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## Design per ACI 318-02 Appendix A, US Customary Unit

Deep Beam (1) | Deep Beam (2) | Dapped-Beam End | Single Corbel | Double Corbel

A dapped beam end shown in Figure 1 is to be designed to transmit a factored vertical reaction
force of 60 kips and a factored horizontal reaction force of 12 kips to the support. The vertical
reaction is assumed to act 2 in. from the left end of the beam. The beam is 16 in. wide and
made from 6 ksi concrete (normal density) and 60 ksi steel reinforcement.
Summary of
ACI 318-02 Appendix A
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Figure 1
Define the D-region and Calculate the Forces Acting on the Boundary of the Region:
The extension of the D-region is assumed to be one member depth plus the extended part, i.e.
30 + 6 = 36 in. The forces at the right end are a moment of 60(36-2) + 12(15-14) = 2052 k-in.,
an axial tension force of 12 kips, and a shear force of 60 kips. Figure 1 shows the forces acting
on the D-region.
Determine the bearing plate dimensions:
Choose a 4 in.

4 in.

5/8 in. steel angle placed across the width of the beam at the support.

## The bearing plate area is

and the bearing stress is
Since this is less than the bearing stress limit, i.e.
Establish the Strut-and-Tie Model:
The geometry of the assumed truss is given in Figure 2.

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Figure 2
The location of strut BE centerline is dictated by the required compressive block height a at
midspan and is assumed to be 3 in. from the top of the beam. Similarly, the center of tie AD is
dictated by d at midspan and is assumed to be 3 in. from the bottom of the beam.
Tie BC is located just far enough from the dap face to distribute the steel reinforcement and is
assumed to be located 6 in. from the dap face. Tie EF is assumed to be 18 in. from tie BC.
Node D is the meeting point of struts BD, DE, CD, and tie AD.
Determine the Required Truss Forces by Statics:
The required forces in all the members of the truss are given in the following table. Note that
positive indicates tension, negative compression.
Member
AB
BC
BD'
BE
CD
CF DE'
Force (kips) -82.6 +68.7 +102 -56.1 -19.5 -127 +76.5 -75

EF'
+60

Choose

4 #6 bars,

Try to

## The area of reinforcement required for tie CF is

Assume

that #8 bars are used for the midspan bottom reinforcement, use 3 #8,

Try to

## use 4 #4 two-legged stirrups at 4 in. o.c.,

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## Check the Struts:

The struts will be checked by computing the strut widths and then checking whether they fit in
the space available.
The stresses in all the struts are conservatively limited to
Hence, the required width for strut
AB is

for strut BD is

strut BE.

## Choose a width of 1 in. for

As shown in Figure 3, all the strut widths fit into the outline of the disturbed region. Thus, this
solution is accepted. Note that Figure 3 also summarizes the strut stress demands and limits (in
brackets).

Figure 3
Design the Nodal Zones and Check the Anchorages:
To anchor tie AD, the steel is welded to the steel angle. To satisfy the stress limits in nodes A
and D, the tie reinforcement must engage an effective depth of concrete at least equal to

This requirement is easily satisfied since the nodal zone available is 4 in.
The required anchorage length for tie AD at the right end is

Provide

## beyond point D, which is

The steel provided for tie CF is 3 #8. The required development length for #8 bars is
but the available development length is only
about 6 2.5 + 3 = 6.5 in. The force that can be developed in 3 #8 bars is

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which is less than the required tie CF force of 76.5 kips. Thus,
provide horizontal U bars to anchor the force. The area required is
bars placed above the #8 bars.

Use 2 #6 U

## Other Detailing Considerations:

To improve crack control and ductility, a minimum amount of horizontal reinforcement parallel
to and above tie AD will be provided. If the dapped end is treated as a corbel, the required area
of such additional reinforcement would be
bars,

Provide 2 #4 U

## Summary of the Design:

The reinforcement details for the dapped beam end designed using the strut-and-tie model
according to Appendix A are shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4
Deep Beam (1) | Deep Beam (2) | Dapped-Beam End | Single Corbel | Double Corbel