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AN41CH04-Sayre

ARI

16 August 2012

ANNUAL
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The Politics of the
Anthropogenic∗
Nathan F. Sayre
Department of Geography, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720;
email: nsayre@berkeley.edu

Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 2012. 41:57–70

Keywords

First published online as a Review in Advance on
June 28, 2012

Anthropocene, capitalism, climate change, climax theory, Earth
system science, global environment

The Annual Review of Anthropology is online at
anthro.annualreviews.org
This article’s doi:
10.1146/annurev-anthro-092611-145846
c 2012 by Annual Reviews.
Copyright 
All rights reserved
0084-6570/12/1021-0057$20.00

This article is part of a special theme on
Climate Change. For a list of other articles in
this theme, see this volume’s Table of Contents.

Abstract
The term anthropogenic takes its meaning from an implied contrast to
an idealist notion of nature as separate from humans and endowed with
a timeless or cyclical equilibrium. In recent decades, however, scientists
have concluded that human influences now dominate nature at global
and geological scales, reflected in the contention that Earth has entered
a new epoch called the Anthropocene. Anthropogenic global warming
is central to these developments, and the United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change obligates the international community
of nations to “prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the
climate system.” Scientific debates surrounding anthropogenic impacts
on the environment have a much longer history, however, revealing
chronic empirical difficulties with the human-nature dualism combined
with an inability to overcome it conceptually. Anthropologists have a
key role to play in emerging transdisciplinary efforts to understand the
anthropogenic across scales from the molecular to the global.

57

1997.annualreviews. For ecologists and environmentalists. topic that is limited neither to anthropology nor to academia as a whole. but the dualism from which it gets its meaning is ancient. because Watt’s dramatically improved steam engine enabled an ever-accelerating use of fossil fuels. First. the conceptual framework established at that time continues to structure scholarship in a wide range of fields. and humans and environments are matched in ways that suggest harmony or divine will. in terms of our inherited concepts. The demise of the human-nature dualism and the tenacious hold it nonetheless maintains are both strongly linked to industrial capitalism. Discussions about the advent of a new geological epoch resemble earlier debates about the anthropogenic. “even on the grandest scale. idealist notion of Nature as pristine and untouched by humans. the political battles and public debates about climate change are rarely framed in terms of the anthropogenic per se. 494). Anthropol. or uncognizable. however. In his magisterial Traces on the Rhodian Shore. they are not breaking up so much as they are merging into something unrecognizable. meanwhile. UNFCCC: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 58 Sayre Change (UNFCCC).AN41CH04-Sayre ARI 16 August 2012 12:58 INTRODUCTION The term anthropogenic dates to the 1920s. 2012. Outside of the UNFCCC. Curiously. As this harmonious relationship between humans and nature breaks down. The “ultimate objective” of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Annu. the two poles of the dualism become difficult to separate. I review the topics and debates that gave rise to the term anthropogenic early in the twentieth century. Glacken (1967) summarized Western thought from the pre-Socratics to the end of the eighteenth century as sharing three persistent themes: Humans shape the environment. the problem of specifying the spatial and temporal limits of anthropogenic factors presented itself.org by ${individualUser. p.41:57-70. the Industrial Revolution marks the beginning of the Anthropocene. with the key difference that the term now encompasses rather than contrasts with climate. The anthropology of climate change was ably reviewed in the previous volume of this journal (Crate 2011). often dominant influence of humanity” (Vitousek et al. however. is to “prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system” (UNFCCC 1992. with the partial exception of a small but influential group of climate change skeptics who continue to insist. Almost immediately. The politics of the anthropogenic is not reducible to climate change. in this volume). Downloaded from www.displayName} on 09/27/12. I review the idea that Earth is now in the Anthropocene. For personal use only. . almost everyone asserts that the nature-humans distinction is fundamentally flawed and must be transcended. scientists contend. when it denoted ecological forces distinct from soils and climate. the politics of the anthropogenic is fraught with both practical and ideological complications. that global warming is “natural” rather than human caused. but even saying so seems to make doing so more difficult. Exactly what this means and what it requires have since become highly contentious scientific and political questions. and climate change and island communities is discussed elsewhere in this volume (Lazrus 2012. who retreated from cities despoiled by their factories to country estates and hunting reserves from which common people were excluded. in part through the ideologies and activities of the enriched bourgeoisie. Here I take the politics of the anthropogenic to be a separate. Second. most aspects of the structure and functioning of Earth’s ecosystems cannot be understood without accounting for the strong. if intersecting. adopted in 1992.” Williams (1980) suggested that the Industrial Revolution strengthened an abstract. Today. Nonetheless. article 2). The politics of climate change is both too large to review here and only a subset of the anthropogenic. in direct defiance of the scientific consensus. the environment shapes humans. Rev. In his brilliant essay “Ideas of Nature. releasing carbon that had been sequestered over hundreds of millions of years and thereby disrupting the energy balance of Earth. We have entered a new geological time period dubbed the Anthropocene (Crutzen & Stoermer 2000). For the Nobel Prize–winning chemist Crutzen (2002) and many others.

