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INTRODUCTION (Briand)

Speaking skills often play an important role in a successful business


career. In the future you might need to describe your companys
expansion plans to investors and/or bankers, or you might need to
persuade management to support your marketing proposal, or
perhaps a sales pitch to a potential client, and so on so forth.
By the end of this presentation we will have shown you how to use
speaking skills and how to effectively use them in a business
setting. And hopefully help others overcome their fear of public
speaking.

What is business speaking?


Business speaking and Public speaking are similar in some ways,
though both business and public speaking are purposeful
communications that involve planning, careful preparation, and
skillful delivery using the spoken word.

GOALS of the presentation


Planning for a speech or presentation
Writing a speech or presentation
Completing a speech or presentation

BODY

PLANNING FOR A SPEECH OR PRESENTATION

Knowing your purpose


The most important part of your presentation is deciding what
you want to accomplish. Do you want to sell a health care
program to a prospective client? Do you want to persuade
management to increase the marketing budget? Whether your
goal is to persuade or to inform, you must have a clear idea of
what you are going to do.

Basic for giving a presentation:


Inform requires straightforward facts (Project
Briefing)
Persuade
(Sales Pitch)
Motivate tends to be more specialized (Seminar)
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Entertain dinner speeches, conventions (Introduction


Speech)

Knowing your audience


Do your research! Know whom are you presenting to? Investigate
audience needs and characteristics, and develop an audience
profile. Also, find ways to keep your audience interested in your
topic and message.
Here are some guide questions you can use:
How will this topic appeal to this audience?
How can I relate this information to their needs?
How can I earn respect so that they accept my message?
What would be most effective in making my point?
What measures to take in order for audience to remember my
main points?

AUDIENCE

ORGANIZATIONAL
PATTERN

DELIVERY STYLE

SUPPORTING
MATERIAL

Friendly
Likes you &
topic

Try something new;


involve audience
(Volunteer from
audience)

Warm, pleasant,
Humor, examples,
open, eye contact, experiences
smiles

Neutral
Have minds
made up but
think they are
objective.

Present both sides; pros Controlled,


cons; save time for
confident, small
questions
gestures

Facts, Statistics,
expert opinions,
avoid humor &
flashy visuals

Uninterested
Short attention;
attending
against their will

Brief; avoid pro-con


patterns that seem
lengthy to audience.

Dynamic &
entertaining;
move around,
large gestures

Humor, cartoons,
colorful visuals,
powerful
quotations,
startling stats

Hostile
Wants to take
charge or
ridicule speaker,
defensive
(Press
conference)

Noncontroversial,
chronological

Calm, controlled;
speak evenly &
slowly, avoid Q &
A

Objective data;
avoid anecdotes
and humor

WRITING A SPEECH AND OR PRESENTATION (Mumty)

Organizing the Content


o Define the main idea. What is the one message you want
audience members to walk away with?
o Limit your scope. Tailor the material to the time allowed.
o Choose your approach If you have 10 minutes or less to
deliver your message, organize your presentation like a letter
or a brief memo.
o Prepare your outline. Your outline helps you keep your
presentation both audience centered and within the allotted
time.
Example: Class presentation prepare a powerpoint
presentation of the outline of topic to let class know of
what is being discussed.
o Decide on an appropriate style. Choose your style to fit
the occasion, audience size, subject, purpose, budget,
location, and preparation time.
Example: Board meeting address the members of the
board in a formal manner.

PARTS OF SPEECH
Good organization and conscious repetition are the two most
powerful keys to audience comprehension and retention. Many
speakers recommend this repitious yet effective action plan
o Introduction Tell them what youre going to say.
o Body Say it.
o Conclusion Tell them what youve just said.

Introduction
How many times have you heard a speaker begin with, Its a
pleasure to be here. Or, Im honored to be asked to speak. Boring
openings such as these get speakers off to a dull start. Avoid such
triteness by striving to accomplish 3 goals in the introduction of
your presentation:
o Capture your audience through:
Promise Begin with a promise that keeps the
audience expectant. For example, By the end of the

