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Particle in a Box

Finite Square Well


Potential Barrier and Tunneling
Harmonic Oscillator
3D Schrdinger Equation

Apply the energy eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of an


infinite square well to physical problems.

Show the general solution for the time-dependent


Schrdinger equation for an infinite square well potential.
Illustrate how a wavefunction evolves over time in this

system.
Calculate the wavelengths of photons emitted or absorbed
during transitions between energy levels.

Infinite Square Well

Infinite Potential Well

()

=
=

= 0 for 0 < <


= elsewhere

2 2 2
,
2
2

sin

= 1, 2, 3,

Inside the Well

()

= +
= cos + sin
Outside the Well
=0
0

Energy Eigenstates
=

()

sin

3 ()

2 ()

Energy Eigenvalues
2 2 2
=
22

1 ()

Single Separable Solution


, =

2

sin

General Soution
, =

sin

An electron is confined to a box that has a


width of 0.125 nm. The electron makes a
transition from the = 1 to = 4 level by
absorbing a photon. What is the wavelength
of the photon?
3.44 nm

What is your preferred schedule for the

3rd Long Exam (Saturday May 16, 2015)?


Choose between 7AM-9AM and 3PM-5PM.
Justify your answer.

What are the energy eigenvalues and


eigenfunctions (time independent) of a

particle in a box of width for a given state


=

sin

2 2 2
=
22

?
An electron in a box is excited by a photon
with wavelength 415 nm from the ground
state to the first excited state. What is the
width of the box?

0.614 nm

(, )

Wave Function

Wave Function

PDF

| ,

(, )
Probability

Normalization

Expectation Values
+

() =

() ,

=1

=1

Schrdinger Equation
(, )
2 2 ,

=
+

(,
)

2 2
Separable Solution

, = =

2 2

+ = ()
2
2

Schrdinger Equation
(, )
2 2 ,

=
+

(,
)

2 2
General Solution
, =

Probability Amplitude

Write the appropriate form of the wavefunction of


a finite square well for different regions.
Compare the corresponding energies to the
infinite square well energies.
Calculate the wavelengths of photons emitted or
absorbed during transitions between energy levels.

()

=
0

zero 0 < <


0 elsewhere

()

Inside the Well

= cos + sin
Outside the Well

= +

2
=

2(0 )

()

Region

Region

= cos + sin
0

Region
=

()

0 = 6

3 = 5.09

2 = 2.43

1 = 0.625

An electron is bound in a square well of width


0.50 nm and depth 0 = 6 . If the electron is

initially in the ground level and absorbs a


photon, what maximum wavelength can the

photon have and still liberate the electron from


the well?

153 nm

Long Problem Set 3-3 due May 6, 2015 11:59


PM. (12 items LH 35-38)

Take Home Recit due today

3rd Long Exam #truthbetold #realtalk

A proton is bound in a square well of width 4.0 x 10-15 m.


The depth of the well is six times the ground-level energy
of the corresponding infinite well. If the proton makes a
transition from the ground energy level to the second
excited level by absorbing a photon, find the wavelength of

the photon.
0 = 6 3 = 5.09
2 = 2.43
1 = 0.625

2.17 x 10-14 m

p = 1.673 1027 kg

Discuss differences in quantum and classical


predictions of some unbound systems.

Calculate for the probability of transmitting a quantum


particle into classically forbidden regions.

Predict how changing the different physical parameters


affect the probability of transmission

Rectangular Potential Barrier


()

0 0 < <
zero elsewhere

Rectangular Potential Barrier

Region
()

= +

Region

= +

Region

=

=

+

2
=

2(0 )

A particle with energy < 0 originating from encounters a

potential shown by the figure.

()

Write down the physically correct wavefunctions for regions , , ,

and

Rectangular Potential Barrier

Region
()

= +

Region

= +

Region

=
2
=

2(0 )

2
2

0 sinh
= 1+
4 0

2 1

when 1

= 16
1
2
0
0
=

2(0 )

A 2.0 eV electron encounters a barrier with

height 5.0 eV and width 1.00 nm. What is the


probability that the electron will tunnel

through the barrier?

