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Absorptivity & Emissivity table 1 plus others. aS E Solar Surface aS/E Silver, Highly polished Gold, Highly polished Barium Sulphate with Polyvinyl Alcohol Emissivit Comment Referenc ratio y s e 0.02 0.03 3 Marks (1) 0.02 0.04 3 Marks (1) The Fridge 0.06 0.88 0.07 Aluminum polished Magnesium Oxide Paint Magnesium/Aluminium Oxide Paint Aluminum quarts overcoated Aluminum, Highly polished 0.09 0.03 0.09 0.9 0.09 0.92 0.11 0.04 -0.37 0.06 Snow, Fine particles fresh Zinc Orthotitanate with Potassium Silicate Aluminum anodized Aluminum foil 0.13 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.82 0.92 0.84 0.05 0.16 0.14 0.17 3 ? The Fridge ? ? Aluminum foil gets very hot because of this high ratio. Potassium Fluorotitanate White Paint Zinc Oxide with Sodium Silicate Paint, White zinc oxide GSFC White Paint NS-74 Titanium Oxide White Paint with Potassium Silicate 0.15 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.17 0.88 0.92 0.93 0.92 0.92 0.17 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.18 The Fridge The Fridge ? The Fridge The Fridge Zerlauts Z-93 White Paint Cromium Cromium Dow Corning White Paint DC-007 GSFC White Paint NS43-C 0.17 0.026666667 0.086666667 0.19 0.2 0.92 0.08 0.26 0.88 0.92 0.18 3 3 0.22 0.22 The Fridge Marks (1) Marks (1) The Fridge The Fridge Titanium Oxide White Paint with Methyl Silicone Zerlauts S-13G White Paint Light colored paints, firebrick, clay, glass Biphenyl-White Solid 0.2 0.2 0.04 - 0.40 0.23 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.86 0.22 0.22 0.24 0.27 The Fridge The Fridge U of Miss The Fridge P764-1A White Paint Zirconium Oxide with650 Glass Resin 0.23 0.92 0.23 0.15 -0.88 0.21 - 0.26 0.19 0.24 0.9 0.25 0.87 LO/MIT I/II products are low emissivit 0.25 y, non thickness 0.26 dependen 1.38 t coatings. 0.27 0.29 Material Solec LO/MIT selective surface paint Catalac White Paint Hughson White Paint Z-202 Absorption 3 0.1 0.1 0.3 3 ? The Fridge The Fridge ? Marks (1) The Fridge The Fridge Solec The Fridge The Fridge Hughson White Paint Z-255 Hughson White Paint Z-255 0.25 0.25 0.89 0.89 0.28 0.28 The Fridge The Fridge 3M-401 White Paint Hughson White Paint A-276 Hughson White Paint V-200 0.25 0.26 0.26 0.91 0.88 0.89 0.27 0.3 0.29 OSO-H White Paint 63W Opal Glass 0.27 0.28 0.83 0.87 0.33 0.32 ? The Fridge The Fridge The Fridge Sherwin Williams White Paint (A8W11) Mautz White House Paint Snow, Ice granules 0.28 0.3 0.33 0.87 0.9 0.89 0.32 0.33 0.37 GSFC White Paint NS44-B Sperex White Paint 0.34 0.34 0.91 0.85 0.18 0.4 Dupont Lucite Actylic Lacquer GSFC White Paint NS-37 Sherwin Williams F8WJ2030 w Polasol V6V241 Sherwin Williams White Paint (F8WJ2030) 0.35 0.36 0.36 0.39 0.9 0.91 0.87 0.82 0.39 0.4 0.41 0.48 0.39 0.87 0.4 0.40 -0.87 0.30 - 0.50 0.60 0.44 0.20 -0.88 0.40 - 0.65 0.30 0.85 0.50 - 0.70 0.95 0.6 0.88 0.65 0.13 0.65 0.85 -0.93 0.45 0.46 0.8 0.5 0.65 - 0.80 0.95 0.8 0.28 0.87 0.09 0.88 0.88 0.91 0.28 -0.94 0.88 - 0.94 0.49 0.92 0.08 0.92 0.1 0.92 0.72 0.93 0.3 0.81 2.9 9.7 1 0.97 Tedlar White Paint Hughson White Paint Z-202+1000 Aluminum paint (bright) Hughson White Paint A-276+1O36 Dull brass, copper, galv. steel, aluminum Colored paints, brick, light brick, Concrete Galvanized metal new Brick, red (Purdue) Concrete and stone, dark Galvanized metal weathered Metal, plated Black chrome Anodize Black Martin Black Velvet Paint Solec Solkote selective surface paint Metal, plated Nickel oxide Metal, plated Black sulfide Pyramil Black on Beryllium Copper Metal, plated Cobalt oxide Polyethylene Black Plastic Martin Black Paint N-150-1 Tedlar Black Plastic Iron and Steel, strongly oxidized Hughson Black Paint L-300 Paladin Black Lacquer Black Crystal Crystal Clear Carbon Black Paint NS-7 Carbon Black Paint Chemglaze Black Paint Z3O6 0.94 0.94 0.94 0.95 0.92 0.94 0.9 0.95 0.84 0.95 0.08 -0.75 0.92 - 0.98 0.25 0.09 0.95 - 0.97 0.14 0.96 0.88 0.96 0.88 0.96 0.91 2.1 0.67 0.68 5 0.68 The Fridge The Fridge The Fridge ? The Fridge The Fridge The Fridge The Fridge The Fridge The Fridge The Fridge The Fridge U of Miss The Fridge SOLKOT E HI/SORBII is an optical coating specificall y formulate This is d for stainless solar steel thermal heated applicatio until the ns. nickel oxidizes. U of Miss U of Miss ? ? ? U of Miss ? ? The Fridge The Fridge 2.36 Solec 11 ? 9.2 ? 1.28 The Fridge Thermafin 3.1 's Black ? 1.01 Crystal The Fridge 1 Selective The Fridge Surface 1.04 Coating The Fridge (apparentl Marks (1) 3 Thermafin y replaced 1.13 's Crystal The Fridge with 1.27 Clear The Fridge "Crystal Selective 5.76 Surface Clear"). Thermafin 8.35 Coating. Thermafin The Fridge 1.09 1.09 1.05 The Fridge The Fridge Delrin Black Pastic GSFC Black Silicate MS-94 0.87 0.89 1.1 1.08 GSFC Black Paint 313-1 Hughson Black Paint H322 Velesat Black Plastic Solchrome Ebanol C Black 0.96 0.86 0.96 0.86 0.96 0.10 -0.85 0.94 - 0.98 0.14 0.97 0.73 1.12 1.12 1.12 8 1.33 Ebanol C Black-384 ESH* UV 3M Black Velvet Paint Parsons Black Paint Flat black paint Paint, Black (Parsons) 0.97 0.75 0.97 0.91 0.98 0.97 -0.91 0.97 - 0.99 0.99 0.98 0.98 1.29 1.07 1.08 1 1 Selective surfaces Solec LO/MIT selective surface paint White paint Solec SOLKOTE selective surface paint Copper, aluminum, or nickel plate with CuO coating 0.21 - 0.26 0.23 - 0.49 0.88 - 0.94 0.08 - 0.93 Black Crystal Copper treated with NaCIO2 and NaOH Solchrome Crystal Clear Metal, plated Black sulfide Metal, plated Black chrome Metal, plated Nickel oxide 0.96 0.96 0.15 0.19 0.28 0.49 0.09 0.21 0.08 0.25 0.92 - 0.98 0.87 0.10 -0.13 0.14 0.94 - 0.98 0.09 0.14 0.95 - 0.97 0.92 0.1 0.87 0.92 0.09 0.08 1.38 2.36 3.37 5.76 6.69 8 8.35 9.2 9.7 11 The Fridge The Fridge Solchrom e Systems India Limited. SOLKOT I E understan HI/SORBLO/MIT d is this II anis I/II lamp optical products black coating are low Thermafin mixed specificall emissivit 's Black with spar y y, non Crystal varnish. formulate thickness Selective d for dependen Surface solar tCoating coatings. thermal (apparentl applicatio y replaced ns. with Solchrom Thermafin "Crystal e 's Crystal Clear"). Systems Clear India This is Selective Limited. stainless Surface steel Coating. heated until the nickel oxidizes. The Fridge The Fridge The Fridge Solchrome The Fridge The Fridge The Fridge The Fridge U of Miss ? Solec U of Miss Solec U of Miss Thermafin U of Miss Solchrome Thermafin ? ? ? NELSPRUIT EFFECTIVE AS OF 19 JANUARY 2009 950 METRE MASS /TON KG/M 344 274 275 237 172 237 172 2.907 3.650 3.636 4.219 5.814 4.219 5.814 47.03 57.57 59.76 67.46 89.83 79.00 103.23 METRE MASS PRICE /M 0.50mm ISQ 550 Z200 0.58mm ISQ 300 Z200 0.80mm ISQ 230 Z200 0.50mm ISQ 550 Z275 0.58mm ISQ 300 Z275 /TON 275 237 172 275 237 KG/M 3.636 4.219 5.814 3.636 4.219 EXCL. 80.07 88.75 115.42 0.80mm ISQ 230 Z275 172 5.814 Galvanize d metal AVG PRICE /M SQ.METRE EXCL GALVANISED 0.40mm ISQ 300 Z160 0.50mm ISQ 550 Z160 0.50mm ISQ 550 Z275 0.58mm ISQ 300 Z275 0.80mm ISQ 230 Z275 0.58mm