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EnvironmentallyAssisted

Cracking
(CorrosionEngineering)

EnvironmentallyAssistedCracking
LectureOutline
Stresscorrosioncracking

CrackInitiation
CrackGrowth
MetallurgicalEffects
ElectrochemicalEffects
TypicalSCCMaterials

HydrogenInducedCracking
SourcesofHydrogen

CorrosionFatigue
TestMethodstoexamineEAC
FractureMechanics
MechanismsforEAC

TypesofCorrosion

Uniform
Galvaniccorrosion
Crevicecorrosion
Pittingcorrosion
Intergranularcorrosion
Selectiveleaching
Erosioncorrosionandfretting
Environmentallyinducedcracking
Hydrogendamage

EnvironmentallyInducedCracking
Definition
Brittlemechanicalfailuresthatresultsfrom
thesynergismbetweentensilestressanda
corrosiveenvironment
Stresscorrosioncracking(SCC)
CorrosionFatigue
Hydrogeninducedcracking
MetalInducedEmbrittlement

StressCorrosionCracking
Stresscorrosion
crackingistypically
definedasafailurethat
occurswhenyouhavea
susceptiblematerial
thatissimultaneously
exposedtoarelatively
lowconstanttensile
stressinanaggressive
environment

ExampleofSCC

Surfacecracksonstainless
steelexposedtoseawater
Intergranularand
transgranularcrackson
stainlesssteelexposedto
seawater

SCCTextbook

BasicSCCphenomenology
(CrackInitiation)
Crackinitiationdoesnot
necessaryoccurallthe
timefromsmoothsurface
Machiningmarks
Fatiguecracks

Crackscaninitiatefrom
corrosionpitsorcrevice
corrosion,or
intergranularcorrosion
Thetransitiondepends
upontheoriginaldefect
shape

BasicSCCphenomenology
(CrackGrowth)
Typicallythereisalackof
macroscopicdeformation
andabsenceofgeneral
corrosion
Crackbranchingand
secondarycracksare
typical
Intergranularfracture
surfacesproducedbySCC
aresmooth
Transgranularexhibit
numerousfinescale
featuredsuchasserrated
steps

SCC MetallurgicalEffects
Puremetalstendtobeless
susceptibletoSCCthan
alloys,butcanstillundergo
cracking
Copperinammonia

Alloycompositionand
microstructurehavealarge
effectonSCCresistance
Especiallyaroundgrain
boundaries
Generaltrendisthat
increasingSCCsusceptibility
withincreasingstrength

SCC MetallurgicalEffects
Grainboundary
morphology(andsize)
canhaveamajoreffect
onSCCsusceptibility
Elongatedgrain
boundarycanleadto
reducedSCCresistance

Coldworkcanalso
affectthesusceptibility
ofmaterials

SCCElectrochemicalEffects

SCCElectrochemicalEffectsExamples
P.MScott.2000

TypicalSCCMaterialEnvironment
Combinations(StainlessSteel)
Proseketal.
2009

TypicalSCCMaterialEnvironment
Combinations(StainlessSteel)

TypicalSCCMaterialEnvironment
Combinations(StainlessSteel)
Ferricstainlesssteelsare
generallymoreresistantto
SCCthanausteniticSS,
howeverwhensmall
amountsofnickelisadded
theycanbecome
susceptible
Duplexstainlesssteelare
generallyalsomore
resistanttoSCCcompared
totheausteniticstainless
steels.However,theyare
nottotallyimmune

AlShamarietal.2009

TypicalSCCMaterialEnvironment
Combinations(CarbonSteel)

TypicalSCCMaterialEnvironment
Combinations(NickelAlloys)

TypicalSCCMaterialEnvironment
Combinations(CopperAlloys)
Wetaerated
environmentscontaining
smallquantitiesof
ammonium,nitrites,and
nitratesledtoSCCin
copper
SCCinitiatedatshallow
pitswherethepassive
layerofCuOhadbeen
destroyed

Brasscartridgecasesin
1920crackedfromhigh
residualstressesand
traceamountsof
ammonia

TypicalSCCMaterialEnvironment
Combinations(Aluminum)
Extensivelyusedin
aircraft
Mostcommonalloysto
crackare2xxx,7xxx,and
5xxxseries

Susceptibletohumid
air,seawater,and
potablewater

TypicalSCCMaterialEnvironment
Combinations(Titanium)
Titanium(Ti)isvery
corrosionresistant
Tiusuallysuffersfrom
environmentally
inducedcrackingfrom
hydrogen
embrittlement
Formationofhydrides
embrittlethematerial

HydrogenInducedCracking
Damagingeffectsfromhydrogenisaphenomena
knownashydrogenembrittlementorhydrogen
inducedcracking
HICisrelevanttoSCCashydrogenisgeneratedat
cracktipsinaqueousenvironments
Numeroustypesofhydrogenembrittlement
processes
Concentrationofhydrogeninregionsofthemetal
Hydrideformation

SourcesofHydrogen
Solutionsusedtocleanandapplyprotective
coatings
Weldinginmoistatmospheres
Heattreatmentinhydrogenbearing
atmospheres
Cathodicprotection
Aqueoushydrogensulfide(OilandGas
Industry)
Corrosionprocess
Highpressuregaseoushydrogen(fuel)

