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Augusto Pinochet

“Pinochet” redirects here. For the social critic, see
Tancredo Pinochet.
This name uses Spanish naming customs: the first or
paternal family name is Pinochet and the second or
maternal family name is Ugarte.

commission. In a 1988 plebiscite 56% voted against
Pinochet’s continuing as president, which led to democratic elections for the Presidency and Congress. After stepping down in 1990, Pinochet continued to serve
as Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army until 10
March 1998, when he retired and became a senator-forlife in accordance with his 1980 Constitution. However,
Pinochet was arrested under an international arrest warrant on a visit to London on 10 October 1998 in connection with numerous human rights allegations. Following
a legal battle he was released on grounds of ill-health, and
returned to Chile in March 2000. In 2004, Chilean Judge
Juan Guzmán Tapia ruled that Pinochet was medically fit
to stand trial and placed him under house arrest.[6] By
the time of his death on 10 December 2006, about 300
criminal charges were still pending against him in Chile
for numerous human rights violations during his 17-year
rule, and tax evasion and embezzlement during and after
his rule;[14] he was accused of having corruptly amassed
at least US$28 million.[15]

Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte, more commonly known as Augusto Pinochet (Spanish pronunciation: [auˈɣusto pinoˈtʃe];[1] 25 November 1915 – 10
December 2006), was dictator[2][3] of Chile between
1973 and 1990 and Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean
Army from 1973 to 1998. He was also president of the
Government Junta of Chile between 1973 and 1981.[4]

Pinochet assumed power in Chile following a United
States-backed coup d'état on 11 September 1973 that
overthrew the elected socialist Unidad Popular government of President Salvador Allende and ended civilian
rule. Several academics have stated that the support of
the United States was crucial to the coup and the consolidation of power afterward.[5] Pinochet had been promoted to Commander-in-Chief of the Army by Allende
on 23 August 1973, having been its General Chief of Staff
since early 1972.[6] In December 1974, the ruling military 1 Early life and military career
junta appointed Pinochet President of Chile by joint decree, although without the support of one of the coup’s Pinochet was born in Valparaíso, the son of Augusto
instigators, Air Force General Gustavo Leigh.[7]
Pinochet Vera, a descendant of a French Breton immiFrom its beginning, the new military government imple- grant from Lamballe, and Avelina Ugarte Martínez, a
Pinochet went to primary
mented harsh measures against its perceived opponents.[8] woman of Basque descent.
Various reports and investigations claim that between and secondary school at the San Rafael Seminary of Val1,200 and 3,200 people were killed, up to 80,000 peo- paraíso, the Rafael Ariztía Institute (Marist Brothers) in
ple were interned and as many as 30,000 were tortured Quillota, the French Fathers’ School of Valparaíso, and
then to the Military School in Santiago, which he entered
during the time Pinochet was in government.[9][10][11]
in 1931. In 1935, after four years of study, he graduUnder the influence of the free market-oriented
ated with the rank of alférez (Second Lieutenant) in the
neoliberal "Chicago Boys", the military government
infantry. In September 1937, Pinochet was assigned to
implemented economic reforms, including currency
the “Chacabuco” Regiment, in Concepción. Two years
stabilization, tariff cutting, opening Chile’s markets
later, in 1939, then with the rank of Sub-lieutenant,
to global trade, restricting labor unions, privatizing
he moved to the “Maipo” Regiment, garrisoned in Valsocial security, and the privatization of hundreds of
paraíso. He returned to Infantry School in 1940. On
state-controlled industries. These policies produced
30 January 1943, Pinochet married Lucía Hiriart Rowhat has been referred to as the "Miracle of Chile,” but
dríguez, with whom he had five children: Inés Lucía,
critics state that the government policies dramatically
María Verónica, Jacqueline Marie, Augusto Osvaldo, and
increased economic inequality.[12] Chile was, for most
Marco Antonio.
of the 1990s, the best-performing economy in Latin
America, though academics continue to dispute the By late 1945 Pinochet had been assigned to the “Carampangue” Regiment in the northern city of Iquique. Three
legacy of Pinochet’s reforms.[13]
years later, he entered the War Academy but had to postPinochet’s 17-year rule was given a legal framework
pone his studies because, being the youngest officer, he
through a controversial 1980 plebiscite, which approved
had to carry out a service mission in the coal zone of
a new Constitution drafted by a government-appointed
Lota. The following year he returned to his studies in the

United States intelligence agencies he was appointed Sub-director of the War Academy in believed the plan to be untrue propaganda.000 people were nization of the War Academy of Ecuador in Quito. Due to his success in this position. or Plan following year.[20] Although 1963. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger shaking hands with that he had committed suicide. the Chilean military deposed Allende.Pinochet’s rule. with auduring which time he studied geopolitics. and after obtaining the title of Officer Chief of Staff. he was named Chief of Staff of the 2nd later discredited and officially recognized as the prodArmy Division.[17] At the end of 1959 bro Blanco. based in Santiago. and Carabineros) overthrew Allende’s government in a coup. It has been alleged that. in 1951.S.1 U. based in Antofagasta. he worked as a teachers’ aide at the War Academy.Z) that Allende’s government or its associates were purmeralda” Regiment. and was named General Commander of the Santiago eral Pinochet following the coup. The new government rounded up thousands of people and held them in the national stadium where many were In 1956 Pinochet and a group of young officers were cho. In and other existing paramilitary plans of the Popular Unity his new function.[19] mained with the Quito mission for three-and-a-half years. portedly preparing.S. Less than a month later. during which the presidential palace. and more than 1. The anticipating a self-coup (the alleged Plan Zeta. he was also appointed Intendent of the parties in support of its legitimacy. published a book titled El Libro Blanco del while in Quito.[23] Army Garrison. under Merino) as they executed the coup. "The White Book of the Change of Governhe returned to Chile and was sent to General Headquar. While there.killed. he was promoted to brigadier general and Comman. At the beginning of 1953. after General Prats resigned his position.ported the Pinochet government after the 1973 coup. Pinochet had a romance with Piedad Noe cambio de gobierno en Chile (commonly known as El Liand fathered a boy named Juan. he was sent for two years to the “Rancagua” Regiment in Arica. giving military geography and geopolitics classes. with many claiming that he had been assassinated. he returned to teach at the Military School. with the rank of major. This was followed by brutal repression during sen to form a military mission to collaborate in the orga. La Moneda. With rising domestic strife in Chile. garrisoned in Iquique. In 1968. He re. In the months that followed the coup.Canada was the first foreign journalist to interview General.[18] While the military claimed U.000 are still missing. ter of the coup and had used his position as commander. he was appointed commander of the “Es. Canadian Jean Charpentier of Télévision de RadioIn January 1971.pointed to the similarities between the alleged Plan Z der in Chief of the 6th Division. tacitly supIn his memoirs Pinochet said that he was the leading plot. controversy surrounded Pinochet in 1976 Allende’s death.killed.there was “no evidence” that the US was directly involved . Air Force.[6] in-chief of the Army to coordinate a far-reaching scheme with the other two branches of the military and the national police.2 2 MILITARY COUP OF 1973 Academy. was shelled and Allende committed suicide . high military officials from the time have said that Pinochet reluctantly became involved only a few days before the coup was scheduled to occur. In later years. during which about 3. cio Carvajal. and at the end of that uct of political propaganda. and returned to Santiago to take up his new position.ment in Chile"). He was also the editor of the institutional magazine Cien Águilas (“One Hundred Eagles”).thoring work by historian Gonzalo Vial and admiral Patriraphy and military intelligence. military geog. At the same time. and followed the lead of the other branches (especially the Navy. Pinochet was promoted to division gen. Pinochet was appointed commander-in-chief of 2.[21] some Chilean historians year. he was appointed professor of the Chilean War Academy. Navy. Watergate scandal stated that while the U. however. 2 Military coup of 1973 Main article: 1973 Chilean coup d'état On 11 September 1973 the combined Chilean Armed Forces (the Army. At the beginning of 1972 he was appointed General Chief of Staff of the Army.[22] Tarapacá Province.S. the junta. where they said that they were in fact ters of the 1st Army Division. backing of the coup the Army on 23 August 1973 by President Salvador Allende just the day after the Chamber of Deputies of Chile Further information: United States intervention in Chile The Church Report investigating the fallout of the approved a resolution asserting that the government was not respecting the Constitution.