The authors who have chronicled climate science for general audiences are attempting something similar to what Crate (2011) calls for: critical. but how much. The need for the term arose from the problem of accounting for change. wild.” He resorted to anthropological primitivism as an explanation: Primitive man. Tansley. and automobiles—have actively and intentionally stymied effective public response to the problem through a complex web of misinformation. .displayName} on 09/27/12. Anthropol. intimidation. p. which we can study in regions of the world approximating to the virgin condition. 2012. and multisited “climate ethnography. Clements (1916) had famously theorized vegetation change as plant succession. nearly all modified in various ways by man or his animals .org by ${individualUser. Rev. just like any other animal. If the origins of anthropogenic climate change lie in the Industrial Revolution. as represented in a number of emerging fields and scientific institutions such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007) and the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2006).annualreviews. Opportunities abound for anthropologists to engage these developments. by contrast. the question becomes not whether.Annu. detection and attribution— that is. anthropogenic means “having its origins in the activities of man” [sic]. ORIGINS According to the Oxford English Dictionary.annualreviews. should be considered climaxes. For personal use only. AN41CH04-Sayre ARI 16 August 2012 12:58 Anthropogenic climate change represents a global experiment around which virtually every field of the biophysical sciences can converge. (Tansley 1923. . I ask what these developments portend for the politics of the anthropogenic. I review some of the efforts social scientists have made to catch up with the burgeoning biophysical scientific knowledge about climate change. We find instead a patchwork of communities . collaborative. politics. and in some few parts of the www. took his bearings from the English countryside [for a full-length study of this transatlantic contrast in environmental thought. . and public relations. originally formed. . where man has modified the spontaneous vegetation so that most of it is what we have called “seminatural. anthropogenic change has occurred. or resulting from the influence of human beings on nature.” The term was first used in this sense by the famous English botanist and ecologist Tansley (1923) in his textbook Practical Plant Ecology. not only arresting succession but also modifying it more or less permanently— these too. . Downloaded from www. lobbying. I survey the literature about (not of) climate science: its history. . and the politics of the anthropogenic concerns who caused which changes. relating to. Where he has introduced a more or less permanent modifying factor or set of factors. or untouched by humans. Fourth and finally.” They have shown that the industries most responsible for anthropogenic global warming (AGW)—including oil. Third.” especially in the United States. see Hall (2005)]: AGW: anthropogenic global warming In a country like Great Britain. Tansley removed the parentheses and referred directly to “anthropogenic climaxes. and social conditions of possibility.41:57-70. in landscapes that he viewed (along with most other EuroAmericans) as pristine. electricity. In the Anthropocene.org • The Politics of the Anthropogenic 59 . Tansley insisted that other factors could interfere and hold vegetation in what Clements termed subclimaxes. coal. 48) Later. perceiving its effects and confirming it as anthropogenic—were made possible rather inadvertently by military science conducted during the Cold War. Clements had worked out his theory in the western United States. Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary defines it as “of. Why this effort has been so successful in fomenting “climate denialism. with what impacts on whom. a universal process by which climate and soil determined a single climax state for the plant community in any given site. Tansley felt.” we can rarely find those long series of stages of development from bare habitats to the climatic climax . is a question with rich anthropological potential. we have biotic (anthropogenic) climaxes or some stage of development towards them.

p. now appears prescient: Many of his claims have been confirmed and elaborated by subsequent scholarship (not including his supposition of human presence in the Americas hundreds of thousands of years ago). In general. Even these may eventually come. Kirch 1996. Antarctica is the exception that proves the rule (Pyne 1986). nature is presumptively static or cyclical until proven otherwise. With increasingly powerful tools from remote sensing. Sauer (1950) shared Tansley’s critique of Clementsian climax theory. Limited at first to the regions where civilisation originally developed. 18). and Mann (2005) assembled scholarly discoveries of precontact indigenous environmental management and impacts in the Americas as a whole. 1989. Heckenberger et al. . but human factors affecting the environment could not be so easily confined to the recent or modern period. 2003. 128) He then offered a dramatic prediction that foresaw the coming Anthropocene: Annu. soils. 128) Tansley was prescient. Anthropol. even the soils of grassland areas were at once natural and cultural. Sauer (1950). For personal use only. but he recognized climate variability and discerned a human imprint stretching back hundreds of thousands of years. 2000. under the human yoke. Cronon (1983) demonstrated the pervasive influence of Native Americans on the ecology of New England. humans had coevolved with vegetation.41:57-70. But with his increasing control over “nature” the human animal became a unique agent of destruction of the original ecosystems. “Great changes in climate have dominated the physical world for at least the last million years . especially grasses.annualreviews. p. 2008. Downloaded from www. this destructive activity has spread during recent centuries. 2007). . 1939) and Sauer (1950).org by ${individualUser. the anthropogenic and its classical opposites—climate. 1995. 2000. as he cleared and burned natural vegetation and replaced it with his pastures. soils. p. insufficiently appreciated as an ecologic force and as modifier of the course of evolution” (Sauer 1950. The second great agent of disturbance has been man [sic]. too. Tilley et al. Gillison & Ekblom 2009). Smith (1980) advanced the theory that Amazonian black earth (terra preta) is anthropogenic. and nonhuman biota are taken as conceptually distinct though empirically interactive. scholars are finding further evidence of premodern humans’ influence over their environments. Fisher et al. Rev. a view now widely shared and of enormous interest to climate scientists owing to the vast quantities of carbon that black earth could sequester if the techniques of producing it could be rediscovered (Glaser & Woods 2004). climate. humans are the cause of change. partially if not completely. an aggressive animal of perilous social habits. Humans. even if the conclusions differ. Science can challenge the conclusions drawn from this framework—whether preindustrial societies were in equilibrium with their environments. (Tansley 1939. . the high mountains and the arctic tundra—will have escaped. It seems likely that in less than another century none but the most inhospitable regions—some of the more extreme deserts. Pyne (1982. and at an increasing rate. whether progressive or detrimental. fire. CONTINUITIES FROM ECOLOGY The basic contours and concepts of many recent debates are identical to those found in 60 Sayre Tansley (1923. as well as computer modeling. vegetation—structure this research (Metcalfe et al. 1997. isotopic and other chemical analysis. crops and buildings. all over the face of the globe except where human life has not yet succeeded in supporting itself. Veblen et al. has documented the coevolution of humans. Through the use of fire. for example.AN41CH04-Sayre ARI 16 August 2012 12:58 world still forms. 2012. of the ecosystems of those regions which he inhabits. nicely adjusted to the system as a whole. (Tansley 1939. a component. and humans who do not have such effects are (or were) ecologically no different from animals.displayName} on 09/27/12. for example—but it must do so through this basic conceptual scaffolding. incremental or abrupt. 1991. and vegetation in every terrestrial corner of the planet.

