) beam transmitted by IR LED1 is reflected (by the mirror) back to phototransistor 2N5777 (T1). The IR beam falling on phototransistor T1 reverse biases npn transistor T2 and IC1 does not get positive supply at its pin 5. As a result, no tone is produced at its output pin 3 and the loudspeaker remains silent. Resistor R1 limits the operating current for the IR LED. When the door isopened, the absence of IR rays at phototransistor T1 forward biases npn transistor T2, which provides supply to positiveIC1. Now 3-sirensound generator IC UM3561 (IC1) gets power via resistor R5. The output of IC1 at pin 3 is amplified by Darlington-pair transistors T3 and T4 to produce the alert tone via the loudspeaker.

Wednesday, 20 June 2012 <a href=Little Door Guard If some intruder tries to open the door of your house, this circuit sounds an alarm to alert you against the attempted intrusion. The circuit (Fig. 1) uses readily available, low-cost components. For compactness, an alkaline 12V battery is used for powering the unit. Input DC supply is further regulated to a steady DC voltage of 5V by 3-pin regulator IC 7805 (IC2). Assemble the unit on a general-purpose PCB as shown in Fig. 4 and mount the same on the door as shown in Fig. 3. Now mount a piece of mirror on the door frame such that it is exactly aligned with the unit. Pin configurations of IC UM3561 and transistors 2N5777 and BC547 are shown in Fig. Initially, when the door is closed, the infrared (IR) beam transmitted by IR LED1 is reflected (by the mirror) back to phototransistor 2N5777 (T1). The IR beam falling on phototransistor T1 reverse biases npn transistor T2 and IC1 does not get positive supply at its pin 5. As a result, no tone is produced at its output pin 3 and the loudspeaker remains silent. Resistor R1 limits the operating current for the IR LED. When the door isopened, the absence of IR rays at phototransistor T1 forward biases npn transistor T2, which provides supply to positiveIC1. Now 3-sirensound generator IC UM3561 (IC1) gets power via resistor R5. The output of IC1 at pin 3 is amplified by Darlington-pair transistors T3 and T4 to produce the alert tone via the loudspeaker. Rotary switch S2 is used to select the three preprogrammed tones of IC1. IC1 produces fire engine, police and ambulance siren sounds when its pin 6 is connected to point F, P or A, respectively Posted by Raj's Thoughts a t 13:33 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Simple Timer for Very Long Periods Simple mechanical timers, which you can buy for a couple of pounds in every home improvement centre, are suitable for switching something on and off one or more times per day. They can be used to control a wide variety of devices, such as lamps inside or outside the house,lighting for bird cages and aquariums, sump pumps, battery chargers, etc. If you need to control something over a longer period than the standard 24 hours, you can use two timers with the second one plugged into the first one (see photos). To determine what you can do with this arrangement, you first need to determine how often the load needs to be switched. For example, if the first timer has 48 tabs the shortest ‘on’ time is 30 minutes in 24 hours. This means that the second timer will run for 30 minutes every 24 hours, so the maximum duration of a full cycle is 48 days. A device such as a charger for diving torches can be connected to the second timer. To prevent the ‘on’ time of the second timer from exceeding 24 hours, it is essential to keep the ‘on’ time of the second timer shorter than that of the first timer. If a maximum cycle time of 48 days is too short, you can also connect a third timer. With three timers, the maximum cycle time is 2304 days (one ‘on’ time in approximately 6.5 years). " id="pdf-obj-0-8" src="pdf-obj-0-8.jpg">

Rotary switch S2 is used to select the three preprogrammed tones of IC1. IC1 produces fire engine, police and ambulance siren sounds when its pin 6 is connected to point F, P or A, respectively Posted by Raj's Thoughts at 13:33 No comments:

Wednesday, 20 June 2012 <a href=Little Door Guard If some intruder tries to open the door of your house, this circuit sounds an alarm to alert you against the attempted intrusion. The circuit (Fig. 1) uses readily available, low-cost components. For compactness, an alkaline 12V battery is used for powering the unit. Input DC supply is further regulated to a steady DC voltage of 5V by 3-pin regulator IC 7805 (IC2). Assemble the unit on a general-purpose PCB as shown in Fig. 4 and mount the same on the door as shown in Fig. 3. Now mount a piece of mirror on the door frame such that it is exactly aligned with the unit. Pin configurations of IC UM3561 and transistors 2N5777 and BC547 are shown in Fig. Initially, when the door is closed, the infrared (IR) beam transmitted by IR LED1 is reflected (by the mirror) back to phototransistor 2N5777 (T1). The IR beam falling on phototransistor T1 reverse biases npn transistor T2 and IC1 does not get positive supply at its pin 5. As a result, no tone is produced at its output pin 3 and the loudspeaker remains silent. Resistor R1 limits the operating current for the IR LED. When the door isopened, the absence of IR rays at phototransistor T1 forward biases npn transistor T2, which provides supply to positiveIC1. Now 3-sirensound generator IC UM3561 (IC1) gets power via resistor R5. The output of IC1 at pin 3 is amplified by Darlington-pair transistors T3 and T4 to produce the alert tone via the loudspeaker. Rotary switch S2 is used to select the three preprogrammed tones of IC1. IC1 produces fire engine, police and ambulance siren sounds when its pin 6 is connected to point F, P or A, respectively Posted by Raj's Thoughts a t 13:33 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Simple Timer for Very Long Periods Simple mechanical timers, which you can buy for a couple of pounds in every home improvement centre, are suitable for switching something on and off one or more times per day. They can be used to control a wide variety of devices, such as lamps inside or outside the house,lighting for bird cages and aquariums, sump pumps, battery chargers, etc. If you need to control something over a longer period than the standard 24 hours, you can use two timers with the second one plugged into the first one (see photos). To determine what you can do with this arrangement, you first need to determine how often the load needs to be switched. For example, if the first timer has 48 tabs the shortest ‘on’ time is 30 minutes in 24 hours. This means that the second timer will run for 30 minutes every 24 hours, so the maximum duration of a full cycle is 48 days. A device such as a charger for diving torches can be connected to the second timer. To prevent the ‘on’ time of the second timer from exceeding 24 hours, it is essential to keep the ‘on’ time of the second timer shorter than that of the first timer. If a maximum cycle time of 48 days is too short, you can also connect a third timer. With three timers, the maximum cycle time is 2304 days (one ‘on’ time in approximately 6.5 years). " id="pdf-obj-0-17" src="pdf-obj-0-17.jpg">

Simple mechanical timers, which you can buy for a couple of pounds in every home improvement centre, are suitable for switching something on and off one or more times per day. They can be used to control a wide variety of devices, such as lamps inside or outside the house,lighting for bird cages and aquariums, sump pumps, battery chargers, etc. If you need to control something over a longer period than the standard 24 hours, you can use two timers with the second one plugged into the first one (see photos). To determine what you can do with this arrangement, you first need to determine how often the load needs to be switched. For example, if the first timer has 48 tabs the shortest ‘on’ time is 30 minutes in 24 hours. This means that the second timer will run for 30 minutes every 24 hours, so the maximum duration of a full cycle is 48 days. A device such as a charger for diving torches can be connected to the second timer. To prevent the ‘on’ time of the second timer from exceeding 24 hours, it is essential to keep the ‘on’ time of the second timer shorter than that of the first timer. If a maximum cycle time of 48 days is too short, you can also connect a third timer. With three timers, the maximum cycle time is 2304 days (one ‘on’ time in approximately 6.5 years).

As you can see from the photos, the second timer may interfere with the tabs ofRaj's Thoughts a t 13:26 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Monday, 18 June 2012 Triangular Wave Oscillator This design resulted from the need for a partial replacement of the well-known 8038 chip, which is no longer in production and there fore hardly obtainable. An existing design for driving an LVDT sensor (Linear Variable Differential Transformer), where the 8038 was used as a variable sine wave oscillator, had to be modernised. It may have been possible to replace the 8038 with an Exar 2206, except that this chip couldn’t be used with the supply voltage used. For this reason we looked for a replacement using standard components, which should always be available. In this circuit two opamps from a TL074 (IC1.A and B) are used to generate a triangular wave, which can be set to a wide range of frequencies using P1. The following differential amplifier using T1 and T2 is configured in such a way that the triangular waveform is converted into a reasonably looking sinusoidal waveform. P2 is used to adjust the distortion to a minimum. The third opamp (IC1.C) is configured as a difference amplifier, which presents the sine wave at its output. This signal is then buffered by the last opamp (IC1.D). Any offset at the output can be nulled using P3. " id="pdf-obj-1-2" src="pdf-obj-1-2.jpg">
As you can see from the photos, the second timer may interfere with the tabs ofRaj's Thoughts a t 13:26 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Monday, 18 June 2012 Triangular Wave Oscillator This design resulted from the need for a partial replacement of the well-known 8038 chip, which is no longer in production and there fore hardly obtainable. An existing design for driving an LVDT sensor (Linear Variable Differential Transformer), where the 8038 was used as a variable sine wave oscillator, had to be modernised. It may have been possible to replace the 8038 with an Exar 2206, except that this chip couldn’t be used with the supply voltage used. For this reason we looked for a replacement using standard components, which should always be available. In this circuit two opamps from a TL074 (IC1.A and B) are used to generate a triangular wave, which can be set to a wide range of frequencies using P1. The following differential amplifier using T1 and T2 is configured in such a way that the triangular waveform is converted into a reasonably looking sinusoidal waveform. P2 is used to adjust the distortion to a minimum. The third opamp (IC1.C) is configured as a difference amplifier, which presents the sine wave at its output. This signal is then buffered by the last opamp (IC1.D). Any offset at the output can be nulled using P3. " id="pdf-obj-1-4" src="pdf-obj-1-4.jpg">

As you can see from the photos, the second timer may interfere with the tabs of the first timer if they are plugged together with one on top of the other. This can be avoided by turning the second timer by 180 degrees relative to the first one. Posted by Raj's Thoughts at 13:26 No comments:

As you can see from the photos, the second timer may interfere with the tabs ofRaj's Thoughts a t 13:26 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Monday, 18 June 2012 Triangular Wave Oscillator This design resulted from the need for a partial replacement of the well-known 8038 chip, which is no longer in production and there fore hardly obtainable. An existing design for driving an LVDT sensor (Linear Variable Differential Transformer), where the 8038 was used as a variable sine wave oscillator, had to be modernised. It may have been possible to replace the 8038 with an Exar 2206, except that this chip couldn’t be used with the supply voltage used. For this reason we looked for a replacement using standard components, which should always be available. In this circuit two opamps from a TL074 (IC1.A and B) are used to generate a triangular wave, which can be set to a wide range of frequencies using P1. The following differential amplifier using T1 and T2 is configured in such a way that the triangular waveform is converted into a reasonably looking sinusoidal waveform. P2 is used to adjust the distortion to a minimum. The third opamp (IC1.C) is configured as a difference amplifier, which presents the sine wave at its output. This signal is then buffered by the last opamp (IC1.D). Any offset at the output can be nulled using P3. " id="pdf-obj-1-13" src="pdf-obj-1-13.jpg">

Monday, 18 June 2012

This design resulted from the need for a partial replacement of the well-known 8038 chip, which is no longer in production and there fore hardly obtainable. An existing design for driving an LVDT sensor (Linear Variable Differential Transformer), where the 8038 was used as a variable sine wave oscillator, had to be modernised. It may have been possible to replace the 8038 with an Exar 2206, except that this chip couldn’t be used with the supply voltage used. For this reason we looked for a replacement using standard components, which should always be available. In this circuit two opamps from a TL074 (IC1.A and B) are used to generate a triangular wave, which can be set to a wide range of frequencies using P1. The following differential amplifier using T1 and T2 is configured in such a way that the triangular waveform is converted into a reasonably looking sinusoidal waveform. P2 is used to adjust the distortion to a minimum.

As you can see from the photos, the second timer may interfere with the tabs ofRaj's Thoughts a t 13:26 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Monday, 18 June 2012 Triangular Wave Oscillator This design resulted from the need for a partial replacement of the well-known 8038 chip, which is no longer in production and there fore hardly obtainable. An existing design for driving an LVDT sensor (Linear Variable Differential Transformer), where the 8038 was used as a variable sine wave oscillator, had to be modernised. It may have been possible to replace the 8038 with an Exar 2206, except that this chip couldn’t be used with the supply voltage used. For this reason we looked for a replacement using standard components, which should always be available. In this circuit two opamps from a TL074 (IC1.A and B) are used to generate a triangular wave, which can be set to a wide range of frequencies using P1. The following differential amplifier using T1 and T2 is configured in such a way that the triangular waveform is converted into a reasonably looking sinusoidal waveform. P2 is used to adjust the distortion to a minimum. The third opamp (IC1.C) is configured as a difference amplifier, which presents the sine wave at its output. This signal is then buffered by the last opamp (IC1.D). Any offset at the output can be nulled using P3. " id="pdf-obj-1-28" src="pdf-obj-1-28.jpg">

The third opamp (IC1.C) is configured as a difference amplifier, which presents the sine wave at its output. This signal is then buffered by the last opamp (IC1.D). Any offset at the output can be nulled using P3.

Posted by <a href=Raj's Thoughts a t 13:24 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Sunday, 17 June 2012 Remote Control Blocker This circuit was designed to block signals from infrared remote controls. This will prove very useful if your children have the tendency to switch channels all the time. It is also effective when your children aren’t permitted to watch TV as a punishment. Putting the TV on standby and put-ting the remote control out of action can be enough in this case. The way in which we do this is very straightforward. Two IR LEDs continuously transmit infrared light with a frequency that can be set between 32 and 41 kHz. Most remote controls work at a frequency of 36 kHz or 38 kHz. The disruption of the remote control occurs as follows. The ‘automatic gain’ of the IR receiver in TVs, CD players, home cinema systems, etc. reduces the gain of the receiver due to the strong signal from the IR LEDs. Any IR signals from a remote control are then too weak to be detected by the receiver. Hence the equipment no longer ‘sees’ the remote control! The oscillator is built around a standard NE555. This drives a buffer stage, which provides the current to the two LEDs. Setting up this circuit is very easy. Point the IR LEDs towards the device that needs its remote control blocked. Then pick up the remote control and try it out. If it still functions you should adjust the frequency of the circuit until the remote control stops working. This circuit is obviously only effective against remote controls that use IR light! Posted by Raj's Thoughts a t 23:05 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post 40 LED Bicycle Light The 555 circuit below is a flashing bicycle light powered with four C,D or AA cells (6 volts). Two sets of 20 LEDs will alternately flash at approximately 4.7 cycles per second using RC values shown (4.7K for R1, 150K for R2 and a 1uF capacitor). Time intervals for the two lamps are about 107 milliseconds (T1, upper LEDs) and 104 milliseconds (T2 lower LEDs). Two transistors are used to provide additional current beyond the 200 mA limit of the 555 timer. A single LED is placed in series with the base of the PNP transistor so that the lower 20 LEDs turn off when the 555 output goes high during the T1 time interval. The high output level of the 555 timer is 1.7 volts less than the supply voltage. Adding the LED increases the forward voltage required for the PNP transistor to about 2.7 volts so that the 1.7 volt difference from supply to the output is insufficient to turn on the transistor. Each LED is supplied with about 20 " id="pdf-obj-2-9" src="pdf-obj-2-9.jpg">

Sunday, 17 June 2012

This circuit was designed to block signals from infrared remote controls. This will prove very useful if your children have the tendency to switch channels all the time. It is also effective when your children aren’t permitted to watch TV as a punishment. Putting the TV on standby and put-ting the remote control out of action can be enough in this case.

The way in which we do this is very straightforward. Two IR LEDs continuously transmit infrared light with a frequency that can be set between 32 and 41 kHz. Most remote controls work at a frequency of 36 kHz or 38 kHz. The disruption of the remote control occurs as follows. The ‘automatic gain’ of the IR receiver in TVs, CD players, home cinema systems, etc. reduces the gain of the receiver due to the strong signal from the IR LEDs. Any IR signals from a remote control are then too weak to be detected by the receiver. Hence the equipment no longer ‘sees’ the remote control! The oscillator is built around a standard NE555. This drives a buffer stage, which provides the current to the two LEDs. Setting up this circuit is very easy. Point the IR LEDs towards the device that needs its remote control blocked. Then pick up the remote control and try it out. If it still functions you should adjust the frequency of the circuit until the remote control stops working.

Posted by <a href=Raj's Thoughts a t 13:24 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Sunday, 17 June 2012 Remote Control Blocker This circuit was designed to block signals from infrared remote controls. This will prove very useful if your children have the tendency to switch channels all the time. It is also effective when your children aren’t permitted to watch TV as a punishment. Putting the TV on standby and put-ting the remote control out of action can be enough in this case. The way in which we do this is very straightforward. Two IR LEDs continuously transmit infrared light with a frequency that can be set between 32 and 41 kHz. Most remote controls work at a frequency of 36 kHz or 38 kHz. The disruption of the remote control occurs as follows. The ‘automatic gain’ of the IR receiver in TVs, CD players, home cinema systems, etc. reduces the gain of the receiver due to the strong signal from the IR LEDs. Any IR signals from a remote control are then too weak to be detected by the receiver. Hence the equipment no longer ‘sees’ the remote control! The oscillator is built around a standard NE555. This drives a buffer stage, which provides the current to the two LEDs. Setting up this circuit is very easy. Point the IR LEDs towards the device that needs its remote control blocked. Then pick up the remote control and try it out. If it still functions you should adjust the frequency of the circuit until the remote control stops working. This circuit is obviously only effective against remote controls that use IR light! Posted by Raj's Thoughts a t 23:05 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post 40 LED Bicycle Light The 555 circuit below is a flashing bicycle light powered with four C,D or AA cells (6 volts). Two sets of 20 LEDs will alternately flash at approximately 4.7 cycles per second using RC values shown (4.7K for R1, 150K for R2 and a 1uF capacitor). Time intervals for the two lamps are about 107 milliseconds (T1, upper LEDs) and 104 milliseconds (T2 lower LEDs). Two transistors are used to provide additional current beyond the 200 mA limit of the 555 timer. A single LED is placed in series with the base of the PNP transistor so that the lower 20 LEDs turn off when the 555 output goes high during the T1 time interval. The high output level of the 555 timer is 1.7 volts less than the supply voltage. Adding the LED increases the forward voltage required for the PNP transistor to about 2.7 volts so that the 1.7 volt difference from supply to the output is insufficient to turn on the transistor. Each LED is supplied with about 20 " id="pdf-obj-2-26" src="pdf-obj-2-26.jpg">

This circuit is obviously only effective against remote controls that use IR light!

Posted by <a href=Raj's Thoughts a t 13:24 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Sunday, 17 June 2012 Remote Control Blocker This circuit was designed to block signals from infrared remote controls. This will prove very useful if your children have the tendency to switch channels all the time. It is also effective when your children aren’t permitted to watch TV as a punishment. Putting the TV on standby and put-ting the remote control out of action can be enough in this case. The way in which we do this is very straightforward. Two IR LEDs continuously transmit infrared light with a frequency that can be set between 32 and 41 kHz. Most remote controls work at a frequency of 36 kHz or 38 kHz. The disruption of the remote control occurs as follows. The ‘automatic gain’ of the IR receiver in TVs, CD players, home cinema systems, etc. reduces the gain of the receiver due to the strong signal from the IR LEDs. Any IR signals from a remote control are then too weak to be detected by the receiver. Hence the equipment no longer ‘sees’ the remote control! The oscillator is built around a standard NE555. This drives a buffer stage, which provides the current to the two LEDs. Setting up this circuit is very easy. Point the IR LEDs towards the device that needs its remote control blocked. Then pick up the remote control and try it out. If it still functions you should adjust the frequency of the circuit until the remote control stops working. This circuit is obviously only effective against remote controls that use IR light! Posted by Raj's Thoughts a t 23:05 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post 40 LED Bicycle Light The 555 circuit below is a flashing bicycle light powered with four C,D or AA cells (6 volts). Two sets of 20 LEDs will alternately flash at approximately 4.7 cycles per second using RC values shown (4.7K for R1, 150K for R2 and a 1uF capacitor). Time intervals for the two lamps are about 107 milliseconds (T1, upper LEDs) and 104 milliseconds (T2 lower LEDs). Two transistors are used to provide additional current beyond the 200 mA limit of the 555 timer. A single LED is placed in series with the base of the PNP transistor so that the lower 20 LEDs turn off when the 555 output goes high during the T1 time interval. The high output level of the 555 timer is 1.7 volts less than the supply voltage. Adding the LED increases the forward voltage required for the PNP transistor to about 2.7 volts so that the 1.7 volt difference from supply to the output is insufficient to turn on the transistor. Each LED is supplied with about 20 " id="pdf-obj-2-37" src="pdf-obj-2-37.jpg">

The 555 circuit below is a flashing bicycle light powered with four C,D or AA cells (6 volts). Two sets of 20 LEDs will alternately flash at approximately 4.7 cycles per second using RC values shown (4.7K for R1, 150K for R2 and a 1uF capacitor). Time intervals for the two lamps are about 107 milliseconds (T1, upper LEDs) and 104 milliseconds (T2 lower LEDs). Two transistors are used to provide additional current beyond the 200 mA limit of the 555 timer.