S. in 1975. D. General Gustavo Leigh representing the Air Force.. after which it remained strictly as a legislative body. and that it made many of Pinochet’s officers into paid contacts of the CIA or U.[5] Author Peter Kornbluh argues in his book The Pinochet File[25] that the US was extensively involved and actively “fomented”[25] the 1973 coup. suspended the Constitution and the Congress. A document released by the U. This military junta held the executive role until 17 December 1974. several CIA assets. A military junta was established immediately follow. under Pinochet’s direct command. made up of General Pinochet represent. and contributed to the destabilization of the regime.[28] The CIA also maintained contacts in the Chilean DINA intelligence service. even though some were known to be involved in human rights abuses. He also points out that the US imposed an “invisible blockade” that was designed to disrupt the economy under Allende. in his book. As established. in his book. became increasing the coup. the CIA helped fabricate a conspiracy against the Allende government. and at one point even paid him. such as CORU Cuban exile militants Orlando Bosch and Guillermo Novo. the executive powers being transferred to Pinochet with the title of President. in various Latin American countries. and its leaders. which amongst other activities carried out assassinations of prominent politicians and activists of left-wing views. and then proclaiming himself “Supreme Chief of the Nation” (de facto Main article: Government Junta of Chile (1973) provisional president) on 27 June 1974.3 in the coup. revealed that the CIA actively supported the military junta after the overthrow of Allende. and in Europe (see section below).ingly opposed to Pinochet’s policies and was forced into ing the Army. such as Peter Winn.C. head of the Air Force. the CIA reviewed a warning that keeping Contreras as an asset might threaten human rights in the region.[24] This view has been contradicted by several academics. in Washington. after contradicting Pinochet . but not involved in illegal activities. Legacy of Ashes. Authors Tim Weiner. He states that the coup itself was possible only through a three-year covert operation mounted by the United States. first retain3 Military junta ing sole chairmanship of the military junta.S. dency would be held for a year by the commanders-inchief of each of the four military branches in turn. imposed strict censorship and curfew. provided material support to the military government after the coup.General Leigh. which Pinochet was then portrayed as preventing. although criticizing it in public. Pinochet soon consolidated his control. during the Junta period prior to official transfer of Presidential powers to Pinochet. banned all parties and halted all political activities. the junta exercised both executive and legislative functions of the government.[26] and Christopher Hitchens. collaborated in DINA operations under the Condor Plan in the early Pinochet in 1982 years of Pinochet’s presidency. titled “CIA Activities in Chile”. DINA was involved in crimes against human rights. military. In particular. The CIA chose to keep him as an asset. Admiral José Toribio Merino represent.S. CIA contact with DINA head Manuel Contreras was established in 1974 soon after the coup. and General César Mendoza representing the Carabineros (national police). who writes that the role of the CIA was crucial to the consolidation of power after the coup. However. The Trial of Henry Kissinger [27] similarly argue the case that US covert actions actively destabilized Allende’s government and set the stage for the 1973 coup.retirement on 24 July 1978. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in 2000. He officially changed his title to “President” on 17 December 1974. ing the Navy. In addition to the CIA’s maintaining of assets in DINA beginning soon after the coup. led the multinational “anti-communism campaign” known as Junta session one week after the 1973 coup Operation Condor. 4 Presidency Main article: Military government of Chile (1973–1990) The junta members originally planned that the presi- The U.

at least 70 people were killed throughout the country by the Caravan of Death. and said that the total number lieved these operations were necessary in order to “save [38] of votes reported to have been cast was very much larger the country from communism”. Orlando Letelier. partly drafted by Jaime Guzmán. Pinochet was replaced as iness of the coup to the stability of the existing demoPresident of the Junta that day by Admiral Merino. assassinated in Buenos Aires on 2 June by the FPMR. where a candidate nominated by the Junta would ing to the later Valech Report approximately 31. D.800 victims of political returnout in previous elections.”[33] Eventually. Juan José Torres. in response to a UN resolution condemning Pinochet’s government). the murder of 119 opAccording to a book by Ozren Agnic Krstulovic. a US journalist. among hundreds of In September weapons from the same source were used less famous persons. tak. Pinochet befacilitated multiple voting. government.The Rettig Report concluded 2. Pinochet’s predecessor and army commander under Allende. A year later. His military bodyguard was taken by sur1976. the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights stated that it hoped that “the case now under way will lead to the identification and punishment of the persons responsible for the execution of so culpable an act. RPG-7 and M72 LAW DINA setting up a propaganda campaign to support this rocket launchers as well as more than 3.C.[32] where they destroyed two MIR bases.[30] The killed. indeed. assassinated in July 1976.018. a proof Mercedes Benz vehicle was struck by a rocket. It dents but also against their families and other civilians. He was reFurther information: Operation Condor and Indictment placed by General Fernando Matthei.[34] Other victims of Condor included.Some political scientists have ascribed the relative blooding effect on 11 March 1981. the former Presin an unsuccessful assassination attempt against Pinochet ident of Bolivia. a headed by ex-president Eduardo Frei Montalva (who had cooperation plan between the various intelligence agensupported Pinochet’s coup). was assassinated in Buenos Aires. General Carlos Prats. assassinated after his release injuries. replacing the 1925 Constitution Almost immediately after the military’s seizure of power. a UN diplomat working for the prise. . In a massive operation spearheaded by Chilean Army para-commandos. ica. as did Víctor Olea Alegría.04% to the world by the intelligence agencies. a close Allende’s UP coalition. who had resigned rather than support the moves against Allende’s government. Charles Horman. and five members were killed.[29] the opposition. The new the junta banned all the leftist parties that had constituted Constitution.000 M-16 riidea (Operation Colombo).19% according to official figures. increasing the total numdeparture with people involved with the referendum con. El Mercurio. which States CIA communication base in Panama.312 exiled. such as the Constitutional Tribunal and the controversial National Security Coun. in 1974. and many others. Constitution was promulgated on 21 October 1980. The party Independent Democratic Union (UDI). Accord1988. six members of the police secret service were given life sentences.279 persons who disapcil (COSENA).1 Suppression of opposition cional. been widespread. some 2. Carmelo Soria.065 [39] firmed that fraud had.[35] from internment and exile in Washington. a member of the Socialist Party. Some of the most infamous cases of human rights violation occurred during the early period: in October 1973. drafted during Arturo Alessandri's presidency. cratic system. former Chilean ambassador to the United States and minbut it failed to explode and Pinochet suffered only minor ister in Allende’s cabinet. It also prescribed an 8-year presidential peared during the military government were killed for poperiod. In 2011 the commisthan would be expected from the size of the electorate and sion identified an additional 9.[37] All other parties were placed adviser to Pinochet who later founded the right-wing in “indefinite recess” and were later banned outright. The tortured and 1. The exiles were chased all over new constitution was approved by a margin of 67. This led to strained relaIn a 1985 report. the including C-4 plastic explosives.ber of victims to approximately 40.947 were be approved or rejected for another 8-year period.[37] created some new institutions.4. this was made in the frame of Operation Condor. which required extreme action to overturn. Argentina. In Latin Amer30. assisted by a United ularities such as the lack of an electoral register.cies of South American countries. and a single-candidate presidential referendum in litical reasons or as a result of political violence.000 security forces troops[31] were deployed in the mountains of Neltume from June to November 1981. seizing large caches of munitions and killing a number of guerrillas.4 4 PRESIDENCY on that year’s plebiscite (officially called Consulta Na. Pinochet’s bulletCEPAL. and arrest of Augusto Pinochet Pinochet organized a plebiscite on 11 September 1980 to ratify a new constitution. "disappeared". denounced extensive irreg. a campaign publicised by the fles were smuggled into the country by opponents of the leading newspaper in Chile. including 3. gave a lot government’s violence was directed not only against dissiof power to the President of the Republic—Pinochet. by a car bomb on 21 September 1976. Many other important officials of Allende’s government were tracked down by the DINA in the frame of Operation Condor. or National Consultation. in 1973. weapons ponents abroad was disguised as an internal conflict. Interviews after Pinochet’s pression during Pinochet’s rule.