In Conservation Biology.” Both sides of the debate were. (2011. more natural—they differed over which group of humans (or absence thereof ) to consider most relevant to conservation. Marris et al.org • The Politics of the Anthropogenic 61 . Without a pristine. 2005. Hames (2007) reviewed one such case—“The Ecologically Noble Savage Debate”—in the pages of this journal not long ago. in effect. p. the date that Caucasians arrived in the New World) to which conservation biologists seek to restore North American communities. Rev. “We fear that the concept of pervasive human-caused change may cultivate hopelessness in those dedicated to conservation and may even be an impetus for accelerated changes in land use motivated by profit” (Caro et al. Opponents of the idea challenged it on scientific and practical grounds: “Resources would be better spent on preserving threatened organisms in their native habitats and reintroducing them to places in their historical ranges from which they were only recently extirpated” (Rubenstein et al.” More recently. 2005. except insofar as it is linked to more value-laden notions such as primitivism or ecological nobility. p. 2011. 281) correctly noted that the “brouhaha” turned on “the conventional but arbitrary 1492 conservation benchmark (i. Caro et al. the idea of pervasive and long-standing anthropogenic impacts strikes deep ideological chords. p. 2006. For personal use only. see also Crumley 1994). p. Noting that “Earth is nowhere pristine. 1). They argue that all ecosystems have been greatly modified by humans for thousands of years. Anthropol. But among ecologists and especially environmentalists. 2012. Downloaded from www. 62– 63) convened a special issue of American Anthropologist to explore “the total sweep of anthropogenic environmental change.displayName} on 09/27/12.” they argued that “we can no longer accept a hands-off approach to wilderness preservation” (Donlan et al. pp. 232). AN41CH04-Sayre ARI 16 August 2012 12:58 Anthropologists have utilized this scaffolding for decades. In Nature.annualreviews. or was. 913. how is one to define the environment to be protected or preserved? Cronon (1996.41:57-70.org by ${individualUser. the concept of the anthropogenic is useful and fairly uncontroversial. 2) insisted that “some areas of the globe are still intact” and should be protected from human uses.annualreviews. 605) led a forum in Cultural Anthropology in which he promoted the emerging field of historical ecology. “Historical ecologists emphasize not only that environments have a history but that the dichotomy between ‘natural’ and humaninfluenced landscapes is a false one. suggesting that nature without humans is.. Headland (1997. Marris (2011) proclaimed “The End of the Wild” and reported on the challenges that climate change poses to the National Park Service’s long-standing devotion to original or pristine conditions.” A review of historical ecology appeared in this journal in 2006 (Balee 2006. original nature untouched by humans. p. Very similar arguments are now playing out in the face of the Anthropocene. 2006). A31) provided a retort in the New York Times: “Yes. they proposed introducing Old World large mammals to the New World as evolutionary and ecological proxies for those lost following the arrival of humans. 22) ignited a storm in the inaugural issue of Environmental History when he challenged wilderness as a culturally constructed myth: “Any way of looking at nature that encourages us to believe that we are separate from nature—as wilderness tends to do—is likely to reinforce environmentally irresponsible behavior. Instead. Similarly. Caro (2007. (2011.” The conceptual scaffolding put in place to define the anthropogenic some 80 years ago has proved remarkably tenacious.” noting “a sea change in the way that the human environment dialectic is perceived” and calling for “the collection of long-term socionatural data” to understand current environmental problems. Fisher & Feinman (2005.Annu. we live in the Anthropocene—but that does not mean we inhabit an ecological hell. arguably reinforcing its relevance even when they appeared or sought to challenge it. p. a group of conservation biologists influenced by Martin’s (2005) Pleistocene-overkill hypothesis proposed a new conservation strategy called Pleistocene rewilding (Donlan et al. Many scholars have criticized the human-nature www. pp. p. For the social scientists engaged in these debates.e. 914).

