You are on page 1of 60

# Particle in a Box

## Finite Square Well

Potential Barrier and Tunneling
Harmonic Oscillator
3D Schrdinger Equation

## Apply the energy eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of an

infinite square well to physical problems.

## Show the general solution for the time-dependent

Schrdinger equation for an infinite square well potential.
Illustrate how a wavefunction evolves over time in this

system.
Calculate the wavelengths of photons emitted or absorbed
during transitions between energy levels.

()

=
=

= elsewhere

2 2 2
,
2
2

sin

= 1, 2, 3,

## Inside the Well

()

= +
= cos + sin
Outside the Well
=0
0

Energy Eigenstates
=

()

sin

3 ()

2 ()

Energy Eigenvalues
2 2 2
=
22

1 ()

, =

2

sin

General Soution
, =

sin

## An electron is confined to a box that has a

width of 0.125 nm. The electron makes a
transition from the = 1 to = 4 level by
absorbing a photon. What is the wavelength
of the photon?
3.44 nm

## 3rd Long Exam (Saturday May 16, 2015)?

Choose between 7AM-9AM and 3PM-5PM.

## What are the energy eigenvalues and

eigenfunctions (time independent) of a

## particle in a box of width for a given state

=

sin

2 2 2
=
22

?
An electron in a box is excited by a photon
with wavelength 415 nm from the ground
state to the first excited state. What is the
width of the box?

0.614 nm

(, )

Wave Function

Wave Function

PDF

| ,

(, )
Probability

Normalization

Expectation Values
+

() =

() ,

=1

=1

Schrdinger Equation
(, )
2 2 ,

=
+

(,
)

2 2
Separable Solution

, = =

2 2

+ = ()
2
2

Schrdinger Equation
(, )
2 2 ,

=
+

(,
)

2 2
General Solution
, =

Probability Amplitude

## Write the appropriate form of the wavefunction of

a finite square well for different regions.
Compare the corresponding energies to the
infinite square well energies.
Calculate the wavelengths of photons emitted or
absorbed during transitions between energy levels.

()

=
0

0 elsewhere

()

= cos + sin
Outside the Well

= +

2
=

2(0 )

()

Region

Region

= cos + sin
0

Region
=

()

0 = 6

3 = 5.09

2 = 2.43

1 = 0.625

## An electron is bound in a square well of width

0.50 nm and depth 0 = 6 . If the electron is

## initially in the ground level and absorbs a

photon, what maximum wavelength can the

the well?

153 nm

## Long Problem Set 3-3 due May 6, 2015 11:59

PM. (12 items LH 35-38)

## A proton is bound in a square well of width 4.0 x 10-15 m.

The depth of the well is six times the ground-level energy
of the corresponding infinite well. If the proton makes a
transition from the ground energy level to the second
excited level by absorbing a photon, find the wavelength of

the photon.
0 = 6 3 = 5.09
2 = 2.43
1 = 0.625

2.17 x 10-14 m

p = 1.673 1027 kg

## Discuss differences in quantum and classical

predictions of some unbound systems.

## Calculate for the probability of transmitting a quantum

particle into classically forbidden regions.

## Predict how changing the different physical parameters

affect the probability of transmission

()

0 0 < <
zero elsewhere

Region
()

= +

Region

= +

Region

=

=

+

2
=

2(0 )

()

and

Region
()

= +

Region

= +

Region

=
2
=

2(0 )

2
2

0 sinh
= 1+
4 0

2 1

when 1

= 16
1
2
0
0
=

2(0 )

## height 5.0 eV and width 1.00 nm. What is the

probability that the electron will tunnel

## Frustrated Total Internal Reflection

Scanning Tunneling Microscope

http://zotzine.uci.edu/v01/2009_02/images_issue/wilsonh
o/wilsonhoatom_p090218_03a.jpg

http://researcher.ibm.com/researc
her/view_project.php?id=4245

2015 11:59PM

## 3rd LE Saturday May 16, 2015 7AM-9AM

Take Home Recit due today

+

()

zero

sin

and

## An electron with initial kinetic energy 5.0 eV

encounters a barrier with height 0 and width
0.60 nm. What is the tunneling probability if

5.47 x 10-4

1.81 x 10-5

1.06 x 10-7

## Compare the classically allowable energies for a quantum

oscillator and a classical oscillator

## Calculate the wavelengths of photons emitted or absorbed

during transitions between energy levels

Force of a spring

() =
Harmonic Oscillator Potential

1 2 1
= = 2 2
2
2
http://ffden2.phys.uaf.edu/211_fall2013.web.dir/Jody_Gaines/Images/Simple%20Harmonic%20Motion.gif

Harmonic Oscillator Potential

1
= 2 2
2
Time Independent

Schrdinger Equation

2 2
1
2 2 () = ()

2 2
2

Energy Eigenfunctions

1
4

1
2 !

2 /2

= 0, 1, 2, 3,
Hermite Polynomials ()
= 1

Energy Eigenvalues
1
= +

= 0, 1, 2, 3,

7
3 =
2
2 =

2
1
0 =
2
1 =

1
4

1
2 !

