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TT II M

MEES
SAAV
V II N
NGG D
D EE SS II G
GNN A
A II DD SS
Walls

Portland Cement Association


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The following example illustrates the Materials


design methods presented in the article • Concrete: normal weight (150 pcf), ¾-in.
“Timesaving Design Aids for Reinforced maximum aggregate, f′c = 4,000 psi
Concrete, Part 3: Columns and Walls,” by • Mild reinforcing steel: Grade 60 (fy =
David A. Fanella, which appeared in the 60,000 psi)
November 2001 edition of Structural
Engineer magazine. Unless otherwise Loads
noted, all referenced table, figure, and • Total roof dead load = 122 psf
equation numbers are from that article. • Total floor dead load = 142 psf
The example presented here is for walls. • Live load = 100 psf (floor), 20 psf (roof)
• Wind loads: per ASCE 7-98
Examples for columns are available on our
Web page: www.portcement.org/buildings. Building Data
• Tributary floor area to wall = 300 ft2
Design Data

In this example, the 8-in. thick wall below,


which is part of a 5-story building, is
designed and detailed for gravity loads
and the wind forces shown.

11.3 k
15′-0″ 4 @ 12′-0″ = 48′-0″

22.0 k
21.1 k
19.9 k
20.5 k

20′-8″
TT II M
MEES
SAAV
V II N
NGG D
D EE SS II G
GNN A
A II DD SS
Walls

Portland Cement Association


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Design for Shear use No. 5 @ 15″ (or No. 4 @ 10″) for the
horizontal and vertical reinforcement in
• Check shear strength in 1st story the 2nd story.

Total shear = 11.3 + 22.0 + 21.1 + 19.9 • Check shear strength for the 3rd story
+ 20.5 = 94.8 kips and above

Per ACI 318-99 Sect. 9.2, Vu at 3rd story = 1.3(11.3 + 22.0 + 21.1)
Vu = 1.3 × 94.8 = 123.2 kips = 70.7 kips
< φVc /2 = 85.8 kips
From Table 6, for an 8-in. thick wall,
φVc = 8.3 × 20.67 = 171.6 kips Provide minimum reinforcement from
Table 3.
Since φVc /2 = 171.6/2 = 85.8 kips
< Vu = 123.2 kips < φVc = 171.6 kips, Use No. 3 @ 11″ vertical reinforcement and
provide minimum shear reinforcement No. 4 @ 12″ horizontal reinforcement.
from Table 4.
Summary of reinforcement
Use No. 5 @ 15″ (or No. 4 @ 10″) for both
horizontal and vertical reinforcement in • Vertical bars
the 1st story.
1st and 2nd stories: No. 4 @ 10″
• Check shear strength in 2nd story 3rd through 5th stories*: No. 3 @ 10″

Vu = 1.3(11.3 + 22.0 + 21.1 + 19.9) • Horizontal bars


= 96.6 kips
1st and 2nd stories: No. 4 @ 10″
Since φVc /2 = 171.6/2 = 85.8 kips 3rd through 5th stories: No. 4 @ 12″
< Vu = 96.6 kips < φVc = 171.6 kips,
*
Spacing of vertical bars reduced from 11 in. to 10 in. so that
the bars in the 3rd story can be spliced with the bars in the
2nd story.
TT II M
MEES
SAAV
V II N
NGG D
D EE SS II G
GNN A
A II DD SS
Walls

Portland Cement Association


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Design for Flexure In 3rd story: Pu = 178 kips


Mu = 1,544 ft-kips
When evaluating moment strength, the
load combination given in ACI Eq. (9-3) will Check moment strength based on required
usually govern: vertical reinforcement for shear. Use Fig. 5
to compute moment strength.
U = 0.9D + 1.3W
• Moment strength in 1st story
• Dead load and wind moment in 1st story (No. 4 @ 10″)

Tributary floor area = 300 ft2 Ast = 0.24 × 20.67 = 4.96 in.2

Wall dead load = [0.150(8 × 248)]/144  A  fy  4.96  60


ω =  st  =  = 0.0375
= 2.1 kips/ft wall height l
 w  c
h f ′  248 × 8  4

Pu = 0.9[(0.122 × 300) Pu 305


+ (0.142 × 300 × 4) α= = = 0.0384
l w hfc′ 248 × 8 × 4
+ (2.1 × 63)]
= 305 kips c ω+α
=
l w 2ω + 0.85β 1
Mu = 1.3[(11.3 × 63) + (22.0 × 51)
+ (21.1 × 39) + (19.9 × 27)
+ (20.5 × 15)] 0.0375 + 0.0384
=
= 4,552 ft-kips (2 × 0.0375 ) + (0.85 × 0.85)

• Dead loads and wind moments in 2nd = 0.0952


and 3rd stories

In 2nd story: Pu = 239 kips


Mu = 2,704 ft-kips
TT II M
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SAAV
V II N
NGG D
D EE SS II G
GNN A
A II DD SS
Walls

Portland Cement Association


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    c 0.0203 + 0.0224
φMn = φ 0.5Ast fy l w  1 +
Pu  1 − c   =
l w (2 × 0.0203 ) + (0.85 × 0.85)
  A st fy  l w  
 
= 0.0560
= 0.9[(0.5 × 4.96 × 60 × 248 )
 φMn = 0.9[(0.5 × 2.69 × 60 × 248 )
×  1 +
305 
(1 − 0.0952 )
 4.96 × 60   ×  1 +
178 (1 − 0.0560 )
 
 2.69 × 60 
= 60, 848 in. - kips
= 35, 756 in. - kips
= 5,070 ft - kips > Mu = 4, 552 ft - kips
= 2,980 ft - kips > Mu = 1, 544 ft - kips
• Moment strength in 3rd story
(No. 3 @ 10″) The required shear reinforcement is
adequate for moment strength for full
height of wall.
Ast = 0.13 × 20.67 = 2.69 in.2
For comparison purposes, the PCA
ω = 
2.69  60
 = 0.0203 computer program PCACOL was utilized to
 248 × 8  4
determine the adequacy of the wall in the
1st story. As can be seen from the figure
178
α= = 0.0224 that is on the next page, the wall is
248 × 8 × 4
adequate with No. 4 @ 10″. Note that
points 1, 2, and 3 on the figure refer to the
load combinations corresponding to ACI
Eqs. (9-1), (9-2), and (9-3), respectively.
Similar results are obtained in the 3rd
story.
TT II M
MEES
SAAV
V II N
NGG D
D EE SS II G
GNN A
A II DD SS
Walls

Portland Cement Association


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