HydrogenInducedCracking

CorrosionFatigueCracking
Corrosionfatigueis
similartoSCCinthat
theenvironment
enhancesthecrack
growth
Crackscangrowby
cyclingofcrackfront
ASMEcodeisbasedon
fatiguecrackgrowthin
air needtoapply
someenvironmental
factor
Argonne.2011

CorrosionFatigueCracking
Crackgrowthrateper
cycletypicallyincreases
withlowerfrequency
Increasingtheratio,R,
ofminimumtothe
maximumstresstends
todecreasethecrack
growthpercycle

TestingMethods

ConstantDeformationTests
SustainedLoadTests
SlowStrainRateTesting
CorrosionFatigueTesting

ConstantDeformationTests
Ubendtestsareusedto
measurecrackinitiation
susceptibility
Largestressandstrainmuch
greaterthanyieldstress

CRingandbentbeamareused
tomeasurecrackinitiation
susceptibility
Canapplymuchlessstressand
measuredappliedstressstrain
(straingauges)
Techniqueusedependsupon
formofmaterial(i.e.plateor
pipe)

Tensilespecimensallowgreatest
controlofappliedstressstrain
becauseoftheknowngeometry
Mainproblemisthatwhen
cracksgrow,appliedloaddrops

ConstantLoadTests
SustainedLoadTestsalso
examinecrackinitiation
CanusespringloadedCring
ProvingRingsaretypically
usedwithtensilesamples
Deadweightloadshavebeen
usedbutmuchmorebulkso
difficulttouseexceptfor
simplesolutiontests.

Differencebetween
ConstantLoadvs.Constant
Deformationisthatduring
ConstantLoadtests,stress
increaseswithcrackgrowth

SlowStrainRateTests

SlowStrainRate(SSR)testingor
constantelongationratetensile
(CERT)testingisusedtoexamine
SCCsusceptibilitybetweenalloysor
environments
Strainrateusedwillprovide
differentresultssoneedtochoose
strainratecarefully
Minimizetimefortestandprovide
accuratesusceptibility
characterization

Typicallyexamineparametersin
environmentdividedbyparameters
inair
Closerthevalueisto1,less
susceptibletoSCC

TimetoFailure
Ductility
Reductioninarea
Yieldstrength
%SCConfracturesurface

TestingMethods
FatiguePrecracksample
inairandthenexposeto
environmentofinterest
Applycyclicload
R=Smin/Smax
Rcangofrom1to1

Comparecrackgrowth
rateinenvironmenttoin
air
Examinefracturesurface
forenvironmentaleffects

WhatwouldanRof1mean?
WhatwouldanRof1mean?
WhatwouldanRof0mean?

FractureMechanicsTesting
Typicaltestingis
conductedusingmodeI
KIc isthevaluetypically
consideredbecauseitis
lowerthanothermodes

Crackswillgrowbelow
KIC whenitis
susceptibletoSCC

MechanismsofSCC

HydrogenEmbrittlement
AdsorptionInducedCleavage
FilmRupture
FilmInducedCleavage

HydrogenEmbrittlement
Hydrogenweakens
interatomicbondsand
facilitatesdecohesion
Hydrogenfacilitates
dislocationactivityin
theplasticzoneahead
ofcrackpromoting
crackgrowthbyslip
microvoidcoalescence

AdsorptionInducedCleavage
Similartohydrogen
inductedcrackingthisis
speculatedfor
aggressiveions
Aggressiveionsweaken
bondingbetween
adjacentatomsatcrack
tip.

FilmruptureorSlipDissolution
Mostwidelycited
mechanism
Basedonruptureof
protectivefilmbyslip
bandsthatintersectcrack
tip
Dissolutionalonggrain
boundariesorlowindex
crystalplanes
Filmmayreformand
processstartsagainor
surfacemaycontinueto
befilmfree

FilminducedCleavage
Filminducedcleavage
includesrepeated
sequencesof:
formationofan
environmentallyinduced
brittlefilmatcracktip
Rapidbrittlefractureofthe
film
Continuationofthe
fractureintothe
underlyingsubstrate/metal
Crackarrestandblunting

LectureReview
Stresscorrosioncrackingisthefailuremodethatoccurswhen
youhaveasusceptiblematerial,inanaggressiveenvironment,
withlowconstanttensileload
Crackinitiationcanoccuratmachinemarks,fatiguecracks,pits,or
intergranularcorrosion
Crackgrowthcanoccurinvariousformsincludingintergranularfracture
andtransgranularfracture
Metallurgicaleffectscanincreasesusceptibility(weldedregionstendto
beweakpoints)
Materialstendtobesusceptibleinvariouselectrochemicalpotential
ranges(outsiderangenocrackingmayoccur)

HydrogenInducedCrackingoccurswhenhydrogenembrittle
materialthatleadstofailureatlowerstresses
Environmentleadstoanenhancedeffectoncorrosionfatigue
crackgrowthrate

LectureReview
VarioustestmethodstoexamineEACincludingconstant
deformation,sustainedloads,slowstrainrate,and
corrosionfatigue
Environmenttypicallydecreasesthestressintensityvalue
wherecrackswillbegintopropagate
MechanismsforEACincludehydrogenembrittlement,
adsorptioninducedcleavage,filmrupture,andfilm
inducedcleavage