Posted by <a href=Raj's Thoughts a t 13:24 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Sunday, 17 June 2012 Remote Control Blocker This circuit was designed to block signals from infrared remote controls. This will prove very useful if your children have the tendency to switch channels all the time. It is also effective when your children aren’t permitted to watch TV as a punishment. Putting the TV on standby and put-ting the remote control out of action can be enough in this case. The way in which we do this is very straightforward. Two IR LEDs continuously transmit infrared light with a frequency that can be set between 32 and 41 kHz. Most remote controls work at a frequency of 36 kHz or 38 kHz. The disruption of the remote control occurs as follows. The ‘automatic gain’ of the IR receiver in TVs, CD players, home cinema systems, etc. reduces the gain of the receiver due to the strong signal from the IR LEDs. Any IR signals from a remote control are then too weak to be detected by the receiver. Hence the equipment no longer ‘sees’ the remote control! The oscillator is built around a standard NE555. This drives a buffer stage, which provides the current to the two LEDs. Setting up this circuit is very easy. Point the IR LEDs towards the device that needs its remote control blocked. Then pick up the remote control and try it out. If it still functions you should adjust the frequency of the circuit until the remote control stops working. This circuit is obviously only effective against remote controls that use IR light! Posted by Raj's Thoughts a t 23:05 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post 40 LED Bicycle Light The 555 circuit below is a flashing bicycle light powered with four C,D or AA cells (6 volts). Two sets of 20 LEDs will alternately flash at approximately 4.7 cycles per second using RC values shown (4.7K for R1, 150K for R2 and a 1uF capacitor). Time intervals for the two lamps are about 107 milliseconds (T1, upper LEDs) and 104 milliseconds (T2 lower LEDs). Two transistors are used to provide additional current beyond the 200 mA limit of the 555 timer. A single LED is placed in series with the base of the PNP transistor so that the lower 20 LEDs turn off when the 555 output goes high during the T1 time interval. The high output level of the 555 timer is 1.7 volts less than the supply voltage. Adding the LED increases the forward voltage required for the PNP transistor to about 2.7 volts so that the 1.7 volt difference from supply to the output is insufficient to turn on the transistor. Each LED is supplied with about 20 " id="pdf-obj-2-50" src="pdf-obj-2-50.jpg">

A single LED is placed in series with the base of the PNP transistor so that the lower 20 LEDs turn off when the 555 output goes high during the T1 time interval. The high output level of the 555 timer is 1.7 volts less than the supply voltage. Adding the LED increases the forward voltage required for the PNP transistor to about 2.7 volts so that the 1.7 volt difference from supply to the output is insufficient to turn on the transistor. Each LED is supplied with about 20

mA of current for a total of 220 mA. The circuit should work with additional LEDs up to about 40 for each group, or 81 total. The circuit will also work with fewer LEDs so it could be assembled and tested with just 5 LEDs (two groups of two plus one) before adding the others.

mA of current for a total of 220 mA. The circuit should work with additional LEDsRaj's Thoughts a t 23:00 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Friday, 15 June 2012 RGB Solar Lamp This deluxe solar-powered light uses a battery and solar cells salvaged from a solar lamp with a four-cell battery (4.8 V nominal terminal voltage). The circuit can operate from any DC voltage around this value and its current consumption, at 20 mA, is low. This means that the battery can give up to five days of operation. The circuit consists of an Atmel ATtiny microcontroller which drives a red, a green and a blue LED directly from three port pins. Series resistors are of course included to limit the LED current. The microcontroller drives the LEDs in sequence to produce an RGB running light effect. The microcontroller is also responsible for ensuring that the light automatically switches on when it gets dark and off when it is light. The light sensor is made from one of the solar cells from a bro-ken solar lamp (it is more common for the battery to fail rather than the solar cells). Posted by Raj's Thoughts a t 14:41 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Unique Water Pump Controller Here is a simple solution for automatic pumping of water to the overhead tank. Unlike other water-level indicators, it does not use probes to detect the water level and hence there is no probe corrosion problem. It has no direct contact with water, so the chance of accidental leakage of electricity to the water tank is also eliminated. Two important advantages of the circuit are that the water level never goes below a particular level and no modification in the water tank is required. Fig. shows the circuit of the water-pump controller. The circuit uses an LDR-white LEDs assembly to sense the water level. It forms a triggering switch to energise the relay for controlling the pump. The LDR-LEDs assembly (shown in Fig. 2) is fixed on the inner side of the cap of the water tank without making contact with water. The light reflected from the water tank is used to control the resistance of LDR1. When the water level is high enough, light from the white LEDs (LED1 through LED3) reflects to fall on LDR1. This reduces the resistance of LDR1, increasing the voltage at the non-inverting input (pin 3) of IC1. IC1 is used in the circuit as a voltage comparator. Resistors R4 and R5 form a potential divider to fix half of supply voltage to the inverting input of IC1. Normally, when the water tank is full, LDR1 gets more of reflected light because the distance between the water level and the face of LDR1 is minimal. When white light falls on LDR1, the voltage at the non-inverting input (pin 3) of IC1 increases and its output goes high. This high output makes pnp transistor T1 non-conducting and the relay remains de-energised. LED1 also remains ‘off.’ Since the water-pump power supply is connected to the normally-open (N/O) contacts of relay RL1, pumping is stopped. " id="pdf-obj-3-11" src="pdf-obj-3-11.jpg">

Friday, 15 June 2012

This deluxe solar-powered light uses a battery and solar cells salvaged from a solar lamp with a four-cell battery (4.8 V nominal terminal voltage).

mA of current for a total of 220 mA. The circuit should work with additional LEDsRaj's Thoughts a t 23:00 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Friday, 15 June 2012 RGB Solar Lamp This deluxe solar-powered light uses a battery and solar cells salvaged from a solar lamp with a four-cell battery (4.8 V nominal terminal voltage). The circuit can operate from any DC voltage around this value and its current consumption, at 20 mA, is low. This means that the battery can give up to five days of operation. The circuit consists of an Atmel ATtiny microcontroller which drives a red, a green and a blue LED directly from three port pins. Series resistors are of course included to limit the LED current. The microcontroller drives the LEDs in sequence to produce an RGB running light effect. The microcontroller is also responsible for ensuring that the light automatically switches on when it gets dark and off when it is light. The light sensor is made from one of the solar cells from a bro-ken solar lamp (it is more common for the battery to fail rather than the solar cells). Posted by Raj's Thoughts a t 14:41 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Unique Water Pump Controller Here is a simple solution for automatic pumping of water to the overhead tank. Unlike other water-level indicators, it does not use probes to detect the water level and hence there is no probe corrosion problem. It has no direct contact with water, so the chance of accidental leakage of electricity to the water tank is also eliminated. Two important advantages of the circuit are that the water level never goes below a particular level and no modification in the water tank is required. Fig. shows the circuit of the water-pump controller. The circuit uses an LDR-white LEDs assembly to sense the water level. It forms a triggering switch to energise the relay for controlling the pump. The LDR-LEDs assembly (shown in Fig. 2) is fixed on the inner side of the cap of the water tank without making contact with water. The light reflected from the water tank is used to control the resistance of LDR1. When the water level is high enough, light from the white LEDs (LED1 through LED3) reflects to fall on LDR1. This reduces the resistance of LDR1, increasing the voltage at the non-inverting input (pin 3) of IC1. IC1 is used in the circuit as a voltage comparator. Resistors R4 and R5 form a potential divider to fix half of supply voltage to the inverting input of IC1. Normally, when the water tank is full, LDR1 gets more of reflected light because the distance between the water level and the face of LDR1 is minimal. When white light falls on LDR1, the voltage at the non-inverting input (pin 3) of IC1 increases and its output goes high. This high output makes pnp transistor T1 non-conducting and the relay remains de-energised. LED1 also remains ‘off.’ Since the water-pump power supply is connected to the normally-open (N/O) contacts of relay RL1, pumping is stopped. " id="pdf-obj-3-26" src="pdf-obj-3-26.jpg">

The circuit can operate from any DC voltage around this value and its current consumption, at 20 mA, is low. This means that the battery can give up to five days of operation. The circuit consists of an Atmel ATtiny microcontroller which drives a red, a green and a blue LED directly from three port pins. Series resistors are of course included to limit the LED current. The microcontroller drives the LEDs in sequence to produce an RGB running light effect. The microcontroller is also responsible for ensuring that the light automatically switches on when it gets dark and off when it is light. The light sensor is made from one of the solar cells from a bro-ken solar lamp (it is more common for the battery to fail rather than the solar cells).

mA of current for a total of 220 mA. The circuit should work with additional LEDsRaj's Thoughts a t 23:00 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Friday, 15 June 2012 RGB Solar Lamp This deluxe solar-powered light uses a battery and solar cells salvaged from a solar lamp with a four-cell battery (4.8 V nominal terminal voltage). The circuit can operate from any DC voltage around this value and its current consumption, at 20 mA, is low. This means that the battery can give up to five days of operation. The circuit consists of an Atmel ATtiny microcontroller which drives a red, a green and a blue LED directly from three port pins. Series resistors are of course included to limit the LED current. The microcontroller drives the LEDs in sequence to produce an RGB running light effect. The microcontroller is also responsible for ensuring that the light automatically switches on when it gets dark and off when it is light. The light sensor is made from one of the solar cells from a bro-ken solar lamp (it is more common for the battery to fail rather than the solar cells). Posted by Raj's Thoughts a t 14:41 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Unique Water Pump Controller Here is a simple solution for automatic pumping of water to the overhead tank. Unlike other water-level indicators, it does not use probes to detect the water level and hence there is no probe corrosion problem. It has no direct contact with water, so the chance of accidental leakage of electricity to the water tank is also eliminated. Two important advantages of the circuit are that the water level never goes below a particular level and no modification in the water tank is required. Fig. shows the circuit of the water-pump controller. The circuit uses an LDR-white LEDs assembly to sense the water level. It forms a triggering switch to energise the relay for controlling the pump. The LDR-LEDs assembly (shown in Fig. 2) is fixed on the inner side of the cap of the water tank without making contact with water. The light reflected from the water tank is used to control the resistance of LDR1. When the water level is high enough, light from the white LEDs (LED1 through LED3) reflects to fall on LDR1. This reduces the resistance of LDR1, increasing the voltage at the non-inverting input (pin 3) of IC1. IC1 is used in the circuit as a voltage comparator. Resistors R4 and R5 form a potential divider to fix half of supply voltage to the inverting input of IC1. Normally, when the water tank is full, LDR1 gets more of reflected light because the distance between the water level and the face of LDR1 is minimal. When white light falls on LDR1, the voltage at the non-inverting input (pin 3) of IC1 increases and its output goes high. This high output makes pnp transistor T1 non-conducting and the relay remains de-energised. LED1 also remains ‘off.’ Since the water-pump power supply is connected to the normally-open (N/O) contacts of relay RL1, pumping is stopped. " id="pdf-obj-3-37" src="pdf-obj-3-37.jpg">

Here is a simple solution for automatic pumping of water to the overhead tank. Unlike other water-level indicators, it does not use probes to detect the water level and hence there is no probe corrosion problem. It has no direct contact with water, so the chance of accidental leakage of electricity to the water tank is also eliminated. Two important advantages of the circuit are that the water level never goes below a particular level and no modification in the water tank is required. Fig. shows the circuit of the water-pump controller. The circuit uses an LDR-white LEDs assembly to sense the water level. It forms a triggering switch to energise the relay for controlling the pump. The LDR-LEDs assembly (shown in Fig. 2) is fixed on the inner side of the cap of the water tank without making contact with water. The light reflected from the water tank is used to control the resistance of LDR1.

When the water level is high enough, light from the white LEDs (LED1 through LED3) reflects to fall on LDR1. This reduces the resistance of LDR1, increasing the voltage at the non-inverting input (pin 3) of IC1. IC1 is used in the circuit as a voltage comparator. Resistors R4 and R5 form a potential divider to fix half of supply voltage to the inverting input of IC1. Normally, when the water tank is full, LDR1 gets more of reflected light because the distance between the water level and the face of LDR1 is minimal. When white light falls on LDR1, the voltage at the non-inverting input (pin 3) of IC1 increases and its output goes high. This high output makes pnp transistor T1 non-conducting and the relay remains de-energised. LED1 also remains ‘off.’ Since the water-pump power supply is connected to the normally-open (N/O) contacts of relay RL1, pumping is stopped.

When water level falls, the amount of light reflected to LDR1 decreases and its resistance increases. This reduces the voltage at pin 3 of IC1 and its output goes low. This low output from IC1 makes transistor T1 conduct. Relay RL1 energises to close the N/O contacts and the motor starts pumping water. LED1 glows to indicate the pumping of water.

Assemble the circuit on a general-purpose PCB and enclose in a suitable cabinet. Solder the white LEDs- LDR1 assembly on a separate PCB and use a separate power supply for it. Mount LEDs behind the LDR. Otherwise, light from the LEDs will affect the working of the circuit. Connect LDR1 to the main circuit board at ‘A’ and ‘B’ points. Fix the LEDs-LDR1 assembly on the inner side of the water-tank cap as shown in Fig. 3. Orient the LEDs and the LDR such that when the water tank is full, the light emitted from the LEDs and reflected from the water surface falls directly on LDR1. The distance between the upper level of water and the LEDs-LDR setup should be minimal, ensuring that water doesn’t touch LDR1. Otherwise, the circuit will not function properly. By using more white LEDs, this distance can be increased. Cover the LDR with a black tube to increase its sensitivity.

When water level falls, the amount of light reflected to LDR1 decreases and its resistance increases.Raj's Thoughts a t 12:05 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post A Simple Solar Cell Power System A solar cell power system can be built using this electronic scheme. This electronic circuit is composed of three parts: a diode, solar cell panel and a rechargeable battery. Diode prevents battery discharge through the solar panel in the absence of sunlight or low light. Although diode is usually Schottky type, the direct voltage it can produce a considerable energy loss. Circuit uses a specials diode with low direct voltage. " id="pdf-obj-4-6" src="pdf-obj-4-6.jpg">

You can fix the main unit at a convenient place and connect it to the LEDs-LDR assembly through wire. Select the relay according to the horse-power (HP) of the water pump. After arranging the setup (with maximum water in the tank), adjust VR1 until LED1 stops glowing. In this state, the relay should de- energise. When the water level decreases, the relay automatically energises to connect mains to the motor and it starts pumping water.

When water level falls, the amount of light reflected to LDR1 decreases and its resistance increases.Raj's Thoughts a t 12:05 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post A Simple Solar Cell Power System A solar cell power system can be built using this electronic scheme. This electronic circuit is composed of three parts: a diode, solar cell panel and a rechargeable battery. Diode prevents battery discharge through the solar panel in the absence of sunlight or low light. Although diode is usually Schottky type, the direct voltage it can produce a considerable energy loss. Circuit uses a specials diode with low direct voltage. " id="pdf-obj-4-17" src="pdf-obj-4-17.jpg">

A solar cell power system can be built using this electronic scheme. This electronic circuit is composed of three parts: a diode, solar cell panel and a rechargeable battery. Diode prevents battery discharge through the solar panel in the absence of sunlight or low light. Although diode is usually Schottky type, the direct voltage it can produce a considerable energy loss. Circuit uses a specials diode with low direct voltage.

To adjust the circuit, replace solar panel with adjustable stabilized voltage source, with current limiter setRaj's Thoughts a t 11:57 1 comment: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Wednesday, 13 June 2012 detail about 8051 microcontroller About the 8051 The Intel 8051 is an 8-bit microcontroller which means that most available operations are limited to 8 bits. There are 3 basic "sizes" of the 8051: Short, Standard, and Extended. The Short and Standard chips are often available in DIP (dual in-line package) form, but the Extended 8051 models often have a different form factor, and are not "drop-in compatible". All these things are called 8051 because they can all be programmed using 8051 assembly language, and they all share certain features (although the different models all have their own special features). Some of the features that have made the 8051 popular are:  4 KB on chip program memory.  128 bytes on chip data memory(RAM).  4 reg banks.  128 user defined software flags.  8-bit data bus  16-bit address bus  32 general purpose registers each of 8 bits " id="pdf-obj-5-2" src="pdf-obj-5-2.jpg">

To adjust the circuit, replace solar panel with adjustable stabilized voltage source, with current limiter set at a level which is not dangerous to the battery. Adjust power supply output at a level higher than 0.1 V than battery voltage. Then, adjust P1 until the point where IC1's output went into logical "1". Finally, with an ammeter if the battery is discharged when the source voltage is below the current battery voltage.

To adjust the circuit, replace solar panel with adjustable stabilized voltage source, with current limiter setRaj's Thoughts a t 11:57 1 comment: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Wednesday, 13 June 2012 detail about 8051 microcontroller About the 8051 The Intel 8051 is an 8-bit microcontroller which means that most available operations are limited to 8 bits. There are 3 basic "sizes" of the 8051: Short, Standard, and Extended. The Short and Standard chips are often available in DIP (dual in-line package) form, but the Extended 8051 models often have a different form factor, and are not "drop-in compatible". All these things are called 8051 because they can all be programmed using 8051 assembly language, and they all share certain features (although the different models all have their own special features). Some of the features that have made the 8051 popular are:  4 KB on chip program memory.  128 bytes on chip data memory(RAM).  4 reg banks.  128 user defined software flags.  8-bit data bus  16-bit address bus  32 general purpose registers each of 8 bits " id="pdf-obj-5-13" src="pdf-obj-5-13.jpg">

Wednesday, 13 June 2012

About the 8051

The Intel 8051 is an 8-bit microcontroller which means that most available operations are limited to 8 bits. There are 3 basic "sizes" of the 8051: Short, Standard, and Extended. The Short and Standard chips are often available in DIP (dual in-line package) form, but the Extended 8051 models often have a different form factor, and are not "drop-in compatible". All these things are called 8051 because they can all be programmed using 8051 assembly language, and they all share certain features (although the different models all have their own special features). Some of the features that have made the 8051 popular are:

4 KB on chip program memory.

128 bytes on chip data memory(RAM).

4 reg banks.

128 user defined software flags.

8-bit data bus

16-bit address bus

32 general purpose registers each of 8 bits

16 bit timers (usually 2, but may have more, or less).

3 internal and 2 external interrupts.

Bit as well as byte addressable RAM area of 16 bytes.

Four 8-bit ports, (short models have two 8-bit ports).

16-bit program counter and data pointer.

1 Microsecond instruction cycle with 12 MHz Crystal.

  • 8051 models may also have a number of special, model-specific features, such as UARTs, ADC, OpAmps,

etc ..

Typical applications

  • 8051 chips are used in a wide variety of control systems, telecom applications, robotics as well as in the

automotive industry. By some estimations, 8051 family chips make up over 50% of the embedded chip

market.

Basic Pins

PIN 9: PIN 9 is the reset pin which is used to reset the microcontroller’s internal registers and ports upon starting up. (Pin should be held high for 2 machine cycles.) PINS 18 & 19: The 8051 has a built-in oscillator amplifier hence we need to only connect a crystal at these pins to provide clock pulses to the circuit. PIN 40 and 20: Pins 40 and 20 are VCC and ground respectively. The 8051 chip needs +5V 500mA to function properly, although there are lower powered versions like the Atmel 2051 which is a scaled down version of the 8051 which runs on +3V. PINS 29, 30 & 31: As described in the features of the 8051, this chip contains a built-in flash memory. In order to program this we need to supply a voltage of +12V at pin 31. If external memory is connected then PIN 31, also called EA/VPP, should be connected to ground to indicate the presence of external memory. PIN 30 is called ALE (address latch enable), which is used when multiple memory chips are connected to the controller and only one of them needs to be selected.We will deal with this in depth in the later chapters. PIN 29 is called PSEN. This is "program store enable". In order to use the external memory it is required to provide the low voltage (0) on both PSEN and EA pins.

Ports

There are 4 8-bit ports: P0, P1, P2 and P3. PORT P1 (Pins 1 to 8): The port P1 is a general purpose input/output port which can be used for a variety of interfacing tasks. The other ports P0, P2 and P3 have dual roles or additional functions associated with them based upon the context of their usage.The port 1 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to portn1 pins are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. PORT P3 (Pins 10 to 17): PORT P3 acts as a normal IO port, but Port P3 has additional functions such as, serial transmit and receive pins, 2 external interrupt pins, 2 external counter inputs, read and write pins for

memory access. PORT P2 (pins 21 to 28): PORT P2 can also be used as a general purpose 8 bit port when no external memory is present, but if external memory access is required then PORT P2 will act as an address bus in conjunction with PORT P0 to access external memory. PORT P2 acts as A8-A15, as can be seen from fig 1.1 PORT P0 (pins 32 to 39) PORT P0 can be used as a general purpose 8 bit port when no external memory is present, but if external memory access is required then PORT P0 acts as a multiplexed address and data bus that can be used to access external memory in conjunction with PORT P2. P0 acts as AD0-AD7, as can be seen from fig 1.1 PORT P10: asynchronous communication input or Serial synchronous communication output.

Oscillator Circuits

The 8051 requires an external oscillator circuit. The oscillator circuit usually runs around 12MHz, although the 8051 (depending on which specific model) is capable of running at a maximum of 40MHz. Each machine cycle in the 8051 is 12 clock cycles, giving an effective cycle rate at 1MHz (for a 12MHz clock) to 3.33MHz (for the maximum 40MHz clock). The oscillator circuit generates the clock pulses so that all internal operations are synchronized.

Data and Program Memory

The 8051 Microcontroller can be programmed in PL/M, 8051 Assembly, C and a number of other high-level languages. Many compilers even have support for compiling C++ for an 8051. Program memory in the 8051 is read-only, while the data memory is considered to be read/write accessible. When stored on EEPROM or Flash, the program memory can be rewritten when the microcontroller is in the special programmer circuit.

Program Start Address

The 8051 starts executing program instructions from address 0000 in the program memory. The A register is located in the SFR memory location 0xE0. The A register works in a similar fashion to the AX register of x86 processors. The A register is called the accumulator, and by default it receives the result of all arithmetic operations.

Special Function Register

The Special Function Register (SFR) is the upper area of addressable memory, from address 0x80 to 0xFF.

A, B, PSW, DPTR are called SFR.This area of memory cannot be used for data or program storage, but is instead a series of memory-mapped ports and registers. All port input and output can therefore be performed by memory mov operations on specified addresses in the SFR. Also, different status registers are mapped into the SFR, for use in checking the status of the 8051, and changing some operational parameters of the

8051.

General Purpose Registers

The 8051 has 4 selectable banks of 8 addressable 8-bit registers, R0 to R7. This means that there are essentially 32 available general purpose registers, although only 8 (one bank) can be directly accessed at a time. To access the other banks, we need to change the current bank number in the flag status register.

A and B Registers

The A register is located in the SFR memory location 0xE0. The A register works inRaj's Thoughts a t 11:41 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Tuesday, 12 June 2012 8085 microprocessor The Intel 8085 is an 8-bit microprocessor introduced by Intel in 1977. It was binary-compatible with the more-famous Intel 8080 but required less supporting hardware, thus allowing simpler and less expensive microcomputer systems to be built. The "5" in the model number came from the fact that the 8085 requires only a +5-volt (V) power supply rather than the +5V, −5V and +12V supplies the 8080 needed. Both processors were sometimes used in computers running the CP/M operating system, and the 8085 also saw use as a microcontroller, by virtue of its low component count. Both designs were eclipsed for desktop computers by the compatible Zilog Z80, which took over most of the CP/M computer market as well as taking a share of the booming home computer market in the early-to-mid-1980s. The 8085 had a long life as a controller. Once designed into such products as the DECtape controller and the VT100 video terminal in the late 1970s, it continued to serve for new production throughout the life span of those products (generally longer than the product life of desktop computers). The 8085 is a conventional von Neumann design based on the Intel 8080. Unlike the 8080 it does not multiplex state signals onto the data bus, but the 8-bit data bus was instead multiplexed with the lower part " id="pdf-obj-8-2" src="pdf-obj-8-2.jpg">

The A register is located in the SFR memory location 0xE0. The A register works in a similar fashion to the AX register of x86 processors. The A register is called the accumulator, and by default it receives the result of all arithmetic operations. The B register is used in a similar manner, except that it can receive the extended answers from the multiply and divide operations. When not being used for multiplication and Division, the B register is available as an extra general-purpose register.

The A register is located in the SFR memory location 0xE0. The A register works inRaj's Thoughts a t 11:41 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Tuesday, 12 June 2012 8085 microprocessor The Intel 8085 is an 8-bit microprocessor introduced by Intel in 1977. It was binary-compatible with the more-famous Intel 8080 but required less supporting hardware, thus allowing simpler and less expensive microcomputer systems to be built. The "5" in the model number came from the fact that the 8085 requires only a +5-volt (V) power supply rather than the +5V, −5V and +12V supplies the 8080 needed. Both processors were sometimes used in computers running the CP/M operating system, and the 8085 also saw use as a microcontroller, by virtue of its low component count. Both designs were eclipsed for desktop computers by the compatible Zilog Z80, which took over most of the CP/M computer market as well as taking a share of the booming home computer market in the early-to-mid-1980s. The 8085 had a long life as a controller. Once designed into such products as the DECtape controller and the VT100 video terminal in the late 1970s, it continued to serve for new production throughout the life span of those products (generally longer than the product life of desktop computers). The 8085 is a conventional von Neumann design based on the Intel 8080. Unlike the 8080 it does not multiplex state signals onto the data bus, but the 8-bit data bus was instead multiplexed with the lower part " id="pdf-obj-8-15" src="pdf-obj-8-15.jpg">

Tuesday, 12 June 2012

The Intel 8085 is an 8-bit microprocessor introduced by Intel in 1977. It was binary-compatible with the more-famous Intel 8080 but required less supporting hardware, thus allowing simpler and less expensive microcomputer systems to be built. The "5" in the model number came from the fact that the 8085 requires only a +5-volt (V) power supply rather than the +5V, −5V and +12V supplies the 8080 needed. Both processors were sometimes used in computers running the CP/M operating system, and the 8085 also saw use as a microcontroller, by virtue of its low component count. Both designs were eclipsed for desktop computers by the compatible Zilog Z80, which took over most of the CP/M computer market as well as taking a share of the booming home computer market in the early-to-mid-1980s. The 8085 had a long life as a controller. Once designed into such products as the DECtape controller and the VT100 video terminal in the late 1970s, it continued to serve for new production throughout the life span of those products (generally longer than the product life of desktop computers). The 8085 is a conventional von Neumann design based on the Intel 8080. Unlike the 8080 it does not multiplex state signals onto the data bus, but the 8-bit data bus was instead multiplexed with the lower part

of the 16-bit address bus to limit the number of pins to 40. Pin No. 40 is used for the power supply (+5v) and pin No. 20 for ground. Pin No. 39 is used as the hold pin. Pins No. 15 to No. 8 are generally used for address buses. The processor was designed using nMOS circuitry and the later "H" versions were implemented in Intel's enhanced nMOS process called HMOS, originally developed for fast static RAM products. Only a 5 Volt supply is needed, like competing processors and unlike the 8080. The 8085 uses approximately 6,500 transistors. The 8085 incorporates the functions of the 8224 (clock generator) and the 8228 (system controller), increasing the level of integration. A downside compared to similar contemporary designs (such as the Z80) was the fact that the buses required demultiplexing; however, address latches in the Intel 8155, 8355, and 8755 memory chips allowed a direct interface, so an 8085 along with these chips was almost a complete system. The 8085 has extensions to support new interrupts, with three maskable interrupts (RST 7.5, RST 6.5 and RST 5.5), one non-maskable interrupt (TRAP), and one externally serviced interrupt (INTR). The RST n.5 interrupts refer to actual pins on the processor, a feature which permitted simple systems to avoid the cost of a separate interrupt controller. Like the 8080, the 8085 can accommodate slower memories through externally generated wait states (pin 35, READY), and has provisions for Direct Memory Access (DMA) using HOLD and HLDA signals (pins 39 and 38). An improvement over the 8080 was that the 8085 can itself drive a piezoelectric crystal directly connected to it, and a built in clock generator generates the internal high amplitude two-phase clock signals at half the crystal frequency (a 6.14 MHz crystal would yield a 3.07 MHz clock, for instance). The 8085 is a binary compatible follow up on the 8080, using the same basic instruction set as the 8080. Only a few minor instructions were new to the 8085 above the 8080 set.