ISQ 300 Z600 0.80mm ISQ 230 Z600 EXCL. IBR 10.5 68.55 83.93 87.12 98.34 130.95 115.16 150.49 61.70 75.53 78.40 88.51 117.85 103.64 135.44 0.725 0.725 0.725 0.725 0.725 0.725 0.725 0.205 0.92 0.87 0.92 0.205 0.205 0.205 CHROMADEK 10.5 105.05 116.44 151.43 0.87 0.09 9.7 0.1 0.09 METRE MASS PRICE /M /TON 300 265 188 KG/M 3.333 3.774 5.306 EXCL. 75.69 87.21 118.24 0.47mm 0.53mm 1200x0.55mm f/feed METRE /TON 297 263 188 MASS KG/M 3.367 3.802 5.306 PRICE /M EXCL. 90.74 100.39 131.08 8.5/76 CORRUGATED GALVANISED 0.30mm ISQ 550 Z100 0.50mm ISQ 550 Z275 METRE /TON 514 283 MASS KG/M 1.946 3.534 0.47mm 0.53mm 1200x0.55mm f/feed COLORBOND 74.385 0 0 0.08 IBR 110.34 127.14 172.37 10.5 99.30 114.42 155.13 SQ.METRE EXCL IBR 10.5 132.28 119.05 146.35 131.71 191.09 171.98 PRICE 8.5 CORR METRE SQ.METRE 30.11 49.35 Withdrawn 3.6 0.762195 204.1052 4.6 0.762195 0 5.6 0.762195 0 6 1224.631 7 0 8 0 0.92 Metal, plated Black sulfide 0.87 Metal, plated Black chrome 0.92 Metal, plated Nickel oxide SQ.METRE EXCL ZINCALUME AZ150 4649.063 20864.09 19730.17 20864.09 4649.063 4649.063 4649.063 Metal, plated Black chrome SQ.METRE EXCL IBR 116.73 129.37 168.26 3.95 9.2 9.7 11 3.95 3.95 3.95 Total Energy W/m2 Length width DayHours W/3.6m 141.1938 7.2 0.762195 774.8438 6 633.65 7.2 0.762195 3477.348 6 599.2125 7.2 0.762195 3288.361 6 633.65 7.2 0.762195 3477.348 6 141.1938 7.2 0.762195 774.8438 6 141.1938 7.2 0.762195 774.8438 6 141.1938 7.2 0.762195 774.8438 6 Requirem Price ent-m 14.4 1,012.84 14.4 1,239.98 14.4 1,287.08 14.4 1,452.92 14.4 1,934.68 14.4 1,701.41 14.4 2,223.42 - Hello, Hello, sorry, I missed the first request. Attached what I use to calculate the azimuth (direction) and the elevation (hight over the horizon) of the sun. If you estimate for each front of your house for which angles the sun is shinig on the front you can do the appropriate actions with your rollerblinds. That how I did it. sorry, I missed the first request. Attached what I use to calculate the azimuth (direction) and the elevation (hight over the horizon) of the sun. If you estimate for each front of your house for which angles the sun is shinig on the front you can do the appropriate actions with your rollerblinds. That how I did it. Sorry, code is in German, but you should get the idea. Sorry, code is in German, but you should get the idea. Longitude Latitude 26 24 K 0.01745 30.4451833333 365.3422 06/Aug/15 18:30 # Source: http://www.jgiesen.de/SME/tk/index.htm 2015219 daycountl deklin timediff x 42375.50 -18.7310295243 7.2333333333 -0.4048085935 #NAME? #sunhight -24.1485724527 #VALUE! (ARCSIN-approximated through polynom) use vars ('$altitude', '$SolZen'); # Source: http://www.jgiesen.de/SME/tk/index.htm Date above in "Julian" format, with a four-digit year (2007174) #daycountl = (month-1)*30 + date + 0.5 #deklin = -23.45*cos(K*360*(daycount+10)/365) #timediff = hour + minute/60 - (15.0-longitude)/15.0 - 12 #x = sin(K*latidute)*sin(K*deklin) + cos(K*latidute)*cos(K*deklin)*Math.cos(K*15*timediff) #sunhight = x/K + 0.25*x*x*x/K (ARCSIN-approximated through polynom) use vars ('$altitude', '$SolZen'); if ($New_Minute || $Reload || $Startup || state_changed $Anwesend eq OFF) { my $tageszahl my deklin my $zeitdiff = ; my $x = $altitude = my $y = $SolZen = $SolZen = if ($New_Minute || $Reload || $Startup || state_changed $Anwesend eq OFF) { 216.50 my $tageszahl = ($Month - 1) * 30 + $Mday + 0.5; my KValue = 0.01745; -18.7310295243 my deklin = -23.45 * cos( KValue * 360 * ($daycount + 10) / 365); 7.2333333333 my $zeitdiff = $Hour + $Minute / 60 - (15 $config_parms{longitude}) / 15 - 12; -0.4048085935 my $x = sin(KValue * $config_parms{latitude}) * sin(KValue * deklin) + cos(KValue * $config_parms{latitude}) * cos(KValue * deklin) * cos(KValue*15*$zeitdiff); -24.1485724527 $altitude = $x/KValue + 0.25*$x*$x*$x/KValue; 0.4230288569 my $y = -(sin(KValue * $config_parms{latitude}) *$x - sin(KValue * deklin)) / (cos(KValue * $config_parms{latitude}) * sin(atan2( sqrt(1 - $x * $x), $x))); 25.0306820903 $SolZen = atan2( sqrt(1- $y * $y), $y) / KValue; 334.9693179097 $SolZen = 360 - $SolZen if ($Hour > 12); } SolZen is the direction of the sun (0 is north) altitude is the hight of the sun. (0 is she is half down the hoizont) SolZen is the direction of the sun (0 is north) altitude is the hight of the sun. (0 is she is half down the hoizont) To trigger actions I use the following vars: my $Sonne_NO = 0; my $Sonne_NW = 0; my $Sonne_SO = 0; my $Sonne_SW = 0; To trigger actions I use the following vars: my $Sonne_NO = 0; my $Sonne_NW = 0; my $Sonne_SO = 0; my $Sonne_SW = 0; $Sonne_SO = ($SolZen >= 95 && $SolZen <= 250 && $altitude >=30 && $altitude <=90) ? 1 : 0; $Sonne_NO = ($SolZen >= 0 && $SolZen <= 130 && $altitude >=30 && $altitude <=90) ? 1 : 0; $Sonne_NW = ($SolZen >= 275 && $SolZen <= 150 && $altitude >=30 && $altitude <=90) ? 1 : 0; $Sonne_SO = ($SolZen >= 95 && $SolZen <= 250 && $altitude >=30 && $altitude <=90) ? 1 : 0; $Sonne_NO = ($SolZen >= 0 && $SolZen <= 130 && $altitude >=30 && $altitude <=90) ? 1 : 0; $Sonne_NW = ($SolZen >= 275 && $SolZen <= 150 && $altitude >=30 && $altitude <=90) ? 1 : 0; Of course you have to change the values in the round brackets to your needs. Of course you have to change the values in the round brackets to your needs. KR KR 1.1 Beam radiation F 33.5at the 0.516547 Anglofdistance, roof or object(more or less tracking the sunasorthe static Outside the atmosphere, mean solar the beam irradiance, also known solar constant (I0), S 1367 W.m-2 (Page 1986). 0 -0.068139 onishorizon ie level and the Sun-Earth distance varies slightly across is The Earth’sFlat orbit lightly eccentric F the year. Therefore, a correction factor , to allow for the varying solar distance, is applied in calculation of the 1 -0.068138677 extraterrestrial irradiance G0 normal to the solar beam [W.m-2]: I0 = -1 G0 = where: 1367.0000 W.m-2 G0 = I0  FltincAnlge 1397.6558 FltincAngle  = 1 + 0.03344 cos (j’ - 0.048869) e =  the day angle j’ is in radians: -3 (2) j’ = 2  j/365.25 j’ = 43.1954 2511.641 =j and j is the day number which varies from 1 on January 1 st to 365 (366) on December 31st. The beam irradiance normal to the solar beam B0c [W.m-2], is attenuated by the cloudless atmosphere, and calculated as follows: B0c = G0 exp {-0.8662 TLK m R(m)} -4 B = The TLK is the air mass 2 Linke atmospheric turbidity factor [dimensionless] corrected by Kasten (1996). 