[46] Pinochet’s policies eventually led to substantial GDP growth. the nephew of Salvador Allende and president of the MIR. returned to Chile. were honored. primen surviving. in contrast to the negative growth seen in the early years of his administration. Other targeted victims. may have been poisoned in 1982 by toxin produced by DINA biochemist Eugenio Berrios. Pinochet declared that he wanted “to make Chile not a nation of proletarians. Another reason of Pinochet’s decision to call for elections Wages decreased by 8%. as the Junta saw that the basic state obligations. but a nation of proprietors. foreign corporations.[41] Among the killed and disappeared 4. the country had no foreign reserves. led by Patricio Aylwin.[47] Businesses recovered most of their lost industrial and agricultural holdings. according to current investigations. 21-year-old American photographer Rodrigo Rojas DeNegri and 18-year-old student His government implemented an economic model that Carmen Gloria Quintana were burnt alive. vatization of state owned companies. and foreign loans to maintain itself. round of privatization. it revised previously introduced created in 1983. this case was included in the Rettig Report. a referendum was scheduled for 5 October 1988.[46] Many foreign multinational corporations such as International Telephone and Telegraph (ITT).[43] inflation was 1000%. Carlos Altamirano. and sold other industries expropriated by Allende’s Popular Unity government to private buyers. Pascal Allende. If the “NO” won. Protests continued. while he would himself remain in power as President. However. In 1985. and GDP was falling rapidly. targeted for murder in 1975 by Pinochet. Foreign debt also grew substantially under Pinochet.had three main objectives: economic liberalization.[42] Further information: Chilean transition to democracy 4. Pinochet legalized political parties in 1987 and called for a vote to determine whether or not he would remain in power until 1997. rising 300% between 1974 and 1988. was assassinated by a Central Bank. etc. International lending organizations such as the World Bank. protectionism. notably at the international level. Large foreign banks reinstated the credit cycle. Marcelo Barrios Andres. the oligarchy.4. which had attempted to assassinate tariff increases and gave a greater supervisory role for the Pinochet on 7 September 1986). included Christian-Democrat Bernardo Leighton.[44] By mid-1975.”[45] To formulate the economic rescue. Financial conglomerates became major beneficiaries of the liberalized economy and the flood of foreign bank loans. they simply executed him. including the expropriation of 600 businesses by the Allende government. a 21-year-old inflation. the government relied on the so-called Chicago Boys and a text called El ladrillo. he for education. member of the Communist Party. the leader of the Chilean Socialist Party. along with Volodia Teitelboim. According to the transitional provisions of the 1980 Constitution. the murder of three Communist Party members led to the resignation of César Mendoza. Furthermore. for the junta returned properties to original owners who had lost them during expropriations. the government started with a second member of the FPMR (the armed wing of the PCC. to vote on a new eight-year presidential term for Pinochet. mainly the call for general elections. If the “YES” won.[13] him on orders of Valparaíso’s public prosecutor.[46] Family allowances in 1989 was the April 1987 visit of Pope John Paul II to Chile. who became aware in 2001 of relations between death threats and his denunciation of Operation Condor. the government set forth an economic policy of free-market reforms that attempted to stop inflation and collapse. such as resuming payment of principal and interest installments. the International Monetary Fund. and the economic sanctions imposed by the Nixon administration.[40] 5 20% on average[46] The junta relied on the middle class. who escaped assassination. and the Inter-American Development Bank lent vast sums anew. however. a tiered exchange rate that distorted markets. Pinochet would remain President for another year. who escaped an assassination attempt in Rome in 1975 by the Italian terrorist Stefano delle Chiaie. During a 1986 protest against Pinochet. and a joint Presidential and Parliamentary election would be scheduled. This period saw the expansion of business and widespread speculation. US Congressman Edward Koch. In March 1985. with only Car. a US citizen who worked for the DINA and had organized Letelier’s assassination. the Chilean economy was deeply hurt for several reasons. were 28% of what they had been in 1970 and the budgets According to the US Catholic author George Weigel. Pinochet’s market liberalizations have congroup of military personnel who were supposed to arrest tinued after his death. Pinochet would have to implement the dispositions of the 1980 Constitution. during the 1980s. all expropriated by Allende.3 1988 referendum and transition to democracy tions with the US and to the extradition of Michael Townley. and stabilization of In August 1989. health and housing had dropped by over held a meeting with Pinochet during which they discussed .2 Economic policy In 1973. Eduardo Frei Montalva. and Firestone. who escaped an assassination attempt in Costa Rica in March 1976.3 1988 referendum and transition to democracy during the military junta were 440 MIR guerrillas. Dow Chemical. leading to several scandals. the Christian Democrat President of Chile from 1964 to 1970. Confronted with increasing opposition. head of the Carabineros and member of the junta since its formation.