Programming model

The processor has seven 8-bit registers accessible to the programmer, named A, B, C, D, E, H, and L, where A is the 8-bit accumulator and the other six can be used as independent byte-registers or as three 16-bit register pairs, BC, DE, and HL, depending on the particular instruction. Some instructions use HL as a (limited) 16-bit accumulator. As in the 8080, the contents of the memory address pointed to by HL could be accessed as pseudoregister M. It also has a 16-bit stack pointer to memory (replacing the 8008's internal stack), and a 16-bit program counter. HL pair is called the primary data pointers.

Commands/instructions

As in many other 8-bit processors, all instructions are encoded in a single byte (including register-numbers, but excluding immediate data), for simplicity. Some of them are followed by one or two bytes of data, which could be an immediate operand, a memory address, or a port number. Like larger processors, it has CALL and RET instructions for multi-level procedure calls and returns (which can be conditionally executed, like jumps) and instructions to save and restore any 16-bit register-pair on the machine stack. There are also

eight one-byte call instructions (RST) for subroutines located at the fixed addresses 00h, 08h, 10h,

...

,38h.

These were intended to be supplied by external hardware in order to invoke a corresponding interrupt- service routine, but are also often employed as fast system calls. The most sophisticated command was XTHL, which is used for exchanging the register pair HL with the value stored at the address indicated by the stack pointer.

8-bit instructions

Most 8-bit operations work on the 8-bit accumulator (the A register). For two operand 8-bit operations, the other operand can be either an immediate value, another 8-bit register, or a memory cell addressed by the 16- bit register pair HL. Direct copying is supported between any two 8-bit registers and between any 8-bit register and a HL-addressed memory cell. Due to the regular encoding of the MOV-instruction (using a quarter of available opcode space) there are redundant codes to copy a register into itself (MOV B,B, for instance), which are of little use, except for delays. However, what would have been a copy from the HL- addressed cell into itself (i.e., MOV M,M) instead encodes the HLT instruction, halting execution until an external reset or interrupt occurred.

16-bit operations

Although the 8085 is an 8-bit processor, it also has some 16-bit operations. Any of the three 16-bit register pairs (BC, DE, HL) or SP could be loaded with an immediate 16-bit value (using LXI), incremented or decremented (using INX and DCX), or added to HL (using DAD). LHLD loaded HL from directly- addressed memory and SHLD stored HL likewise. The XCHG operation exchanges the values of HL and DE. Adding HL to itself performs a 16-bit arithmetical left shift with one instruction. The only 16 bit instruction that affects any flag was DAD (adding HL to BC, DE, HL or SP), which updates the carry flag to facilitate 24-bit or larger additions and left shifts (for a floating point mantissa for instance). Adding the stack pointer to HL is useful for indexing variables in (recursive) stack frames. A stack frame can be allocated using DAD SP and SPHL, and a branch to a computed pointer can be done with PCHL. These abilities make it feasible to compile languages such as PL/M, Pascal, or C with 16-bit variables and produce 8085 machine code. Subtraction and bitwise logical operations on 16 bits is done in 8-bit steps. Operations that have to be implemented by program code (subroutine libraries) included comparisons of signed integers as well as multiply and divide.

Input/output scheme

The 8085 supported up to 256 input/output (I/O) ports, accessed via dedicated Input/Output instructions— taking port addresses as operands. This Input/Output mapping scheme was regarded as an advantage, as it freed up the processor's limited address space.

Development system

Intel produced a series of development systems for the 8080 and 8085, known as the MDS-80 Microprocessor System. The original development system had an 8080 processor. Later 8085 and 8086 support was added including ICE (in-circuit emulators). It was a large and heavy desktop box, about a 20" cube (in the Intel corporate blue colour) which included a CPU, monitor, and a single 8 inch floppy disk drive. Later an external box was available with two more floppy drives. It ran the ISIS operating system and could also operate an emulator pod and an external EPROM programmer. This unit used the Multibus card cage which was intended just for the development system. A surprising number of spare card cages and

processors were being sold, leading to the development of the Multibus as a separate product. The later iPDS was a portable unit, about 8" x 16" x 20", with a handle. It had a small green screen, a keyboard built into the top, a 5¼ inch floppy disk drive, and ran the ISIS-II operating system. It could also accept a second 8085 processor, allowing a limited form of multi-processor operation where both processors ran simultaneously and independently. The screen and keyboard could be switched between them, allowing programs to be assembled on one processor (large programs took awhile) while files were edited in the other. It had a bubble memory option and various programming modules, including EPROM and Intel 8048 and 8051 programming modules which were plugged into the side, replacing stand-alone device programmers. In addition to an 8080/8085 assembler, Intel produced a number of compilers including PL/M-80 and Pascal languages, and a set of tools for linking and statically locating programs to enable them to be burnt into EPROMs and used in embedded systems. Posted by Raj's Thoughts at 13:16 No comments:

16-bit operations Although the 8085 is an 8-bit processor, it also has some 16-bit operations. AnyRaj's Thoughts a t 13:16 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Application of Microprocessor Microprocessor is a multi-use device which finds applications in almost all the fields.Here is some sample applications given in variety of fields. Electronics:  Digital clocks & Watches " id="pdf-obj-10-21" src="pdf-obj-10-21.jpg">

Microprocessor is a multi-use device which finds applications in almost all the fields.Here is some sample applications given in variety of fields.

Electronics:

Digital clocks & Watches

Mobile phones

Measuring Meters

Mechanical:

Automobiles

Lathes

All remote machines

Electrical:

Motors

Lighting controls

Power stations

Medical:

Patient monitoring

Most of the Medical equipments

Data loggers

Computer:

All computer accessories

Laptops & Modems

Scanners & Printers

Domestic:

Microwave Ovens

Television/CD/DVD players

Washing Machines

 Mobile phones  Measuring Meters Mechanical:  Automobiles  Lathes  All remote machines Electrical:Raj's Thoughts a t 12:59 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Detail about 8085 microprocessor what is a Microprocessor? " id="pdf-obj-11-126" src="pdf-obj-11-126.jpg">

what is a Microprocessor?

A microprocessor is a clock-driven semiconductor device consisting of electronic logic circuits manufactured by using either a large-scale integration (LSI) or very-large-scale integration (VLSI) technique.

The microprocessor is capable of performing various computing functions and making decisions to change the sequence of program execution.

In large computers, a CPU performs these computing functions.The Microprocessor resembles a CPU exactly.

The microprocessor is in many ways similar to the CPU, but includes all the logic circuitry including the control unit, on one chip.

The microprocessor can be divided into three segments for the sake of clarity. – They are:

arithmetic/logic unit (ALU), register array, and control unit.

A comparison between a microprocessor, and a computer is shown below:

 A microprocessor is a clock-driven semiconductor device consisting of electronic logic circuits manufactured by using
 A microprocessor is a clock-driven semiconductor device consisting of electronic logic circuits manufactured by using

o

Arithmetic/Logic Unit: This is the area of the microprocessor where various computing functions are performed on data. The ALU unit performs such arithmetic operations as addition and subtraction, and such logic operations as AND, OR, and exclusive OR.

o

Register Array: This area of the microprocessor consists of various registers identified by letters such as B, C, D, E, H, and L. These registers are primarily used to store data temporarily during the execution of a program and are accessible to the user through instructions.

o

Control Unit: The control unit provides the necessary timing and control signals to all the operations in the microcomputer. It controls the flow of data between the microprocessor and memory and peripherals.

o

Memory: Memory stores such binary information as instructions and data, and provides that information to the microprocessor whenever necessary. To execute programs, the microprocessor reads instructions and data from memory and performs the computing operations in its ALU section. Results are either transferred to the output section for display or stored in memory for later use. Read-Only memory (ROM) and Read/Write memory (R/WM), popularly known as Random- Access memory (RAM).

1. The ROM is used to store programs that do not need alterations. The monitor program of a single-board microcomputer is generally stored in the ROM. This program interprets the informat entered through a keyboard and provides equivalent binary digits to the microprocessor. Programs stored in the ROM can only be read; they cannot be altered. 2. The Read/Write memory (RIWM) is also known as user memory It is used to store user programs and data. In single-board microcomputers, the monitor program monitors the Hex keys and stores those instructions and data in the R/W memory. The information stored in this memory can be easily read and altered.

o

I/O (Input/Output): It communicates with the outside world. I/O includes two types of devices: input and output; these I/O devices are also known as peripherals.

System Bus: The system bus is a communication path between the microprocessor and peripherals: it is nothing but a group of wires to carry bits.

1. The ROM is used to store programs that do not need alterations. The monitor programRaj's Thoughts a t 12:56 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Digital Dice With 7-Segment Display A digital dice circuit can be easily realised using an astable oscillator circuit followed by a counter, display driver and a display. Here we have used a timer NE555 as an astable oscillator with a frequency of about 100 Hz. Decade counter IC CD4026 or CD4033 (which-ever available) can be used as counter-cum-display driver. When using CD4026, pin 14 (cascading output) is to be left unused (open), but in case of CD4033, pin 14 serves as lamp test pin and the same is to be grounded. The circuit uses only a handful of components. Its power consumption is also quite low because of use of CMOS ICs, and hence it is well suited for battery operation. In this circuit two tactile switches S1 and S2 have been pro-vided. While switch S2 is used for initial resetting of the display to ‘0,’ depression of S1 simulates throwing of the dice by a player. When battery is connected to the circuit, the counter and display section around IC2 (CD4026/4033) is energised and the display would normally show ‘0’, as no clock input is available. Should the display show any other decimal digit, you may press re-set switch S2 so that display shows ‘0’. To simulate throwing of dice, the player has to press switch S1, briefly. This ex-tends the supply to the astable oscillator configured around IC1 as well as capacitor C1 (through resistor R1), which charges to the battery voltage. Thus even after switch S1 is released, the astable circuit around IC1 keeps producing the clock until capacitor C1 discharges sufficiently. Thus for du-ration of depression of switch S1 and discharge of capacitor C1 thereafter, clock pulses are produced by IC1 and applied to clock pin 1 of counter IC2, whose count advances at a frequency of 100 Hz until C1 discharges sufficiently to deactivate IC1. When the oscillations from IC1 stop, the last (random) count in counter IC2 can be viewed on the 7-segment display. This count would normally lie between 0 and 6, since at the leading edge of every 7th clock pulse, the counter is reset to zero. This is achieved as follows. " id="pdf-obj-13-19" src="pdf-obj-13-19.jpg">

A digital dice circuit can be easily realised using an astable oscillator circuit followed by a counter, display driver and a display. Here we have used a timer NE555 as an astable oscillator with a frequency of about 100 Hz. Decade counter IC CD4026 or CD4033 (which-ever available) can be used as counter-cum-display driver. When using CD4026, pin 14 (cascading output) is to be left unused (open), but in case of CD4033, pin 14 serves as lamp test pin and the same is to be grounded. The circuit uses only a handful of components. Its power consumption is also quite low because of use of CMOS ICs, and hence it is well suited for battery operation. In this circuit two tactile switches S1 and S2 have been pro-vided. While switch S2 is used for initial resetting of the display to ‘0,’ depression of S1 simulates throwing of the dice by a player. When battery is connected to the circuit, the counter and display section around IC2 (CD4026/4033) is energised and the display would normally show ‘0’, as no clock input is available. Should the display show any other decimal digit, you may press re-set switch S2 so that display shows ‘0’. To simulate throwing of dice, the player has to press switch S1, briefly. This ex-tends the supply to the astable oscillator configured around IC1 as well as capacitor C1 (through resistor R1), which charges to the battery voltage. Thus even after switch S1 is released, the astable circuit around IC1 keeps producing the clock until capacitor C1 discharges sufficiently. Thus for du-ration of depression of switch S1 and discharge of capacitor C1 thereafter, clock pulses are produced by IC1 and applied to clock pin 1 of counter IC2, whose count advances at a frequency of 100 Hz until C1 discharges sufficiently to deactivate IC1. When the oscillations from IC1 stop, the last (random) count in counter IC2 can be viewed on the 7-segment display. This count would normally lie between 0 and 6, since at the leading edge of every 7th clock pulse, the counter is reset to zero. This is achieved as follows.

Observe the behavior of ‘b’ segment output in the Table. On reset, at count 0 untilRaj's Thoughts a t 12:19 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Monday, 11 June 2012 Courtesy Light Circuit This circuit is intended to let the user turn off a lamp by means of a switch placed far from bed, allowing him enough time to lie down before the lamp really switches off. Obviously, users will be able to find different applications for this circuit in order to suit their needs. Due to the low current drawing, the circuit can be supplied from 220Vac mains without a transformer. Supply voltage is reduced to 10Vdc by means of C1 reactance, a two diode rectifier cell D1 & D2 and Zener diode D3. IC1 is a CMos 555 timer wired as a monostable, providing 15 seconds on-time set by R3 & C4. When SW1 is closed, IC1 output (pin 3) is permanently on, driving Triac D4 which in turn feeds the lamp. Opening SW1 operates the monostable and, after 15 seconds, pin 3 of IC1 goes low switching off the lamp. Notes:  The circuit is wired permanently to the mains supply but current drain is negligible.  Due to transformerless design there is no heat generation.  The delay time can be varied changing R3 and/or C4 values.  Taking C4=10µF, R3 increases timing with approx. 100K per second ratio. I.e. R3=1M Time=10 seconds, R3=1M8 Time=18 seconds.  Low Gate-current Triacs are recommended. " id="pdf-obj-14-2" src="pdf-obj-14-2.jpg">

Observe the behavior of ‘b’ segment output in the Table. On reset, at count 0 until count 4, the segment ‘b’ output is high. At count 5 it changes to low level and remains so during count 6. However, at start of count 7, the output goes from low to high state. A differentiated sharp high pulse through C-R combination of C4- R5 is applied to reset pin 15 of IC2 to reset the output to ‘0’ for a fraction of a pulse period (which is not visible on the 7-segment display). Thus, if the clock stops at seventh count, the display will read zero. There is a probability of one chance in seven that display would show ‘0.’ In such a situation, the concerned player is given an-other chance until the display is non-zero. Posted by Raj's Thoughts at 12:19 No comments:

Observe the behavior of ‘b’ segment output in the Table. On reset, at count 0 untilRaj's Thoughts a t 12:19 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Monday, 11 June 2012 Courtesy Light Circuit This circuit is intended to let the user turn off a lamp by means of a switch placed far from bed, allowing him enough time to lie down before the lamp really switches off. Obviously, users will be able to find different applications for this circuit in order to suit their needs. Due to the low current drawing, the circuit can be supplied from 220Vac mains without a transformer. Supply voltage is reduced to 10Vdc by means of C1 reactance, a two diode rectifier cell D1 & D2 and Zener diode D3. IC1 is a CMos 555 timer wired as a monostable, providing 15 seconds on-time set by R3 & C4. When SW1 is closed, IC1 output (pin 3) is permanently on, driving Triac D4 which in turn feeds the lamp. Opening SW1 operates the monostable and, after 15 seconds, pin 3 of IC1 goes low switching off the lamp. Notes:  The circuit is wired permanently to the mains supply but current drain is negligible.  Due to transformerless design there is no heat generation.  The delay time can be varied changing R3 and/or C4 values.  Taking C4=10µF, R3 increases timing with approx. 100K per second ratio. I.e. R3=1M Time=10 seconds, R3=1M8 Time=18 seconds.  Low Gate-current Triacs are recommended. " id="pdf-obj-14-11" src="pdf-obj-14-11.jpg">

Monday, 11 June 2012

This circuit is intended to let the user turn off a lamp by means of a switch placed far from bed, allowing him enough time to lie down before the lamp really switches off. Obviously, users will be able to find different applications for this circuit in order to suit their needs. Due to the low current drawing, the circuit can be supplied from 220Vac mains without a transformer. Supply voltage is reduced to 10Vdc by means of C1 reactance, a two diode rectifier cell D1 & D2 and Zener diode D3. IC1 is a CMos 555 timer wired as a monostable, providing 15 seconds on-time set by R3 & C4. When SW1 is closed, IC1 output (pin 3) is permanently on, driving Triac D4 which in turn feeds the lamp. Opening SW1 operates the monostable and, after 15 seconds, pin 3 of IC1 goes low switching off the lamp.

Observe the behavior of ‘b’ segment output in the Table. On reset, at count 0 untilRaj's Thoughts a t 12:19 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Monday, 11 June 2012 Courtesy Light Circuit This circuit is intended to let the user turn off a lamp by means of a switch placed far from bed, allowing him enough time to lie down before the lamp really switches off. Obviously, users will be able to find different applications for this circuit in order to suit their needs. Due to the low current drawing, the circuit can be supplied from 220Vac mains without a transformer. Supply voltage is reduced to 10Vdc by means of C1 reactance, a two diode rectifier cell D1 & D2 and Zener diode D3. IC1 is a CMos 555 timer wired as a monostable, providing 15 seconds on-time set by R3 & C4. When SW1 is closed, IC1 output (pin 3) is permanently on, driving Triac D4 which in turn feeds the lamp. Opening SW1 operates the monostable and, after 15 seconds, pin 3 of IC1 goes low switching off the lamp. Notes:  The circuit is wired permanently to the mains supply but current drain is negligible.  Due to transformerless design there is no heat generation.  The delay time can be varied changing R3 and/or C4 values.  Taking C4=10µF, R3 increases timing with approx. 100K per second ratio. I.e. R3=1M Time=10 seconds, R3=1M8 Time=18 seconds.  Low Gate-current Triacs are recommended. " id="pdf-obj-14-26" src="pdf-obj-14-26.jpg">

Notes:

The circuit is wired permanently to the mains supply but current drain is negligible.

Due to transformerless design there is no heat generation.

The delay time can be varied changing R3 and/or C4 values.

Taking C4=10µF, R3 increases timing with approx. 100K per second ratio. I.e. R3=1M Time=10 seconds, R3=1M8 Time=18 seconds.

Low Gate-current Triacs are recommended.

Use a well insulated mains-type switch for SW1.

 Use a well insulated mains-type switch for SW1. Posted by <a href=Raj's Thoughts a t 22:36 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Car Central Locking System For a few pounds you can buy a kit from any automotive accessory shop that will allow your car to be fitted with a central-locking door system. Such a kit essentially comprises a number of motors. There is also a control unit that enables the whole system to function. Here we show an example of such a unit. There are 5- wire motors and 2-wire motors. The 5-wire version is used in doors that have a key-lock. There are 2 connections for the motor itself and 3 connections for the sensor part (an ‘open’ and a ‘close’ contact). These sensors determine whether the door is to be unlocked or locked. If there is no key lock in the door, these sensors are superfluous and a 2-wire motor can be used. The polarity of the motor determines whether the locking mechanism goes up or down. By making a circuit that simply reverses the polarity of the motor, the door can be either locked or unlocked. The winding of the motor is connected between M1 and M2 in the schematic. When relay Re1 is energised, all motors will, for example, rotate anti-clockwise. By activating Re2 the motors will rotate clockwise. This depends on the actual polarity of the motor, of course. The sensors are connected to R1 and R10. Here you have to pay careful attention. If Re1 causes the door to unlock, then Re1 has must obviously be connected to the ‘open’ contact. In that case, Re2 is for locking the doors and R10 is then connected to the ‘close’ contact. The R/C-combinations R16/C3 and R15/C4 ensure that the relays are energised for a certain amount of time (obviously this can be changed if this time is too short or too long for your doors). Posted by Raj's Thoughts a t 22:01 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Saturday, 9 June 2012 Simple Mat Switch Circuit This simple circuit produces a warning beep when somebody crosses a protected area in your home or office. The switch, hidden be-low the floor mat, triggers the alarm when the person walks over it. The circuit uses a conductive foam as the switch. It can be two small pieces of conductive pads usually used to pack sensitive ICs as antistatic cover. Alternatively, you can make the switch by coating conducting carbon ink on two small pieces of a copper-clad board. " id="pdf-obj-15-12" src="pdf-obj-15-12.jpg">

For a few pounds you can buy a kit from any automotive accessory shop that will allow your car to be fitted with a central-locking door system. Such a kit essentially comprises a number of motors. There is also a control unit that enables the whole system to function. Here we show an example of such a unit. There are 5- wire motors and 2-wire motors. The 5-wire version is used in doors that have a key-lock. There are 2 connections for the motor itself and 3 connections for the sensor part (an ‘open’ and a ‘close’ contact). These sensors determine whether the door is to be unlocked or locked. If there is no key lock in the door, these sensors are superfluous and a 2-wire motor can be used. The polarity of the motor determines whether the locking mechanism goes up or down. By making a circuit that simply reverses the polarity of the motor, the door can be either locked or unlocked. The winding of the motor is connected between M1 and M2 in the schematic. When relay Re1 is energised, all motors will, for example, rotate anti-clockwise. By activating Re2 the motors will rotate clockwise. This depends on the actual polarity of the motor, of course.

 Use a well insulated mains-type switch for SW1. Posted by <a href=Raj's Thoughts a t 22:36 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Car Central Locking System For a few pounds you can buy a kit from any automotive accessory shop that will allow your car to be fitted with a central-locking door system. Such a kit essentially comprises a number of motors. There is also a control unit that enables the whole system to function. Here we show an example of such a unit. There are 5- wire motors and 2-wire motors. The 5-wire version is used in doors that have a key-lock. There are 2 connections for the motor itself and 3 connections for the sensor part (an ‘open’ and a ‘close’ contact). These sensors determine whether the door is to be unlocked or locked. If there is no key lock in the door, these sensors are superfluous and a 2-wire motor can be used. The polarity of the motor determines whether the locking mechanism goes up or down. By making a circuit that simply reverses the polarity of the motor, the door can be either locked or unlocked. The winding of the motor is connected between M1 and M2 in the schematic. When relay Re1 is energised, all motors will, for example, rotate anti-clockwise. By activating Re2 the motors will rotate clockwise. This depends on the actual polarity of the motor, of course. The sensors are connected to R1 and R10. Here you have to pay careful attention. If Re1 causes the door to unlock, then Re1 has must obviously be connected to the ‘open’ contact. In that case, Re2 is for locking the doors and R10 is then connected to the ‘close’ contact. The R/C-combinations R16/C3 and R15/C4 ensure that the relays are energised for a certain amount of time (obviously this can be changed if this time is too short or too long for your doors). Posted by Raj's Thoughts a t 22:01 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Saturday, 9 June 2012 Simple Mat Switch Circuit This simple circuit produces a warning beep when somebody crosses a protected area in your home or office. The switch, hidden be-low the floor mat, triggers the alarm when the person walks over it. The circuit uses a conductive foam as the switch. It can be two small pieces of conductive pads usually used to pack sensitive ICs as antistatic cover. Alternatively, you can make the switch by coating conducting carbon ink on two small pieces of a copper-clad board. " id="pdf-obj-15-25" src="pdf-obj-15-25.jpg">

The sensors are connected to R1 and R10. Here you have to pay careful attention. If Re1 causes the door to unlock, then Re1 has must obviously be connected to the ‘open’ contact. In that case, Re2 is for locking the doors and R10 is then connected to the ‘close’ contact. The R/C-combinations R16/C3 and R15/C4 ensure that the relays are energised for a certain amount of time (obviously this can be changed if this time is too short or too long for your doors). Posted by Raj's Thoughts at 22:01 No comments:

 Use a well insulated mains-type switch for SW1. Posted by <a href=Raj's Thoughts a t 22:36 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Car Central Locking System For a few pounds you can buy a kit from any automotive accessory shop that will allow your car to be fitted with a central-locking door system. Such a kit essentially comprises a number of motors. There is also a control unit that enables the whole system to function. Here we show an example of such a unit. There are 5- wire motors and 2-wire motors. The 5-wire version is used in doors that have a key-lock. There are 2 connections for the motor itself and 3 connections for the sensor part (an ‘open’ and a ‘close’ contact). These sensors determine whether the door is to be unlocked or locked. If there is no key lock in the door, these sensors are superfluous and a 2-wire motor can be used. The polarity of the motor determines whether the locking mechanism goes up or down. By making a circuit that simply reverses the polarity of the motor, the door can be either locked or unlocked. The winding of the motor is connected between M1 and M2 in the schematic. When relay Re1 is energised, all motors will, for example, rotate anti-clockwise. By activating Re2 the motors will rotate clockwise. This depends on the actual polarity of the motor, of course. The sensors are connected to R1 and R10. Here you have to pay careful attention. If Re1 causes the door to unlock, then Re1 has must obviously be connected to the ‘open’ contact. In that case, Re2 is for locking the doors and R10 is then connected to the ‘close’ contact. The R/C-combinations R16/C3 and R15/C4 ensure that the relays are energised for a certain amount of time (obviously this can be changed if this time is too short or too long for your doors). Posted by Raj's Thoughts a t 22:01 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Saturday, 9 June 2012 Simple Mat Switch Circuit This simple circuit produces a warning beep when somebody crosses a protected area in your home or office. The switch, hidden be-low the floor mat, triggers the alarm when the person walks over it. The circuit uses a conductive foam as the switch. It can be two small pieces of conductive pads usually used to pack sensitive ICs as antistatic cover. Alternatively, you can make the switch by coating conducting carbon ink on two small pieces of a copper-clad board. " id="pdf-obj-15-33" src="pdf-obj-15-33.jpg">

Saturday, 9 June 2012

This simple circuit produces a warning beep when somebody crosses a protected area in your home or office. The switch, hidden be-low the floor mat, triggers the alarm when the person walks over it.