1405.6251881 0c term -0.8662 The parameter m in equation (4) is the relative optical air mass [-] calculated using the formula (Kasten and Young 1989): -0.8662 TLK m = (p/p0)/(sin h0ref + 0.50572 (h0ref + 6.07995)-1.6364) -5 m= -0.000132005 where h0ref is the corrected solar altitude h0 (an angle between the sun and horizon) in degrees by the atmospheric refraction component h0ref: h0ref=0.061359 (0.1594+1.123 h 0 + 0.065656 h02)/(1 + 28.9344 h0 + 277.3971 h02) h0ref= -6 h  h0ref = h0 + h0ref = -0.088324295 h0ref The p/p0 component in equation (5) is correction for given elevation z [m]: ref 0 m = (p/p0)/(sin h0ref + 0.50572 (h0ref + 6.07995)-1.6364) m= -0.000131841 given elevation z [m] -0.068139 p/p0 = exp (-z/8434.5) -7 p/p0 = exp 8.08E-006 The parameter R(m) in equation (4) is the Rayleigh optical thickness at air mass m and is calculated according to the improved formula by Kasten (1996) as follows: for m <= 20: R(m) = 1/(6.6296 + 1.7513 m - 0.1202 m 2 + 0.0065 m3 - 0.00013 m4) -8 R(m) =  for m > 20 0.0966083099 R(m) = 1/(10.4 + 0.718 m) -9 R(m) =  The beam irradiance on a horizontal surface Bhc [W.m-2] is then calculated as: Bhc = B0c sin h0 -10 Bhc = -95.70334393 where h0 is the solar altitude angle given by equation (13). The beam irradiance on an inclined surface Bic [W.m-2] is calculated as: Bic = B0c sin exp -11 Bic = -0.443651829 or Bic = Bhc sin exp/sin h0 -12 Bic = -95.70334393 where exp is the solar incidence angle measured between the Sun and an inclined surface (equation 17). 1.2 Diffuse radiation [top of the page] As the cloudless sky becomes more turbid, the diffuse irradiance increases while the beam irradiance decreases. The estimation of the diffuse component on a horizontal surface Dhc [W.m-2] is made as a product of the normal extraterrestrial irradiance G0, a diffuse transmission function Tn dependent only on the Linke turbidity factor TLK, and a diffuse solar altitude function F d dependent only on the solar altitude h0 (Scharmer and Greif 2000): Dhc = G0 Tn(TLK) Fd(h0) -22 Dhc = 11.243516004 The estimate of the transmission function Tn(T LK) gives a theoretical diffuse irradiance on a horizontal surface with the Sun vertically overhead for the air mass 2 Linke turbidity factor. The following second order polynomial expression is used: Tn(TLK) = -0.015843 + 0.030543 TLK + 0.0003797 TLK2 -23 Tn(TLK) = -0.042014457 The solar altitude function is evaluated using the expression: Fd(h0) = A1 + A2 sin h0 + A3 sin2 h0 -24 Fd(h0) = -0.191471072 where the values of the coefficients A1, A2 and A3 are only depended on the Linke turbidity T LK defined in the following expressions: A1' = 0.26463 - 0.061581 TLK + 0.0031408 TLK2 -25 A1' = 0.3203280121 A1 = 0.0022/Tn(TLK) A1 = if A1' Tn(TLK) < 0.0022 -0.052362929 A1 = A1’ if A1' Tn(TLK) >= 0.0022 A2 = 2.04020 + 0.018945 T LK - 0.011161 TLK2 A2 = 2.0431251574 A3 = -1.3025 + 0.039231 TLK + 0.0085079 TLK2 A3 = -1.330098394 The model for estimating the clear-sky diffuse irradiance on an inclined surface Dic [W.m-2] distinguishes between sunlit, potentially sunlit and shadowed surfaces. The equations are as follows (Muneer 1990): a) for sunlit surfaces and non-overcast sky (h 0 in radians): if h0 >= 0.1 (i.e. 5.7) Dic = Dhc {F(N) (1 - Kb) + Kb sin exp/sin h0} -26 Dic = 12.225899132 if h0 < 0.1 Dic = Dhc {F(N) (1 - Kb) + Kb sin N cos ALN/(0.1 - 0.008 h0)} -27 Dic = Dic = Dhc {F(N) (1 - Kb) + Kb sin N cos ALN/(0.1 - 0.008 h0)} 12.045134036 where A*LN = A0 - AN -28 A*LN = -41.85630316 if - <= A*LN <=  ALN = if ALN >  ALN = ALN = A*LN - 2 -48.13948846 if A*LN < - ALN = ALN = A*LN -41.85630316 -41.85630316 ALN = A*LN + 2 -35.57311785 ALN = -35.57311785 b) for surfaces in shadow (exp < 0 and h0 >= 0): Dic = Dhc F(N) -29 Dic = -0.068000335 where F(N) is a function accounting for the diffuse sky irradiance that may be calculated by the following equation (N in radians): F(N) = ri(N) + (sin N - N cos N -  sin2 (N/2)) N -30 F(N) = 0.9979697021 where ri(N) is a fraction of the sky dome viewed by an inclined surface [dimensionless]: ri(N) = (1 + cos N)/2 -31 ri(N) = 0.9988397292 and value of N for surfaces in shadow is 0.25227. For sunlit surfaces under clear sky the term N is calculated as: N = 0.00263 – 0.712 Kb – 0.6883 Kb2 -32 N= 0.2096863034 The Kb is a measure of the amount of beam irradiance available (proportion between beam irradiance and extraterrestrial solar irradiance on a horizontal surface): Kb = Bhc/G0h -33 Kb = -0.099136409 where G0h [W.m-2] is calculated as: G0h = G0 sin h0 -34 G0h = 965.37029235 1.3 Ground reflected radiation [top of the page] The estimation of the clear-sky ground reflected irradiance for inclined surfaces (Ri) relies on an isotropic assumption. The ground reflected clear-sky irradiance received on an inclined surface [W.m-2] is proportional to the global horizontal irradiance Ghc, to the mean ground albedo g and a fraction of the ground viewed by an inclined surface r g(N) (Muneer 1997): Ri = g Ghc rg(N) Ri = -35 where: -2.815131552 rg(N) = (1 - cos N)/2 -36 rg(N) = 0.1469712839 and global irradiance on a horizontal surface Ghc [W.m-2] is given as a sum of its beam and diffuse component: Ghc = Bhc + Dhc -37 Ghc = -95.77148261 Albedo= 0.2 In Scharmer and Greif (2000, page 141) typical albedo values for a variety of ground surfaces are listed. In general the values of 0.2 or 0.15 are mostly used. 1.4 Position of the Sun [top of the page] The position of the Sun with respect to a horizontal surface is given by the two co-ordinates – solar altitude h0 (an angle between the Sun path and a horizontal surface), and solar azimuth A0 (horizontal angle between the Sun and meridian - measured from East), and is calculated as follows (Krcho 1990, Jenèo 1992): -13 sin h0 = cos A0 = sin h0 = xC31 cos T + xC33 0.340337123 cos A0 = (xC11 cos T + xC13)/((xC22 sin T)2+ (xC11 cos T + xC13)2)1/2 0.7467630113 where: -14 xC11 = sin j cos d -0.946106518 xC13 = -cos j sin d xC13 = -0.019710877 xC22 = cos d xC22 = 0.9479235317 xC31 = cos j cos d xC31 = -0.058664117 xC33 = sin j sin d xC33 = 0.3178874949 The Sun declination  [rad] is computed according to Gruter (1984): xC11 = -15 =  = arcsin (0.3978 sin (j’ - 1.4 + 0.0355 sin (j’ - 0.0489))) -0.324144552 where the calculation of the day angle j’ [radians] is explained in equation (3). The hour angle T [rad] is calculated from the local solar time t expressed in decimal hours on the 24 hour clock as: -16 T= T = 0.261799 (t - 12) 1.9634925 The position of the Sun with respect to an inclined surface (the solar incidence angle) is defined by the angle exp (Krcho 1990, Jenèo 1992). If an inclined surface is defined by the inclination angle N and the azimuth (aspect) AN (an angle between the projection of the normal on the horizontal surface and East) then: -17 sin dexp = yC31 cos (T - l’) + yC33 sin dexp = 0.4927440754 where: I' = -0.068138677 yC31 = cos j’ cos d -18 yC31 = -0.510574812 yC33 = sin ’ sin  yC33 = 0.2973569259 and: -19 sin ’ = tg ’ = sin ’ = - cos  sin N cos AN+ sin  cos N 0.9988140968 tg ’ = - (sin N sin AN)/(sin  sin N cos AN+ cos  cos N). -0.42411256 The hour angle of the time of sunrise/sunset over a horizontal surface T hr,s can be calculated then as: -20 cos Thr,s = -xC33/xC31 cos Thr,s = 5.4187723122 The hour angle of the time of sunrise/sunset over an inclined surface T ir,s can be calculated by analogy: -21 cos (Tir,s - l’) = -yC33/yC31. cos (Tir,s - 0.5823963872 2 Computing real-sky radiation [top of the page] The real-sky irradiance/irradiation are