seemingly. mountains. p. then. is that climate has become anthropogenic in measurable ways. and nitrogen cycles. 2005) countered that humans. and oceanic pH. during the past two centuries. They suggested it began in the late-eighteenth century.annualreviews. p. the four distinct component concepts with which the ecologists began—humans. 2007. 17). they have had to employ it and. to grant it continued de facto conceptual purchase. 62 Sayre When Did It Begin? Crutzen & Stoermer (2000) acknowledged that specifying the start of the Anthropocene was unavoidably arbitrary. concepts. Calls for integration of social and biophysical sciences abound. Zalasiewicz et al. which he argues explains an otherwise anomalous rise in methane concentrations. emphases in original) respond that. too. fossils. however. 979). surface temperatures.” Ruddiman (2003. “because. dams. sulfur. The Economist (2011b) made it a cover story with the subheadline “Humans have changed the way the world works. transportation. p. In 2008. 2007. the “period of the Anthropocene since 1950 stands out as the one in which human activities rapidly changed from merely influencing the global environment in some ways to dominating it in many ways. p. urbanization. and the material world combine to produce an “environmental globalism” in which “it is virtually impossible to disentangle the social and the natural” (White 1999.ARI 16 August 2012 12:58 dichotomy embedded in the concept. and debates have swirled within the earth sciences about when.” This “Great Acceleration” (Steffen et al. the global effects of human activities have become clearly noticeable” (Crutzen & Stoermer 2000. p. fisheries exploitation. Downloaded from www. This was followed by a series of further refinements of their argument (Crutzen 2002.displayName} on 09/27/12. and rocks of the present period. social and economic organisation. 253. 1997). “the Anthropocene” has caught on and spread widely both inside and outside the academy. through paddy-rice and domestic-livestock production. consciousness. the editors called it a real “paradigm shift” because “[f]or centuries. There are signs that this may be changing. the problem is the same one Sauer identified with regard to climax plant communities: Humans have altered the environment for as long as they have been around. And because climate is a global system influencing every place on Earth. 2010). and nonhuman biota—have collapsed into one another. can we think in ways that are adequate to this reality? Annu. science has progressed by making people peripheral” (Economist 2011a. How. Ruddiman’s claims notwithstanding. Steffen et al. Our technology. 81). Steffen et al. erosion and sedimentation. or technologies needed to equal or dominate the great forces of Nature in magnitude or rate. as the sheer weight of evidence begins to exceed what the old scaffolding can support. climate. deforestation. 2012. remarkably. as well as the oceans. The key difference. nitrogen deposition. 614) can be seen in population. began to affect global atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations as much as 8. compared with the time of Clements and Tansley. Even Tansley’s deserts. Meanwhile.org by ${individualUser. greenhouse gas emissions. AN41CH04-Sayre THE ANTHROPOCENE Crutzen & Stoermer (2000) proposed that the current geological epoch be named the Anthropocene (meaning recent age of humankind). Crutzen & Steffen (2003. For personal use only. the Stratigraphy Commission of the Geological Society of London voted to consider declaring the Anthropocene a formal unit of geological time.000 years ago.41:57-70. p. (2007. All these factors will eventually be visible where it matters most for geologists: in the sediments. sea-level rise. Rev. are now anthropogenic (Vitousek et al. extinction rates. but even in so doing. citing evidence of human domination of basic biogeochemical processes: the carbon. Broadly. soils. and tundra.” Further inside. global atmosphere. in fact. and extinctions. it began. 615) argued that “[p]reindustrial societies could and did modify coastal and terrestrial ecosystems but they did not have the numbers. these calls are coming more loudly from the biophysical side than from the social . Anthropol. exactly. Now they have to change the way they think about it.

or much later. a contingent but critical condition of possibility for the discovery of global warming. Anthropologists will surely appreciate the importance of classification systems in shaping human perceptions and actions.annualreviews. 2009)— ¨ are urgently needed. reasonably accessible summaries are available (Cowie 2007. we cannot assume that the lessons it reveals will continue to apply in the future: “Earth is currently operating in a no-analogue state” (Crutzen & Steffen 2003. in turn. Explanation and attribution involve enormously complex analyses of these data in relation to physical and biochemical laws and theories (Stott et al. expressed in terms such as “climate justice” (Bond 2012). What Does It Mean? The key points to draw from the Anthropocene have less to do with when it began than with how it affects the underlying assumptions that scientists make about understanding the world. 615). and a valuable compendium of landmark original scientific papers is found in Archer & Pierrehumbert (2011). 2010). and the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment—indicates some of the ways that this rebuilding may take place. all standardized sufficiently to enable robust aggregation.41:57-70. Second. let alone explained and attributed to human activities. He highlights the profoundly social nature of the achievement. remote sensing (Balzter 2009). 2007. 446). 2012. the emergence of new fields and institutions within the biophysical sciences— such as Earth system science (Wainwright 2009). the ancient dichotomy of humans and nature is now empirically false at the global scale: The “Earth System includes humans. resulting as it did from the efforts of hundreds of scientists working on all manner of problems.AN41CH04-Sayre ARI 16 August 2012 12:58 side (Vitousek et al. The www. but climate is the average of weather and can be discerned only through prolonged accumulation of weather data.annualreviews. First. Inside the academy. emphasis in original). Studies of the political and social implications of these new scientific practices—or Earth system governmentality (Lovbrand et al.org by ${individualUser. and our activities. One early example bears mentioning here because it operationalizes an alternative approach and speaks directly to the topic from which the concept of the anthropogenic arose. 253. the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. contributing a piece to the huge. Houghton 2009. Lean & Rind 2008). Sociology of Climate Science The history of climate science is eloquently told by Weart (2008). p. thus. cumulative puzzle. von Storch & Stehr 1997). in many cases only inadvertently. p. Demands arising from social movements. Schneider et al.” They found that “most of ‘nature’ is now embedded within anthropogenic mosaics of land use and land cover” (Ellis & Ramankutty 2008. historically speaking. Weather can be observed directly. humans are not an outside force perturbing an otherwise natural system but rather an integral and interacting part of the Earth System itself ” (Steffen et al. p. 446). although the past can shed light on dynamics and key thresholds of change. global-change science. p. observing that biomes are still mapped as though human influences were irrelevant. have used satellite imagery and a range of other data to map 18 “anthropogenic biomes of the world. The challenge is to rebuild our conceptual scaffolding to reflect these novel realities. Annu. 2000. Downloaded from www.displayName} on 09/27/12. requires such data from around the world. our societies. 1997. Stott 2003. For personal use only. Ellis & Ramankutty (2008. Sauer (1950) noted that patterns of climate and vegetation could be—and often were— used circularly to produce maps of purportedly “natural” biomes. Anthropol. I cannot here review the vast literature of climate science and policy. Global climate.org • The Politics of the Anthropogenic 63 . CLIMATE SCIENCE One of the most remarkable things about AGW is that it has been detected at all. Another fact that becomes quite clear is that the Cold War was. will likely do much of this work. Rev. land-change science (Turner 2009). Blockstein & Wiegman 2010.