The circuit uses a conductive foam as the switch. It can be two small pieces of conductive pads usually used to pack sensitive ICs as antistatic cover. Alternatively, you can make the switch by coating conducting carbon ink on two small pieces of a copper-clad board.

When the circuit is in standby mode, transistor T1 does not conduct, since its base isRaj's Thoughts a t 18:58 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Simple Car Alarm Sound Booster For car alarms, emphasis should be put on hearing the audible alert and identifying it as belonging to your 'wheels'. Unfortunately, modern car alarm systems seem to have more or less the same alarm sound especially if they are from the same brand. Also, to comply with legal noise restrictions, the alarm sound is not always loud enough to be heard if the car is parked down the road. The circuit shown here is designed to help boost the alarm sound by also activating the car's horn(s) when the alarm goes off. lnternally the car alarm system often provides a signal that activates the (optional) engine immobilizer and/or volume (ultrasound) sensors. This signal usually goes Low upon sys-tem triggering and high again when the alarm system is deactivated. The alarm activation signal is fed to the circuit through Dl . When in idle state, T1 's gate is High and consequently the FET conducts, keeping power FET T2 firmly switched off. When the system gets an active low signal, T1 switches off allowing timing capacitor C2 to charge via R2. About 15 seconds later, when the voltage across C2 is high enough, T2 starts to conduct and relay RE1 is energized. This, in turn, provides the required path for the 'lights flashing' signal to energize RE2 and feed battery power to the car's horn(s). When the alarm system is turned off the activation signal returns to High. T1 starts to conduct and rapidly discharges C2 via R3. T2 is then cut off and REl is de-energized. Diode D2 suppresses back EMF from REl. The circuit draws less than 2 mA when idling. When activated the circuit's current consumption is virtually that of the RE1 coil. RE1 is any simple SPST or SPDT relay, capable of switching about 0.5 A (at 12 V). The coil rating is for 12 VDC and a current requirement as low as you can find. Fuse F1 should be a slow blow type and rated about twice RE1's coil current. " id="pdf-obj-16-2" src="pdf-obj-16-2.jpg">

When the circuit is in standby mode, transistor T1 does not conduct, since its base is floating. When the person walks, the switch is pressed and current flows through R1 and the switch to provide positive bias to transistor T1. Transistor T1 conducts and its collector voltage drops, which acts as a negative trigger input for the monostable wired around IC NE555 (IC1).

IC1 outputs a pulse of fifty-seconds duration with preset values of R4 and C3. This pulse is applied to the buzzer through transistor T2. The buzzer sounds a warning beep on unauthorised entry. The pulse duration can be changed to the desired value by changing the values of R4 and C3. Resistor R2 in the circuit makes the trigger pin of IC1 high to prevent false triggering.

Assemble the circuit on a general-purpose PCB and enclose in a plastic case. Use a 9V battery to power the circuit. Connect the touchpad switch with the PCB and hide under the mat at the entrance. The PCB can be mounted on the nearby wall.

Make the switch carefully using conducting foam or copper clad coated with conducting ink. Place the two pieces with their conducting surface facing each other. Solder carefully a thin copper electric wire and ensure that it makes contact when the two plates touch together on pressing. Provide two 1cm rubber tabs between the plates to avoid touch in the standby mode.

When the circuit is in standby mode, transistor T1 does not conduct, since its base isRaj's Thoughts a t 18:58 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Simple Car Alarm Sound Booster For car alarms, emphasis should be put on hearing the audible alert and identifying it as belonging to your 'wheels'. Unfortunately, modern car alarm systems seem to have more or less the same alarm sound especially if they are from the same brand. Also, to comply with legal noise restrictions, the alarm sound is not always loud enough to be heard if the car is parked down the road. The circuit shown here is designed to help boost the alarm sound by also activating the car's horn(s) when the alarm goes off. lnternally the car alarm system often provides a signal that activates the (optional) engine immobilizer and/or volume (ultrasound) sensors. This signal usually goes Low upon sys-tem triggering and high again when the alarm system is deactivated. The alarm activation signal is fed to the circuit through Dl . When in idle state, T1 's gate is High and consequently the FET conducts, keeping power FET T2 firmly switched off. When the system gets an active low signal, T1 switches off allowing timing capacitor C2 to charge via R2. About 15 seconds later, when the voltage across C2 is high enough, T2 starts to conduct and relay RE1 is energized. This, in turn, provides the required path for the 'lights flashing' signal to energize RE2 and feed battery power to the car's horn(s). When the alarm system is turned off the activation signal returns to High. T1 starts to conduct and rapidly discharges C2 via R3. T2 is then cut off and REl is de-energized. Diode D2 suppresses back EMF from REl. The circuit draws less than 2 mA when idling. When activated the circuit's current consumption is virtually that of the RE1 coil. RE1 is any simple SPST or SPDT relay, capable of switching about 0.5 A (at 12 V). The coil rating is for 12 VDC and a current requirement as low as you can find. Fuse F1 should be a slow blow type and rated about twice RE1's coil current. " id="pdf-obj-16-18" src="pdf-obj-16-18.jpg">

For car alarms, emphasis should be put on hearing the audible alert and identifying it as belonging to your 'wheels'. Unfortunately, modern car alarm systems seem to have more or less the same alarm sound especially if they are from the same brand. Also, to comply with legal noise restrictions, the alarm sound is not always loud enough to be heard if the car is parked down the road.

The circuit shown here is designed to help boost the alarm sound by also activating the car's horn(s) when the alarm goes off. lnternally the car alarm system often provides a signal that activates the (optional) engine immobilizer and/or volume (ultrasound) sensors. This signal usually goes Low upon sys-tem triggering and high again when the alarm system is deactivated. The alarm activation signal is fed to the circuit through Dl . When in idle state, T1 's gate is High and consequently the FET conducts, keeping power FET T2 firmly switched off. When the system gets an active low signal, T1 switches off allowing timing capacitor C2 to charge via R2. About 15 seconds later, when the voltage across C2 is high enough, T2 starts to conduct and relay RE1 is energized. This, in turn, provides the required path for the 'lights flashing' signal to energize RE2 and feed battery power to the car's horn(s). When the alarm system is turned off the activation signal returns to High. T1 starts to conduct and rapidly discharges C2 via R3. T2 is then cut off and REl is de-energized. Diode D2 suppresses back EMF from REl. The circuit draws less than 2 mA when idling. When activated the circuit's current consumption is virtually that of the RE1 coil. RE1 is any simple SPST or SPDT relay, capable of switching about 0.5 A (at 12 V). The coil rating is for 12 VDC and a current requirement as low as you can find. Fuse F1 should be a slow blow type and rated about twice RE1's coil current.

The B5.170 in position T2 can sink a continuous current of about 0.5 A. However, aRaj's Thoughts a t 18:53 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Thursday, 7 June 2012 Short-Wave Superregenerative Receiver Superregenerative receivers are characterised by their high sensitivity. The purpose of this experiment is to deter-mine whether they are also suitable for short-wave radio. Superregenerative receivers are relatively easy to build. You start by building a RF oscillator for the desired frequency. The only difference between a superregenerative receiver and an oscillator is in the base circuit. Instead of using a voltage divider, here we use a single, relatively high-resistance base resistor (100 kΩ to 1MΩ). Superregenerative oscillation occurs when the amplitude of the oscillation is sufficient to cause a strong negative charge to be applied repeatedly to the base. If the regeneration frequency is audible, adjust the values of the resistors and capacitors until it lies somewhere above 20 kHz. The optimum setting is when you hear a strong hissing sound. The subsequent audio amplifier should have a low upper cutoff frequency to strongly attenuate the regeneration signal at its output while allowing signals in the audio band to pass through. This experimental circuit uses two transistors. A Walkman headphone with two 32-Ω earphones forms a suitable output device The component values shown in the schematic diagram have proven to be suitable for the 10–20 MHz region. The coil consists of 27 turns wound on an AA battery serving as a winding form. The circuit produces a strong hissing sound, which diminishes when a station is received. The radio is so sensitive that it does not require any antenna to be connected. The tuned circuit by itself is enough to receive a large number of European stations. The circuit is usable with a supply voltage of 3 V or more, although the audio volume is greater at 9 V. One of the major advantages of a superregenerative receiver is that weak and strong stations generate the same audio level, with the only difference being in the signal to noise ratio. That makes a volume control entirely unnecessary. However, there is also a specific drawback in the short-wave bands: interference occurs fairly often if there is an adjacent station separated from the desired station by some-thing close to the regeneration frequency. The sound quality is often worse than with a simple regenerative receiver. However, this is offset by the absence of the need for manual feedback adjustment, which can be difficult. " id="pdf-obj-17-2" src="pdf-obj-17-2.jpg">

The B5.170 in position T2 can sink a continuous current of about 0.5 A. However, a value of 1.2 A pulsed is specified by Fairchild for their devices. To keep the FET's d-s current due to C2 discharging within safe limits, R2 may be increased, C2 decreased and R3 increased, all proportionally. A factor of 2 will keep the FET out of harm's way with maybe a slight change in the 15-second delay and the sensitivity of the circuit. C1 is used as a smoothing capacitor and F2 should be rated in accordance with the horn(s) maximum current draw.

The B5.170 in position T2 can sink a continuous current of about 0.5 A. However, aRaj's Thoughts a t 18:53 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Thursday, 7 June 2012 Short-Wave Superregenerative Receiver Superregenerative receivers are characterised by their high sensitivity. The purpose of this experiment is to deter-mine whether they are also suitable for short-wave radio. Superregenerative receivers are relatively easy to build. You start by building a RF oscillator for the desired frequency. The only difference between a superregenerative receiver and an oscillator is in the base circuit. Instead of using a voltage divider, here we use a single, relatively high-resistance base resistor (100 kΩ to 1MΩ). Superregenerative oscillation occurs when the amplitude of the oscillation is sufficient to cause a strong negative charge to be applied repeatedly to the base. If the regeneration frequency is audible, adjust the values of the resistors and capacitors until it lies somewhere above 20 kHz. The optimum setting is when you hear a strong hissing sound. The subsequent audio amplifier should have a low upper cutoff frequency to strongly attenuate the regeneration signal at its output while allowing signals in the audio band to pass through. This experimental circuit uses two transistors. A Walkman headphone with two 32-Ω earphones forms a suitable output device The component values shown in the schematic diagram have proven to be suitable for the 10–20 MHz region. The coil consists of 27 turns wound on an AA battery serving as a winding form. The circuit produces a strong hissing sound, which diminishes when a station is received. The radio is so sensitive that it does not require any antenna to be connected. The tuned circuit by itself is enough to receive a large number of European stations. The circuit is usable with a supply voltage of 3 V or more, although the audio volume is greater at 9 V. One of the major advantages of a superregenerative receiver is that weak and strong stations generate the same audio level, with the only difference being in the signal to noise ratio. That makes a volume control entirely unnecessary. However, there is also a specific drawback in the short-wave bands: interference occurs fairly often if there is an adjacent station separated from the desired station by some-thing close to the regeneration frequency. The sound quality is often worse than with a simple regenerative receiver. However, this is offset by the absence of the need for manual feedback adjustment, which can be difficult. " id="pdf-obj-17-12" src="pdf-obj-17-12.jpg">

Thursday, 7 June 2012

Superregenerative receivers are characterised by their high sensitivity. The purpose of this experiment is to deter-mine whether they are also suitable for short-wave radio. Superregenerative receivers are relatively easy to build. You start by building a RF oscillator for the desired frequency. The only difference between a superregenerative receiver and an oscillator is in the base circuit. Instead of using a voltage divider, here we use a single, relatively high-resistance base resistor (100 kΩ to 1MΩ). Superregenerative oscillation occurs when the amplitude of the oscillation is sufficient to cause a strong negative charge to be applied repeatedly to the base. If the regeneration frequency is audible, adjust the values of the resistors and capacitors until it lies somewhere above 20 kHz. The optimum setting is when you hear a strong hissing sound. The subsequent audio amplifier should have a low upper cutoff frequency to strongly attenuate the regeneration signal at its output while allowing signals in the audio band to pass through. This experimental circuit uses two transistors. A Walkman headphone with two 32-Ω earphones forms a suitable output device

The component values shown in the schematic diagram have proven to be suitable for the 10–20 MHz region. The coil consists of 27 turns wound on an AA battery serving as a winding form. The circuit produces a strong hissing sound, which diminishes when a station is received. The radio is so sensitive that it does not require any antenna to be connected. The tuned circuit by itself is enough to receive a large number of European stations. The circuit is usable with a supply voltage of 3 V or more, although the audio volume is greater at 9 V. One of the major advantages of a superregenerative receiver is that weak and strong stations generate the same audio level, with the only difference being in the signal to noise ratio. That makes a volume control entirely unnecessary. However, there is also a specific drawback in the short-wave bands: interference occurs fairly often if there is an adjacent station separated from the desired station by some-thing close to the regeneration frequency. The sound quality is often worse than with a simple regenerative receiver. However, this is offset by the absence of the need for manual feedback adjustment, which can be difficult.

Posted by <a href=Raj's Thoughts a t 13:52 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Room Noise Detector Schematic Circuit This circuit is intended to signal, through a flashing LED, the exceeding of a fixed threshold in room noise, chosen from three fixed levels, namely 50, 70 & 85 dB. Two Op-amps provide the necessary circuit gain for sounds picked-up by a miniature electret microphone to drive a LED. With SW1 in the first position the circuit is off. Second, third and fourth positions power the circuit and set the input sensitivity threshold to 85, 70 & 50 dB respectively. Current drawing is 1mA with LED off and 12-15mA when the LED is steady on. Parts List : R1 10K 1/4W Resistor R2,R3 22K 1/4W Resistors R4 100K 1/4W Resistor R5,R9,R10 56K 1/4W Resistors R6 5K6 1/4W Resistor R7 560R 1/4W Resistor R8 2K2 1/4W Resistor R11 1K 1/4W Resistor R12 33K 1/4W Resistor R13 330R 1/4W Resistor C1 100nF 63V Polyester Capacitor C2 10µF 25V Electrolytic Capacitor C3 470µF C4 47µF 25V Electrolytic Capacitor 25V Electrolytic Capacitor D1 5mm. Red LED IC1 LM358 Low Power Dual Op-amp Q1 BC327 45V 800mA PNP Transistor " id="pdf-obj-18-2" src="pdf-obj-18-2.jpg">
Posted by <a href=Raj's Thoughts a t 13:52 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Room Noise Detector Schematic Circuit This circuit is intended to signal, through a flashing LED, the exceeding of a fixed threshold in room noise, chosen from three fixed levels, namely 50, 70 & 85 dB. Two Op-amps provide the necessary circuit gain for sounds picked-up by a miniature electret microphone to drive a LED. With SW1 in the first position the circuit is off. Second, third and fourth positions power the circuit and set the input sensitivity threshold to 85, 70 & 50 dB respectively. Current drawing is 1mA with LED off and 12-15mA when the LED is steady on. Parts List : R1 10K 1/4W Resistor R2,R3 22K 1/4W Resistors R4 100K 1/4W Resistor R5,R9,R10 56K 1/4W Resistors R6 5K6 1/4W Resistor R7 560R 1/4W Resistor R8 2K2 1/4W Resistor R11 1K 1/4W Resistor R12 33K 1/4W Resistor R13 330R 1/4W Resistor C1 100nF 63V Polyester Capacitor C2 10µF 25V Electrolytic Capacitor C3 470µF C4 47µF 25V Electrolytic Capacitor 25V Electrolytic Capacitor D1 5mm. Red LED IC1 LM358 Low Power Dual Op-amp Q1 BC327 45V 800mA PNP Transistor " id="pdf-obj-18-10" src="pdf-obj-18-10.jpg">

This circuit is intended to signal, through a flashing LED, the exceeding of a fixed threshold in room noise, chosen from three fixed levels, namely 50, 70 & 85 dB. Two Op-amps provide the necessary circuit gain for sounds picked-up by a miniature electret microphone to drive a LED. With SW1 in the first position the circuit is off. Second, third and fourth positions power the circuit and set the input sensitivity threshold to 85, 70 & 50 dB respectively. Current drawing is 1mA with LED off and 12-15mA when the LED is steady on.

Posted by <a href=Raj's Thoughts a t 13:52 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Room Noise Detector Schematic Circuit This circuit is intended to signal, through a flashing LED, the exceeding of a fixed threshold in room noise, chosen from three fixed levels, namely 50, 70 & 85 dB. Two Op-amps provide the necessary circuit gain for sounds picked-up by a miniature electret microphone to drive a LED. With SW1 in the first position the circuit is off. Second, third and fourth positions power the circuit and set the input sensitivity threshold to 85, 70 & 50 dB respectively. Current drawing is 1mA with LED off and 12-15mA when the LED is steady on. Parts List : R1 10K 1/4W Resistor R2,R3 22K 1/4W Resistors R4 100K 1/4W Resistor R5,R9,R10 56K 1/4W Resistors R6 5K6 1/4W Resistor R7 560R 1/4W Resistor R8 2K2 1/4W Resistor R11 1K 1/4W Resistor R12 33K 1/4W Resistor R13 330R 1/4W Resistor C1 100nF 63V Polyester Capacitor C2 10µF 25V Electrolytic Capacitor C3 470µF C4 47µF 25V Electrolytic Capacitor 25V Electrolytic Capacitor D1 5mm. Red LED IC1 LM358 Low Power Dual Op-amp Q1 BC327 45V 800mA PNP Transistor " id="pdf-obj-18-23" src="pdf-obj-18-23.jpg">

Parts List :

R1

10K

1/4W Resistor

 

R2,R3

22K

1/4W Resistors

 

R4

100K

1/4W Resistor

R5,R9,R10

56K

1/4W Resistors

 

R6

5K6

1/4W Resistor

 

R7

560R

1/4W Resistor

R8

2K2

1/4W Resistor

R11

1K

1/4W Resistor

 

R12

33K

1/4W Resistor

R13

330R

1/4W Resistor

C1

100nF

63V Polyester Capacitor

 

C2

10µF

25V Electrolytic Capacitor

 

C3

470µF

C4

47µF

25V Electrolytic Capacitor 25V Electrolytic Capacitor

D1

5mm.

Red LED

IC1

LM358

Low Power Dual Op-amp

 

Q1

BC327

45V 800mA PNP Transistor

MIC1

Miniature

electret microphone

SW1

2

poles 4 ways rotary switch

 

B1

9V

PP3 Battery

Clip for PP3 Battery

Use :

Place the small box containing the circuit in the room where you intend to measure ambient noise.

The 50 dB setting is provided to monitor the noise in the bedroom at night. If the LED is steady on, or flashes bright often, then your bedroom is inadequate and too noisy for sleep.

The 70 dB setting is for living-rooms. If this level is often exceeded during the day, your apartment is rather uncomfortable.

If noise level is constantly over 85 dB, 8 hours a day, then you are living in a dangerous environment.

MIC1 Miniature electret microphone SW1 2 poles 4 ways rotary switch B1 9V PP3 Battery ClipRaj's Thoughts a t 13:39 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post In-Car Food And Beverage Warmer This is a very useful device for those who are frequently on the move. It will keep your tea, coffee or food warm while consuming little power. The circuit is simple. The ubiquitous timer 555 is used as a free-running astable multivibrator. Diodes 1N4148 are connected in reverse direction to facilitate maximum variation of the duty cycles Power transistor T1 is Darlington type with 5A capacity and output of more than 60 watts. The chosen discrete components assure fixed frequency of 1 Hz (approximately) at pin 3 of timer IC1 (555). Resister R1 and potmeter VR1 (1-mega-ohm) allow adjustment of the duty cycle. The higher the duty cycle, the higher the output of the heater. You can connect up to five 10W heating elements in parallel, totaling 50 watts. The consumption of current will be significantly less if fewer coil elements are connected in parallel through toggle switches S2 through S4. Each of these switches has a 6A rating. Assemble the circuit on a general-purpose PCB. Mount power transistor TIP120 on a thick heat-sink. Isolate the circuit from the heating elements using only two wire connections. Use wires that can carry more than 6A current. Fix the coil elements below an aluminium or steel rectangular plate which is at least 1mm thick. Do not forget to insulate the heating plate from the elements. Use the car battery for the power supply with a proper current-carrying-capacity wire. Posted by Raj's Thoughts a t 13:30 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Remote Washing Machine Alert " id="pdf-obj-19-51" src="pdf-obj-19-51.jpg">

This is a very useful device for those who are frequently on the move. It will keep your tea, coffee or food warm while consuming little power. The circuit is simple. The ubiquitous timer 555 is used as a free-running astable multivibrator. Diodes 1N4148 are connected in reverse direction to facilitate maximum variation of the duty cycles

Power transistor T1 is Darlington type with 5A capacity and output of more than 60 watts. The chosen discrete components assure fixed frequency of 1 Hz (approximately) at pin 3 of timer IC1 (555). Resister R1 and potmeter VR1 (1-mega-ohm) allow adjustment of the duty cycle. The higher the duty cycle, the higher the output of the heater. You can connect up to five 10W heating elements in parallel, totaling 50 watts. The consumption of current will be significantly less if fewer coil elements are connected in parallel through toggle switches S2 through S4. Each of these switches has a 6A rating. Assemble the circuit on a general-purpose PCB. Mount power transistor TIP120 on a thick heat-sink. Isolate the circuit from the heating elements using only two wire connections. Use wires that can carry more than 6A current. Fix the coil elements below an aluminium or steel rectangular plate which is at least 1mm thick. Do not forget to insulate the heating plate from the elements. Use the car battery for the power supply with a proper current-carrying-capacity wire.