presentation I will have shown you how you can


increase your sales by 50%.
Drama Open by telling an emotionally moving story
or by describing a serious problem that involves the
audience. Throughout your talk include other dramatic
elements, such as a long pause after a key statement.
Change your vocal tone or pitch. Professionals use highintensity emotions such as anger, joy, sadness, and
excitement.
Eye-Contact As you begin, command attention by
surveying the entire audience to take in all listeners.
Take two to five seconds to make eye contact with as
many people as possible.
Movement Leave the lectern area whenever possible.
Walk around the conference table or between the aisles
of your audience. Try to move toward your audience,
especially at the beginning and end of your talk.
Questions Keep listeners active and involved with
rhetorical questions. Ask for a show of hands to get
each listener thinking. The response will also give you a
quick gauge of audience attention.
Demonstrations Include a member of the audience
in a demonstration. For example, Im going to show
you exactly how to implement our four-step customer
courtesy process, but I need a volunteer from the
audience to help me.
Samples/gimmicks If youre promoting a product,
consider using items to toss out to the audience or to
award as prizes to volunteer participants. You can also
pass around product samples. Be careful though, to
maintain control of the audience.
Visuals Give your audience something to look at
beside yourself. Use a variety of visuals aids in a single
session. Also consider writing the concerns expressed
by your listeners on a flipchart or whiteboard as you go
along.
Self-interest Review your entire presentation to
ensure that it meets the criteria of the audience. People
are most interested in things that benefit them.

o Build your credibility. Establish your credentials quickly.


Describe your position, knowledge, and experience in said
topic. If introducing yourself, keep your comments simple,
and dont be afraid to mention your accomplishments. Reveal
something about yourself, identify with audience.
Example: Im Karen Whitney. Ive worked in the
telemarketing department for the past five years, specializing
in small-business markets. Vice President John Barre asked
me to talk to you about our telemarketing methods so that
youll have a better idea of how to get started.
o Preview your presentation. Help your audience
understand the structure and contents of your message.
Summarize the main idea, identify the supporting points, and
indicate the order in which youll develop them.

Body (Weng)
The bulk of your speech or presentation is devoted to a discussion
of the three or four main points in your outline. Make sure that your
organization is clear and that your presentation holds the
audiences attention.
o Connecting and organize ideas through:
o Time E.g. A presentation describing the history of a
problem, organized chronologically from the first sign of
trouble to the present.
o Component E.g. A sales report organized geographically by
regions or topically by products.
o Importance E.g. A report describing operating problems
arranged from the most important to the least.
o Criteria E.g. A presentation evaluating equipment by
comparing each model against a set of specifications.
o Conventional Groupings E.g. A report comparing asset
size, fees charged, and yields of mutual funds arranged by
these existing categories.
o Problem Solution E.g. A presentation describing
excessive company travel expenses and three possible
solutions.
o Pro-con alternatives E.g. A presentation outlining the
advantages and disadvantages regarding whether an

organization should invest only in the stocks of


environmentally friendly companies.

Conclusion
The close of a speech or presentation is almost as important as the
beginning because audience attention peaks at this point. When
developing your conclusion, begin by telling listeners that youre
about to finish.

Restating main points. Emphasize what you want your


audience to do or think, state the key motivating factor, and
restate the three or four main supporting points.
Describe the next steps. If listeners agree on an issue,
say so in a sentence or two. If they dont agree, you might
say, We seem to have some disagreement on this issue, and
be ready to suggest ways to resolve differences.
Ending on a strong note. Make your final remarks
encouraging and memorable. Use:
o Quotes
o Call to action
o Encouraging words
Your final words give the audience a satisfied feeling of
completeness.

Completing a Speech and/or Presentations (Wendy)


Before you make a business presentation, consider this wise Chinese
proverb: Tell me, I forget. Show me, I remember. Involve me, I
understand. Your goals as a speaker are to make listeners understand,
remember, and act on your ideas. To get them interested and involved
include effective visual aids. Some experts say that we acquire 85% of all
our knowledge visually. Therefore, an oral presentation that incorporates
visual aids is far more likely to be understood retained than one lacking
visual enhancement.

Visual Aids Visual aids can improve the quality and impact of
your oral presentation by creating interest, illustrating points that
are difficult to explain in words alone, and increasing the audiences
ability to absorb and remember information.
Furthermore, visual aids actually shorten meetings. Visual aids are
particularly helpful for inexperienced speakers because the

audience concentrates on the aid rather than on the speaker. Good


visuals also serve to jog the memory of a speaker, thus improving
self-confidence, poise, and delivery.
o Selecting the Right Type of Visual
Electronic presentation Powerpoint
Chalkboard or whiteboard
Flipchart
Other visual aids.
Example: architectural presentations scale models
Interior design presentation material/swatch
boards
News reports video clips of interviews
o Limiting the Number of Visuals Even if you produce an
outstanding set of slides, theyll do you no good if you cant
complete your presentation in the allotted time.
Remember that audiences wont be angry if you let
them out early, but they might be upset if you keep
them late.
Tip: Electronic slides try to average one slide for every
90 seconds you speak.
30 minute presentation you would create 20 slides
The best way to find the right number is to time your
presentation as you practice.
o Creating Effective slides organize the content as you
would for any written message. Simplicity is the key to
effective design.