p. Downloaded from www. Funded by corporate donations from ExxonMobil and other polluting industrial interests. DDT. Anthropol. Rev. blending autobiography with scientific information and practical suggestions for addressing the problem.org by ${individualUser. Navy had bought an answer to a question it had never thought to ask” (Weart 2008. Motavelli (2004) assembled stories by a team of reporters on climate change in various places around the world. Hunter 2003. Scholars other than climate scientists have also weighed in with books for broad Annu. with an eye to diagnosing wars and other violence as products of climate change. ethical and spiritual work that climate change is doing for us. Paskal (2010) deduced widespread climate change–related warfare in the years to come from a macrogeopolitical analysis. respectively. AN41CH04-Sayre 64 Sayre audiences (Hillman et al. Dunlap & McCright 2010.displayName} on 09/27/12.annualreviews. and climate change.” A recent variation is Bradley’s (2011) account of being swept up in a Congressional inquiry cum witch hunt for his role in producing the now-famous “hockey stick” figure of average temperatures over the past millennium (Mann et al. Broecker & Kunzig (2008) end with a plea for rapid technological innovation.g. Several prominent climate scientists have written popular or crossover books aimed at persuading the general public of the urgency of the issue. A large literature combines expositions of the basic findings of climate science. 1999).ARI 16 August 2012 12:58 US military. Kolbert (2006) adapted a series of excellent articles for the New Yorker into Field Notes from a Catastrophe. Hoggan 2009. acid rain. Oreskes (2004). Hansen (2009) is at the more alarmed end of the spectrum (the subtitle is “The Truth about the Coming Climate Catastrophe and our Last Chance to Save Humanity”). e. public relations experts. This is true of many scientific topics.41:57-70. who demonstrated the consensus in a widely cited article in Science. Southwest. p. but particularly so in this case because climate change spans scales of space and time whose vastness is unprecedented in human experience (Sayre 2010). By contrast. anthropogenic (Gelbspan 2004. For personal use only. 2012. 326) is more philosophical and cautiously optimistic: “I suggest we need to reveal the creative psychological.. these men adopted the strategy the . subsequently published a powerful book (Oreskes & Conway 2010) detailing the activities of a small group of Cold War scientists who lent their authority to a series of efforts to “manufacture doubt” regarding tobacco. looking for ways to track radioactive fallout from aboveground nuclear testing. 30). A longer and more comprehensive treatment is provided by Flannery (2005). funneled through conservative foundations and think tanks and disseminated through white papers. Kunstler (2005) extended alarmism to near apocalypticism by twinning global warming with peak oil.S. One theme that emerges from these works is that the scientists are deeply alarmed and truly scared of what is coming—even more so than environmental activists have often been about any number of issues—and that they struggle to contain their concerns within the norms of scientific demeanor (see. Conveying climate science to lay audiences requires a great deal of translation from highly technical to more accessible language. Kolbert 2006). almost accidentally developed the tools—and provoked scientists to ask the questions—that made the discovery possible: “The U. Powell 2011).S. the projections are highly uncertain but truly terrifying. by the time he gets to six. in fact. and lobbying campaigns. and accounts of ordinary people confronting the vagaries of changing local climates. Climate Denialism Perhaps the most disturbing facet of this literature concerns the politicization of climate science by those seeking to oppose the consensus view that global warming is. Many science journalists have produced similar books. Powell 2011). Hamilton 2010. Lynas (2008) organized his book into chapters of projected scenarios for each 1◦ C increase in global temperatures. journalistic or biographical narratives of scientists at work. 2007. Parenti (2011) also toured the world. Union of Concerned Scientists 2007. Hulme (2009. Kozloff (2010) and deBuys (2011) provided regional analyses of climate change for the Amazon basin and the U.