MIC1 Miniature electret microphone SW1 2 poles 4 ways rotary switch B1 9V PP3 Battery ClipRaj's Thoughts a t 13:39 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post In-Car Food And Beverage Warmer This is a very useful device for those who are frequently on the move. It will keep your tea, coffee or food warm while consuming little power. The circuit is simple. The ubiquitous timer 555 is used as a free-running astable multivibrator. Diodes 1N4148 are connected in reverse direction to facilitate maximum variation of the duty cycles Power transistor T1 is Darlington type with 5A capacity and output of more than 60 watts. The chosen discrete components assure fixed frequency of 1 Hz (approximately) at pin 3 of timer IC1 (555). Resister R1 and potmeter VR1 (1-mega-ohm) allow adjustment of the duty cycle. The higher the duty cycle, the higher the output of the heater. You can connect up to five 10W heating elements in parallel, totaling 50 watts. The consumption of current will be significantly less if fewer coil elements are connected in parallel through toggle switches S2 through S4. Each of these switches has a 6A rating. Assemble the circuit on a general-purpose PCB. Mount power transistor TIP120 on a thick heat-sink. Isolate the circuit from the heating elements using only two wire connections. Use wires that can carry more than 6A current. Fix the coil elements below an aluminium or steel rectangular plate which is at least 1mm thick. Do not forget to insulate the heating plate from the elements. Use the car battery for the power supply with a proper current-carrying-capacity wire. Posted by Raj's Thoughts a t 13:30 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Remote Washing Machine Alert " id="pdf-obj-19-66" src="pdf-obj-19-66.jpg">
MIC1 Miniature electret microphone SW1 2 poles 4 ways rotary switch B1 9V PP3 Battery ClipRaj's Thoughts a t 13:39 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post In-Car Food And Beverage Warmer This is a very useful device for those who are frequently on the move. It will keep your tea, coffee or food warm while consuming little power. The circuit is simple. The ubiquitous timer 555 is used as a free-running astable multivibrator. Diodes 1N4148 are connected in reverse direction to facilitate maximum variation of the duty cycles Power transistor T1 is Darlington type with 5A capacity and output of more than 60 watts. The chosen discrete components assure fixed frequency of 1 Hz (approximately) at pin 3 of timer IC1 (555). Resister R1 and potmeter VR1 (1-mega-ohm) allow adjustment of the duty cycle. The higher the duty cycle, the higher the output of the heater. You can connect up to five 10W heating elements in parallel, totaling 50 watts. The consumption of current will be significantly less if fewer coil elements are connected in parallel through toggle switches S2 through S4. Each of these switches has a 6A rating. Assemble the circuit on a general-purpose PCB. Mount power transistor TIP120 on a thick heat-sink. Isolate the circuit from the heating elements using only two wire connections. Use wires that can carry more than 6A current. Fix the coil elements below an aluminium or steel rectangular plate which is at least 1mm thick. Do not forget to insulate the heating plate from the elements. Use the car battery for the power supply with a proper current-carrying-capacity wire. Posted by Raj's Thoughts a t 13:30 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Remote Washing Machine Alert " id="pdf-obj-19-74" src="pdf-obj-19-74.jpg">

It is often the case these days that the washing machine and tumble dryer are installed in an outbuilding or corner of a garage. This not only makes the kitchen a much quieter place but also leaves room for a dish washer and gives additional cupboard space. The problem now is how to tell when the wash cycle is finished. In bad weather you don’t want to make too many fruitless trips down the garden path just to check if the wash cycle is finished. The author was faced with this problem when he remembered a spare wireless door chime he had. With a few additional components and a phototransistor to passively detect when the washing machine’s ‘end’ LED comes on, the problem was solved.

C1 smoothes out any fluctuations in the LED light output (they are often driven by a multiplex signal) producing a more stable DC voltage to inputs 2 and 6 of IC1. The circuit is battery powered so the CMOS version of the familiar 555 timer is used for IC1 and IC2. The output of IC1 (pin 3) keeps IC2 reset (pin 4) held Low while there is no light falling on T1. When the wash cycle is finished the LED lights, causing T1 to conduct and the voltage on C1 starts to fall. Changing the value of R1 will increase sensitivity if the LED is not bright enough. When the voltage on C1 falls below 1/3 of the supply volt-age IC1 switches its output (pin 3) High, removing the reset from IC2. T2 conducts and LED D1 is now lit, sup-plying current to charge C2. When the voltage across C2 reaches 2/3 supply IC2 switches its output Low and C2 is now discharged by pin 7 via R3. The discharge time is roughly one minute before the transistor is again switched on. The process repeats as long as light is falling on T1. Transistor T2 is a general-purpose small signal NPN type. The open collector output is wired directly in parallel with the bell push (which still functions if the transistor is not switched on). Ensure that transistor output is wired to the correct bell push terminal (not the side connected to the negative battery terminal). Each timer consumes about 60 µA quiescent and the circuit can be powered from the transmitter battery. Alternatively a 9 V battery can be substituted; it has much greater capacity than the original mini 12 V battery fitted in the bell push. Before you start construction, check the range of the wireless doorbell to make sure the signal reaches from the washing machine to wherever the bell will be fitted.

It is often the case these days that the washing machine and tumble dryer are installedRaj's Thoughts a t 13:15 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Wednesday, 6 June 2012 LED Bicycle Lights Before getting started an acknowledgement is due, the circuit presented here uses an ingenious method of controlling a flyback converter by the voltage developed on a cur-rent sensing resistor. " id="pdf-obj-20-6" src="pdf-obj-20-6.jpg">
It is often the case these days that the washing machine and tumble dryer are installedRaj's Thoughts a t 13:15 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Wednesday, 6 June 2012 LED Bicycle Lights Before getting started an acknowledgement is due, the circuit presented here uses an ingenious method of controlling a flyback converter by the voltage developed on a cur-rent sensing resistor. " id="pdf-obj-20-14" src="pdf-obj-20-14.jpg">

Wednesday, 6 June 2012

Before getting started an acknowledgement is due, the circuit presented here uses an ingenious method of controlling a flyback converter by the voltage developed on a cur-rent sensing resistor.

It is often the case these days that the washing machine and tumble dryer are installedRaj's Thoughts a t 13:15 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Wednesday, 6 June 2012 LED Bicycle Lights Before getting started an acknowledgement is due, the circuit presented here uses an ingenious method of controlling a flyback converter by the voltage developed on a cur-rent sensing resistor. " id="pdf-obj-20-29" src="pdf-obj-20-29.jpg">

The reworked circuit is quite simple. At the instant that power is applied only a small current flows to charge C4 so insufficient voltage is developed on R3 to switch T2 on. Also, D1 allows C2 to charge from the 6 V battery, so R1 feeds enough voltage to switch on T1 this shunts the voltage across L1 and the current in it starts to rise. At a certain point the current which returns via R3 will develop sufficient voltage to switch on T2 which shunts the gate voltage to T1 causing it to switch off, initiating the flyback voltage from L1. The fly-back pulse forces a current around the circuit, charging C4 and feeding the LEDs. As the return current is via the current sensing resistor R3, this keeps T2 turned on and T1 turned off, so the flyback phase is not clamped until it has given up all its energy. Capacitor C3 provides positive feedback to ensure reliable oscillation and sharpen up the switching edges. Components D1, D2 & C2 form a bootstrap boost circuit for the MOSFET gate, although it is logic level it only guarantees the stated RD-S(on) at a Vg level of about 8 V — by happy coincidence the combined Vf of four ultrabright red LEDs is about 8.8 V and this is the value that the output is normally clamped to.

There are some notes on the components specified. For position T1 an n-channel MOS- FET with a very low RD-S(on) of 15 mΩ (at 10 V) Is suggested, although its high ID rating (35 A) is not strictly necessary. Purists may wish to use Schottky barrier diodes for D2 and D4, but a quick look at the data sheet for the popular BAT85 shows that with a Trr of 4 ns it is not actually any faster than the 1N4148. It is doubtful whether the lower Vf would make any noticeable difference.

Zener diode D5 has been included as a safety measure in case the output should ever find itself open circuit. The flyback converter can develop a quite impressive voltage when run without load and would have no difficulty damaging the MOSFET. If a higher voltage MOSFET is used then C4 could easily fall prey to excessive voltage if the lead to the LED breaks. In the final working prototype D5 was a 1.3-watt 22-volt zener, but any value between 18 and 24 V is fine. Bear in mind that with four white LEDs on the output the voltage will be somewhere in the region of 13 V. L1 is a 9 mm diameter 0.56 A 220 µH inductor with a low DC resistance (Farnell # 8094837); don’t even think about using those small axial lead inductors disguised as resistors even the fat ones last only a few seconds before failing with shorted turns. On R3, this resistor is selected depending on the configuration of LEDs. A value of 20 mA is fairly typical for 5 mm LEDs, on this basis four red LEDs will need about 12 Ω; five red LEDs about 10 Ω, and four white LEDs about 6.8 Ω. Resistor R4 (1 Ω 1%) is provided to use as a temporary connection for the LEDs’ negative lead so the volt drop can be measured to indicate the current flowing during setting the correct LED current by adjusting R3. The efficiency of the circuit depends on the LED current, which also determines to some extent the switching frequency. At 10 mA (4 white LEDs) 170 kHz was measured on the prototype and that’s about the maximum normal electrolytic capacitors are able to withstand. If more current is drawn (e.g. three white LEDs at 30 mA) then the switching frequency drops to about 130 kHz and the efficiency rises to around 75%. The circuit is simple enough to construct on stripboard, which can be built as a single or double unit to suit whatever lamp housings are ready to hand. The double unit should fit comfortably in a 2x D cell compartment and the single board is only a whisker bigger than a single C cell.

Suggested lamp housings are the Ever Ready and the Ultralight but there should be many others that can be modified to house the stripboard. In many cases the hole for the bulb will need 4 notches cut with a round file so that the LEDs can be pushed far enough through. These can be secured in place with a spot of hot melt glue. The battery and switch box can be surprisingly challenging, the unit built for a family member went on a bicycle with a wire basket so it was easy to bolt a Maplin ABS project box to that. With only the tubular frame to fix things onto, it’s not so easy. The authors’ battery box for the present project is an old Halfords lamp the one that drops into a U shaped plastic clip that does nothing to deter thieves, but it’s far more secure when cut down to make a battery box and clamped to the handlebar with a jubilee clip. It easily holds a 6 V 1.3 Ah SLA battery from Maplin but any nominal 6 V type can be used as per individual preference. Deep discharging should be prevented.

The reworked circuit is quite simple. At the instant that power is applied only a smallRaj's Thoughts a t 12:24 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Tandem Doorbell The author had a problem: the neighbours had exactly the same type of doorbell as he did (actually a 50 Hz buzzer), so it wasn’t always clear who needed to answer the door. To avoid confusion, the author augmented the existing doorbell with a wireless model a reasonably inexpensive option at current prices. All that was necessary for this was to arrange for the existing button and wiring to also actuate the wireless doorbell. " id="pdf-obj-21-18" src="pdf-obj-21-18.jpg">

The author had a problem: the neighbours had exactly the same type of doorbell as he did (actually a 50 Hz buzzer), so it wasn’t always clear who needed to answer the door. To avoid confusion, the author augmented the existing doorbell with a wireless model a reasonably inexpensive option at current prices. All that was necessary for this was to arrange for the existing button and wiring to also actuate the wireless doorbell.

The author opened up the button enclosure of the wireless doorbell and used a multi-meter toRaj's Thoughts a t 12:20 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Long Range FM Transmitter The use of transmitters which have a more powerful output than the ‘flea-power’ are sometimes required when there are many obstacles in the path of the surveillance transmitter and monitoring station receiver, or the distance between them is too far so as to make a low powered device feasible. Whereas a typical micro transmitter will produce an RF power in the order of just a few milliwatts, i.e. a few thousandths of a watt, the VHF-FM transmitter described has a power output of between around a half and 2 watts, depending on the power source, which may be anywhere between 6 volts and 30 volts d.c. . The battery or batteries should be of the alkaline high power type, since the current drain will be found to be relatively higher when compared to microtransmitter current drain The power output of this device is somewhat proportional to the current drain and so therefore both may be decreased by altering the value of R6 to a higher resistance, or a variable resistor with a value of around 1k may be introduced in series with the existing R6, so as to give a variable power output. The variable resistormust not be a wirewound device because this would act as an inductor which will cause feedback problems. The audio input to the power oscillator, which incidentally is formed by TR2 and associated components, is derived from a piezoelectric microphone which drives the simple audio frequency amplifier TR1. The input of the audio amplifier is controlled by the gain pot R1, which selects the correct amount of voltage that is generated by the piezoelectric microphone, then connects this signal to the base of audio amplifier TR1 via C7. It may be found that there is insufficient housing space for a bulky piezoelectric microphone, so with a slight modification to the circuit, it is possible to employ an electret microphone insert as shown. Since the RF field that is generated by this transmitter is relatively large, the problem of RF feedback may very well be encountered. This may be overcome by placing the transmitter inside a metal enclosure, keeping all internal wiring as short as possible and the aerial wire. Component listing for 1 watt transmitter Resistors Semiconductors R1 = 27k TR1 = BC547 R2 = 330k TR2 = 2N2219 fitted with heat sink R3 = 5k6 MIC = piezoelectric microphone R4, 5 = 10k R6 = 100R " id="pdf-obj-22-2" src="pdf-obj-22-2.jpg">

The author opened up the button enclosure of the wireless doorbell and used a multi-meter to find out which set of contacts were closed when the button was pressed. This is where the relay output should be connected (see the schematic diagram). The circuit is virtually self-explanatory: when the existing doorbell button is pressed to actuate the buzzer, the voltage is rectified by the bridge rectifier and regulated at 5 V by the 7805. This voltage drives the relay directly, causing the switch in the wireless doorbell button to be shorted. As a result, along with the buzzer a sizeable Big Ben chime indicates that some-one is at the door. Now the author just hopes that his neighbour doesn’t copy his idea.

The author opened up the button enclosure of the wireless doorbell and used a multi-meter toRaj's Thoughts a t 12:20 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Long Range FM Transmitter The use of transmitters which have a more powerful output than the ‘flea-power’ are sometimes required when there are many obstacles in the path of the surveillance transmitter and monitoring station receiver, or the distance between them is too far so as to make a low powered device feasible. Whereas a typical micro transmitter will produce an RF power in the order of just a few milliwatts, i.e. a few thousandths of a watt, the VHF-FM transmitter described has a power output of between around a half and 2 watts, depending on the power source, which may be anywhere between 6 volts and 30 volts d.c. . The battery or batteries should be of the alkaline high power type, since the current drain will be found to be relatively higher when compared to microtransmitter current drain The power output of this device is somewhat proportional to the current drain and so therefore both may be decreased by altering the value of R6 to a higher resistance, or a variable resistor with a value of around 1k may be introduced in series with the existing R6, so as to give a variable power output. The variable resistormust not be a wirewound device because this would act as an inductor which will cause feedback problems. The audio input to the power oscillator, which incidentally is formed by TR2 and associated components, is derived from a piezoelectric microphone which drives the simple audio frequency amplifier TR1. The input of the audio amplifier is controlled by the gain pot R1, which selects the correct amount of voltage that is generated by the piezoelectric microphone, then connects this signal to the base of audio amplifier TR1 via C7. It may be found that there is insufficient housing space for a bulky piezoelectric microphone, so with a slight modification to the circuit, it is possible to employ an electret microphone insert as shown. Since the RF field that is generated by this transmitter is relatively large, the problem of RF feedback may very well be encountered. This may be overcome by placing the transmitter inside a metal enclosure, keeping all internal wiring as short as possible and the aerial wire. Component listing for 1 watt transmitter Resistors Semiconductors R1 = 27k TR1 = BC547 R2 = 330k TR2 = 2N2219 fitted with heat sink R3 = 5k6 MIC = piezoelectric microphone R4, 5 = 10k R6 = 100R " id="pdf-obj-22-12" src="pdf-obj-22-12.jpg">

The use of transmitters which have a more powerful output than the ‘flea-power’ are sometimes required when there are many obstacles in the path of the surveillance transmitter and monitoring station receiver, or the distance between them is too far so as to make a low powered device feasible. Whereas a typical micro transmitter will produce an RF power in the order of just a few milliwatts, i.e. a few thousandths of a watt, the VHF-FM transmitter described has a power output of between around a half and 2 watts, depending on the power source, which may be anywhere between

6 volts and 30 volts

d.c.

.

The author opened up the button enclosure of the wireless doorbell and used a multi-meter toRaj's Thoughts a t 12:20 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Long Range FM Transmitter The use of transmitters which have a more powerful output than the ‘flea-power’ are sometimes required when there are many obstacles in the path of the surveillance transmitter and monitoring station receiver, or the distance between them is too far so as to make a low powered device feasible. Whereas a typical micro transmitter will produce an RF power in the order of just a few milliwatts, i.e. a few thousandths of a watt, the VHF-FM transmitter described has a power output of between around a half and 2 watts, depending on the power source, which may be anywhere between 6 volts and 30 volts d.c. . The battery or batteries should be of the alkaline high power type, since the current drain will be found to be relatively higher when compared to microtransmitter current drain The power output of this device is somewhat proportional to the current drain and so therefore both may be decreased by altering the value of R6 to a higher resistance, or a variable resistor with a value of around 1k may be introduced in series with the existing R6, so as to give a variable power output. The variable resistormust not be a wirewound device because this would act as an inductor which will cause feedback problems. The audio input to the power oscillator, which incidentally is formed by TR2 and associated components, is derived from a piezoelectric microphone which drives the simple audio frequency amplifier TR1. The input of the audio amplifier is controlled by the gain pot R1, which selects the correct amount of voltage that is generated by the piezoelectric microphone, then connects this signal to the base of audio amplifier TR1 via C7. It may be found that there is insufficient housing space for a bulky piezoelectric microphone, so with a slight modification to the circuit, it is possible to employ an electret microphone insert as shown. Since the RF field that is generated by this transmitter is relatively large, the problem of RF feedback may very well be encountered. This may be overcome by placing the transmitter inside a metal enclosure, keeping all internal wiring as short as possible and the aerial wire. Component listing for 1 watt transmitter Resistors Semiconductors R1 = 27k TR1 = BC547 R2 = 330k TR2 = 2N2219 fitted with heat sink R3 = 5k6 MIC = piezoelectric microphone R4, 5 = 10k R6 = 100R " id="pdf-obj-22-32" src="pdf-obj-22-32.jpg">

The battery or batteries should be of the alkaline high power type, since the current drain will be found to be relatively higher when compared to microtransmitter current drain The power output of this device is somewhat proportional to the current drain and so therefore both may be decreased by altering the value of R6 to a higher resistance, or a variable resistor with a value of around 1k may be introduced in series with the existing R6, so as to give a variable power output. The variable resistormust not be a wirewound device because this would act as an inductor which will cause feedback problems. The audio input to the power oscillator, which incidentally is formed by TR2 and associated components, is derived from a piezoelectric microphone which drives the simple audio frequency amplifier TR1. The input of the audio amplifier is controlled by the gain pot R1, which selects the correct amount of voltage that is generated by the piezoelectric microphone, then connects this signal to the base of audio amplifier TR1 via C7. It may be found that there is insufficient housing space for a bulky piezoelectric microphone, so with a slight modification to the circuit, it is possible to employ an electret microphone insert as shown. Since the RF field that is generated by this transmitter is relatively large, the problem of RF feedback may very well be encountered. This may be overcome by placing the transmitter inside a metal enclosure, keeping all internal wiring as short as possible and the aerial wire.

Component listing for 1 watt transmitter

Resistors Semiconductors R1 = 27k TR1 = BC547 R2 = 330k TR2 = 2N2219 fitted with heat sink R3 = 5k6 MIC = piezoelectric microphone R4, 5 = 10k R6 = 100R

L = 6 turns 22 gauge enameled wire wound on 3⁄16″ former Capacitors

C1, 2, 3 = 330 pF C4 = 2–10 pF trimmer C5 = 4p7 C6 = 1 nF

C7,C8 = 40uF/25V Electrolytic

L = 6 turns 22 gauge enameled wire wound on 3⁄16″ former Capacitors C1, 2, 3Raj's Thoughts a t 11:02 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Newer Posts Older Posts Home Subscribe to: Posts (Atom) Tuesday, February 22, 2011 HAM BAND VFO Variable frequency oscillator uses two numbers of BC548. For 40 meter band VFO oscillates form 2.567 MHz to 2.667 MHz which on mixing with 4.43 MHz generates 7.0 MHz to 7.1 MHz. If you have a frequency meter it is easy to calibrate the VFO, otherwise connect a 2J gang condenser in parallel with VFO coil and adjust it to receive ham stations. VFO is fixed inside a small aluminum box. Posted by karan at 2:41 PM 1 comment: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest 24V Battery Chargers For those of you who are lookin g for battery charger circuit , here is some reference circuit 24V battery charger for lead acid. The 24v charger is using several variable voltage regulator IC such as LM350K and LM317K. For those who want to create 24V battery charger with high current, it is advisable to use as a source of DC voltage transformers . Because quite easy to arouse the current, just based on how the capacity of the transformer you have. " id="pdf-obj-23-16" src="pdf-obj-23-16.jpg">

Tuesday, February 22, 2011

Variable frequency oscillator uses two numbers of BC548. For 40 meter band VFO oscillates form 2.567 MHz to 2.667 MHz which on mixing with 4.43 MHz generates 7.0 MHz to 7.1 MHz. If you have a frequency meter it is easy to calibrate the VFO, otherwise connect a 2J gang condenser in parallel with VFO coil and adjust it to receive ham stations. VFO is fixed inside a small aluminum box.

L = 6 turns 22 gauge enameled wire wound on 3⁄16″ former Capacitors C1, 2, 3Raj's Thoughts a t 11:02 No comments: Email This B logThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Links to this post Newer Posts Older Posts Home Subscribe to: Posts (Atom) Tuesday, February 22, 2011 HAM BAND VFO Variable frequency oscillator uses two numbers of BC548. For 40 meter band VFO oscillates form 2.567 MHz to 2.667 MHz which on mixing with 4.43 MHz generates 7.0 MHz to 7.1 MHz. If you have a frequency meter it is easy to calibrate the VFO, otherwise connect a 2J gang condenser in parallel with VFO coil and adjust it to receive ham stations. VFO is fixed inside a small aluminum box. Posted by karan at 2:41 PM 1 comment: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest 24V Battery Chargers For those of you who are lookin g for battery charger circuit , here is some reference circuit 24V battery charger for lead acid. The 24v charger is using several variable voltage regulator IC such as LM350K and LM317K. For those who want to create 24V battery charger with high current, it is advisable to use as a source of DC voltage transformers . Because quite easy to arouse the current, just based on how the capacity of the transformer you have. " id="pdf-obj-23-38" src="pdf-obj-23-38.jpg">

Posted by karan at 2:41 PM 1 comment:

For those of you who are looking for battery charger circuit, here is some reference circuit 24V battery charger for lead acid. The 24v charger is using several variable voltage regulator IC such as LM350K and

LM317K.

For those who want to create 24V battery charger with high current, it is advisable to use as a source of DC voltage transformers. Because quite easy to arouse the current, just based on how the capacity of the transformer you have.

All 24V battery chargers below is intended to 24V charging voltage, the difference in the composition of the batteries if made series or parallel. Some of the following 24Vbattery charger collected from various sources from the internet, making it more feasible to use as a technical reference as comparative material to create a new 24V battery charger for personal or limited use.

24V Battery Charger Circuit 47 AH

This is a 24V battery charger for lead acid that uses a LM317 variable voltage regulator. Charging current of charger is set at 700 mA, determined by the value of the 10K potentiometer resistance. Charging voltage is determined by the value resistor 100 ohm and 0.82 (0.85) ohm. Diode D1 prevents reverse flow of current from the battery when the charger is switched OFF or when electrical power is not available.

24V Battery Charger Circuit

No parameters are important in this 24V battery charger, unless the design that assumes each 12V battery contains 6 cells. When two batteries are connected in series, voltage and will increase the existing capacity remains the same.

24V Battery Charger/Backup – Dual Mode

24V Battery Charger/Backup-Dual Mode

This 24V battery charger for lead acid using variable voltage regulators LM350K. This 24v charger also serves as a backup voltage sourced from the battery itself. Filling done in series on two 12V cells.

24V Battery Charger Circuit

24V Battery Charger Circuit

Posted by karan at 7:07 AM No comments:

24V Battery Charger Circuit Posted by karan at <a href=7:07 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Li-ion Battery Charger for Mobile phone by TL431 This is a simple to build charger for single 3.7V lipo battery. The heart of the charger is TL431 shunt regulator that controls the incoming current. Charger comes with a convenient charging LED indicator. As charging current goes down so does the intensity of the LED. Posted by karan at 7:05 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Lead acid battery charger circuit Here is a lead acid battery charger circuit using IC LM 317.The IC here provides the correct charging voltage for the battery.A battery must be charged with 1/10 its Ah value.This charging circuit is designed based on this fact.The charging curent for the battery is controlled by Q1 ,R1,R4 and R5. Potentiometer R5 can be used to set the charging current.As the battery gets charged the the current through R1 increases .This changes the conduction of Q1.Since collector of Q1 is connected to adjust pin of IC LM 317 the voltage at the output of of LM 317 increases.When battery is fully charged charger circuit reduces the charging current and this mode is called trickle charging mode. " id="pdf-obj-25-16" src="pdf-obj-25-16.jpg">

This is a simple to build charger for single 3.7V lipo battery. The heart of the charger is TL431 shunt regulator that controls the incoming current. Charger comes with a convenient charging LED indicator. As charging current goes down so does the intensity of the LED.