Frustrated Total Internal Reflection


Scanning Tunneling Microscope

http://zotzine.uci.edu/v01/2009_02/images_issue/wilsonh
o/wilsonhoatom_p090218_03a.jpg

http://researcher.ibm.com/researc
her/view_project.php?id=4245

Problem Set 3-3 due tomorrow May 6,


2015 11:59PM

3rd LE Saturday May 16, 2015 7AM-9AM


Take Home Recit due today

A particle with energy < 0 originating from encounters a

potential shown by the figure.


+

()

zero

sin

Write down the physically correct wavefunctions for regions , , ,

and

An electron with initial kinetic energy 5.0 eV


encounters a barrier with height 0 and width
0.60 nm. What is the tunneling probability if

(a) 0 = 7.0 eV; (b) 0 = 9.0 eV; (c) 0 = 13.0 eV


5.47 x 10-4

1.81 x 10-5

1.06 x 10-7

Show the general solution to the time dependent Schrodinger

equation for a harmonic oscillator

Derive the allowable energies for this system

Compare the classically allowable energies for a quantum


oscillator and a classical oscillator

Calculate the wavelengths of photons emitted or absorbed


during transitions between energy levels

Force of a spring

() =
Harmonic Oscillator Potential

1 2 1
= = 2 2
2
2
http://ffden2.phys.uaf.edu/211_fall2013.web.dir/Jody_Gaines/Images/Simple%20Harmonic%20Motion.gif


Harmonic Oscillator Potential

1
= 2 2
2
Time Independent

Schrdinger Equation

2 2
1
2 2 () = ()

2 2
2

Energy Eigenfunctions

1
4

1
2 !

2 /2

= 0, 1, 2, 3,
Hermite Polynomials ()
= 1

Energy Eigenvalues
1
= +

= 0, 1, 2, 3,

7
3 =
2
2 =

2
1
0 =
2
1 =

1
4

1
2 !

2 /2

1
= +

2
General Solution to the Schrodinger Equation

, =

A particle with mass is under the influence


of a harmonic oscillator potential with angular
frequency .
What is the wavefunction of the particle if it is
found to be in the ground state?
What is the wavefunction of the particle if it is
found to be in the first excited state?
0 , =

1/4

2 2

1 , =

1
4

1
2

2
3

2
2

A particle with mass in a quantum


harmonic oscillator vibrates with an angular
frequency of . The particle is prepared in a
state that has a 50-50 chance to be found in
either the ground or first excited state.
What is the wave function of this state
assuming all probability amplitudes are real?
, =

1
2

1
4

2
2

1
2

1
4

1
2

2
3

2
2

The ground state energy of a harmonic

oscillator is 5.60 eV. If the oscillator


undergoes a transition from its = 3 to

= 2 level by emitting a photon, what is


the wavelength of the photon?
= 111 nm

An atom in a crystal vibrates in simple


harmonic motion with angular frequency equal

to 1.80 x 1013 rad/s.


Find

(a) the ground state energy of the atom


9.49 x 10-22 J or 5.92 x 10-3 eV

(b) the wavelength of emitted photon when the

transition = 4 to = 2 occurs.
5.24 x 10-5 m

Show how degeneracy arises in quantum systems of more than one

dimension.
Generate the possible quantum states of a system by listing down
the corresponding quantum numbers.
Solve for the energy levels and energy eigenfunctions of a particle
in a 3-D box and determine the degeneracy of each level.

Solve for the energy levels and energy eigenfunctions of a particle


in 3-D in a harmonic potential and determine the degree of
degeneracy of each level.

Calculate the wavelengths of photons emitted or absorbed during


transitions between energy levels.