Due to the transitional provisions of the constitution. said that the day the radar was taken out of service for overdue maintenance was the day Argentinian fighter-bombers bombed the troopships Sir Galahad and Sir Tristram.6 4 PRESIDENCY a return to democracy. with Pinochet played by Derek Jacobi. This allowed British ships and troops in the war zone to take defensive action. Pinochet’s supporters. arriving on 22 May and allowing the Chilean Air Force to reform the No. John Paul II allegedly pushed and then “Union for Chile”). and several Socialist Party splinter groups added their support. as presidential candidate. so the ensuing Constitutional process led to presidential and legislative elections the following year.99%[49] of the votes. due to the “binomial” representation system included in the constitution. This forced them to negotiate all law projects with the Alliance for Chile (originally called “Democracy and Progress” 4. but Chile’s Westinghouse long range radar that was deployed in the south of the country gave the British task force early warning of Argentinian air attacks. allegations of abuses had been made numerous times before his arrest. the “NO” option won with urbia. the Socialist Party and the Radical Party.[53] Pinochet subsequently visited the UK on more than one occasion. and even called for his resignation. 9 “Las Panteras Negras” Squadron.volving the Unión Demócrata Independiente (UDI) and ment. which countered the official campaign.25% of the voters. a wealthy aristocrat representing the extreme economic right. However. A further consignment of three frontier surveillance and shipping reconnaissance Canberras left for Chile in October. as a necessary element for the campaign for the “NO” to the referendum. supported by all the parties except the right-wing Avanzada Nacional. His senatorship and consequent immunity from prosecution protected him from legal action. parties composed mainly of Political advertising was legalized on 5 September 1987.[49] against less than 30% for the right-wing candidate. and facilitating the safe return of British special forces. the elected senators did not achieve a complete majority in Parliament. Pinochet remained as Commander-in-Chief of the Army until March 1998. including the Humanist Party. a referendum on the proposed changes took place.[51] Margaret Thatcher. He was then sworn in as a senatorfor-life. added restrictions to state of emergency dispositions. a Christian Democrat who had opposed Allende. Hernán Büchi. which presaged a return to a Popular Unity government in case of a defeat of Pinochet. and also proposed a list of candidates for the parliamentary elections. a situation that would last for over 15 years. According to Chilean Junta member and former Air Force commander. the Social Democrats.[54] Pinochet’s controversial relationship with Thatcher led Labour Prime Minister Tony Blair to mock Thatcher’s Conservatives as “the party of Pinochet” in 1999. Aylwin won the December 1989 presidential election with 55% of the votes. The Constitutional changes were approved by 91. The Opposition. organized a colorful and cheerful campaign under the slogan La alegría ya viene (“Joy is coming”). leaving 53 dead and many injured. In July 1989. These were possible in Chile only after Pinochet was arrested in 1998 in the United Kingdom.4 Relationship with Britain Chile was officially neutral during the Falklands War. Chilean support included military intelligence gathering.[48] Renovación Nacional (RN). radar surveillance. which remained sitting in the Andes guarding against possible Chilean incursions. Some authors have speculated that Argentina might have won the war had the military felt able to employ the elite VIth and VIIIth Mountain Brigades.[50] The extradition attempt was dramatised in the 2006 BBC television docudrama Pinochet in SubOn 5 October 1988. the British prime minister at the time of the war. The opposition and the Pinochet government made several negotiations to amend the Constitution and agreed to 54 modifications. the affirmation of political pluralism. who garnered the remaining 15%[49] ). the Ecologist Party. gathered in the Alianza Democrática (Democratic Alliance). gathered into the Concertación de Partidos por el NO (“Coalition of Parties for NO”). In 1988.[52] In April and May 1982. a center-right coalition inPinochet to accept a democratic opening of his govern. among other forms of assistance. The Concertación also won the majority of votes for the Parliament. 55.[55] . who had been Pinochet’s Minister of Finances since 1985 (there was also a third-party candidate. General Fernando Matthei. It was formed by the Christian Democracy. Pinochet complied. several more parties. The Coalition changed its name to Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia (Coalition of Parties for Democracy) and put forward Patricio Aylwin. a privilege granted by the 1980 constitution to former presidents with at least six years in office. Thereafter. Francisco Javier Errázuriz. a squadron of mothballed British Hawker Hunter fighter-bombers departed for Chile. against 44. Pinochet thus left the presidency on 11 March 1990 and transferred power to the new democratically elected president. allowing British aircraft to operate with Chilean colours. and enhanced constitutional rights as well as the democratic principle and participation to political life. on an extradition request issued by Spanish judge Baltasar Garzón. These amendments changed the way the Constitution would be modified in the future.01% of “YES” votes. but never acted upon.

also a historian. arguing that both were merely client states that lacked popular acclaim and the ability to expand.[65] Gabriel Salazar. He argues that such regimes may be considered populist ultranationalism but lack the palingenesis necessary to make them conform to the model of palingenetic ultranationalism. Historian Alfredo Jocelyn-Holt has referred to Pinochet’s figure as "totemic" and added that it is a scapegoat that attracts “all hate”. In contrast to the two latter Pinochet was not an outstanding student but his persistence and interest in geopolitics made Rodríguez asume the role as his academic mentor.[62] Pinochet himself expressed his project in government as a national restoration inspired in Diego Portales. The extent of his library was only known to the public after a police inspection in January 2006. author Samuel Chavkin.[68] Investigative journalist Juan Cristóbal Peña has put forward the thesis that Pinochet felt intellectual envy of Carlos Prats and that the latter’s assassination in 1974 was a relief for Pinochet.840.000 books in his private library.[58][59][60][61] Roger Griffin included Pinochet in a group of pseudo-populist despots distinct from fascism and including the likes of Saddam Hussein.[68] Rodríguez granted Pinochet a slot as assistant lecturer in geopolitics and in geography. which established him as a major figure in Chile’s military literature. the year of the coup d'état that brought Pinochet to power. Pinochet had authored two books. A significant part of the books and documents of the library of José Manuel Balmaceda was found in Pinochet’s library in 2006. a figure of the early republic:[63] Jacobo Timerman has called the Chilean army under Pinochet “the last Prussian army in the world”. with 1973.[57] However.[69][70] As ruler of Chile he used discretionary funds for these purchases. 1810.[66] In Geopolítica Pinochet plagiarized his mentor general Gregorio Rodríguez Tascón by using paragraphs from a 1949 conference presentation of Rodríguez without attributing them to him.[66] Pinochet bought books at several small bookshops in the old centre of Santiago and was later supplied with books from abroad by military attachés who bought texts Pinochet was searching after. 5 Ideology and public image Pinochet and his government have been characterised as fascist.[67] During his lifetime. that would have damaged his image “irreparably” and that of the judicial system of Chile [for the good] too. has lamented the lack of an international condemnation of Pinochet in court. he and his government are generally excluded from academic typologies of fascism.[68] Pinochet would later succeed Rodríguez in the geopolitics and geography chair. He was also known for being reserved.1 Intellectual life and academic work 7 gesting a pre-Fascist origin to the model of Pinochet’s military government. in his book Storm Over Chile: The Junta Under Siege.[65] Image showing Pinochet in an event with background imagery comparing the year of Chilean independence. and Ferdinand Marcos. repeatedly characterizes both Pinochet himself and the military dictatorship as fascist.[64] sug- 5. Pinochet’s support of neoliberal economic policies and his unwillingness to support national businesses distinguished him from classical fascists.1 Intellectual life and academic work Pinochet was publicly known as a man with a lack of culture. according to Salazar.[70] The library included many rare books including a first edition (1646) Historica relacion del Reyno de Chile and an original letter of Bernardo O'Higgins. Suharto.[66] Before wresting power from Allende. since.[59] Anna Cento Bull also excluded Pinochet from fascism. This image was reinforced by the fact that he also portrayed himself as a common man with simple ideas.[67][68] Rodríguez had previously lectured Pinochet and René Schneider and Carlos Prats in geography and geopolitics. although she has argued that his regime belongs to a strand of Cold War anti-communism that was happy to accommodate neo-fascist elements within its activity. worth an estimated 2.[66] Pinochet’s library contained almost no poetry or fiction works.000 US dollars (2006–7).[58] Robert Paxton meanwhile compared Pinochet’s regime to that of Mobutu Sese Seko in the former Zaire (now Democratic Republic of the Congo).[60] World Fascism: a Historical encyclopedia notes: Although he was authoritarian and ruled dictatorially. sharing little about his opinions or feelings.[70] .[56] For example. According to Rodríguez Pinochet would have been particularly impressed by his lectures on The Art of War. He further argued that had Pinochet attempted to build true fascism.5. Pinochet amassed more than 55. Geopolítica (1968) and Campaña de Tarapacá (1972). the regime would likely have been toppled or at least been forced to alter its relationship to the United States.