calculated from clear-sky raster maps by the application of a factor parameterizing the attenuation of cloud cover. Examples of explicit calculations of this parameter can be found in Becker (2001), Kitler and Mikler (1986). However, the cloudiness observation by a meteorological service routine is usually prone to subjective errors and does not describe sufficiently the physical nature and dynamic spatial-temporal pattern of different types of cloud cover. Therefore, a simpler parameter has to be used. The solutions for horizontal and inclined surfaces are slightly different. For the assessment of global irradiance/irradiation on a horizontal surface under overcast conditions Gh the clear-sky values Ghc are multiplied by clearsky index kc (Beyer et al 1996, Hammer et al 1998, Rigollier et al. 2001): Gh = Ghc kc -38 Gh = 953 The index kc represents the atmospheric transmission expressed as a ratio between horizontal global radiation under overcast and clear-sky conditions. For a set of ground meteorological stations the clear-sky index can be calculated from measured global radiation G hs and computed values of clear-sky global radiation Ghc: Ghs 953 Ghc -95.77148261 kc = Ghs/Ghc -39 kc = -9.950770041 As an alternative the kc can be derived also from other climatologic data (e.g. cloudiness, cf. Kasten and Czeplak 1980). The raster maps of k c must be then derived by spatial interpolation. The k c can be calculated directly as a raster map from short-wave surface irradiance measured by satellites. This method is based on the complementarity between the planetary albedo recorded by the radiometer and the surface radiant flux (Cano et al 1986, Beyer et al 1996, Hammer et al 1998). To compute the overcast global irradiance/irradiation for inclined surfaces, Gi the diffuse Dh and beam Bh components of overcast global radiation and of the clear-sky index kc have to be treated separately as follows from the equations (26), (27), (29) and (37): Dh = Dhc kdc -40 Dh = -22.3922599 Bh = Bhc kbc Bh = 190.6 The ratio of diffuse to the global radiation Dh/Gh for clear and overcast skies changes according to the cloudiness. In Europe the D h/Gh values are typically in interval 0.3-1.0 (Kasten and Czeplak 1980). The underlying physical processes are quite complicated and computationally represented only by empirical equations (cf. Scharmer and Greif, 2000, Kasten and Czeplak 1980, Hrvo¾ 1991). However, for many meteorological stations, besides the global horizontal radiation Ghs, the diffuse component Dhs is either measured or calculated from cloudiness, sunshine or other climatologic data. The raster map of Dhs/Ghs can be derived from the point values by spatial interpolation. Consecutively, the raster maps of diffuse and beam components of the clear sky index can be computed: Dhs/Ghs -41 0.8 Dh = Gh Dhs/Ghs Dh = 762.4 Bh = Gh – Dh Bh = 190.6 kdc = Dh/Dhc -42 kdc = 67.807970366 kbc = Bh/Bhc kbc = -1.991570954 where subscript s is meant to distinguish data measured on meteorological stations B hs and Dhs from the estimated values Bh, and Dh. 3 Implementation in GRASS GIS [top of the page] The presented solar radiation model is a substantial improvement of the older version (Hofierka 1997), which application was limited only to small areas and clear-sky beam radiation. The new model provides a solution for all three components of global solar radiation under clear-sky or overcast conditions. Large areas can be modelled accurately using spatially variable parameters, and shadowing effects of terrain can be modelled by new effective shadowing algorithm. The r.sun works in two modes. In the mode 1 - for the instant time - it calculates a solar incident angle [degrees] and solar irradiance values [W.m-2]. In the mode 2 the daily sum of solar irradiation [Wh.m-2.day-1] and duration of the beam irradiation are 3.1 Model inputs [top of the page] The model requires only a few mandatory input parameters – digital terrain model (elevation, slope, aspect – elevin, slopein, aspin), day number day (for mode 2), and additionally a local solar time time (for mode 1). However, several other parameters can be set to fit the specific user needs. These parameters have default values that are used unless they are overridden by user settings as a single value or a name of the raster. The table 1 presents a list of all input parameters. Paramete r name elevin aspin Type Descripti on Mode Units Interval of values elevation aspect (solar panel azimuth) 1, 2 1, 2 meters decimal degrees 0 – 8900 0 – 360 slopein raster slope (solar panel inclination ) 1, 2 decimal degrees 0 – 90 linkein raster Linke atmosphe ric turbidity 1, 2 dimension less 0 - 7 lin single value Linke atmosphe ric turbidity 1, 2 dimension less 0 - 7 albedo raster single value latin raster ground albedo ground albedo latitude 1, 2 alb lat single value latitude 1, 2 coefbh raster clear-sky index for beam compone nt 1, 2 dimension 0–1 less dimension 0–1 less decimal -90 – 90 degrees decimal -90 – 90 degrees dimension 0–1 less coefdh raster clear-sky index for diffuse compone nt 1, 2 dimension less day single value single value day number solar declinatio n 1, 2 declin dimension 0 – 366 less -0.40928 radians – 0.40928 time single value local (solar) time step single value dist single value of input raster raster 1, 2 1, 2 1, 2 0–1 1 decimal hours 0 – 24 time step 2 sampling distance coefficient for shadowin g 1, 2 decimal 0.01 – 1.0 hours dimension 0.1 – 2.0 less Table 1: r.sun input parameters Solar declination is computed internally using equation (15) and day number unless an explicit value of declin is used. In the case that user’s data are localised in GRASS location with defined projection, r.sun uses internal GRASS function to get geograp 3.2 Model outputs [top of the page] According to the setting of output parameters the model automatically recognises between modes 1 and 2. When calculating in mode 1 the solar incident angle incidout, and solar irradiance raster maps beam_rad, diff_rad and refl_rad are computed. Calculation in mode 2 gives the sums of solar irradiation within a specified day for selected components of global irradiation beam_rad, diff_rad and refl_rad. A raster map showing duration of beam irradiation insol_time can be computed as well. Besides clear-sky irradiances/irradiations, the model can calculate overcast radiation on conditions that coefbh and coefdh input raster maps are defined, expressing the beam and diffuse components of clear-sky index (equations 42). The incidence angle and irradiance/irradiation maps can be computed without considering the terrain shadowing by default or with shadowing effects by setting the flag -s. In mountainous areas this can lead to very different results especially at low sun altitudes. The value of a shadowed area is written to the output maps as zero. The table 2 presents a list of all output raster maps. Besides output raster maps, the model stores