2 /2

1
= +

2
General Solution to the Schrodinger Equation

, =

## A particle with mass is under the influence

of a harmonic oscillator potential with angular
frequency .
What is the wavefunction of the particle if it is
found to be in the ground state?
What is the wavefunction of the particle if it is
found to be in the first excited state?
0 , =

1/4

2 2

1 , =

1
4

1
2

2
3

2
2

## A particle with mass in a quantum

harmonic oscillator vibrates with an angular
frequency of . The particle is prepared in a
state that has a 50-50 chance to be found in
either the ground or first excited state.
What is the wave function of this state
assuming all probability amplitudes are real?
, =

1
2

1
4

2
2

1
2

1
4

1
2

2
3

2
2

## oscillator is 5.60 eV. If the oscillator

undergoes a transition from its = 3 to

## = 2 level by emitting a photon, what is

the wavelength of the photon?
= 111 nm

## An atom in a crystal vibrates in simple

harmonic motion with angular frequency equal

Find

## (a) the ground state energy of the atom

9.49 x 10-22 J or 5.92 x 10-3 eV

## (b) the wavelength of emitted photon when the

transition = 4 to = 2 occurs.
5.24 x 10-5 m

## Show how degeneracy arises in quantum systems of more than one

dimension.
Generate the possible quantum states of a system by listing down
the corresponding quantum numbers.
Solve for the energy levels and energy eigenfunctions of a particle
in a 3-D box and determine the degeneracy of each level.

## Solve for the energy levels and energy eigenfunctions of a particle

in 3-D in a harmonic potential and determine the degree of
degeneracy of each level.

## Calculate the wavelengths of photons emitted or absorbed during

transitions between energy levels.

2 2
, , ,

, , , + , , , , , , =
2

Separable Solution

, , , = , , ()
, , , = , ,

## Time Independent 3D Schrdinger Equation

2 2

, , + (, , )(, , ) = (, , )
2

z
= 0 inside
= outside

## Inside the Box

2 2 2 2

+ 2 + 2 =
2
2

Separable Solutions
x

, , = ()

2 2

2
2

= ()

2 2

2
2

= ()

2
2

2
2

= ()

= + +

z
= 0 inside
= outside

Energy Eigenstates
, , , , = ()
y =

2

sin

2 2 2
=
22

2
sin

2 2 2
=
22

2

sin

2 2 2
=
22

Energy Eigenvalues

2 2 2 2 2
=
+ 2+ 2
2
2

## Consider a particle of mass in a 3D box with

dimensions = = =
What is the ground energy level of the particle?

31

state?

, =

sin

sin

sin

31/

## What is the first excited energy level of the particle?

How many states correspond in the first excited
energy level?

with dimensions

## List down the quantum numbers of the state

corresponding to the lowest 5 energy levels.

## 1st Excited (1,1,2)

2nd Excited (1,2,1)
3rd Excited (2,1,1)
4th Excited (1,2,2)

= = 2 .

## List the quantum numbers ( , , )

corresponding to the lowest 5 energy levels.
Write the energy of each level in terms of the
ground state 1 of a 1D infinite square well with

## width and indicate the degeneracy of each level.

Quantum #s

Deg

(1,1,1)

1 or none

(2,1,1) (1,2,1)

2 1
2.25 1

(2,2,1)

31

1 or none

(3,1,1) (1,3,1)

3.5 1

(3,2,1) (2,3,1)

4.25 1

1
1
1
2
2
, , = + + 2
2
2
2
1
1
1
2
2
, , = + + 2
2
2
2

Energy Eigenstates
,, , , = ()
Energy Eigenvalues
1
1
1
= +
+ +
+ +

2
2
2

## An isotropic harmonic oscillator has the potential energy function

=

1 2
1
+ 2 + 2 = 2 ( 2 + 2 + 2 )
2
2

## (a) What quantum numbers 1 , 2 , 3 correspond to the ground

state of the particle? What is the energy of the ground state?
(b) List all down all the possible quantum numbers 1 , 2 , 3 that
corresponds to the first & second excited energy level. Find the first
& second excited energy, as well as the degree of degeneracy.

Quantum #s

Deg

(0,0,0)

1 or none

(0,0,1) (0,1,0)
(1,0,0)

2
5

(1,1,0) (1,0,1)
(0,1,1) (0,0,2)
(0,2,0) (2,0,0)

## An isotropic harmonic oscillator has the potential energy function

1 2
1
2
2
= + + = 2 ( 2 + 2 + 2 )
2
2

## List down all quantum numbers , , correspond to the third

and fourth excited state. Compute for the corresponding energy and
degeneracy of each level.

Quantum #s

Deg

## (0,0,3) (0,3,0) (3,0,0) (1,0,2)

(1,2,0) (0,1,2) (2,1,0) (0,2,1)
(2,0,1) (1,1,1)

10

## (0,0,4) (0,4,0) (4,0,0) (1,0,3)

(1,3,0) (0,1,3) (3,1,0) (0,3,1)
(3,0,1) (2,0,2) (2,2,0) (0,2,2)
(1,1,2) (1,2,1) (2,1,1)

15

## An electron is enclosed in a 3D cube with

sides equal to 0.10 nm. What is the
wavelength of a photon the electron must
absorbed in order to raise its energy from
the ground energy level to the first excited
level?
= 1.10 108 m

## An atom in a 3D crystal vibrates in an isotropic

harmonic potential with an associated angular
frequency of 1.80 x 1013 rad/s for all dimensions.

## Find the wavelength of a photon that the atom

must absorb in order for the atom to transition

1.05 104 m