nonunion labor. 2012. although the atmosphere is a genuinely global commons. even when one side had little or no scientific authority on the subject. total exports. LevettOlson (2010) considered skepticism in relation to religious worldviews. 2011) provide the best full overviews of the social scientific issues surrounding climate change. population growth rates. Boykoff & Boykoff (2004) documented the role of the mainstream media. Oreskes & Conway (2010) interpreted their actions not merely as selfinterested.065. both the sources of greenhouse gases and the effects of climate change are profoundly unevenly distributed in space and time. Anthropol. 2009. article 2) cannot be considered merely a scientific question. p. the answer would appear to be that the limit has already been passed and the UNFCCC has failed (Kriegler 2007.displayName} on 09/27/12. and political repression. As climate scientists recognize. emphasis in original). in which the patterns of everyday life.41:57-70. Defining “dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system” (UNFCCC 1992. Rev. based on research in a small town in Norway. (2008) documented the importance of conservative think tanks in fomenting skepticism in Washington. “Defining DAI [dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system] begs the question. Achieving “atmospheric justice” requires wrestling with this core issue (Vanderheiden 2008). for both biophysical and socioeconomic reasons. Roberts et al. she also wove Gramscian political economy elegantly into her analysis. DC. Although countless initiatives are under way at smaller scales (Bailey 2007). Downloaded from www. and the public at large. although if it were. www. but also as ideologically motivated by a free-market fundamentalism that likens environmental regulation to communism. 2004). She found a kind of dual consciousness or double reality. who lent credence to the skeptics’ views by routinely presenting “both sides” of the climate change story. for example. Jacques et al.org • The Politics of the Anthropogenic 65 . But more anthropological treatments of climate denial are almost wholly lacking: Why do ordinary people doubt climate change. THE POLITICS OF THE ANTHROPOGENIC? Perhaps the only place where the anthropogenic explicitly finds political expression is in the UNFCCC (of which the United States is a signatory). military spending. prevent knowledge of climate change from resulting in concrete actions to stop it. principally by the United States (by far the largest source of cumulative historical emissions) and China (the largest current source). collectively lived and reproduced in both thought and action. especially when the evidence of misinformation campaigns by the skeptics is readily available? Norgaard (2011) provided an exemplary study along these lines. however. For personal use only. the areas that have contributed most to causing global warming are not the ones most likely to suffer the soonest or the most (Parry et al. coordinated global action has been stymied.annualreviews. Nerlich (2010) focused on the twisted logic and metaphors of skeptics’ arguments as revealed in the “Climategate” episode: how calls for “sound science” impute unsoundness to the views of actual scientists and how complete consensus among climate scientists is taken as proof that their views are religious rather than scientific. Relatively little scholarship exists regarding so-called climate denialism. The fundamental problem is that. 4. ‘Dangerous to whom?’” (Mann et al.Annu. (2003) regressed national greenhouse gas emissions rates against a range of variables and found significant correlations with levels of national debt.annualreviews.org by ${individualUser. AN41CH04-Sayre ARI 16 August 2012 12:58 tobacco industry had pioneered of confusing the public with repeated invocations of scientific uncertainty. Ramanathan & Feng 2008). As a first cut into the myriad dimensions of social change that are needed. Although she theorizes her case more sociologically (and psychologically) than anthropologically. Norgaard’s approach is unmistakably ethnographic. especially in light of the expos´es provided by these authors. Anthropologists have a key role to play in exploring these issues further. The Routledge Handbook of Climate Change and Society (Lever-Tracy 2010) and the Oxford Handbook of Climate Change and Society (Dryzek et al.

Interestingly. economies shift the measurement of success from that of GDP to Annu.” By this he means that a real. The corollary of a too-abstract concept of the anthropogenic is a too-abstract concept . p.org by ${individualUser.” Similar to Urry (2011). it is tempting for politicians to argue that climate policy must be based upon scientific certainty. we have no politics of climate change. An “ensuring state” would regulate all aspects of the economy and refuse to discount future generations relative to present ones. Even Tansley (1939. materials and land” (Urry 2011. CONCLUSION In view of the historical correlation between industrial capitalism and fossil fuel combustion. He called for an end to neoliberal (or disorganized) capitalism. such as Speth (2008). “Given the immensely contentious politics. Overall. It treats humans transhistorically and thus cannot distinguish between different societies over space and time. p.displayName} on 09/27/12. p.ARI 16 August 2012 12:58 Demeritt (2001) incisively analyzed the politics surrounding the failure to translate climate science into policy. 128). Anthropol. 113) recognized that “energy issues are at the epicenter of not only the geopolitics of empire and the global climate crisis. Downloaded from www. “Perceptions. to be replaced by resource capitalism. emphasis in original) went so far as to assert that “at present. but also the more banal. A question arises. Urry (2011) began from the premise that AGW is a fundamentally social issue for which economics—the social science field that has thus far had the most visible role in climate policy debates—is wholly inadequate. however: Would resource capitalism still be capitalism? Huber (2008. practices and policies must develop fast and furiously along the lines of a resource capitalism” if there is to be any capitalist solution to climate change (Urry 2011. . p. the countries that have done the most are those that took the 1970s oil crisis seriously and began to reduce their dependence on oil for reasons other than climate. everyday reproduction of capitalist social life. p. These models must necessarily simplify reality. have begun to conclude that the fundamental threat to the global environment is capitalism itself. recognized something unique about the “destructive activity [that] has spread during recent centuries. 4.annualreviews. 120). . p. 2012. and catastrophism. Rev. 119). There cannot be certainty about these models in any strong sense. calling for a “move from conceptions that understand energy as a ‘thing’ or a ‘resource’ towards a conception of energy as a ‘social relation’ enmeshed in dense networks of power and socioecological change. and at an increasing rate. gradualism. Giddens (2009. in which “nature would not be regarded as separate from the economy and hence would not be available for transformation through short-term profit maximization. His own views seem to fall into the gradualist camp. effective political engagement with the issue has scarcely begun and will unavoidably be radically new. AN41CH04-Sayre 66 Sayre minimizing the impact on energy. Huber (2008. while acknowledging that catastrophic outcomes are possible and rapid changes are urgently needed. it becomes evident that the problem with the anthropogenic is that it is too abstract a category. He grouped views of the problem into three types: skepticism.” but he mistook it as a matter of civilization versus primitivism. who coined the term. 328). The best that science can do is to make projections of future climate based on extremely complex models validated against past climate data.41:57-70. He provided a useful overview of what is being done and what remains to be done. and they cannot incorporate thresholds or feedbacks that have never occurred in the past—even though Earth is already in a no-analogue state. 106) theorized fossil energy as internal to capitalism. rather than a function of the social and ecological relations of production unique to recent centuries. all over the face of the globe. This absolves them of any responsibility to exercise discretion and leadership” (Demeritt 2001. p. establishment environmental advocates.” Even some very mainstream. For personal use only.