Color
Develop a color palette of five or fewer colors.
Use contrasting colors to increase readability
Adjust color choices to room light
o Dark text on light background for bright
rooms
o Light text on dark background for dark
rooms
Order colors from dark to light

Background

Companies hire professional artists to develop a


custom background design to be used in all
company slides.
Avoid backgrounds whose heavy color, busy
patterns, or strong graphics compete with your
text.
Simple, appropriate for presentation subject,
appeal to the audience
Repetition graphic elements (borders, logos)
repeat on every visual

Choosing fonts and type styles


Avoid script or decorative fonts
Limit fonts to one or two per slide
Use boldface type for electronic slides
Avoid italicized type (difficult to read)
Use both uppercase and lowercase letters, with
extra white space between lines of text.

Special Effects (for electronic slideshows)


Transition. - The way that one electronic slide
replaces another on screen
Builds. The way that text and graphics are
released for viewing. You can make your bullet
points appear one at a time, line by line, to draw
audience attention to the point being discussed.
Hyperlinks. For interactivity. (You are taken to
different slide in you presentation, to other files on
your computer, or webpage in the internet)

o Handouts
Items that can be disseminated as handouts
include:
Complex charts and diagrams
Company reports
Magazine articles
List of websites
Copies of presentation slides

Example: class presentations students can


have copies of presentation for study reference
later on.
Brochures
Example: company profile for product
presentations
Pictures

Delivery
The best plan, by far, is the notes method. Plan your presentation
carefully and talk from the note cards or an outline containing key
sentences or major ideas. By preparing and then practicing with you
notes, you can talk to your audience in a conversational manner.
Note cards will keep you on track and prompt memory, but only if
you have rehearsed the presentation thoroughly.

Timing the distribution of handouts must base


on the content of your handouts, nature of
presentation, personal preference.

Look terrific a speaker will be judge by his or her


appearance. Be sure to dress professionally. The rule of
thumb is that you should dress at least as well as the bestdressed person in the audience.
Use noticeable gestures Be enthusiastic and let your
body show it. Emphasize ideas to enhance points about
size, number, and direction.
Punctuation Varying your tone, volume, pitch and pace.
Use pause before and after important points.
Facial expressions Change your expressions to
correspond with the thoughts you are voicing. You can
shake your head to show disagreement, roll your eyes to
show disdain, or wrinkle your brow to show concern or
dismay.
Tip: to see how speakers convey meaning without words,
mute the sound on your TV and watch the facial
expressions of a talk show personality.

Evaluating Feedback (Jady)

Never go into a presentation without practicing. The best kind of


practice is rehearsing in front of someone whose opinions you trust.
When your rehearsal audience gives you feedback, avoid reacting in
ways that are not constructive.
Here are some points to bear in mind:
o Be open to feedback
o Listen to comments, take notes
o Ask specific information then clarify
o Look for nonverbal messages, ask about it
o Dont overreact or defend yourself
o Accept responsibility for any needs and changes

Evaluate yourself
Remember to evaluate yourself so that your audience will believe
that you are credible. Double-check your material to be certain that
your audience will perceive your goodwill, expertise, and power.
Rehearse several times out loud so that you sound confident.
Practice in front of a mirror to confirm that you look confident.

SUMMARY

Just a quick recap, at the end of the day your presentation should
follow the said diagram and should show the ff. applications in
chronological order:

Pre-writing:
o Analyze = Know the purpose of your presentation. What kind of
presentation are you giving?

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o Anticipate and Adapt = know your audience? Who they are and
how will you get through to them?
Writing:
o Research and Organize your content.
1st : Introduction must Capture attention of audience,
identify the speaker, and establish the three main ideas of
your presentation.
2nd : Body must establish main ideas and develop
coherence with planned transitions of topics and examples.
3rd : Conclusion must Summarize main ideas of
presentation and provide final focus of topic presented.
Revising:
o Revise = Double-check the content of the presentation for any
inconsistencies or mistakes.
o Practice and Evaluate = Rehearse your speech in front of a
sample audience, listen to their feedback and implement it. Also,
evaluate yourself; make sure you deliver your presentation
appropriately. Look and Sound confident!

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Bailey, Edward P. Writing and Speaking at Work: A Practical Guide for Business
Communications, 2nd ed. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2002.

Bienvenu, Sherron. Business Communication: Discovering Strategy Developing Skills.2001