Posted by karan at 7:05 AM No comments:

24V Battery Charger Circuit Posted by karan at <a href=7:07 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Li-ion Battery Charger for Mobile phone by TL431 This is a simple to build charger for single 3.7V lipo battery. The heart of the charger is TL431 shunt regulator that controls the incoming current. Charger comes with a convenient charging LED indicator. As charging current goes down so does the intensity of the LED. Posted by karan at 7:05 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Lead acid battery charger circuit Here is a lead acid battery charger circuit using IC LM 317.The IC here provides the correct charging voltage for the battery.A battery must be charged with 1/10 its Ah value.This charging circuit is designed based on this fact.The charging curent for the battery is controlled by Q1 ,R1,R4 and R5. Potentiometer R5 can be used to set the charging current.As the battery gets charged the the current through R1 increases .This changes the conduction of Q1.Since collector of Q1 is connected to adjust pin of IC LM 317 the voltage at the output of of LM 317 increases.When battery is fully charged charger circuit reduces the charging current and this mode is called trickle charging mode. " id="pdf-obj-25-35" src="pdf-obj-25-35.jpg">

Here is a lead acid battery charger circuit using IC LM 317.The IC here provides the correct charging voltage for the battery.A battery must be charged with 1/10 its Ah value.This charging circuit is designed based on this fact.The charging curent for the battery is controlled by Q1 ,R1,R4 and R5. Potentiometer R5 can be used to set the charging current.As the battery gets charged the the current through R1 increases .This changes the conduction of Q1.Since collector of Q1 is connected to adjust pin of IC LM 317 the voltage at the output of of LM 317 increases.When battery is fully charged charger circuit reduces the charging current and this mode is called trickle charging mode.

Notes .  Connect a battery to the circuit in series with a ammeter.Now adjust R57:05 AM 1 comment: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest USB-Powered Lithium-Ion Battery Charger by LM3622 The battery-charger circuit is designed to operate as a high power USB function. To be compliant with USB Specifications (Rev. 1.1), a high-power function must not draw more than 500 mA from the bus during normal operation. The LM3622 uses the 0.25 current-limit resistor R1 to set a 400 mA maximum charging current. This leaves a 100 mA surplus that can be used to supply USB control circuitry and other functions in the device. There are additional current restraints on a high-power USB function that apply during system start-up or when a device is initially connected to an active bus. Until a device is properly configured by the USB system, the device may not draw more than 100 mA from the bus. In the above design, National Semiconductor s LM3525 USB power switch keeps the battery charger circuit isolated from the bus during start-up so that the charge current does not overload the bus. When the port is properly enumerated, a USB " id="pdf-obj-26-2" src="pdf-obj-26-2.jpg">
Notes .  Connect a battery to the circuit in series with a ammeter.Now adjust R5
Notes .
Connect a battery to the circuit in series with a ammeter.Now adjust R5 to get the
required charging current. Charging current = (1/10)*Ah value of battery.
Input to the IC must be at least 18V for getting proper charging voltage at the output
.Take a look at the data sheet of LM 317 for better understanding.
Fix LM317 with a heat sink.

Posted by karan at 7:05 AM 1 comment:

Notes .  Connect a battery to the circuit in series with a ammeter.Now adjust R57:05 AM 1 comment: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest USB-Powered Lithium-Ion Battery Charger by LM3622 The battery-charger circuit is designed to operate as a high power USB function. To be compliant with USB Specifications (Rev. 1.1), a high-power function must not draw more than 500 mA from the bus during normal operation. The LM3622 uses the 0.25 current-limit resistor R1 to set a 400 mA maximum charging current. This leaves a 100 mA surplus that can be used to supply USB control circuitry and other functions in the device. There are additional current restraints on a high-power USB function that apply during system start-up or when a device is initially connected to an active bus. Until a device is properly configured by the USB system, the device may not draw more than 100 mA from the bus. In the above design, National Semiconductor s LM3525 USB power switch keeps the battery charger circuit isolated from the bus during start-up so that the charge current does not overload the bus. When the port is properly enumerated, a USB " id="pdf-obj-26-20" src="pdf-obj-26-20.jpg">
Notes .  Connect a battery to the circuit in series with a ammeter.Now adjust R57:05 AM 1 comment: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest USB-Powered Lithium-Ion Battery Charger by LM3622 The battery-charger circuit is designed to operate as a high power USB function. To be compliant with USB Specifications (Rev. 1.1), a high-power function must not draw more than 500 mA from the bus during normal operation. The LM3622 uses the 0.25 current-limit resistor R1 to set a 400 mA maximum charging current. This leaves a 100 mA surplus that can be used to supply USB control circuitry and other functions in the device. There are additional current restraints on a high-power USB function that apply during system start-up or when a device is initially connected to an active bus. Until a device is properly configured by the USB system, the device may not draw more than 100 mA from the bus. In the above design, National Semiconductor s LM3525 USB power switch keeps the battery charger circuit isolated from the bus during start-up so that the charge current does not overload the bus. When the port is properly enumerated, a USB " id="pdf-obj-26-22" src="pdf-obj-26-22.jpg">

The battery-charger circuit is designed to operate as a high power USB function. To be compliant with USB Specifications (Rev. 1.1), a high-power function must not draw more than 500 mA from the bus during normal operation. The LM3622 uses the 0.25 current-limit resistor R1 to set a 400 mA maximum charging current. This leaves a 100 mA surplus that can be used to supply USB control circuitry and other functions in the device.

There are additional current restraints on a high-power USB function that apply during system start-up or when a device is initially connected to an active bus. Until a device is properly configured by the USB system, the device may not draw more than 100 mA from the bus. In the above design, National Semiconductor s LM3525 USB power switch keeps the battery charger circuit isolated from the bus during start-up so that the charge current does not overload the bus. When the port is properly enumerated, a USB

control signal enables the LM3525 switch, connecting USB power (VBUS) to the charger circuit. In addition to on-and-off switching, the LM3525 provides over-current and under-voltage protection to the design.

Read More Source:http://www.national.com/nationaledge/feb01/usb.html Thank you.

Posted by karan at 7:04 AM No comments:

Monday, February 21, 2011

control signal enables the LM3525 switch, connecting USB power (VBUS) to the charger circuit. In addition7:04 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Monday, February 21, 2011 NiCd BATTERY CHARGER This NiCd battery charger can charge up to 8 NiCd cells connected in series. This number can be increased if the power supply is increased by 1.65v for each additional cell. If the BD679 is mounted on a good heatsink, the input voltage can be increased to a maximum of 25v. The circuit does not discharge the battery if the charger is disconnected from the power supply. Usually NiCd cells must be charged at the 14 hour rate. This is a charging current of 10% of the capacity of the cell for 14 hours. This applies to a nearly flat cell. For example, a 600 mAh cell is charged at 60mA for 14 hours. If the charging current is too high it will damage the cell. The level of charging current is controlled by the 1k pot from 0mA to 600mA. The BC557 is turned on when NiCd cells are connected with the right polarity. If you cannot obtain a BD679, replace it with any NPN medium power Darlington transistor having a minimum voltage of 30v and a current capability of 2A. By lowering the value of the 1 ohm resistor to 0.5 ohm, the maximum output current can be increased to 1A. Posted by karan at 6:57 AM 1 comment: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest White Led driver " id="pdf-obj-27-23" src="pdf-obj-27-23.jpg">

This NiCd battery charger can charge up to 8 NiCd cells connected in series. This number can be increased if the power supply is increased by 1.65v for each additional cell. If the BD679 is mounted on a good heatsink, the input voltage can be increased to a maximum of 25v. The circuit does not discharge the battery if the charger is disconnected from the power supply.

Usually NiCd cells must be charged at the 14 hour rate. This is a charging current of 10% of the capacity of the cell for 14 hours. This applies to a nearly flat cell. For example, a 600 mAh cell is charged at 60mA for 14 hours. If the charging current is too high it will damage the cell. The level of charging current is controlled by the 1k pot from 0mA to 600mA. The BC557 is turned on when NiCd cells are connected with the right polarity. If you cannot obtain a BD679, replace it with any NPN medium power Darlington transistor having a minimum voltage of 30v and a current capability of 2A. By lowering the value of the 1 ohm resistor to 0.5 ohm, the maximum output current can be increased to 1A.

control signal enables the LM3525 switch, connecting USB power (VBUS) to the charger circuit. In addition7:04 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Monday, February 21, 2011 NiCd BATTERY CHARGER This NiCd battery charger can charge up to 8 NiCd cells connected in series. This number can be increased if the power supply is increased by 1.65v for each additional cell. If the BD679 is mounted on a good heatsink, the input voltage can be increased to a maximum of 25v. The circuit does not discharge the battery if the charger is disconnected from the power supply. Usually NiCd cells must be charged at the 14 hour rate. This is a charging current of 10% of the capacity of the cell for 14 hours. This applies to a nearly flat cell. For example, a 600 mAh cell is charged at 60mA for 14 hours. If the charging current is too high it will damage the cell. The level of charging current is controlled by the 1k pot from 0mA to 600mA. The BC557 is turned on when NiCd cells are connected with the right polarity. If you cannot obtain a BD679, replace it with any NPN medium power Darlington transistor having a minimum voltage of 30v and a current capability of 2A. By lowering the value of the 1 ohm resistor to 0.5 ohm, the maximum output current can be increased to 1A. Posted by karan at 6:57 AM 1 comment: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest White Led driver " id="pdf-obj-27-32" src="pdf-obj-27-32.jpg">

Posted by karan at 6:57 AM 1 comment:

The circuit below can be modified to drive up to 30 white LEDs. The effectiveness of a LED array increases when they are spread out slightly and this makes them more efficient than a single 1 watt or 2 watt LED. The two modifications to the circuit make the BC337 work harder and this is the limit of the inductor. The current consumption is about 95mA. The winding details for the transformer are shown above.

The circuit below can be modified to drive up to 30 white LEDs. The effectiveness of6:57 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest H-BRIDGE PUSH-PULL DOG-BARK STOPPER The two circuits above are also H-Bridge Push-Pull outputs, however the current is limited to 200mA or less. In this design the current can be 3 amps or more, depending on the supply voltage, the resistance of the load and the type of driver transistors. About 2v5 is lost between "c and e" due to the output of the 555 and the base-emitter voltage of the driver transistors. This circuit drives an ultrasonic transducer (speaker) at 20kHz to 40kHz to subdue dog barking. If the unit is turned on by remote control every time the dog barks, the animal will soon learn to cease barking. Posted by karan at 6:56 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest TV REMOTE CONTROL JAMMER " id="pdf-obj-28-5" src="pdf-obj-28-5.jpg">

Posted by karan at 6:57 AM No comments:

The circuit below can be modified to drive up to 30 white LEDs. The effectiveness of6:57 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest H-BRIDGE PUSH-PULL DOG-BARK STOPPER The two circuits above are also H-Bridge Push-Pull outputs, however the current is limited to 200mA or less. In this design the current can be 3 amps or more, depending on the supply voltage, the resistance of the load and the type of driver transistors. About 2v5 is lost between "c and e" due to the output of the 555 and the base-emitter voltage of the driver transistors. This circuit drives an ultrasonic transducer (speaker) at 20kHz to 40kHz to subdue dog barking. If the unit is turned on by remote control every time the dog barks, the animal will soon learn to cease barking. Posted by karan at 6:56 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest TV REMOTE CONTROL JAMMER " id="pdf-obj-28-22" src="pdf-obj-28-22.jpg">
The circuit below can be modified to drive up to 30 white LEDs. The effectiveness of6:57 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest H-BRIDGE PUSH-PULL DOG-BARK STOPPER The two circuits above are also H-Bridge Push-Pull outputs, however the current is limited to 200mA or less. In this design the current can be 3 amps or more, depending on the supply voltage, the resistance of the load and the type of driver transistors. About 2v5 is lost between "c and e" due to the output of the 555 and the base-emitter voltage of the driver transistors. This circuit drives an ultrasonic transducer (speaker) at 20kHz to 40kHz to subdue dog barking. If the unit is turned on by remote control every time the dog barks, the animal will soon learn to cease barking. Posted by karan at 6:56 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest TV REMOTE CONTROL JAMMER " id="pdf-obj-28-24" src="pdf-obj-28-24.jpg">

The two circuits above are also H-Bridge Push-Pull outputs, however the current is limited to 200mA or less. In this design the current can be 3 amps or more, depending on the supply voltage, the resistance of the load and the type of driver transistors. About 2v5 is lost between "c and e" due to the output of the 555 and the base-emitter voltage of the driver transistors. This circuit drives an ultrasonic transducer (speaker) at 20kHz to 40kHz to subdue dog barking. If the unit is turned on by remote control every time the dog barks, the animal will soon learn to cease barking.

Posted by karan at 6:56 AM No comments:

This circuit confuses the infra-red receiver in a TV. It produces a constant signal that interferes with the signal from a remote control and prevents the TV detecting a channel-change or any other command. This

allows you to watch your own program without anyone changing the channel !!

The circuit is adjusted to

produce a 38kHz signal. The IR diode is called an Infra-red transmitting Diode or IR emitter diode to distinguish it from a receiving diode, called an IR receiver or IR receiving diode. (A Photo diode is a receiving diode). There are so many IR emitters that we cannot put a generic number on the circuit to represent the type of diode. Some types include: CY85G, LD271, CQY37N(45¢), INF3850, INF3880, INF3940 (30¢). The current through the IR LED is limited to 100mA by the inclusion of the two 1N4148 diodes, as these form a constant-current arrangement when combined with the transistor and 5R6 resistor.

This circuit confuses the infra-red receiver in a TV. It produces a constant signal that interferes6:55 AM 1 comment: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest TRAFFIC LIGHTS Here's a clever circuit using two 555's to produce a set of traffic lights for a model layout. The animation shows the lighting sequence and this follows the Australian-standard. The red LED has an equal on-off period and when it is off, the first 555 delivers power to the second 555. This illuminates the Green LED and then the second 555 changes state to turn off the Green LED and turn on the Orange LED for a short period of time before the first 555 changes state to turn off the second 555 and turn on the red LED. A supply voltage of 9v to 12v is needed because the second 555 receives a supply of about 2v less than rail. This circuit also shows how to connect LEDs high and low to a 555 and also turn off the 555 by controlling the supply to pin 8. Connecting the LEDs high and low to pin 3 will not work and since pin 7 is in phase with pin 3, it can be used to advantage in this design. " id="pdf-obj-29-13" src="pdf-obj-29-13.jpg">

Posted by karan at 6:55 AM 1 comment:

Here's a clever circuit using two 555's to produce a set of traffic lights for a model layout. The animation shows the lighting sequence and this follows the Australian-standard. The red LED has an equal on-off period and when it is off, the first 555 delivers power to the second 555. This illuminates the Green LED and then the second 555 changes state to turn off the Green LED and turn on the Orange LED for a short period of time before the first 555 changes state to turn off the second 555 and turn on the red LED. A supply voltage of 9v to 12v is needed because the second 555 receives a supply of about 2v less than rail. This circuit also shows how to connect LEDs high and low to a 555 and also turn off the 555 by controlling the supply to pin 8. Connecting the LEDs high and low to pin 3 will not work and since pin 7 is in phase with pin 3, it can be used to advantage in this design.

This circuit produces a tone above the human audible range and this is supposed to keep the mosquitoes away. You need a piezo diaphragm that will respond to 15kHz and these are very difficult to find.

Posted by karan at 6:54 AM 1 comment:

This controller will deliver up to 30 amps and control the motor from 5% to 95%.

This controller will deliver up to 30 amps and control the motor from 5% to 95%.6:54 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest 170v SUPPLY FOR NIXIE TUBES This circuit produces approx 170v for Nixie tubes and other neon tubes. It is a switch-mode boost circuit. " id="pdf-obj-32-4" src="pdf-obj-32-4.jpg">

Posted by karan at 6:54 AM No comments:

This circuit produces approx 170v for Nixie tubes and other neon tubes. It is a switch-mode boost circuit.

This controller will deliver up to 30 amps and control the motor from 5% to 95%.6:54 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest 170v SUPPLY FOR NIXIE TUBES This circuit produces approx 170v for Nixie tubes and other neon tubes. It is a switch-mode boost circuit. " id="pdf-obj-32-23" src="pdf-obj-32-23.jpg">

Posted by karan at 6:51 AM No comments:

Posted by karan at <a href=6:51 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest 12v to 240v INVERTER This circuit will produce 240v at 50Hz. The wattage will depend on the driver transistors and transformer. Posted by karan at 6:50 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest ZENER DIODE TESTER This circuit will test zener diodes up to 56v. See Talking Electronics website, left index, 200 Transistor Circuits (circuits 1-100) and go to Zener Diode (making) to see how to make a zener diode and how to create a zener voltage from a combination of zeners. Place the zener across the terminals in the circuit below " id="pdf-obj-33-16" src="pdf-obj-33-16.jpg">

This circuit will produce 240v at 50Hz. The wattage will depend on the driver transistors and transformer.

Posted by karan at <a href=6:51 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest 12v to 240v INVERTER This circuit will produce 240v at 50Hz. The wattage will depend on the driver transistors and transformer. Posted by karan at 6:50 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest ZENER DIODE TESTER This circuit will test zener diodes up to 56v. See Talking Electronics website, left index, 200 Transistor Circuits (circuits 1-100) and go to Zener Diode (making) to see how to make a zener diode and how to create a zener voltage from a combination of zeners. Place the zener across the terminals in the circuit below " id="pdf-obj-33-21" src="pdf-obj-33-21.jpg">

Posted by karan at 6:50 AM No comments:

This circuit will test zener diodes up to 56v. See Talking Electronics website, left index, 200 Transistor Circuits (circuits 1-100) and go to Zener Diode (making) to see how to make a zener diode and how to create a zener voltage from a combination of zeners. Place the zener across the terminals in the circuit below

and read the value across it with a multimeter set to 50v rang

and read the value across it with a multimeter set to 50v rang e. Posted by6:50 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest TRANSISTOR TESTER The 555 operates at 2Hz. Output pin 3 drives the circuit with a positive then zero voltage. The other end of the circuit is connected to a voltage divider with the mid-point at approx 4.5v. This allows the red and green LEDs to alternately flash when no transistor is connected to the tester.If a good transistor is connected, it will produce a short across the LED pair when the voltage is in one direction and only one LED will flash. If the transistor is open, both LED’s will flash and if the transistor is shorted, neither LED will flash. Posted by karan at 6:49 AM No comments: " id="pdf-obj-34-4" src="pdf-obj-34-4.jpg">

e.

Posted by karan at 6:50 AM No comments:

and read the value across it with a multimeter set to 50v rang e. Posted by6:50 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest TRANSISTOR TESTER The 555 operates at 2Hz. Output pin 3 drives the circuit with a positive then zero voltage. The other end of the circuit is connected to a voltage divider with the mid-point at approx 4.5v. This allows the red and green LEDs to alternately flash when no transistor is connected to the tester.If a good transistor is connected, it will produce a short across the LED pair when the voltage is in one direction and only one LED will flash. If the transistor is open, both LED’s will flash and if the transistor is shorted, neither LED will flash. Posted by karan at 6:49 AM No comments: " id="pdf-obj-34-22" src="pdf-obj-34-22.jpg">

The 555 operates at 2Hz. Output pin 3 drives the circuit with a positive then zero voltage. The other end of the circuit is connected to a voltage divider with the mid-point at approx 4.5v. This allows the red and green LEDs to alternately flash when no transistor is connected to the tester.If a good transistor is connected, it will produce a short across the LED pair when the voltage is in one direction and only one LED will flash. If the transistor is open, both LED’s will flash and if the transistor is shorted, neither LED will flash.

Posted by karan at 6:49 AM No comments:

<a href=Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest SERVO TESTER This circuit can be used to manually turn a servo clockwise and anti-clockwise. By pushing the forward or reverse button for a short period of time you can control the rotation of the servo. It will also test a servo. Here is a photo of a kit from Cana Kit for $10.00 plus postage (it is a slightly different circuit) and a motor and gearbox, commonly called a "servo." The output shaft has a disk or wheel containing holes. A linkage or push-rod is fitted to a hole and when the disk rotates, the shaft is pushed and pulled. The shaft only rotates about 180° to actuate flaps or ailerons etc. A pot can be used to control the position of the servo by using the following circuit. It produces a positive pulse between about 0.9 milliseconds and 2.1 milliseconds. The off period between pulses is about 40 milliseconds. This can be shortened by reducing the value of the 3M3 resistor. Posted by karan at 6:49 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest CAR TACHOMETER A 555 is configured as a monostable or one shot in this project. The period of the 555 is determined by the 47k and the capacitor from pin 6 to ground (100n). Time "T" = 1.1 RC or 1.1 X 50,000 X 0.1 = 0.0055 or 5.5 mS (milli-seconds). The 555 receives trigger pulses from the distributor points. These are limited by the 1k and 5v zener diode. These are AC coupled to the trigger input through the 100n coupling " id="pdf-obj-35-11" src="pdf-obj-35-11.jpg">

This circuit can be used to manually turn a servo clockwise and anti-clockwise. By pushing the forward or reverse button for a short period of time you can control the rotation of the servo. It will also test a servo. Here is a photo of a kit from Cana Kit for $10.00 plus postage (it is a slightly different circuit) and a motor and gearbox, commonly called a "servo." The output shaft has a disk or wheel containing holes. A linkage or push-rod is fitted to a hole and when the disk rotates, the shaft is pushed and pulled. The shaft only rotates about 180° to actuate flaps or ailerons etc.

<a href=Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest SERVO TESTER This circuit can be used to manually turn a servo clockwise and anti-clockwise. By pushing the forward or reverse button for a short period of time you can control the rotation of the servo. It will also test a servo. Here is a photo of a kit from Cana Kit for $10.00 plus postage (it is a slightly different circuit) and a motor and gearbox, commonly called a "servo." The output shaft has a disk or wheel containing holes. A linkage or push-rod is fitted to a hole and when the disk rotates, the shaft is pushed and pulled. The shaft only rotates about 180° to actuate flaps or ailerons etc. A pot can be used to control the position of the servo by using the following circuit. It produces a positive pulse between about 0.9 milliseconds and 2.1 milliseconds. The off period between pulses is about 40 milliseconds. This can be shortened by reducing the value of the 3M3 resistor. Posted by karan at 6:49 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest CAR TACHOMETER A 555 is configured as a monostable or one shot in this project. The period of the 555 is determined by the 47k and the capacitor from pin 6 to ground (100n). Time "T" = 1.1 RC or 1.1 X 50,000 X 0.1 = 0.0055 or 5.5 mS (milli-seconds). The 555 receives trigger pulses from the distributor points. These are limited by the 1k and 5v zener diode. These are AC coupled to the trigger input through the 100n coupling " id="pdf-obj-35-17" src="pdf-obj-35-17.jpg">
<a href=Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest SERVO TESTER This circuit can be used to manually turn a servo clockwise and anti-clockwise. By pushing the forward or reverse button for a short period of time you can control the rotation of the servo. It will also test a servo. Here is a photo of a kit from Cana Kit for $10.00 plus postage (it is a slightly different circuit) and a motor and gearbox, commonly called a "servo." The output shaft has a disk or wheel containing holes. A linkage or push-rod is fitted to a hole and when the disk rotates, the shaft is pushed and pulled. The shaft only rotates about 180° to actuate flaps or ailerons etc. A pot can be used to control the position of the servo by using the following circuit. It produces a positive pulse between about 0.9 milliseconds and 2.1 milliseconds. The off period between pulses is about 40 milliseconds. This can be shortened by reducing the value of the 3M3 resistor. Posted by karan at 6:49 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest CAR TACHOMETER A 555 is configured as a monostable or one shot in this project. The period of the 555 is determined by the 47k and the capacitor from pin 6 to ground (100n). Time "T" = 1.1 RC or 1.1 X 50,000 X 0.1 = 0.0055 or 5.5 mS (milli-seconds). The 555 receives trigger pulses from the distributor points. These are limited by the 1k and 5v zener diode. These are AC coupled to the trigger input through the 100n coupling " id="pdf-obj-35-19" src="pdf-obj-35-19.jpg">

A pot can be used to control the position of the servo by using the following circuit. It produces a positive pulse between about 0.9 milliseconds and 2.1 milliseconds. The off period between pulses is about 40 milliseconds. This can be shortened by reducing the value of the 3M3 resistor.