35:75–98 Balzter H. 2009. governments are pouring resources into the science of the Anthropocene to develop and refine technologies of highresolution global data collection. Amherst/Boston: Univ. then it is equally true that attributing such facts to humans is wholly inadequate.org by ${individualUser. 2011. and demands a justice that is indistinguishably social and environmental at the same time. If so. See Castree et al. Change 14:125–36 Bradley RS. Environ. Even as climate denialists continue to hold sway among elected officials in the United States and elsewhere. meanwhile. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author is grateful to Adam Romero for research assistance. Press www. LITERATURE CITED Archer D. propound basically economistic approaches to understanding and regulating the global environment through enclosure and commodification of the atmosphere and other common resources. Durban: Univ. Politics of Climate Justice: Paralysis Above. 2012. The research program of historical ecology.41:57-70. Minneapolis: Inst. Lessons from the Pioneers: Tackling Global Warming at the Local Level. DC: Island Bond P. Balance as bias: global warming and the US prestige press. It is instructive to consider a case in which the circumstances are reversed. The Climate Solutions Consensus. 2011. supported by scientific assessments (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2006. 2012. Wiegman L. Glob. 315–35 Blockstein DE. and act across the vast spatial and temporal scales of climate change and its complex web of causes and consequences. or financial holding that might be perceived as affecting the objectivity of this review. DISCLOSURE STATEMENT The author is not aware of any affiliations. Local Self-Reliance Balee W. Pierrehumbert R. but how much anthropogenic change has occurred. Anthropol. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2007). Mass. But as analytic equipment and methods have progressed. Downloaded from www.annualreviews. The question is not if. 2010. Even if such a system were to become technologically and institutionally feasible. Synthetic chemicals such as TCDD (dioxin) have always been assumed to be unique combinations of elements not found in nature. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell Bailey J. 2009. it cannot answer the underlying social and ethical questions that are central to the politics of the anthropogenic. Boykoff JM. Perhaps “[s]cientists are coming to a sobering realization: There may be no such thing left on Earth as a natural forest” (Gillis 2011. modeling. For personal use only.annualreviews. funding. The challenge for both scholarship and politics is to think. High-level policy prescriptions. The politics of the anthropogenic must give way to a politics that identifies which people have caused which changes. Rev.org • The Politics of the Anthropogenic 67 . both of these abstractions become impossible to sustain. as many do.Annu.displayName} on 09/27/12. 2007. 1999). This has profound and direct implications for people suffering from complications resulting from exposure to Agent Orange or other industrial pollutants. with what consequences to whom. Global Warming and Political Intimidation. scientists can now detect naturally produced TCDD (Hoekstra et al. memberships. Annu. that the pollution is not their fault. because if reasonable doubt of the source can be established.” In the Anthropocene. p. Anthropol. 2006. Movement Below. and analysis. Remote sensing and earth observation. The Warming Papers. chemical companies can argue. study. AN41CH04-Sayre ARI 16 August 2012 12:58 of nature: one that cannot abide any sign of human influence and remain truly “natural. Washington. KwaZulu-Natal Press Boykoff MT. 2004. A13). Rev. pp.

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Rev. Kelley p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 371 Colonialism and Migration in the Ancient Mediterranean Peter van Dommelen p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 393 Archaeometallurgy: The Study of Preindustrial Mining and Metallurgy David Killick and Thomas Fenn p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 559 Rescue Archaeology: A European View Jean-Paul Demoule p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 611 Biological Anthropology Energetics. Locomotion. Johnson p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 269 Paleolithic Archaeology in China Ofer Bar-Yosef and Youping Wang p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 319 Archaeological Contributions to Climate Change Research: The Archaeological Record as a Paleoclimatic and Paleoenvironmental Archive Daniel H. Adams p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 1 Archaeology The Archaeology of Emotion and Affect Sarah Tarlow p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 169 The Archaeology of Money Colin Haselgrove and Stefan Krmnicek p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 235 Phenomenological Approaches in Landscape Archaeology Matthew H. 2012.41:57-70.org by ${individualUser. Sandweiss and Alice R. Wall-Scheffler p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p71 vii . Anthropol. 2012 Annu. For personal use only.displayName} on 09/27/12.annualreviews.AN41-FrontMatter ARI 23 August 2012 12:10 Contents Annual Review of Anthropology Volume 41. Prefatory Chapter Ancient Mesopotamian Urbanism and Blurred Disciplinary Boundaries Robert McC. Downloaded from www. and Female Reproduction: Implications for Human Evolution Cara M.

