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The following example illustrates the Materials

design methods presented in the article • Concrete: normal weight (150 pcf), ¾-in.
“Timesaving Design Aids for Reinforced maximum aggregate, f′c = 4,000 psi
Concrete, Part 3: Columns and Walls,” by • Mild reinforcing steel: Grade 60 (fy =
David A. Fanella, which appeared in the 60,000 psi)
November 2001 edition of Structural
Engineer magazine. Unless otherwise Loads
noted, all referenced table, figure, and • Total roof dead load = 122 psf
equation numbers are from that article. • Total floor dead load = 142 psf
The example presented here is for walls. • Live load = 100 psf (floor), 20 psf (roof)
• Wind loads: per ASCE 7-98
Examples for columns are available on our
Web page: www.portcement.org/buildings. Building Data
• Tributary floor area to wall = 300 ft2
Design Data

In this example, the 8-in. thick wall below,

which is part of a 5-story building, is
designed and detailed for gravity loads
and the wind forces shown.

11.3 k
15′-0″ 4 @ 12′-0″ = 48′-0″

22.0 k
21.1 k
19.9 k
20.5 k

20′-8″
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Portland Cement Association

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Design for Shear use No. 5 @ 15″ (or No. 4 @ 10″) for the
horizontal and vertical reinforcement in
• Check shear strength in 1st story the 2nd story.

Total shear = 11.3 + 22.0 + 21.1 + 19.9 • Check shear strength for the 3rd story
+ 20.5 = 94.8 kips and above

Per ACI 318-99 Sect. 9.2, Vu at 3rd story = 1.3(11.3 + 22.0 + 21.1)
Vu = 1.3 × 94.8 = 123.2 kips = 70.7 kips
< φVc /2 = 85.8 kips
From Table 6, for an 8-in. thick wall,
φVc = 8.3 × 20.67 = 171.6 kips Provide minimum reinforcement from
Table 3.
Since φVc /2 = 171.6/2 = 85.8 kips
< Vu = 123.2 kips < φVc = 171.6 kips, Use No. 3 @ 11″ vertical reinforcement and
provide minimum shear reinforcement No. 4 @ 12″ horizontal reinforcement.
from Table 4.
Summary of reinforcement
Use No. 5 @ 15″ (or No. 4 @ 10″) for both
horizontal and vertical reinforcement in • Vertical bars
the 1st story.
1st and 2nd stories: No. 4 @ 10″
• Check shear strength in 2nd story 3rd through 5th stories*: No. 3 @ 10″

Vu = 1.3(11.3 + 22.0 + 21.1 + 19.9) • Horizontal bars

= 96.6 kips
1st and 2nd stories: No. 4 @ 10″
Since φVc /2 = 171.6/2 = 85.8 kips 3rd through 5th stories: No. 4 @ 12″
< Vu = 96.6 kips < φVc = 171.6 kips,
*
Spacing of vertical bars reduced from 11 in. to 10 in. so that
the bars in the 3rd story can be spliced with the bars in the
2nd story.
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Design for Flexure In 3rd story: Pu = 178 kips

Mu = 1,544 ft-kips
When evaluating moment strength, the
load combination given in ACI Eq. (9-3) will Check moment strength based on required
usually govern: vertical reinforcement for shear. Use Fig. 5
to compute moment strength.
U = 0.9D + 1.3W
• Moment strength in 1st story
• Dead load and wind moment in 1st story (No. 4 @ 10″)

Tributary floor area = 300 ft2 Ast = 0.24 × 20.67 = 4.96 in.2

Wall dead load = [0.150(8 × 248)]/144  A  fy  4.96  60

ω =  st  =  = 0.0375
= 2.1 kips/ft wall height l
 w  c
h f ′  248 × 8  4

Pu = 0.9[(0.122 × 300) Pu 305

+ (0.142 × 300 × 4) α= = = 0.0384
l w hfc′ 248 × 8 × 4
+ (2.1 × 63)]
= 305 kips c ω+α
=
l w 2ω + 0.85β 1
Mu = 1.3[(11.3 × 63) + (22.0 × 51)
+ (21.1 × 39) + (19.9 × 27)
+ (20.5 × 15)] 0.0375 + 0.0384
=
= 4,552 ft-kips (2 × 0.0375 ) + (0.85 × 0.85)

and 3rd stories

In 2nd story: Pu = 239 kips

Mu = 2,704 ft-kips
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Portland Cement Association

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    c 0.0203 + 0.0224
φMn = φ 0.5Ast fy l w  1 +
Pu  1 − c   =
l w (2 × 0.0203 ) + (0.85 × 0.85)
  A st fy  l w  
 
= 0.0560
= 0.9[(0.5 × 4.96 × 60 × 248 )
 φMn = 0.9[(0.5 × 2.69 × 60 × 248 )
×  1 +
305 
(1 − 0.0952 )
 4.96 × 60   ×  1 +
178 (1 − 0.0560 )
 
 2.69 × 60 
= 60, 848 in. - kips
= 35, 756 in. - kips
= 5,070 ft - kips > Mu = 4, 552 ft - kips
= 2,980 ft - kips > Mu = 1, 544 ft - kips
• Moment strength in 3rd story
(No. 3 @ 10″) The required shear reinforcement is
adequate for moment strength for full
height of wall.
Ast = 0.13 × 20.67 = 2.69 in.2
For comparison purposes, the PCA
ω = 
2.69  60
 = 0.0203 computer program PCACOL was utilized to
 248 × 8  4
determine the adequacy of the wall in the
1st story. As can be seen from the figure
178
α= = 0.0224 that is on the next page, the wall is
248 × 8 × 4
adequate with No. 4 @ 10″. Note that
points 1, 2, and 3 on the figure refer to the
load combinations corresponding to ACI
Eqs. (9-1), (9-2), and (9-3), respectively.
Similar results are obtained in the 3rd
story.
TT II M
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