2 2
, , ,

, , , + , , , , , , =
2

Separable Solution

, , , = , , ()
, , , = , ,

Time Independent 3D Schrdinger Equation


2 2

, , + (, , )(, , ) = (, , )
2

z
= 0 inside
= outside

Inside the Box


2 2 2 2

+ 2 + 2 =
2
2

Separable Solutions
x

, , = ()

2 2

2
2

= ()

2 2

2
2

= ()

2
2

2
2

= ()

= + +

z
= 0 inside
= outside

Energy Eigenstates
, , , , = ()
y =

2

sin

2 2 2
=
22


2
sin

2 2 2
=
22

2

sin

2 2 2
=
22

Energy Eigenvalues

2 2 2 2 2
=
+ 2+ 2
2
2

Consider a particle of mass in a 3D box with


dimensions = = =
What is the ground energy level of the particle?

31

What is the wavefunction of a particle in the ground


state?

, =

sin

sin

sin

31/

What is the first excited energy level of the particle?


How many states correspond in the first excited
energy level?

61 , 3 states (1,1,2) (1,2,1) (2,1,1)

Consider a particle of mass in a 3D box


with dimensions

slightly < slightly <

List down the quantum numbers of the state


corresponding to the lowest 5 energy levels.

Ground State (1,1,1)

1st Excited (1,1,2)


2nd Excited (1,2,1)
3rd Excited (2,1,1)
4th Excited (1,2,2)

A particle is in a three-dimensional box with


= = 2 .

List the quantum numbers ( , , )


corresponding to the lowest 5 energy levels.
Write the energy of each level in terms of the
ground state 1 of a 1D infinite square well with

width and indicate the degeneracy of each level.

Quantum #s

Deg

(1,1,1)

1 or none

(2,1,1) (1,2,1)

2 1
2.25 1

(2,2,1)

31

1 or none

(3,1,1) (1,3,1)

3.5 1

(3,2,1) (2,3,1)

4.25 1

1
1
1
2
2
, , = + + 2
2
2
2
1
1
1
2
2
, , = + + 2
2
2
2

Energy Eigenstates
,, , , = ()
Energy Eigenvalues
1
1
1
= +
+ +
+ +

2
2
2

An isotropic harmonic oscillator has the potential energy function


=

1 2
1
+ 2 + 2 = 2 ( 2 + 2 + 2 )
2
2

A particle is subjected to this 3D isotropic harmonic oscillator.

(a) What quantum numbers 1 , 2 , 3 correspond to the ground


state of the particle? What is the energy of the ground state?
(b) List all down all the possible quantum numbers 1 , 2 , 3 that
corresponds to the first & second excited energy level. Find the first
& second excited energy, as well as the degree of degeneracy.

Quantum #s

Deg

(0,0,0)

1 or none

(0,0,1) (0,1,0)
(1,0,0)

2
5

(1,1,0) (1,0,1)
(0,1,1) (0,0,2)
(0,2,0) (2,0,0)

An isotropic harmonic oscillator has the potential energy function


1 2
1
2
2
= + + = 2 ( 2 + 2 + 2 )
2
2

A particle is subjected to this 3D isotropic harmonic oscillator.

List down all quantum numbers , , correspond to the third


and fourth excited state. Compute for the corresponding energy and
degeneracy of each level.

Quantum #s

Deg

(0,0,3) (0,3,0) (3,0,0) (1,0,2)


(1,2,0) (0,1,2) (2,1,0) (0,2,1)
(2,0,1) (1,1,1)

10

(0,0,4) (0,4,0) (4,0,0) (1,0,3)


(1,3,0) (0,1,3) (3,1,0) (0,3,1)
(3,0,1) (2,0,2) (2,2,0) (0,2,2)
(1,1,2) (1,2,1) (2,1,1)

15

An electron is enclosed in a 3D cube with


sides equal to 0.10 nm. What is the
wavelength of a photon the electron must
absorbed in order to raise its energy from
the ground energy level to the first excited
level?
= 1.10 108 m

An atom in a 3D crystal vibrates in an isotropic


harmonic potential with an associated angular
frequency of 1.80 x 1013 rad/s for all dimensions.

Find the wavelength of a photon that the atom


must absorb in order for the atom to transition

from the ground state to the first excited state.


1.05 104 m