basic solar radiation parameters used in the computation in r.sun_out.txt local text file. Currently it contains day number, solar constant, extraterrestrial irradiance, solar declination, interval of latitude, times of sunrise and sunset, time step, interval of used Linke turbidity and ground albedo. Solar radiation modeling for periods longer or shorter than one day can be done using UNIX shell scripting within GRASS GIS environment. The example can be found in the book by Neteler and Mitasova (p. 326). Paramete Description r name incidout solar incidence angle Mode Units 1 decimal degrees beam_rad beam irradiance diff_rad diffuse irradiance ground refl_rad reflected irradiance 1 W.m-2 1 W.m-2 1 W.m-2 insol_time duration of the beam irradiation 2 min. beam_rad beam irradiation 2 Wh.m2 .day- diff_rad diffuse irradiation 2 Wh.m2 .day-1 refl_rad ground reflected irradiation 2 Wh.m2 .day-1 δ azimuth The azimuth of a celestial body is the angle between the vertical plane containing it and the plane of the meridian An extreme state of adversity; the lowest point of anything The point below the observer that is directly opposite the zenith on the imaginary sphere against which celestial bodies appear to be projected Having a daily cycle or occurring every day (astronomy) the angular distance to a point on a celestial object measured north or south from the celestial equator; expressed in degrees; used with right ascension to specify positions on the celestial sphere nadir albedo ξ diurnal Declination β Tilt angle zenith Z Penumbra Latitude local latitude γ φ θ Longitude solar hour angle(1 - 8760) ω Solar Year Vernal Equinox(Nhem) 365.3422 0 23.5 0 -23.5 Solstice tilt angle of the collectors angle between surface normal and solar ray The point above the observer that is directly opposite the nadir on the imaginary sphere against which celestial bodies appear to be projected cos-1 (sinφ sin δ + cosφ cosδ cosω (H)) A fringe region of partial shadow around an umbra An imaginary line around the Earth parallel to the equator An imaginary great circle on the surface of the earth passing through the north and south poles at right angles to the equator 15o x (Time (hours past noon) H The angular distance along the celestial equator from the observer's meridian to the hour circle of a given celestial body (astronomy) the angular distance of a celestial point measured westward along the celestial equator from the zenith crossing; the right ascension for an observer at a particular location and time of day The time for the earth to make one revolution around the sun, measured between two vernal equinoxes 01 March 2008 South 2008 Vernal Equinox Mar. 21/22 Summer Solstice Jun. 21/22 Autumnal Equinox Sept. 21/22 Winter Solstice Dec. 21/22 0 22 3/22/2008 -23.5 22 3/22/2008 0 22 3/22/2008 23.5 22 3/22/2008 8/30/2008 Either of the two times of the year when the sun is at its greatest distance from the celestial equator collector width north-south spacing between collectors D/H beam insolation (Wh/m2) diffuse insolation (Wh/m2) eight ( β sin A H = ) (meters) collector length ( meters) annual energy received (kWh) angle between surface normal and solar ray A D d Ib Id Hh L l L/H Q θς γ δ ξ η Io solar azimuth solar declination angle relative shaded area screening angle Go Extra terrestrial irradiance correction factor for solar irradiation Day angle in radians Solar Constant e j' Boc Ψ also inclination Beam irradiance Io after correction with e Beam irradiance normal to solar beam TLK Normal (geometry) forming a right angle ψ1sin(360(T/365.25)) 1367 W.m2 W.m2 ψ Hemisphere 23.5 S 21 Mar 2008 20 Sep 2008 δ ψ1sin(360(T/365.25)) δ φ θ θ N or S 20 Sep 2008 = ψ = = -23.36 334.4159 = = = 25.5841 30.67493 2520 S E n = (x/r)i + (y/r)j + (z/r)k = cos(φ)cos(θ)i + cos(φ)sin(θ)j + sin(φ) 0.9968617883 #VALUE! cos(ψ)i + sin(ψ)k. 0.7760875917 The dot product of this vector with the unit normal is cos(ψ)cos(φ)cos(θ) + sin(ψ)sin(φ) 0.9586290838 This is the cosine of the zenith angle so the angle of elevation η is given by: η = 90° - cos-1[cos(φ)cos(ψ)cos(θ)+sin(ψ)sin(φ)] 365.34 SolarYear 88.1223302604 The elevation angle η of the sun at 4 P.M. on April 21st at latitude 45° is found, assuming the spring equinox occurs at noon 00 P.M. on March 21: 19.50 Time time 6-Aug-15 Fict Date Latitude Radian lat 0 2510.829 Angle of incidence -180 -16.87185 -0.863735 0.999796 -59.73853 -83.09598 2.71 149.7385 1 2510.871 2 2510.912 -165 -16.86013 -0.759288 0.999736 -49.40151 -72.75896 -150 -16.84839 -0.603189 0.999581 -37.09863 -60.45607 2.93 139.4015 1.10 127.0986 3 2510.954 -135 -16.83665 -0.406057 0.999076 -23.95738 -47.31483 2.98 113.9574 4 2510.996 -120 -16.8249 -0.181305 0.99537 -10.44581 -33.80325 0.40 100.4458 5 2511.037 -105 -16.81313 0.055775 0.951438 3.197325 -20.16012 1.53 86.80267 16.5406830016 6 2511.079 90 0.289055 -90 -16.80136 0.998178 16.80136 -6.556083 2.62 73.19864 112.5 7 2511.121 -75 -16.78959 70 0.502663 0.999397 30.17636 6.818912 0.63 59.82364 0.0174532925 8 2511.162 -60 -16.777850 0.682069 0.999673 43.00556 19.64812 0.29 46.99444 9 2511.204 -45 0.815068 0.999771 54.59413 31.23668 0.23 35.40587 Column K 10 2511.246 -30 -16.7542 0.892614 0.999809 63.20354 39.84609 1.36 26.79646 Column L 11 2511.287 -15 -16.74239 0.909431 0.999816 65.42684 42.06939 Column M 25.50 57.295779513 ψ 0.017453 T = 10 + 21 + 4/24 = 31.167 2511.6414 ψ = 23.5°sin(360(31.167/365.25)) = 23.5sin(30.719°) = 12.00° θ = 360(4/24) = 60° cos(φ) = cos(45°) = 0.7071 0.9025852843 η = 90° - cos-1[(0.7071)cos(12°)cos(60°)+sin(12°)sin(60°)] = = = 10 2.97 24.57316 Column N -10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 -16.73057 0.864378 0.999796 59.81176 36.45431 0.79 30.18824 12 2511.329 0.9673239085 13 2511.371 -30 0.760521 15 -16.71874 0.999737 49.51018 26.15274 0.33 40.48982 Column P 14 2511.412 30 -16.7069 -50 0.604928 0.999584 37.22368 13.86623 2.66 52.77632 Column Q 15 16 17 18 2511.454 2511.496 2511.537 2511.579 45 60 75 90 -16.69505 0.408185 -70 -16.68319 0.183678 -90 -0.053319 -16.67133 -16.65946 -0.286683 0.999086 0.995489 0.946902 0.998147 24.09089 0.733439 10.58407 -12.77338 -3.056407 -26.41385 -16.65946 -40.0169 0.82 2.86 0.91 1.22 Column R 65.90911 79.41593 93.05641 106.6595 19 20 21 22 23 24 2511.621 2511.662 2511.704 2511.746 2511.787 2511.829 105 120 135 150 165 180 -16.64758 -16.63569 -16.62379 -16.61188 -16.59997 -16.58804 0.999392 0.999671 0.99977 0.999809 0.999816 0.999796 -30.03553 -42.86973 -54.47306 -63.12329 -65.42758 -59.88518 1.82 2.19 2.78 1.39 0.17 1.99 120.0355 132.8697 144.4731 153.1233 155.4276 149.8852 - 90 - 58.273 Angle of incidence 30 Column I Column J -0.0680859626 90° - cos-1(-0.0680859625608035) 90 -16.766 1.638935 * 57.29578 90 - 93.90406 -3.9041 31.73° 0.260270574 8/6/2015 19:46 363.9041 -0.500537 -0.680334 -0.813842 -0.891981 -0.909436 -0.865022 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 -53.39298 -66.22718 -77.83051 -86.48074 -88.78503 -83.24262 