Posted by karan at 6:49 AM No comments:

A 555 is configured as a monostable or one shot in this project. The period of the 555 is determined by the 47k and the capacitor from pin 6 to ground (100n). Time "T" = 1.1 RC or 1.1 X 50,000 X 0.1 X10 -6 = 0.0055 or 5.5 mS (milli-seconds). The 555 receives trigger pulses from the distributor points. These are limited by the 1k and 5v zener diode. These are AC coupled to the trigger input through the 100n coupling

capacitor. The 50mA meter receives pulses of current through the 200k pot to show a reading.

capacitor. The 50mA meter receives pulses of current through the 200k pot to show a reading.6:48 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest 555 AMPLIFIER The 555 can be used as an amplifier. It operates very similar to pulse-width modulation. The component values cause the 555 to oscillate at approx 66kHz and the speaker does not respond to this high frequency. Instead it responds to the average CD value of the modulated output and demonstrates the concept of pulse- width modulation. The chip gets very hot and is only for brief demonstrations. Posted by karan at 6:46 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest VOLTAGE DOUBLER " id="pdf-obj-36-4" src="pdf-obj-36-4.jpg">

Integration of the current pulses produces a visible indication of the cars engine speed on the 0-1mA meter.Supply is taken from the cars 12v system and for the 555 it is reduced to a regulated 9v by the 15 ohm resistor in conjunction with the 9v zener diode. Note: the 10u electrolytic must be placed physically as close as possible to supply pin 8.

Posted by karan at 6:48 AM No comments:

capacitor. The 50mA meter receives pulses of current through the 200k pot to show a reading.6:48 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest 555 AMPLIFIER The 555 can be used as an amplifier. It operates very similar to pulse-width modulation. The component values cause the 555 to oscillate at approx 66kHz and the speaker does not respond to this high frequency. Instead it responds to the average CD value of the modulated output and demonstrates the concept of pulse- width modulation. The chip gets very hot and is only for brief demonstrations. Posted by karan at 6:46 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest VOLTAGE DOUBLER " id="pdf-obj-36-23" src="pdf-obj-36-23.jpg">
capacitor. The 50mA meter receives pulses of current through the 200k pot to show a reading.6:48 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest 555 AMPLIFIER The 555 can be used as an amplifier. It operates very similar to pulse-width modulation. The component values cause the 555 to oscillate at approx 66kHz and the speaker does not respond to this high frequency. Instead it responds to the average CD value of the modulated output and demonstrates the concept of pulse- width modulation. The chip gets very hot and is only for brief demonstrations. Posted by karan at 6:46 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest VOLTAGE DOUBLER " id="pdf-obj-36-25" src="pdf-obj-36-25.jpg">

The 555 can be used as an amplifier. It operates very similar to pulse-width modulation. The component values cause the 555 to oscillate at approx 66kHz and the speaker does not respond to this high frequency. Instead it responds to the average CD value of the modulated output and demonstrates the concept of pulse- width modulation. The chip gets very hot and is only for brief demonstrations.

Posted by karan at 6:46 AM No comments:

A voltage higher than the supply can be created by a "Charge-Pump" circuit created with a6:46 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest SCREAMER This circuit will produce an ear-piercing scream, depending on the amount of light being detected by the Light Dependent Resistor. Posted by karan at 6:46 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest CRYSTAL TESTER " id="pdf-obj-37-2" src="pdf-obj-37-2.jpg">
A voltage higher than the supply can be created by a "Charge-Pump" circuit created with a6:46 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest SCREAMER This circuit will produce an ear-piercing scream, depending on the amount of light being detected by the Light Dependent Resistor. Posted by karan at 6:46 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest CRYSTAL TESTER " id="pdf-obj-37-4" src="pdf-obj-37-4.jpg">

A voltage higher than the supply can be created by a "Charge-Pump" circuit created with a 555, diodes and capacitors as shown in the following circuit. The output will deliver about 50mA

Posted by karan at 6:46 AM No comments:

This circuit will produce an ear-piercing scream, depending on the amount of light being detected by the Light Dependent Resistor.

A voltage higher than the supply can be created by a "Charge-Pump" circuit created with a6:46 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest SCREAMER This circuit will produce an ear-piercing scream, depending on the amount of light being detected by the Light Dependent Resistor. Posted by karan at 6:46 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest CRYSTAL TESTER " id="pdf-obj-37-24" src="pdf-obj-37-24.jpg">

Posted by karan at 6:46 AM No comments:

This circuit will test crystals from 1MHz to 30MHz. When the crystal oscillates, the output will6:44 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest 250mW FM transmitter A very simple FM transmitter electronic project can be designed using this circuit diagram . This FM transmitter electronic project works in FM band and it has a transmission power around 250mW ( thing that make it to work at above hundred meters ) . This FM transmitter electronic circuit is very simple and is based on some common transistors and electronic parts . T1 transistor can be a BC107, BC171 or equivalent , and is used as an small audio preamplifier that amplify the audio signal from the microphone . Adjusting the R2 variable resistor, audio signal level from the input ( microphone ) can be adjusted until will be delivered to the T1 preamplifier (an over amplified signal applied to T1 can produce an overmodulation) . From T1 , signal is delivered to T2 which form an Hartley oscillator (frequency of this oscillator depends of C8,C9 and L1) . The transmitter frequency oscillator works in FM band 87.5-108 MHz and can be set , adjusting C8 capacitor and L1 coil . L1 coil must have four turnings on a 0.8-1 mm cylinder support with a 6 mm diameter (space between each wire must be around 1 mm ) .Antenna used for this project can be a simple telescopic antenna or a 60-70 mm Cu wire . This electronic project can be powered from a wide range input voltage from 9 to 12 volts Dc ( but can be used even a 18 volts DC . " id="pdf-obj-38-2" src="pdf-obj-38-2.jpg">

This circuit will test crystals from 1MHz to 30MHz. When the crystal oscillates, the output will pass through the 1n capacitor to the two diodes. These will charge the 4n7 and turn on the second transistor. This will cause the LED to illuminate.

This circuit will test crystals from 1MHz to 30MHz. When the crystal oscillates, the output will6:44 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest 250mW FM transmitter A very simple FM transmitter electronic project can be designed using this circuit diagram . This FM transmitter electronic project works in FM band and it has a transmission power around 250mW ( thing that make it to work at above hundred meters ) . This FM transmitter electronic circuit is very simple and is based on some common transistors and electronic parts . T1 transistor can be a BC107, BC171 or equivalent , and is used as an small audio preamplifier that amplify the audio signal from the microphone . Adjusting the R2 variable resistor, audio signal level from the input ( microphone ) can be adjusted until will be delivered to the T1 preamplifier (an over amplified signal applied to T1 can produce an overmodulation) . From T1 , signal is delivered to T2 which form an Hartley oscillator (frequency of this oscillator depends of C8,C9 and L1) . The transmitter frequency oscillator works in FM band 87.5-108 MHz and can be set , adjusting C8 capacitor and L1 coil . L1 coil must have four turnings on a 0.8-1 mm cylinder support with a 6 mm diameter (space between each wire must be around 1 mm ) .Antenna used for this project can be a simple telescopic antenna or a 60-70 mm Cu wire . This electronic project can be powered from a wide range input voltage from 9 to 12 volts Dc ( but can be used even a 18 volts DC . " id="pdf-obj-38-6" src="pdf-obj-38-6.jpg">

Posted by karan at 6:44 AM No comments:

This circuit will test crystals from 1MHz to 30MHz. When the crystal oscillates, the output will6:44 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest 250mW FM transmitter A very simple FM transmitter electronic project can be designed using this circuit diagram . This FM transmitter electronic project works in FM band and it has a transmission power around 250mW ( thing that make it to work at above hundred meters ) . This FM transmitter electronic circuit is very simple and is based on some common transistors and electronic parts . T1 transistor can be a BC107, BC171 or equivalent , and is used as an small audio preamplifier that amplify the audio signal from the microphone . Adjusting the R2 variable resistor, audio signal level from the input ( microphone ) can be adjusted until will be delivered to the T1 preamplifier (an over amplified signal applied to T1 can produce an overmodulation) . From T1 , signal is delivered to T2 which form an Hartley oscillator (frequency of this oscillator depends of C8,C9 and L1) . The transmitter frequency oscillator works in FM band 87.5-108 MHz and can be set , adjusting C8 capacitor and L1 coil . L1 coil must have four turnings on a 0.8-1 mm cylinder support with a 6 mm diameter (space between each wire must be around 1 mm ) .Antenna used for this project can be a simple telescopic antenna or a 60-70 mm Cu wire . This electronic project can be powered from a wide range input voltage from 9 to 12 volts Dc ( but can be used even a 18 volts DC . " id="pdf-obj-38-23" src="pdf-obj-38-23.jpg">

A very simple FM transmitter electronic project can be designed using this circuit diagram . This FM transmitter electronic project works in FM band and it has a transmission power around 250mW ( thing that make it to work at above hundred meters ) . This FM transmitter electronic circuit is very simple and is based on some common transistors and electronic parts . T1 transistor can be a BC107, BC171 or equivalent , and is used as an small audio preamplifier that amplify the audio signal from the microphone . Adjusting the R2 variable resistor, audio signal level from the input ( microphone ) can be adjusted until will be delivered to the T1 preamplifier (an over amplified signal applied to T1 can produce an overmodulation) . From T1 , signal is delivered to T2 which form an Hartley oscillator (frequency of this oscillator depends of C8,C9 and L1) .

The transmitter frequency oscillator works in FM band 87.5-108 MHz and can be set , adjusting C8 capacitor and L1 coil . L1 coil must have four turnings on a 0.8-1 mm cylinder support with a 6 mm diameter (space between each wire must be around 1 mm ) .Antenna used for this project can be a simple telescopic antenna or a 60-70 mm Cu wire . This electronic project can be powered from a wide range input voltage from 9 to 12 volts Dc ( but can be used even a 18 volts DC .

Posted by karan at <a href=5:48 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest HF VHF UHF active antenna electronic project A very simple and efficiency active antenna electronic project can be designed using this electronic schematic circuit that is based on transistors. This active antenna electronic project is useful for a wide range of RF frequencies covering three RF bands HF , VHF and UHF . This simple active antenna is designed to amplify signals from 3 to 3000 MegaHertz, including three recognized ranges: 3-30Mhz high-frequency (HF) signals; 3-300Mhz veryhigh frequency (VHF) signals; 300-3000MHz ultra-high (UHF) frequency signals. This HF VHF UHF active antenna contains only two active elements : Q1 (which is an MFE201 N-Channel dual-gate MOSFET) and Q2 (which is an 2SC2570 NPN VHF silicon transistor). Those transistors provide the basis of two independent, switchable RF pre-amplifiers. Two DPDT switches play a major role in this circuit , switch S1 used to select one of the two pre-amplifier circuits (either HF or VHF/UHF) and switch 2 is used to turn off the power to the circuit, while coupling the incoming RF directly to the input of the receiver. S2 is useful to give to receiver nonamplified signal access to the auxiliary antenna jack, at J1, as well as the on-board telescoping whip antenna.This circuit must be powered from a simple 9 volt DC power circuit ( or a 9 volts battery) and is very useful for use as an indoor antenna . " id="pdf-obj-39-2" src="pdf-obj-39-2.jpg">

Posted by karan at 5:48 AM No comments:

Posted by karan at <a href=5:48 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest HF VHF UHF active antenna electronic project A very simple and efficiency active antenna electronic project can be designed using this electronic schematic circuit that is based on transistors. This active antenna electronic project is useful for a wide range of RF frequencies covering three RF bands HF , VHF and UHF . This simple active antenna is designed to amplify signals from 3 to 3000 MegaHertz, including three recognized ranges: 3-30Mhz high-frequency (HF) signals; 3-300Mhz veryhigh frequency (VHF) signals; 300-3000MHz ultra-high (UHF) frequency signals. This HF VHF UHF active antenna contains only two active elements : Q1 (which is an MFE201 N-Channel dual-gate MOSFET) and Q2 (which is an 2SC2570 NPN VHF silicon transistor). Those transistors provide the basis of two independent, switchable RF pre-amplifiers. Two DPDT switches play a major role in this circuit , switch S1 used to select one of the two pre-amplifier circuits (either HF or VHF/UHF) and switch 2 is used to turn off the power to the circuit, while coupling the incoming RF directly to the input of the receiver. S2 is useful to give to receiver nonamplified signal access to the auxiliary antenna jack, at J1, as well as the on-board telescoping whip antenna.This circuit must be powered from a simple 9 volt DC power circuit ( or a 9 volts battery) and is very useful for use as an indoor antenna . " id="pdf-obj-39-18" src="pdf-obj-39-18.jpg">

A very simple and efficiency active antenna electronic project can be designed using this electronic schematic circuit that is based on transistors. This active antenna electronic project is useful for a wide range of RF frequencies covering three RF bands HF , VHF and UHF . This simple active antenna is designed to amplify signals from 3 to 3000 MegaHertz, including three recognized ranges: 3-30Mhz high-frequency (HF) signals; 3-300Mhz veryhigh frequency (VHF) signals; 300-3000MHz ultra-high (UHF) frequency signals.

This HF VHF UHF active antenna contains only two active elements : Q1 (which is an MFE201 N-Channel dual-gate MOSFET) and Q2 (which is an 2SC2570 NPN VHF silicon transistor). Those transistors provide the basis of two independent, switchable RF pre-amplifiers. Two DPDT switches play a major role in this circuit , switch S1 used to select one of the two pre-amplifier circuits (either HF or VHF/UHF) and switch 2 is used to turn off the power to the circuit, while coupling the incoming RF directly to the input of the receiver.

S2 is useful to give to receiver nonamplified signal access to the auxiliary antenna jack, at J1, as well as the on-board telescoping whip antenna.This circuit must be powered from a simple 9 volt DC power circuit ( or a 9 volts battery) and is very useful for use as an indoor antenna .

Posted by karan at <a href=5:46 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Class D amplifier using MAX98304 This electronic circuit project is a very simple class D amplifier that will provide a maximum output power up to 3.2W . This Class D amplifier is based on MAX98304 amplifier IC and provides Class AB audio performance with Class D efficiency.This device offers five selectable gain settings (0dB, 3dB, 6dB, 9dB, and 12dB) set by a single gain-select input (GAIN).Active emissions-limiting, edge-rate, and overshoot control circuitry greatly reduces EMI. This Class D amplifier features click-and-pop suppression that reduces audible transients on startup and shutdown.The amplifier includes thermal overload and short-circuit protection.The MAX98304's 0.95mA at 3.7V (1.2mA at 5V) quiescent current extends battery life in portable applications. The circuit can be powered from an input voltage range between 2.5 and 5.5 volts DC . As you can see in the circuit diagram these amplifier circuit require extreme low external parts and thanks to low power consumption and to its small package these circuit can be used in portable audio applications like : mp3 players, cellular phones , etc. " id="pdf-obj-40-2" src="pdf-obj-40-2.jpg">

Posted by karan at 5:46 AM No comments:

Posted by karan at <a href=5:46 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Class D amplifier using MAX98304 This electronic circuit project is a very simple class D amplifier that will provide a maximum output power up to 3.2W . This Class D amplifier is based on MAX98304 amplifier IC and provides Class AB audio performance with Class D efficiency.This device offers five selectable gain settings (0dB, 3dB, 6dB, 9dB, and 12dB) set by a single gain-select input (GAIN).Active emissions-limiting, edge-rate, and overshoot control circuitry greatly reduces EMI. This Class D amplifier features click-and-pop suppression that reduces audible transients on startup and shutdown.The amplifier includes thermal overload and short-circuit protection.The MAX98304's 0.95mA at 3.7V (1.2mA at 5V) quiescent current extends battery life in portable applications. The circuit can be powered from an input voltage range between 2.5 and 5.5 volts DC . As you can see in the circuit diagram these amplifier circuit require extreme low external parts and thanks to low power consumption and to its small package these circuit can be used in portable audio applications like : mp3 players, cellular phones , etc. " id="pdf-obj-40-18" src="pdf-obj-40-18.jpg">

This electronic circuit project is a very simple class D amplifier that will provide a maximum output power up to 3.2W . This Class D amplifier is based on MAX98304 amplifier IC and provides Class AB audio performance with Class D efficiency.This device offers five selectable gain settings (0dB, 3dB, 6dB, 9dB, and 12dB) set by a single gain-select input (GAIN).Active emissions-limiting, edge-rate, and overshoot control circuitry greatly reduces EMI.

This Class D amplifier features click-and-pop suppression that reduces audible transients on startup and shutdown.The amplifier includes thermal overload and short-circuit protection.The MAX98304's 0.95mA at 3.7V (1.2mA at 5V) quiescent current extends battery life in portable applications.

The circuit can be powered from an input voltage range between 2.5 and 5.5 volts DC . As you can see in the circuit diagram these amplifier circuit require extreme low external parts and thanks to low power consumption and to its small package these circuit can be used in portable audio applications like : mp3 players, cellular phones , etc.

Posted by karan at <a href=5:44 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Sunday, February 20, 2011 10000 and 5000 Hz Multivibrator Clock It is fun to occasionally build circuits using discrete semiconductors rather than with ICs. A 5000 Hz digital clock was needed for an experiment. It was decided to use multivibrators for the basic oscillator and a divide by 2. Figure 5 is the entire circuit. The tuning range of the astable multivibrator was about 7060-10650 Hz. The 5K pot was slowly adjusted until 10000 Hz was measured in a frequency counter. Following testing of the astable multivibrator, the flip flop was built and examined. Astable multivibrator function has been discussed previously on this web site. Please refer to the bistable multivibrator. It is a one input circuit set up for toggle or flip-flop operation. Negative edge pulses applied between the two 0.001 capacitors will cause the binary state of Q1 and Q2 to " id="pdf-obj-41-2" src="pdf-obj-41-2.jpg">

Posted by karan at 5:44 AM No comments:

Sunday, February 20, 2011

Posted by karan at <a href=5:44 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Sunday, February 20, 2011 10000 and 5000 Hz Multivibrator Clock It is fun to occasionally build circuits using discrete semiconductors rather than with ICs. A 5000 Hz digital clock was needed for an experiment. It was decided to use multivibrators for the basic oscillator and a divide by 2. Figure 5 is the entire circuit. The tuning range of the astable multivibrator was about 7060-10650 Hz. The 5K pot was slowly adjusted until 10000 Hz was measured in a frequency counter. Following testing of the astable multivibrator, the flip flop was built and examined. Astable multivibrator function has been discussed previously on this web site. Please refer to the bistable multivibrator. It is a one input circuit set up for toggle or flip-flop operation. Negative edge pulses applied between the two 0.001 capacitors will cause the binary state of Q1 and Q2 to " id="pdf-obj-41-21" src="pdf-obj-41-21.jpg">

It is fun to occasionally build circuits using discrete semiconductors rather than with ICs. A 5000 Hz digital clock was needed for an experiment. It was decided to use multivibrators for the basic oscillator and a divide by 2.

Figure 5 is the entire circuit. The tuning range of the astable multivibrator was about 7060-10650 Hz. The 5K pot was slowly adjusted until 10000 Hz was measured in a frequency counter. Following testing of the astable multivibrator, the flip flop was built and examined. Astable multivibrator function has been discussed previously on this web site. Please refer to the bistable multivibrator. It is a one input circuit set up for toggle or flip-flop operation. Negative edge pulses applied between the two 0.001 capacitors will cause the binary state of Q1 and Q2 to

change to the opposite state. The multivibrator circuit is made up of Q1, Q2 and the 47K and 1K base and collector resistors respectively. The other components D1, D2, the RS resistors and CS capacitors comprise a steering circuit to generate the proper response to the negative edge pulses. When a negative input pulse arrives, it is guided to the base terminal of the ON transistor, but prevented from reaching the base terminal of the OFF transistor.

In order to study this circuit at DC, I temporarily exchanged the 0.001 timing capacitors in the astable multivibrator with some 22 uF electrolytic caps to slow it down. Referring back to the bistable multivibrator, let us assume that Q1 is OFF and Q2 is ON. The collector voltage of Q1 is high (cut off). The collector voltage of Q2 is low (saturation). The Q1 collector is connected to the cathode of D1 by the 100K RS resistor. The cathode of D1 is reverse biased by the high Q1 collector voltage and also because its anode is held close to 0 volts by the 47K resistor connected to the collector terminal of Q2. It would take a very strong negative input pulse to forward bias D1 enough to reach the Q1 base terminal. The Q2 collector voltage is nearly 0 volts and therefore the D2 cathode has little to no reverse bias voltage via its RS. Thus, any small amplitude negative input pulse will cause D2 to become forward biased, reach the base of Q2 and drive Q2 OFF. Once Q2 switches off, in turn Q1 is toggled ON and its collector voltage goes low. The large reverse bias on D1 disappears. However, Q2 is now OFF and D2 will now be strongly reverse biased which will steer the next negative input pulse to the base of Q1. This is the basis of the circuit's negative edge flip- flop operation.

In another experiment, I changed the .001 C0G capacitors of the astable multivibrator to 470 pF. This gave a usable range of 22968 to 14832 Hertz (11484-7416 Hz at the Q1 and Q2 output) . Looking at the output of the flip-flop in the oscilloscope; at the higher frequency range, the flip-flop could not keep up and failed to divide by 2. I found experimentally that the time constant of each of the CS and RS components seemed to be the problem. When the CS capacitors were also decreased to 470 pF, the flip-flop worked properly.

As you increase the flip-flop operation frequency, speed up bypass capacitors might also be required across the 47K base resistors of Q1 and Q2 . A suggested starting value to try is 220 pF. Some builders also bypass the resistors in the RS steering circuit at higher frequencies, however, this is getting a little crazy. It is really important to look at the output waveform in the oscilloscope to ensure reasonable performance.

Shown above is the Figure 5 breadboard prototype.

5 KHz output waveform of Q2

Posted by karan at 1:25 PM No comments:

NPN DC-BIAS
NPN DC-BIAS

This application calculates the various voltages and currents of a simple voltage divider bias NPN bipolar

transistor amp. The following is calculated: IB, IC, IE, VE, VB, VC, VCE and detection of Saturation or Cutoff. The user can alter the VCC, VBE, transistor beta and any of four resistor values R1, R2, RC and RE by picking the transistor value from a standard-value resistor table or manually entering the value. The schematic illustrates some of the voltage measuring points on the transistor schematic. This app is in final BETA.

Style: GUI, File size: 73K, zipped, 32K.

Current Version is: 16 / 04 / 1999

Posted by karan at 1:24 PM No comments:

<a href=WATER LEVEL PUMP CONTROLLER This circuit provides automatic level control of a water tank.The shorter steel rod is the "water high" sensor and the longer is the "water low" sensor. When the water level is below both sensors, pin 10 is low. If the water comes in contact with the longer sensor the output remains low until the shorter sensor is reached. At this point pin11 goes high and the transistor conducts. The relay is energized and the pump starts operating. When the water level drops the shorter sensor will be no longer in contact with the water, but the output of the IC will keep the transistor tuned ON until the water falls below the level of the longer rod. When the water level falls below the longer sensor, the output of the IC goes low and the pump will stop. The switch provides reverse operation. Switching to connect the transistor to pin 11 of the IC will cause the pump will operate when the tank is nearly empty and will stop when the tank is full. In this case, the pump will be used to fill the tank and not to empty it.Note: The two steel rods must be supported by a small insulated (wooden or plastic) board. The circuit can be used also with non-metal tanks, provided a third steel rod having about the same height as the tank is connected to the negative. Adding an alarm to pin 11 will let you know the tank is nearly empty. Posted by karan at 9:14 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest INTERCOM " id="pdf-obj-44-4" src="pdf-obj-44-4.jpg">

This circuit provides automatic level control of a water tank.The shorter steel rod is the "water high" sensor and the longer is the "water low" sensor. When the water level is below both sensors, pin 10 is low. If the water comes in contact with the longer sensor the output remains low until the shorter sensor is reached. At this point pin11 goes high and the transistor conducts. The relay is energized and the pump starts operating. When the water level drops the shorter sensor will be no longer in contact with the water, but the output of the IC will keep the transistor tuned ON until the water falls below the level of the longer rod. When the water level falls below the longer sensor, the output of the IC goes low and the pump will stop.