Language. J. Lumey.annualreviews.41:57-70.org by ${individualUser. Rev. J. Cavanaugh p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 355 Anthropology in and of the Archives: Possible Futures and Contingent Pasts. Archives as Anthropological Surrogates David Zeitlyn p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 461 Music. Owen Lovejoy p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 119 Chimpanzees and the Behavior of Ardipithecus ramidus Craig B. Mary Ann Raghanti. Richard p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 495 Maternal Prenatal Nutrition and Health in Grandchildren and Subsequent Generations E. For personal use only.AN41-FrontMatter ARI 23 August 2012 12:10 Ethnoprimatology and the Anthropology of the Human-Primate Interface Agustin Fuentes p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 101 Human Evolution and the Chimpanzee Referential Doctrine Ken Sayers. Hull p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 251 The Semiotics of Collective Memories Brigittine M. Kirkbride. Kresovich. French p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 337 Language and Materiality in Global Capitalism Shalini Shankar and Jillian R. Dewar and Alison F.displayName} on 09/27/12. Primate Feeding and Foraging: Integrating Studies of Behavior and Morphology W. What Happened. Downloaded from www.T.B. Stanford p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 139 Evolution and Environmental Change in Early Human Prehistory Richard Potts p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 151 Annu. and Texts: Sound and Semiotic Ethnography Paja Faudree p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 519 viii Contents .K.H. Susser. B. 2012. L. Heijmans.D. and C. and A. Anthropol. and Will Happen Next Robert E. Scott McGraw and David J. Stein p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 577 Linguistics and Communicative Practices Media and Religious Diversity Patrick Eisenlohr p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p37 Three Waves of Variation Study: The Emergence of Meaning in the Study of Sociolinguistic Variation Penelope Eckert p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p87 Documents and Bureaucracy Matthew S. Daegling p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 203 Madagascar: A History of Arrivals.

displayName} on 09/27/12.41:57-70. and the Body Niko Besnier and Susan Brownell p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 443 Theme I: Materiality Objects of Affect: Photography Beyond the Image Elizabeth Edwards p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 221 The Archaeology of Money Colin Haselgrove and Stefan Krmnicek p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 235 Documents and Bureaucracy Matthew S. 2012.annualreviews. Modernity. For personal use only. Substance. Sociocultural Anthropology Lives With Others: Climate Change and Human-Animal Relations Rebecca Cassidy p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p21 The Politics of the Anthropogenic Nathan F. Sayre p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p57 Objects of Affect: Photography Beyond the Image Elizabeth Edwards p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 221 Sea Change: Island Communities and Climate Change Heather Lazrus p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 285 Enculturating Cells: The Anthropology. Hull p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 251 Phenomenological Approaches in Landscape Archaeology Matthew H.AN41-FrontMatter ARI 23 August 2012 12:10 International Anthropology and Regional Studies Contemporary Anthropologies of Indigenous Australia Tess Lea p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 187 The Politics of Perspectivism Alcida Rita Ramos p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 481 Anthropologies of Arab-Majority Societies Lara Deeb and Jessica Winegar p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 537 Annu. Downloaded from www. Anthropol. Rev. Johnson p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 269 Contents ix .org by ${individualUser. and Science of Stem Cells Aditya Bharadwaj p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 303 Diabetes and Culture Steve Ferzacca p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 411 Toward an Ecology of Materials Tim Ingold p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 427 Sport.

2012. Dewar and Alison F. Rev. For personal use only. Richard p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 495 Indexes Cumulative Index of Contributing Authors. Lives With Others: Climate Change and Human-Animal Relations Rebecca Cassidy p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p21 The Politics of the Anthropogenic Nathan F. Anthropol.org/errata. and Will Happen Next Robert E. What Happened. Downloaded from www. Sayre p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p57 Ethnoprimatology and the Anthropology of the Human-Primate Interface Agustin Fuentes p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 101 Evolution and Environmental Change in Early Human Prehistory Richard Potts p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 151 Sea Change: Island Communities and Climate Change Heather Lazrus p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 285 Archaeological Contributions to Climate Change Research: The Archaeological Record as a Paleoclimatic and Paleoenvironmental Archive Daniel H. Cavanaugh p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 355 Toward an Ecology of Materials Tim Ingold p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 427 Anthropology in and of the Archives: Possible Futures and Contingent Pasts.shtml x Contents . Archives as Anthropological Surrogates David Zeitlyn p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 461 Theme II: Climate Change Annu.41:57-70. Kelley p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 371 Madagascar: A History of Arrivals. Volumes 32–41 p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 627 Cumulative Index of Chapter Titles. Sandweiss and Alice R. Volumes 32–41 p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p 631 Errata An online log of corrections to Annual Review of Anthropology articles may be found at http://anthro.annualreviews.displayName} on 09/27/12.annualreviews.AN41-FrontMatter ARI 23 August 2012 12:10 Language and Materiality in Global Capitalism Shalini Shankar and Jillian R.org by ${individualUser.