who had been accused of participating in the drug trade. in July 2002. and ruled that he was capable of standing trial.[79] cases.[89] Pinochet’s son Marco Antonio. and was again placed under house arrest. And if it were true. and Pinochet was in.2 6 POST-DICTATORSHIP LIFE Nicknames Supporters sometimes refer to Pinochet as mi general (the military salutation for a general) while opponents call him pinocho (Spanish for "Pinocchio". while thousands demonstrated against him. The same year.[76][77][78] He was first greeted by his successor as head of the Chilean armed forces.1 Post-dictatorship life Arrest and court cases in Britain Main article: Indictment and arrest of Augusto Pinochet The case was a watershed event in judicial history.[92][93] vanced the charge of kidnapping as the 75 were officially However.[71] A common nickname used by both younger generations is el tata (Spanish equivalent of “the grandpa”). In arguing their case. However. but it’s not true. “homicide” difficult. his legal team claiming that he was senile and could not remember.2 Return to Chile Pinochet returned to Chile on 3 March 2000. which raised doubts about his alleged mental incapacity.8 5. which Pinochet then sold in Europe and the United States. The debate concerned Pinochet’s mental faculties. the Supreme Court overturned its precedent decision.[76] President-elect Ricardo Lagos said the retired general’s televised arrival had damaged the image of Chile. from the children’s story). without having been convicted of any of the crimes dead.[88] The money for the drug trade was allegedly deposited into Pinochet’s bank accounts. the absence of their corpses made any charge of of which he was accused.[72] 6 6. on 10 December "disappeared": even though they were all most likely 2006. the prosecution presented a recent TV interview Pinochet had given for a Miami-based television network. He suffered a stroke on 18 December 2004. these materials were used against political opponents. the prosecuting attorney Hugo Guttierez. this replaced Pinochet’s senatorshipmirers present for his birthday: “I assume the political refor-life.”[84] In January 2005 the Chilean Army accepted institutional responsibility for past human rights abuses. The DINA biochemist was also alleged to have created black cocaine. The Supreme Court ruled in favor of judge Juan he was again sentenced to house arrest for the kidnapping Guzmán’s request on August 2000. in charge of the Caravan of Death case.were arrested the day of the 1973 coup and executed by ponents in the Caravan of Death case.[85] In 2006 Pinochet was indicted for kidnappings and torture at the Villa Grimaldi detention center by judge Alejandro Madrid (Guzmán’s successor).[87] Berrios. one of the fake identities he used to deposit money in the bank. I don't remember.[80] sponsibility for all that has been done. Pinochet died a few days later. anthrax and botulism in the Bacteriological War Army Laboratory for Pinochet. as it was the first time that a former government head was arrested on the principle of universal jurisdiction. he answered: “I don't remember. In May 2004.” which On 25 November 2006 Pinochet marked his 91st birthday granted its holder immunity from prosecution and a fiby having his wife read a statement he had written to adnancial allowance. he was the direct head of DINA. in 2006 denied claims of drug trafficking in his father’s administration and said that he would sue Manuel Contreras.[81] Guzmán ad. including the 1974 assassination of General Prats and the Operation Colombo case in which 119 died.and murder of two bodyguards of Salvador Allende who dicted on 1 December 2000 for the kidnapping of 75 op.”[82] Pinochet resigned from his senatorial seat shortly after the Supreme Court’s July 2002 ruling.[86] as well as for the 1995 assassination of the DINA biochemist Eugenio Berrios.[75] 6. His first act when landing in Santiago’s airport was to triumphantly get up from his wheelchair to the acclaim of his supporters.[74] he was eventually released in March 2000 on medical grounds by the Home Secretary Jack Straw without facing trial. had produced sarin gas. General Ricardo Izurieta.”[91] Two days later. 111 legislators voted for. “Our country has the degree of justice that the political transition permits us to have. as President.[73] After having been placed under house arrest in Britain in October 1998 and initiating a judicial and public relations battle. who had said that Pinochet sold cocaine. Straw had overruled a House of Lords decision to extradite Pinochet.firing squad during the Caravan of Death. while others (including several physicians) claimed that he was only affected physically but retained all control of his faculties. himself involved in the Letelier case.[83] Questioned by his judges in order to know if.[90] In March 2000 Congress approved a constitutional amendment creating the status of “ex-president. the latter run by Thatcherite political operative Patrick Robertson. for medical reasons (vascular dementia). the Supreme Court dismissed Pinochet’s indictment in the various human rights abuse . and 29 against. who had worked with Michael Townley. In December 2004 he was charged with several crimes. declared. After the Riggs Bank scandal he has been referred to sarcastically as Daniel Lopez.