Column O absorption. absorption band. acquisition. albedo. alignment data altitude. analog-to-digital conve angular velocity. angle of drift. anomaly. aperture. apogee. ascending node. at-aperture-radiance. attenuation. attitude. azimuth. background. band sequential. band, spectral. BCH. black body. brightness value. calibration data. ETC The process by which electromagnetic radiation (EMR) is assimilated and converted into other forms of energy, primarily heat. Absorption takes place only on the EMR that enters a medium. A substance that absorbs EMR may also be a medium of refraction, diffraction, or scattering; however, these processes involve no energy retention or transformation and are distinct from absorption. A range of wavelengths (or frequencies) of electromagnetic radiation that is assimilated by the atmosphere or other substance. (1) Image captured by satellite sensor. (2) The process of searching for and locking onto a received signal. (1) The ratio of the amount of electromagnetic energy reflected by a surface to the amount of energy incident upon it, often expressed as a percentage. (2) The reflectivity of a body as compared to that of a perfectly diffusing surface at the same distance from the Sun, and normal to the incident radiation. Albedo may refer to the entire solar spectrum or merely to the visible portion. . Angular measurement of the physical position of the optical axis with respect to the primary space vehicle reference axes. Height above a datum, the datum usually being mean sea level. Refers to point above the Earth's surface rather than those on it (elevation). The process of sampling continuous analog signals in order to convert them into a stream of digital values. ETM+ data undergo such a conversion prior to downlinking. Abbreviated as A/D conversion. Also called rotational velocity, it is the amount of rotation that a spacecraft undergoes per unit time. For Landsat 7 it is equal to 1.059 mrad/sec ((233 paths/cycle * 2*pi*1000 mrad/path) / (16 days/cycle * 86400 sec/day)). The angle between the heading of the axis of a craft and its ground track. A deviation from the norm. An opening that admits electromagnetic radiation to a detector or film. An example would be the lens diaphragm opening in a camera. The point in the orbit of a heavenly body, especially of a manmade satellite, at which it is farthest from the Earth. The point at which the orbit of an earth satellite intersects the plane of the equator going from south to north. The radiance at the aperture of the sensor. The reduction in the intensity of radiation with distance from its source due to atmospheric absorption and/or scattering. It does not include the inverse-square decrease of intensity of radiation with distance from the source. The angular orientation of a spacecraft as determined by the relationship between its axes and some reference line or plane or some fixed system of axes. Usually, Y is used for the axis that defines the direction of flight, x for the crosstrack axis, perpendicular to the direction of flight, and z for the vertical axis. Roll is the deviation from the vertical (the angle between the z-axis of the vehicle and the vertical axis, or angular rotation around the y-axis). Pitch is the angular rotation around the x-axis. Yaw is rotation around the z-axis. The arc of the horizon measured clockwise from the north point to the point referenced. Expressed in degrees. Azimuth indicates direction, not location. B Any effect in a sensor or other apparatus or system above which the phenomenon of interest must manifest itself before it can be observed. A format that arranges the data by band such that all of the data from band 1 followed by all of the data from band 2, etc. An interval in the electromagnetic spectrum defined by two wavelengths, frequencies, or wave numbers. With Landsat, bands designate the specific wavelength intervals at which images are acquired. An error detection and correction scheme named after its inventors Bose, Chanduri, and Hochergan. An ideal body which, if it existed, would be a perfect absorber and a perfect radiator, absorbing all incident radiation, reflecting none, and emitting radiation at wavelengths. In remote sensing, the exitance curves of black bodies at various temperatures can be used to model naturally occurring phenomena like solar radiation and terrestrial emmitance. In Landsat parlance, a number in the range of 0-255 that is related to the amount of planetary radiance striking a sensor's detector. C In remote sensing, measurements pertaining to the spectral or geometric characteristics of a sensor or radiation source. Calibration data are obtained through the use of a fixed energy source such as a calibration lamp, a temperature plate, or a geometric test pattern. The application of calibration data to restore measurements to their true values is called rectification. coherent noise. The noise associated with periodic signals arising from power supplies, transmitters and clock signal typically. color. That property of an object which is dependent on the wavelength of the light it reflects or, in the case of a luminescent body, the wavelength of the light it emits. If, in either case, this light is of a single wavelength, the color seen is a pure spectral color, but, if the light of two or more wavelengths is emitted, the color will be mixed. White light is a balanced mixture of all the visible spectral colors. color composite. A color image produced by the combination of three individual monochrome images in which each is assigned a given color. For ETM+ data, if blue is assigned to band 1, green assigned to band 2, and red assigned to band 3, a true color image will result. cubic convolution. A high-order resampling technique is which the brightness value of a pixel in a corrected image is interpolated from the brightness values of the 16 nearest pixels around the location of the corrected pixel. D data capture. The receipt and storage of return link mission data at the CADU level. data continuity. A NASA requirement to ensure that Landsat 7 data are compatible to those obtained by earlier Landsat satellites. data granule. The increment of image data stored in the archive, i.e. an interval, swath, or WRS scene. data loads. Data and command transfers from the MOC to the onboard computer. dark shutter image data. The image data obtained from ETM+ detectors when the calibration shutter obscures the detectors from incident electromagnetic radiation. descending node. The point at which the orbit of an earth satellite intersects the plane of the equator going from north to south. detector. The composite circuitry supporting the development of a single output data sample. detector sample. The process of determining the transfer characteristics (detector mean output as a function of incident exposure) for each detector element. digital terrain elevation data (DTED). Digital information produced