The switch provides reverse operation. Switching to connect the transistor to pin 11 of the IC will cause the pump will operate when the tank is nearly empty and will stop when the tank is full. In this case, the pump will be used to fill the tank and not to empty it.Note: The two steel rods must be supported by a small insulated (wooden or plastic) board. The circuit can be used also with non-metal tanks, provided a third steel rod having about the same height as the tank is connected to the negative. Adding an alarm to pin 11 will let you know the tank is nearly empty.

Posted by karan at 9:14 AM No comments:

<a href=WATER LEVEL PUMP CONTROLLER This circuit provides automatic level control of a water tank.The shorter steel rod is the "water high" sensor and the longer is the "water low" sensor. When the water level is below both sensors, pin 10 is low. If the water comes in contact with the longer sensor the output remains low until the shorter sensor is reached. At this point pin11 goes high and the transistor conducts. The relay is energized and the pump starts operating. When the water level drops the shorter sensor will be no longer in contact with the water, but the output of the IC will keep the transistor tuned ON until the water falls below the level of the longer rod. When the water level falls below the longer sensor, the output of the IC goes low and the pump will stop. The switch provides reverse operation. Switching to connect the transistor to pin 11 of the IC will cause the pump will operate when the tank is nearly empty and will stop when the tank is full. In this case, the pump will be used to fill the tank and not to empty it.Note: The two steel rods must be supported by a small insulated (wooden or plastic) board. The circuit can be used also with non-metal tanks, provided a third steel rod having about the same height as the tank is connected to the negative. Adding an alarm to pin 11 will let you know the tank is nearly empty. Posted by karan at 9:14 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest INTERCOM " id="pdf-obj-44-24" src="pdf-obj-44-24.jpg">

This circuit uses a single transistor and LM386 amplifier IC to produce an intercom that allows hands-free operation. As both microphones and loudspeakers are always connected, the circuit is designed to avoid feedback - known as the "Larsen effect".

The microphone amplifier transistor is 180° phase-shifted and one of the audio outputs is taken at the collector and its in-phase output taken at the emitter. These are mixed by the 10u, 22u, 20k pot and 2k7 so that the two signals almost cancel out. In this way, the loudspeaker will reproduce a very faint copy of the signals picked-up by the microphone. At the same time, as both collectors of the two intercom units are tied together, the 180° phase-shifted signal will pass to the audio amplifier of the second unit without attenuation, so it will be loudly reproduced by its loudspeaker.

The same operation will occur when speaking into the microphone of the second unit. When the 20k pot is set correctly, almost no output will be heard from the loudspeaker but a loud and clear reproduction will be heard at the output of the other unit. The second 20k pot adjusts the volume.

Posted by karan at 9:12 AM 2 comments:

This circuit uses a single transistor and LM386 amplifier IC to produce an intercom that allows9:12 AM 2 comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest FLASH LEDS FOR 20 SECONDS This circuit comes from a request from a reader. It flashes a LED for 20 seconds after a switch is pressed. In other words, for 20 seconds as soon as the switch is pressed. The values will need to be adjusted to get the required flash-rate and timing. Posted by karan at 9:12 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest SIMPLE BFO METAL LOCATOR This circuit uses a single coil and nine components to make a particularly sensitive low-cost metal locator. It works on the principle of a beat frequency oscillator (BFO).The circuit incorporates two oscillators, both operating at about 40kHz. The first, IC1a, is a standard CMOS oscillator with its frequency adjustable via VR1. The frequency of the second, IC1b, is highly dependent on the inductance of coil L1, so that its frequency shifts in the presence of metal. L1 is 70 turns of 0.315mm enamelled copper wire wound on a 120mm diameter former. The Faraday shield is made of aluminum foil, which is wound around all but about 10mm of the coil and connected to pin 4 of IC1b. " id="pdf-obj-45-23" src="pdf-obj-45-23.jpg">

This circuit comes from a request from a reader. It flashes a LED for 20 seconds after a switch is pressed. In other words, for 20 seconds as soon as the switch is pressed. The values will need to be adjusted to get the required flash-rate and timing.

This circuit uses a single transistor and LM386 amplifier IC to produce an intercom that allows9:12 AM 2 comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest FLASH LEDS FOR 20 SECONDS This circuit comes from a request from a reader. It flashes a LED for 20 seconds after a switch is pressed. In other words, for 20 seconds as soon as the switch is pressed. The values will need to be adjusted to get the required flash-rate and timing. Posted by karan at 9:12 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest SIMPLE BFO METAL LOCATOR This circuit uses a single coil and nine components to make a particularly sensitive low-cost metal locator. It works on the principle of a beat frequency oscillator (BFO).The circuit incorporates two oscillators, both operating at about 40kHz. The first, IC1a, is a standard CMOS oscillator with its frequency adjustable via VR1. The frequency of the second, IC1b, is highly dependent on the inductance of coil L1, so that its frequency shifts in the presence of metal. L1 is 70 turns of 0.315mm enamelled copper wire wound on a 120mm diameter former. The Faraday shield is made of aluminum foil, which is wound around all but about 10mm of the coil and connected to pin 4 of IC1b. " id="pdf-obj-45-27" src="pdf-obj-45-27.jpg">

Posted by karan at 9:12 AM No comments:

This circuit uses a single transistor and LM386 amplifier IC to produce an intercom that allows9:12 AM 2 comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest FLASH LEDS FOR 20 SECONDS This circuit comes from a request from a reader. It flashes a LED for 20 seconds after a switch is pressed. In other words, for 20 seconds as soon as the switch is pressed. The values will need to be adjusted to get the required flash-rate and timing. Posted by karan at 9:12 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest SIMPLE BFO METAL LOCATOR This circuit uses a single coil and nine components to make a particularly sensitive low-cost metal locator. It works on the principle of a beat frequency oscillator (BFO).The circuit incorporates two oscillators, both operating at about 40kHz. The first, IC1a, is a standard CMOS oscillator with its frequency adjustable via VR1. The frequency of the second, IC1b, is highly dependent on the inductance of coil L1, so that its frequency shifts in the presence of metal. L1 is 70 turns of 0.315mm enamelled copper wire wound on a 120mm diameter former. The Faraday shield is made of aluminum foil, which is wound around all but about 10mm of the coil and connected to pin 4 of IC1b. " id="pdf-obj-45-43" src="pdf-obj-45-43.jpg">

This circuit uses a single coil and nine components to make a particularly sensitive low-cost metal locator. It works on the principle of a beat frequency oscillator (BFO).The circuit incorporates two oscillators, both operating at about 40kHz. The first, IC1a, is a standard CMOS oscillator with its frequency adjustable via

VR1.

The frequency of the second, IC1b, is highly dependent on the inductance of coil L1, so that its frequency shifts in the presence of metal. L1 is 70 turns of 0.315mm enamelled copper wire wound on a 120mm diameter former. The Faraday shield is made of aluminum foil, which is wound around all but about 10mm of the coil and connected to pin 4 of IC1b.

The two oscillator signals are mixed through IC1c, to create a beat note. IC1d and IC1c drive the piezo sounder in push-pull fashion, thereby boosting the output.Unlike many other metal locators of its kind, this locator is particularly easy to tune. Around the midpoint setting of VR1, there will be a loud beat frequency with a null point in the middle. The locator needs to be tuned to a low frequency beat note to one or the other side of this null point.

Depending on which side is chosen, it will be sensitive to either ferrous or non-ferrous metals. Besides detecting objects under the ground, the circuit could serve well as a pipe locator.

The two oscillator signals are mixed through IC1c, to create a beat note. IC1d and IC1c9:11 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest BFO METAL DETECTOR The circuit shown must represent the limits of simplicity for a metal detector. It uses a single 4093 quad Schmitt NAND IC and a search coil -- and of course a switch and batteries. A lead from IC1d pin 11 needs to be attached to a MW radio aerial, or should be wrapped around the radio. If the radio has a BFO switch, switch this ON. Since an inductor resists rapid changes in voltage (called reactance), any change in the logic level at IC1c pin 10 is delayed during transfer back to input pins 1 and 2. This is further delayed through propagation delays within the 4093 IC. This sets up a rapid oscillation (about 2 MHz), which is picked up by a MW radio. Any change to the inductance of L1 (through the presence of metal) brings about a change to the oscillator frequency. Although 2 MHz is out of range of the Medium Waves, a MW radio will clearly pick up harmonics of this frequency. The winding of the coil is by no means critical, and a great deal of latitude is permissible. The prototype used 50 turns of 22 awg/30 swg (0.315 mm) enamelled copper wire, wound on a 4.7"/120 mm former. This was then wrapped in insulation tape. The coil then requires a Faraday shield, which is connected to 0V. A Faraday shield is a wrapping of tin foil around the coil, leaving a small gap so that the foil does not complete the entire circumference of the coil. The Faraday shield is again wrapped in insulation tape. A connection may be made to the Faraday shield by wrapping a bare piece of stiff wire around it before adding the tape. Ideally, the search coil will be wired to the circuit by means of twin-core or figure-8 microphone cable, with the screen being wired to the Faraday shield. The metal detector is set up by tuning the MW radio to pick up a whistle (a harmonic of 2 MHz). Note that not every such harmonic works best, and the most suitable one needs to be found. The presence of metal will then clearly change the tone of the whistle. The metal detector has excellent stability, and it should detect a large coin at 80 to 90 mm, which for a BFO detector is relatively good. It will also discriminate between ferrous and non-ferrous metals through a rise or fall in tone. " id="pdf-obj-46-6" src="pdf-obj-46-6.jpg">

Posted by karan at 9:11 AM No comments:

The two oscillator signals are mixed through IC1c, to create a beat note. IC1d and IC1c9:11 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest BFO METAL DETECTOR The circuit shown must represent the limits of simplicity for a metal detector. It uses a single 4093 quad Schmitt NAND IC and a search coil -- and of course a switch and batteries. A lead from IC1d pin 11 needs to be attached to a MW radio aerial, or should be wrapped around the radio. If the radio has a BFO switch, switch this ON. Since an inductor resists rapid changes in voltage (called reactance), any change in the logic level at IC1c pin 10 is delayed during transfer back to input pins 1 and 2. This is further delayed through propagation delays within the 4093 IC. This sets up a rapid oscillation (about 2 MHz), which is picked up by a MW radio. Any change to the inductance of L1 (through the presence of metal) brings about a change to the oscillator frequency. Although 2 MHz is out of range of the Medium Waves, a MW radio will clearly pick up harmonics of this frequency. The winding of the coil is by no means critical, and a great deal of latitude is permissible. The prototype used 50 turns of 22 awg/30 swg (0.315 mm) enamelled copper wire, wound on a 4.7"/120 mm former. This was then wrapped in insulation tape. The coil then requires a Faraday shield, which is connected to 0V. A Faraday shield is a wrapping of tin foil around the coil, leaving a small gap so that the foil does not complete the entire circumference of the coil. The Faraday shield is again wrapped in insulation tape. A connection may be made to the Faraday shield by wrapping a bare piece of stiff wire around it before adding the tape. Ideally, the search coil will be wired to the circuit by means of twin-core or figure-8 microphone cable, with the screen being wired to the Faraday shield. The metal detector is set up by tuning the MW radio to pick up a whistle (a harmonic of 2 MHz). Note that not every such harmonic works best, and the most suitable one needs to be found. The presence of metal will then clearly change the tone of the whistle. The metal detector has excellent stability, and it should detect a large coin at 80 to 90 mm, which for a BFO detector is relatively good. It will also discriminate between ferrous and non-ferrous metals through a rise or fall in tone. " id="pdf-obj-46-22" src="pdf-obj-46-22.jpg">

The circuit shown must represent the limits of simplicity for a metal detector. It uses a single 4093 quad Schmitt NAND IC and a search coil -- and of course a switch and batteries. A lead from IC1d pin 11 needs to be attached to a MW radio aerial, or should be wrapped around the radio. If the radio has a BFO switch, switch this ON.

Since an inductor resists rapid changes in voltage (called reactance), any change in the logic level at IC1c pin 10 is delayed during transfer back to input pins 1 and 2. This is further delayed through propagation delays within the 4093 IC. This sets up a rapid oscillation (about 2 MHz), which is picked up by a MW radio. Any change to the inductance of L1 (through the presence of metal) brings about a change to the oscillator frequency. Although 2 MHz is out of range of the Medium Waves, a MW radio will clearly pick up harmonics of this frequency.

The winding of the coil is by no means critical, and a great deal of latitude is permissible. The prototype used 50 turns of 22 awg/30 swg (0.315 mm) enamelled copper wire, wound on a 4.7"/120 mm former. This was then wrapped in insulation tape. The coil then requires a Faraday shield, which is connected to 0V. A Faraday shield is a wrapping of tin foil around the coil, leaving a small gap so that the foil does not complete the entire circumference of the coil. The Faraday shield is again wrapped in insulation tape. A connection may be made to the Faraday shield by wrapping a bare piece of stiff wire around it before adding the tape. Ideally, the search coil will be wired to the circuit by means of twin-core or figure-8 microphone cable, with the screen being wired to the Faraday shield.

The metal detector is set up by tuning the MW radio to pick up a whistle (a harmonic of 2 MHz). Note that not every such harmonic works best, and the most suitable one needs to be found. The presence of metal will then clearly change the tone of the whistle. The metal detector has excellent stability, and it should detect a large coin at 80 to 90 mm, which for a BFO detector is relatively good. It will also discriminate between ferrous and non-ferrous metals through a rise or fall in tone.

Posted by karan at <a href=9:10 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest LED ZEPPELIN This circuit is a game of skill. See full article: LED Zeppelin . The kit is available from talking electronics for $15.50 plus postage. The game consists of six LEDs and an indicator LED that flashes at a rate of about 2 cycles per second. A push button is the "Operations Control" and by carefully pushing the button in synchronisation with the flashing LED, the row of LEDs will gradually light up. But the slightest mistake will immediately extinguish one, two or three LEDs. The aim of the game is to illuminate the 6 LEDs with the least number of pushes. We have sold thousands of these kits. It's a great challenge. Posted by karan at 9:09 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest KNOCK KNOCK DOORBELL " id="pdf-obj-47-2" src="pdf-obj-47-2.jpg">

Posted by karan at 9:10 AM No comments:

This circuit is a game of skill. See full article: LED Zeppelin. The kit is available from talking electronics for $15.50 plus postage. The game consists of six LEDs and an indicator LED that flashes at a rate of about 2 cycles per second. A push button is the "Operations Control" and by carefully pushing the button in synchronisation with the flashing LED, the row of LEDs will gradually light up.

But the slightest mistake will immediately extinguish one, two or three LEDs. The aim of the game is to illuminate the 6 LEDs with the least number of pushes. We have sold thousands of these kits. It's a great challenge.

Posted by karan at <a href=9:10 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest LED ZEPPELIN This circuit is a game of skill. See full article: LED Zeppelin . The kit is available from talking electronics for $15.50 plus postage. The game consists of six LEDs and an indicator LED that flashes at a rate of about 2 cycles per second. A push button is the "Operations Control" and by carefully pushing the button in synchronisation with the flashing LED, the row of LEDs will gradually light up. But the slightest mistake will immediately extinguish one, two or three LEDs. The aim of the game is to illuminate the 6 LEDs with the least number of pushes. We have sold thousands of these kits. It's a great challenge. Posted by karan at 9:09 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest KNOCK KNOCK DOORBELL " id="pdf-obj-47-25" src="pdf-obj-47-25.jpg">

Posted by karan at 9:09 AM No comments:

This very clever circuit only produces an output when the piezo detects two taps. It can be used as a knock- knock doorbell. A PC board containing all components (soldered to the board) is available from talking electronics for $5.00 plus postage. The circuit takes only a few microamp and when a tap is detected by the piezo, the waveform from the transistor produces a HIGH on pin 6 and the HIGH on pin 5 makes output pin

  • 4 go low. This very quickly charges the 47n and it is discharged via the 560k to produce a brief pulse at pin

3.

The 47n is mainly to stop noise entering pin 2. Pin 1 is HIGH via the 2M7 and the LOW on pin 2 causes pin

  • 3 to produce a HIGH pulse. The 47n is discharged via the internal diodes on pin 13 and when it goes LOW, pin 11 goes HIGH and charges the 10n via the 22k and diode.

This puts a HIGH on pin 8 for approx 0.7 seconds and when a second tap is detected, pin 9 sees a HIGH and pin 10 goes LOW. This puts a LOW on pin 12 and a HIGH on pin 8. The LOW on pin 12 goes to pin 1. A HIGH and LOW on the second NAND gate produces a HIGH on pin 3 and the third NAND gate has a HIGH on both inputs. This makes pin 10 LOW and the 4u7 starts to charge via the 2M7 resistor. After 5 seconds pin 12 sees a HIGH and pin 11 goes LOW. The 10n is discharged via the 10M and when pin 8 sees a LOW, pin 10 goes HIGH. The output sits HIGH and goes LOW for about 7 seconds.

Posted by karan at 9:09 AM No comments:

A square wave oscillator kit can be purchased from Talking Electronics for approx $10.00 . It has adjustable (and settable) frequencies from 1Hz to 100kHz and is an ideal piece of Test Equipment.

Posted by karan at 9:08 AM No comments:

A square wave oscillator kit can be purchased from Talking Electronics for approx $10.00 . It9:08 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Outdoor MF and HF Antenna The schematic to the left summarizes the outdoor VE7BPO MF and HF receiving antenna system for summer 2007. Although modest for a big city lot, this antenna seems to pull in the DX and is relatively free of RFI. This antenna was just a case of "putting as much wire in the sky as possible" and the dimensions are indicated for interest sake only. The 27 meter long horizontal section is supported between 2 trees at a height of about 14 meters high. The weight of the vertical element wire plus slack in the horizontal wire droop it to about 13 meters high in the center. The vertical section is soldered to the horizontal wire 6 meters from the nearest anchoring tree and runs straight down to the antenna feed point which is about 1 meter off the ground. The feed point is a piece of copper-clad PC board (with isolated sections created with a hobbyist motor tool) and is bolted to a long copper pipe which serves as the first station earth-grounding stake. A transformer (T1) configured as a UNUN (unbalanced-to-unbalanced) is used to interface the antenna with 50 ohm coax that runs through the house and into the radio shack. Some rudimentary experiments with the UNUN and the earth-grounding system were undertaken. The methods I used to potentially lower unwanted RFI to my antenna system are as follows: 1. The receiver and power supply are independently connected to a single, central ground point (ground buss) in the radio shack. 2. 6-10 gauge wire is used for my ground system (not including the radials which are bare 12 gauge wire). 3. The ground wire connecting to my first earth stake to the station ground buss is just outside the shack window and is short as possible to provide a low impedance and low inductance path for MF and HF frequencies. " id="pdf-obj-49-20" src="pdf-obj-49-20.jpg">

The schematic to the left summarizes the outdoor VE7BPO MF and HF receiving antenna system for summer 2007. Although modest for a big city lot, this antenna seems to pull in the DX and is relatively free of RFI. This antenna was just a case of "putting as much wire in the sky as possible" and the dimensions are indicated for interest sake only. The 27 meter long horizontal section is supported between 2 trees at a height of about 14 meters high. The weight of the vertical element wire plus slack in the horizontal wire droop it to about 13 meters high in the center. The vertical section is soldered to the horizontal wire 6 meters from the nearest anchoring tree and runs straight down to the antenna feed point which is about 1 meter off the ground. The feed point is a piece of copper-clad PC board (with isolated sections created with a hobbyist motor tool) and is bolted to a long copper pipe which serves as the first station earth-grounding stake. A transformer (T1) configured as a UNUN (unbalanced-to-unbalanced) is used to interface the antenna with 50 ohm coax that runs through the house and into the radio shack. Some rudimentary experiments with the UNUN and the earth-grounding system were undertaken. The methods I used to potentially lower unwanted RFI to my antenna system are as follows:

  • 1. The receiver and power supply are independently connected to a single, central ground point (ground buss) in the radio shack.

  • 2. 6-10 gauge wire is used for my ground system (not including the radials which are bare 12 gauge wire).

  • 3. The ground wire connecting to my first earth stake to the station ground buss is just outside the shack window and is short as possible to provide a low impedance and low inductance path for MF and HF frequencies.

  • 4. There is a second ground stake located 1 meter from the primary ground stake (I will add 2-4 more in time).

  • 5. I have a large piece of steel buried underneath the soil tied in to my system as well as 3 bare copper radials. The radials are 3 - 7 meters in length.

  • 6. New RG58/U coax was used as the feed line.

  • 7. All wire splices in the grounding system are soldered and taped up. I used conductive grease (to prevent oxidation at the wire-stake interface) on any clamps connected to ground stakes. My ground stakes are ~ 2 meters long.

  • 8. The earth grounding area soil is moist and peat-laden and is watered regularly.

  • 9. I plan to maintain this ground system every 2 years.

Posted by karan at 7:30 AM No comments:

4. There is a second ground stake located 1 meter from the primary ground stake (I7:30 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Battery charger circuit using L200. A very simple battery charger circuit having reverse polarity indication is shown here.The circuit is based on IC L200 . L200 is a five pin variable voltage voltage regulator IC.The charging circuit can be fed by the DC voltage from a bridge rectifier or center tapped rectifier.Here the IC L200 keeps the charging voltage constant.The charging current is controlled by the parallel combination of the resistors R2 & R3.The POT P1 can be used to adjust the charging current.This circuit is designed to charge a 12 V lead acid battery.The transistor t1,diode D3 and LED are used to make a battery reverse indicator.In case the battery is connected in reverse polarity ,the reverse polarity indicator red LED D5 glows.When the charging process is going on the battery charging indicator green LED D4 glows. Circuit diagram with Parts list. " id="pdf-obj-50-40" src="pdf-obj-50-40.jpg">

A very simple battery charger circuit having reverse polarity indication is shown here.The circuit is based on IC L200 . L200 is a five pin variable voltage voltage regulator IC.The charging circuit can be fed by the DC voltage from a bridge rectifier or center tapped rectifier.Here the IC L200 keeps the charging voltage constant.The charging current is controlled by the parallel combination of the resistors R2 & R3.The POT P1 can be used to adjust the charging current.This circuit is designed to charge a 12 V lead acid battery.The transistor t1,diode D3 and LED are used to make a battery reverse indicator.In case the battery is connected in reverse polarity ,the reverse polarity indicator red LED D5 glows.When the charging process is going on the battery charging indicator green LED D4 glows.

Circuit diagram with Parts list.

4. There is a second ground stake located 1 meter from the primary ground stake (I7:30 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest Battery charger circuit using L200. A very simple battery charger circuit having reverse polarity indication is shown here.The circuit is based on IC L200 . L200 is a five pin variable voltage voltage regulator IC.The charging circuit can be fed by the DC voltage from a bridge rectifier or center tapped rectifier.Here the IC L200 keeps the charging voltage constant.The charging current is controlled by the parallel combination of the resistors R2 & R3.The POT P1 can be used to adjust the charging current.This circuit is designed to charge a 12 V lead acid battery.The transistor t1,diode D3 and LED are used to make a battery reverse indicator.In case the battery is connected in reverse polarity ,the reverse polarity indicator red LED D5 glows.When the charging process is going on the battery charging indicator green LED D4 glows. Circuit diagram with Parts list. " id="pdf-obj-50-46" src="pdf-obj-50-46.jpg">

Notes.

The circuit can be assembled on a good quality PCB or common board.

The values of R2 & R3 can be obtained from the equation,

(R2//R3) =( V5-2)/(Io).

Where V5 is the charging voltage (voltage at pin 5) and Io is the charging current.

The POT R8 can be used for fine adjustments of charging current.

If battery is connected in reverse polarity the RED LED will glow.

When the charging is going on the GREEN LED will glow.

The rectified input voltage to the charger can be 18V.