Pinochet was at the center of this illegal arms trade. after Pinochet’s resignation from power. during which 119 political opponents were “disappeared” in Argentina.[104] In 2004. Monica Ananias.S. for their role in the Caravan of ing involving Pinochet accounts at multiple fiDeath following the 11 September coup. alternation of indictments for specific cases.[97][98] The Supreme Court affirmed. tax evasion and arms deal 9 Scandals: secret bank accounts. he remained at the time Commander-in-Chief of the Army. Pinochet was stripped of his parliamentary immunity in August 2000 by the Supreme Court. As a former jurisprudence. which had as effect to lift any prescription General and President of Chile.[96] But Pinochet’s five children. and his former aide Oscar Aitken on tax evasion and falsification charges stemming from the Riggs Bank investigation. They are accused of having illegally transferred $27m (£13. through a front company in the British Virgin Islands. with his health a main argument art. he was deemed fit to stand trial for Operation Colombo. fifteen years of investigation led to the conclusion that the 1992 assassination of DINA Colonel Gerardo Huber was most probably related to various illegal arms traffic carried out. Pinochet’s immunity concerning the 1974 assassination of General Carlos Prats in Buenos Aires. including General Pedro EsThis is a sad.3 6. offshore bodies of the "disappeared" were still missing. by military circles very close to himself.[94] Though the subcommittee was charged only with investigating compliance of financial institutions under the USA PATRIOT Act. in March 2005. Chilean judge Sergio munities by the Supreme Court or to the contrary immuMuñoz indicted Augusto Pinochet’s wife. four of his children — Marco Antonio. one of his former lawyer and former secretary) were arrested in October 2007 on charges of embezzlement and use of false passports. but the latter may have been silenced to avoid implicating Pinochet in this new case[15][102][103] —although the latter was not anymore President. the judge Hernán Correa de la Cerda wanted to hear Gerardo Huber in this case. or against.[99][100] Documentation of some of Pinochet’s many United States bank accounts.3 Scandals: secret bank accounts. Lucia Hiri. Veronica and Lucia Pinochet. daughter Lucia Pinochet was detained at Washington DC-Dulles airport and subsequently deported while attempting to evade the tax charges in Chile. his personal secretary. which BAE has used to channel commission on evasion and arms deal arms deals. when the former country was under a United Nations' embargo because of the support for Croatia war in Yugoslavia. Pinochet. The bank controlled between US$4 million Systems had been identified as paying more than £1m to and $8 million of Pinochet’s assets.2m) to foreign bank accounts during Pinochet’s rule. Pinochet’s trial a well-known human rights violator and violent [94] continued until his death on 10 December 2006. receiving money through various offshores and front companies. including the Banco Coutts International in Miami. his prosecution. The deal involved 370 tons of weapons.[99] The payments began in 1997 and lasted until 2004. line. sordid tale of money launderpinoza Bravo of the DINA. lifting of imOver several months in 2005. and close associates. a detention and torture center in the outskirts of Santiago. a United States Senate money laundering investigation led by Senators Carl Levin (D-MI) and Norm Coleman (R-MN)—ordered in the wake of the 11 September 2001 attacks—uncovered a network of over 125 securities and bank accounts at Riggs Bank and other U.nity from prosecution. Jacque. Furthermore. who lived in Santi- . the Santiago Court of Appeals revoked most of the indictment from Judge Carlos Cerda against the Pinochet family. following the publication by the US Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of a report concerning the Riggs Bank in July 2004. which had taken place in the frame of Operation Condor. In January 2006. in 2007. and indicted by Senator Coleman noted: judge Juan Guzmán Tapia. a joint investigation by The Guardian on financial funding of the 11 September 2001 attacks and La Tercera revealed that the British arms firm BAE in the US. financial institutions used by Pinochet and his associates for twenty-five years to secretly move millions of dollars. Arguing that the nancial institutions using alias names. sold to Croatia by Chile on 7 December 1991.for. However. and not the Pinochet regime. The report was a consequence of investigations In September 2005. The Chilean justice also lifted his immunity on the Villa Grimaldi case.[95] In January 2007.[15] Huber had been assassinated a short time before he was due to testify in the case concerning the 1991 illegal export of weapons to Croatian army. Guzmán had ordered in 1999 the arrest of five militarists.[101] In January 1992. he made accounts. his wife and 17 other persons (including two generals. who still benefited from a reputation of righteousness from his supporters. lost legitimacy when he was put under house arrest on tax fraud and passport forgery.6. Pinochet was on the crimes committed by the military. with an dictator. tax Pinochet.

were also sued for complicity. On 10 December 2006 at 13:30 local time (16:30 UTC) he was taken to the intensive care unit.” according to his son Marco Antonio. Pinochet’s coffin was also allowed to be draped in a Chilean flag.) His wife. On 4 December 2006. when Pinochet was chief of the Chilean armies.[105] 6.[109] Augusto Pinochet on the bier on 11 December 2006 In a government decision. Socialist President Michelle Bachelet. while supporters grieved outside the Military Hospital. Lucía Hiriart. Ninety percent of these funds would have been raised between 1990 and 1998. Pinochet suffered a heart attack on the morning of 3 December 2006. The armed forces refused to allow his ashes to be deposited on any military grounds. the grandson of Carlos Prats. a former Commander in Chief of the Army in Allende’s Government. and are deposited in one of his personal residences. dying shortly after from heart complications.4 Death congestive heart failure and pulmonary edema. this tax fraud filing for an amount of 27 million dollars shocked the conservative sectors who still supported him. who kicked and insulted him. in the middle of the Balkans war. In Santiago. According to the report. For the fourth time in seven years. Vivianne Blanlot. but a military funeral as former commander-in-chief of the Army appointed by President Salvador Allende. The government also refused to declare an official national day of mourning. whose father Alberto was temporarily imprisoned and tortured after the 1973 coup.[111] His ashes were delivered to his family later that day. murdered by Pinochet’s secret police. Pinochet’s funeral took place the following day at the same venue before a gathering of 60.[110] The only government authority present at the public funeral was the Defense Minister.[108] Massive spontaneous street demonstrations broke out throughout the country upon the learning of his death. spat on the coffin. During this ceremony Francisco Cuadrado Prats. but it did authorize flags at military barracks to be flown at half staff. and subsequently the same day he was given the last rites. Swiss 'Mowag' tanks or by illegal Pinochet’s funeral sales of weapons to Croatia. at the Military Hospital at 14:15 local time (17:15 UTC). Concón on 12 December 2006.[106] He died of Pinochet’s body was cremated in “Parque del Mar” cemetery.000 supporters.[107] surrounded by family members. and his son. and hiding his accounts from regulatory agencies.[112] . he was not granted a state funeral. and would essentially have come from weapons traffic (when purchasing Belgian 'Mirage' air-fighters in 1994. Riggs participated in money laundering for Pinochet. opponents celebrated at the Alameda avenue. on his request to “avoid vandalism of his tomb. Pinochet was indicted by the Chilean justice.10 6 POST-DICTATORSHIP LIFE ago in a modest house. dissimulating his wealth. Pinochet’s remains were publicly exhibited on 11 December 2006 at the Military Academy in Las Condes. and was quickly surrounded by supporters of Pinochet. Related to Pinochet’s and his family secret bank accounts in United States and in Caribbean islands. Dutch 'Léopard' tanks. said it would be “a violation of [her] conscience” to attend a state funeral for Pinochet. the Chilean Court of Appeals ordered the release of his house arrest. an honor normally bestowed upon all those who had been presidents of Chile. Marco Antonio Pinochet. setting up offshore shell corporations (referring to Pinochet as only “a former public official”).