by DMA which provides a uniform matrix of terrain elevation values. DTED is commonly used to terrain correct Landsat data. distortion. A change in scale from one part of an image to another. dwell time. Refers to the momentary time interval during which a detector is able to, or allowed to, sense incoming electromagnetic radiation within its intended instantaneous field of view. dynamic range. The ratio of the maximum signal to the smallest measurable signal. E EDC. Earth Resources Observation System Data Center is a national archive, production, distribution and research facility for remotely sensed data and other geographic information. (see EROS) electromagnetic radiation. Energy emitted as result of changes in atomic and molecular energy states and propagated through space at the speed of light. electromagnetic spectrum. The system that classifies, according to wavelength, all energy (from short cosmic to long radio) that moves, harmonically, at the constant velocity of light. elevation. Vertical distance from the datum, usually mean sea level, to a point or object on the Earth's surface. emission. With respect to electromagnetic radiation, the process by which a body emits electromagnetic radiation as a consequence of its kinetic temperature only. emissivity. Ratio of radiation emitted by a surface to the radiation emitted by a black body at the same temperature under similar conditions. May be expressed as total emissivity (for all wavelengths), spectral emissivity (as a function of wavelength), or goniometric emissivity (as a function of angle). Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). The ETM+ is a fixed-position nadir viewing whisk-broom instrument. The viewing swath is produced by means of an oscillating mirror system that sweeps across track as the sensor field of view moves forward along-track due to satellite motion. ETM+ scene. A set of ETM+ observations that covers 170 km in width by 185 km in length and is centered about a WRS vertex. engineering data. All data available on-board about health, safety, environment or status of the platform and instruments. ephemeris. A set of data that provides the assigned places of a celestial body (including a manmade satellite) for regular intervals. Ephemeris data help to characterize the conditions under which remote sensing data are collected and may be used to correct the sensor data prior to analysis. EROS. The Earth Resources Observation System was established in the early 1970Õs under the Department of InteriorÕ U.S. Geological Survey, to receive, process and distribute data from the United StatesÕ Landsat satellite sensors and from airborne mapping cameras. Evcuated tube Collector F field-of-view. The solid angle through which an instrument is sensitive to radiation. See effective resolution element, instantaneous field of view, resolution. focal length. In a camera, the distance measured along the optical axis from the optical center of the lens to the plane at which the image of a very distant object is brought into focus. focal plane. In a sensor, the plane occupied by the detectors, and on which the radiances sensed are incident. frame. For Landsat 7, a frame is one Virtual Channel Data Unit with a frame synchronizer pattern (frame marker) attached. This is the same as a Channel Access Data Unit (CADU). G geocentric. Any coordinate frame whose origin is relative to the Earth's center of mass. geometric correction. The transformation of image data, such as Landsat data, to match spatial relationships as they are on the Earth. Includes correction for band-to-band offsets, line length, Earth rotation, and detector-to-detector sampling delay. For ETM+ data, a distinction is made between data that have been geometrically corrected using systematic, or predicted, values and data that have been geometrically corrected using precise ground control point data and elevations models. geodetic coordinates. Quantities which define the position of a point on the spheroid of reference (for example, the Earth) with respect to the planes of the geodetic equator and of a reference meridian. Commonly expressed in terms of latitude and longitude. geodetic accuracy. A measure of how closely a point on the Earth can be located relative to its true absolute location. geosynchronous. An Earth satellite orbit in which the satellite remains in a fixed position over a geographic location on Earth. Global Position System (GPS). A constellation of satellites that can be used to determine accurately the orbit data of satellites. ground control point (GCP). A geographic feature of known location that is recognizable on images and can be used to determine geometric correction functions for those images. ground track. The vertical projection of the actual flight path of a plane or space vehicle onto the surface of the Earth. ground truth. Data which are acquired from field checks, high-resolution remote sensing data, or other sources of known data. Ground truth is used as the basis for making decisions on training areas and evaluating classification results. H housekeeping data. All data available onboard about health, safety, environment, or status of the platform and instruments. hue. The attribute of a color that differentiates it from gray of the same brilliance and that allows it to be classed as blue, green, red, or intermediate shades of these colors. I image. The recorded representation of an object produced by optical, electro-optical, optical-mechanical, or electronic means. It is the term generally used when the electromagnetic radiation emitted or reflected from a scene is not directly recorded on photographic film. image enhancement. Any one of a group of operations which improves the interpretability of an image or the detectability of targets or categories in the image. These operations include contrast enhancement, edge enhancement, spatial filtering, image smoothing, and image sharpening. image restoration. A process by which a degraded image is restored to its original condition. Image restoration is possible only to the extent that the degradation transform is mathematically invertable. image-to-image registration. The registration between images taken at different times. image transformation. A function or operator which takes an image as input and produces an image as its output. Depending on the transform chosen, the input and output images may appear entirely different and have different intrepretations. Fourier, Hadamard, and Karhunen-Love transforms as well as various spatial filters, are examples of frequently used image transformation procedures. infrared. Pertaining to energy in the 0.7 - 100 µm wavelength region of the electromagnetic spectrum. For remote sensing, the infrared wavelengths are often subdivided into near infrared (0.7 - 1.3 µm), middle infrared (1.3-3.0 µm), and far infrared (7.0 - 15 µm). Far infrared is sometimes referred to as thermal or emissive