The New Press. Latin American Studies. Cambridge. Pinochet’s government killed at least 3. who disappeared in the aftermath of the Pinochet coup [11] “Chile to sue over false reports of Pinochet-era missing”. Retrieved 13 April 2009. Grijalbo. La Historia Oculta del Régimen Militar. Retrieved 27 August 2014. 322 [14] Chang. Lisa (13 December 2006). p.[117] Some of the key individuals who fled because of political persecution were followed in their exile by the DINA secret police. The Pinochet File: A Declassified Dossier on Atrocity and Accountability. Ascanio et al. NC: Duke University Press. which linked South American military dictatorships together against political opponents. In Grandin & Joseph. Lahoradelpueblo. Santiago. The New York Times. According to a government commission report that included testimony from more than 30.11 7 Human rights violations 9 Notes Main article: Chile under Pinochet § Human-rights . 10 References [1] “Augusto Pinochet”. Yulkowski. [6] “Augusto Pinochet: Timeline”. Colonel’s Death Gives Clues to Pinochet Arms Deals. Durham. [15] Larry Rohter. Encyclopedia Of The Developing World. Retrieved 10 March 2010. LA Times. Alan (1991). Ed. an Academy Award nominated film presenting a dramatized account of the 1988 national plebiscite [16] “Augusto Pinochet. 1997. 318. “Vocal minority praises Pinochet at his funeral”.000 people. Smith (December 11.. the New York Times reported that Amnesty International had documented the disappearance of approximately 1. Emol. 1970 • United States intervention in Chile • Book burnings in Chile • History of Chile • Missing. journalist Charles Horman.000 Chileans were killed or disappeared during the Pinochet regime. a film based on the life of U. Routledge. Leonard. Google news. [8] “Chile under Pinochet – a chronology”. hundreds of thousands left the country in the wake of the economic crises that followed the military coup during the 1970s and 1980s. The Washington Post. estimates that 1. [13] Thomas M. Vol. in the framework of Operation Condor. Forvo. • Smith.000. VIII. Peter (2010). Retrieved 2013-10-11. Bradenton Herald. US ambassador to Chile (1974– 77) [17] “Supuesto hijo de Pinochet en Ecuador dispuesto a prueba de ADN” [Alleged son of Pinochet in Ecuador willing to test DNA] (in Spanish). el insulso hijo del aduanero”. Greg & Gilbert. “80.000 Chileans (about 2% of Chile’s 1973 population) were forced to go into exile. Retrieved March 20. Popper. Retrieved 21 September 2009. [12] Angell. 19 June 2006 (English) • No. In October 1979.[116] According to a study in Latin American Perspectives. Retrieved 21 September 2009.[117] at least 200. 30 December 2008. [5] Winn. 239–275. ISBN 1-57958-388-1 p. ix [3] Monte Reel and J.Y.. (13 March 1990).500 Chileans since 1973. [2] Peter Kornbluh (September 11. The Guardian (London).S. James F. [9] (Spanish) English translation of the Rettig Report [10] 2004 Commission on Torture (dead link) 8 See also • Chilean presidential election.[114] Among the killed and disappeared during the military regime were at least 663 Marxist MIR guerrillas. Additionally. 2013).blogspot.[113] Professor Clive Foss. 27 August 2014. The Cambridge History of Latin America. in The Tyrants: 2500 Years of Absolute Power and Corruption (Quercus Publishing 2006). ISBN 1595589120 p. Two-thirds of the cases listed in the report happened in 1973. pp. however. CBS News. [7] Cavallo.”. campaign on Pinochet’s rule • David H. 2006). violations Pinochet’s regime was responsible for various human rights abuses during its reign including murder and torture of political opponents. 1930 to the Present. A Century of Revolution. Retrieved 10 March 2010. 2015. New York: Cambridge University Press. 24 March 1999. . ISBN 978-0-521-26652-9. A Chilean Dictator’s Dark Legacy.500–2. Retrieved 10 March 2010. [4] “Bush praises revival of Democracy in Chile”. 11 December 2006. Leslie Bethell.197 people and tortured about 29. Jack.[115] The Manuel Rodríguez Patriotic “Furies of the Andes”.000 Chileans Cheer Return. has stated that only 49 FPMR guerrillas were killed but hundreds detained and tortured.

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336-7. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 2015.. no me acuerdo”. [66] Peña. [85] General Juan Emilio Cheyre. Cristóbal (December 6. Paul Jackson. London: Routledge. 18 August 2009) • Alide Dasnois. The Oxford Handbook of Fascism. La Nacion. Radio Cooperativa (in Spanish). 2013. 1 December 2000 (English) [60] A. Present. Shirley (14 November 1987). con nombres de “chapa”.. 3 March 2000 [57] Samuel Chavkin. Pinochet receives a hero’s welcome on his return. “Pinochet. Andrew (22 October 1998). “JUAN CRISTÓBAL PEÑA: “SE HA MENOSPRECIADO A PINOCHET EN SU CAPACIDAD INTELECTUAL”". La Tercera. Simon (January 9. Blackshorts and Reds. Interview with Attorney Hugo Gutierrez. según escritor”. Retrieved 2010-03-10. 604 [82] “The Appeals Court Ruling Is Negotiated Out for Pinochet”. Google Books. The Guardian. [77] video of Pinochet arriving at Santiago airport on YouTube. 12 October 2006 (French) [88] Jonathan Franklin. The Identity of Liberation in Latin American Thought. Retrieved May 23. 2009. 8 July 2009) [69] Salazar. The Nature of Fascism. [62] World fascism: a historical encyclopedia.B. [73] Robertson. Retrieved May 23. BBC. p. Transnational Institute. BBC News. The Anatomy of Fascism. p. New York Times. May 4. Radio Cooperativa. Retrieved May 23. • “Day of Reckoning Near for Pinochet”. 2006. R24. Stranger in Two More Strange Lands”. Storm Over Chile: The Junta Under Siege. Retrieved 21 September 2009. ISBN 978-0-7391-0084-4. • Michael Posner. 8 September 2006. Fascism: Past. 1997. [70] Romero. “A Chilean Dictator’s Secret Book Collection: Heavy on Napoleon. BBC. ISBN 978-1-57607-940-9. “Pinochet was a vile Fascist. BBC. Google Books. Oxford University Press. Timerman. 2003. 2013). R. [65] Pinochet por Salazar y Joceyn-Holt. 2015. 201 [81] Pinochet charged with kidnapping. Quoted in Las frases para el bronce de Pinochet. Bentley University [72] “Pinochet. abrió cuentas en el Riggs en 1985”. Light on Fiction”. [68] “Los libros de Pinochet” (PDF). 36–37 [80] Chile offers Pinochet new immunity. “Buenos Aires Journal. • Parenti. La Nación. 2014). Los Tiempos. Ciper. “Ejército de Chile: el fin de una visión”. 20 November 2004. Y si es cierto. by Memoria y Justicia. Carmen Aguirre’s play chronicles the plight of Chilean refugees fleeing the Pinochet regime” – The Globe & Mail (829 words. p. 2006. 9 October 1999 [56] Neil. 2015. 4 March 2000 (English) [79] Thousands march against Pinochet. 11 July 2006 (English) [89] General (r) Manuel Contreras: Eugenio Berríos está vivo. Paxton. Laurence Hill Books. [64] Christian. Griffin.J. 2008). Bosworth. ISBN 978-1-55652-067-9 [75] Pinochet set free. 'Neo-Fascism'. The Guardian. “What it’s like to arrive at a place called exile. Books. [67] EFE (July 8. 10 July 2006 (Spanish) [90] Hijo de Pinochet acusa de “mentiroso y canalla” a ex jefe DINA at the Wayback Machine (archived April 2. 2015. BBC. Retrieved 20 August 2014. “The case for Henry Kissinger” – The Independent (3587 words. Retrieved 21 September 2009. [71] Capturing Contested Memories: The Day Pinochet Died. 2014). pero no es cierto. [84] 16 November 2005. Cento Bull. Volume 1 By Cyprian Blamires. Mario (31 August 1999).”. • Alistair Horne. 11 December 2006 (Spanish) [63] Pinochet’s discourse of 11 October 1973. 2 March 2000 (English) [76] Pinochet arrives in Chile. “Chile and the absurdity of ideological social engineering” – The Cape Times (1226 words. news agency cable. Retrieved May 23.. 115 [83] “Chile’s Pinochet 'suffers stroke'". p. Oxford University Press. 17 September 2009) [74] Evening Standard 21 June 1995 • Sàenz. London: The Independent. 10 July 2006 (Spanish) . Retrieved May 23. 18 December 2004. Kristin Sorensen..O. Jeremy Hardy. [87] Levée de l'immunité de Pinochet pour le meurtre d'un chimiste. ISBN 978-0-87286-329-3. BBC. Radio Cooperativa. 3 March 2000 (English) [78] Alex Bellos and Jonathan Franklin. BBC. Penguin Books. The Guardian. Pinochet 'sold cocaine to Europe and US'.21 February 2002 (English) [61] Walter Laqueur. London: Allen Lane 2004. Ppg. un “intelectual limitado” que copió libros. 11 May 2004 [86] Court 'lifts Pinochet immunity'. 25 March 2000 (English) [59] R. 4 March 2000 [58] R. La Tercera (in Spanish). pp. 2007). Crimes Against Humanity. Retrieved 21 September 2009. “Exclusivo: Viaje al fondo de la biblioteca de Pinochet”. The New York Times. Michael (1997).13 [55] Not much to be proud Geoffrey. Carlos (June 4. Spanish: '“No me acuerdo. 2015. Drawing on personal experience.

doi:10.S. James R. 15 September 2005 (English) [101] Biographical notice on Memoria viva NGO website (Spanish) [102] Jorge Molina Sanhueza. Detective story that linked £1m Pinochet cash to BAE. La Nación. tober 1977 [94] United States Senate Permanent Subcommittee on In.[113] Reel. ISBN 978-0-895-265531. 13 June 2006 (Spanish) [105] U. Revealed: BAE’s secret £1m to Pinochet.archive. Press Release.. Sends Back Pinochet Daughter. Retrieved 20 January 2008. Monte. US Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Af. 11 December 2006 • Analysis of economic policy under Pinochet by economist Jim Cypher in Dollars & Sense magazine [111] Family Wants Pinochet Cremation • Chile: The Price of Democracy New English Review . La Nación. Retrieved 18 November 2009. 28 Oc20minutos. J. The Guardian. Out of the Ashes: Life. Heraldo (2008). Chilean Dictator’s Dark Legacy”. cfm?id=233631 16 March 2005 [95] “U. 4 October 2007 (English) [98] Cobertura Especial: Detienen a familia y principales colaboradores de Pinochet. The dictator’s shadow : life under Augusto Pinochet. 28 November 2006.” Associated Press.” (PDF). 11 Años de Lucha y Dignidad. 4 October 2007 (Spanish) [99] David Leigh and Rob Evans. sends back Pinochet daughter. Web. 1994”. • The Times obituary [110] “Clashes Break out after Pinochet’s death”. The Washington Post. 12 External links • Extensive bio by Fundación CIDOB (in Spanish) • Augusto Pinochet (1915–2006) – A Biography • France 24 coverage – Augusto Pinochet’s Necrology on France 24 • BBC coverage (special report) • Documentary Film on Chilean Concentration Camp from Pinochet’s Regime: Chacabuco • CIA Acknowledges Ties to Pinochet’s Repression from The National Security Archive • Chile under Allende and Pinochet • Human rights violation under Pinochet [109] “Pinochet’s funeral draws 60. Generales (R) y civiles de Famae procesados en caso armas a Croacia. 2005-11-04. New York: Basic Books. [114] A Green Light for The Junta? New York Times.000”.S. Oñate Zúñiga.senate. “Chilean political exile”. Latin American Perspectives 34 2006 (4): 31. CDE insiste en unir caso Huber con tráfico de armas a Croacia. Thomas C. 28 January 2006 [106] Muere el ex dictador Chileno Augusto Pinochet EFE [107] Augusto Pinochet falleció en el Hospital Militar tras sufrir recaída ". 3 January 2007 (Spanish) [97] Pinochet family arrested in Chile. CNN. El Rodriguista. Gerardo Huber sabía demasiado. 15 September 2005 (English) [100] David Leigh. El Mercurio" [108] Chile’s General Pinochet 'dead' BBC News 11 Further reading • Muñoz. El coronel que le pena al ejército. (Reviewed in Washington Post. 15 August 2005 (Spanish) [104] Andrea Chaparro Solís.Y. [96] Corte revoca mayoría de procesamientos en caso Riggs.[116] “Aquellos que todo lo dieron. Accounts Used by Pinochet”. The Guardian. Yahoo!News. 1833-1988. La Nación. BBC. 2.1177/0094582x07302902.[112] Pedregoso camino para que cenizas de Pinochet llegaran cember 2006 (Spanish) a Los Boldos. Death and Transfiguration of Democracy in Chile. CBC News. Regnery. Retrieved 2013-10-11. 2009-10-19) • Whelan. La Nacion. 12 December 2006. El Mercurio. Retrieved 5 March 2013.14 12 EXTERNAL LINKS [91] Las frases para el bronce de Pinochet. ISBN 978-0-465-00250-4. “A tions. 28 January [117] Wright. Smith (11 December 2006).gov/~{}levin/newsroom/release. 27 November 11 De. (1989). http://www.[115] “Caidos Del Mir En Diferente Periodos. pero no alcanzó a contarlo. Retrieved 2013“Levin-Coleman Staff Report Discloses Web of Secret 10-11. Book World. Jonathan Franklin and Rob Evans. fairs.” CNN. La Tercera. Rody (2007). La Nación 26 December 2006 [92] Eduardo Gallardo: “Pinochet indicted for 1973 execu. [93] Procesan a Pinochet y ordenan su arresto por los secuestros y homicidios de la “Caravana de la Muerte”. Ceme (Centro vestigations of the Committee on Governmental Affairs: De Estudios Miguel Enriquez. 25 September 2005 (Spanish) [103] Andrea Chaparro. p.

1) • Pinochet and Me by journalist Marc Cooper ISBN 1-85984-360-3 • When US-Backed Pinochet Forces Took Power in Chile – video report by Democracy Now! • The CNN interview with Chilean President Augusto Pinochet 1994 on YouTube .15 • What Pinochet Did for Chile Hoover Digest (2007 No.

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jpg Source: https://upload. Hemanetwork. Matthewhanso. Intrictet. Theseus1776. Rhanyeia. Gfoley4. Superweapons.13. Java7837. Jim1138. Rccoms. Eladio Jose Armesto. Sophie.wikimedia.0 cl Contributors: http://historiapolitica. Dogrt. Lateg. Ginosbot. Attleboro. Island Monkey. Theserialcomma. Ab1. TheQuandry. Minimac. Berfito~enwiki. Hmwith.O. Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. Jeremyb-phone. Shibbolethink. DeadMans444. MrBill3. Abayoff321.gif License: ? Contributors: National Library of Chile Original artist: ? . Vexorg. Ryan. Manuel Hortiga. Raymond Dundas. Jahnootoko.jpg Source: https://upload. Peter. Reconsider the static. Bombastus. Chiton magnificus. Aikclaes. Blessedandres. Amethystus. FrescoBot. VictorVVV. Kondorloko. GWstudent.wikimedia. Abfall-Reiniger. The Noosphere. WereSpielChequers. Kimiko20. Drmies. GoingBatty. JJARichardson. Alyeska2112. Binary TSO. BG19bot.JPG License: CC BY 3. • File:Coat_of_arms_of_Chile. LilHelpa.jpg Source: https://upload. 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