infrared. instantaneous field of view (IFOV). The solid angle through which a detector is sensitive to radiation. In a scanning system this refers to the solid angle subtended by the detector when the scanning motion is stopped. Instantaneous field of view is commonly expressed in milliradians. IFOV also refers to the ground area covered by this solid angle. international ground station (IGS). Any Landsat ground station not belonging to the United States. interval. Is a scheduled ETM+ image period along a WRS path, and may be from 1 to 90 full scenes in length. irradiance. The measure, in units of power, of radiant flux incident on a surface. J jitter. Small rapid variations in a variable (such as a waveform) due to deliberate or accidental electrical or mechanical disturbances or to changes in the supply of voltages, in the characteristics of components. Jitter effects arising from the oscillating mirrors and other movable parts aboard the Landsat spacecraft are often a cause of certain anomalies in the image data received and must be compensated for by the ground processing software. K K-band. A radio frequency band extending from approximately 12.5 to 36 gigahertz. kernel. In the spatial domain, a kernel is a MxM operator which can be used in the convolution or multiplication with a NxN image to accentuate certain features or properties of an image. A kernel can also be represented in the frequency domain as a Fourier transform. L L-band. A radio frequency band extending from approximately 1.0 to 2.0 gigahertz. Landsat 7. Consists of the spacecraft and the ETM+ payload. level 0. Space vehicle or instrument data at full space-time resolution with space-to-ground communication artifacts removed. light, transmitted. Light that has traveled through a medium without being absorbed or scattered. long term acquisition plan. The tasking of the sensor using cloud predictions to optimize the acquisition of cloud free scenes. lookup table. An array of values from which functions corresponding to a given argument can be obtained. M major frame. For ETM+, a major frame period is one complete scan of the ETM+ scan mirror (either direction), which includes not only the period during a scan but also the turnaround interval when the scan mirror changes direction for the next scan. map projection. Any systematic arrangement of meridians and parallels portraying the curved surface of a sphere or spheroid upon a plane. metadata. An archived set of descriptive information about a scene and the parent sub-interval that provides a user with geographic coverage, date of acquisition, sun angles, could cover, gain states, and other quality measurements. minor frame. For ETM+ major frames are partitioned into minor frames which is the most fundamental element of the data stream structure in which specific data measurands (e.g. imagery, PCD, time codes) are extracted. mirror scan correction data. This data includes scan start time, first half scan time error, second half scan time error, scan direction, and any other data which is required to perform mirror scan correction. modulate. To vary, or control, the frequency, phase, or amplitude of an electromagnetic wave or other variable. modulation transfer function (MTF). The modulation transfer function of an imaging system measures the spatial frequency modulation response of the system. As an imaging system processes or records an image, the contrast modulation of the processed or recorded image is different from the input image. The MTF can be thought of as a curve, indicating for each spatial frequency the ratio of the contrast modulation of the output image to the contrast modulation of the input image. It is formally defined as the magnitude of the Fourier transform of the line spread function of the imaging system. mosaic. An image made by piecing together individual images covering adjacent areas. multiplexer. An electronic device which permits the transmission of multiple messages simultaneously on one communication channel. multispectral. Generally denotes remote sensing in two or more spectral bands, such as visible and infrared. N nadir. That point on the celestial sphere vertically below the observer, or 180° from the zenith. narrowband data. The data includes the command or forward ranging in the narrowband forward link, and the telemetry or return ranging in the narrowband return link. near infrared. The preferred term for the shorter wavelengths in the infrared region extending from about 0.7 µm (visible red) to about 3 µm. The longer wavelength end grades into the middle infrared. Sometimes called solar infrared, as it is only available for use during the daylight hours. Also known as the shortwave infrared (SWIR). node. Either of the two points at which the orbit of a heavenly body intersects a given plane, especially the plane of ecliptic. With respect to Landsat, the orbital nodes occur at the equator, one on the descending, or daylight, track of the orbit and the other on the ascending, or nighttime, track. noise. Any unwanted disturbance affecting a measurement (as of a frequency band), especially that which degrades the information-bearing quality of the data of interest. Nyquist interval. The maximum time interval between equally spaced samples of a signal that will enable the signal waveform to be completely determined. The Nyquist interval is equal to the reciprocal of twice the highest frequency component of the sampled signal. Nyquist's theorem: A theorem, developed by H. Nyquist, which states than an analog signal waveform may be uniquely reconstructed, without error, from samples taken at equal time intervals. The sampling rate must be equal to, or greater than, twice the highest frequency component in the analog signal. O optical transfer function (OTF). A mathematical statement that describes the relationship between the input and the output of an imaging system. When the transfer function operates on the input, the output is obtained. Given any two of these three entities, the third can be obtained. orbit adjust. The adding to or taking away of orbital velocity. This is normally done to maintain altitude or orbit phasing relationships. orbital period. The interval in time between successive passages (orbits) of a satellite through a reference plane. orthorectified. Describing an image in which terrain relief distortions have been removed. P panchromatic. A single band covering a broad range of wavelengths; usually used in context of collecting information from the whole visible spectrum. parallax. The apparent change in the position of one object, or point, with respect to another, when viewed from different angles. path. The longitudinal center line of a Landsat scene of a Landsat scene, corresponding to the center of an orbital track. Sequential numbers from east to west are assigned to 233 nominal satellite tracks for Landsat 7. Path numbers are used with row numbers to designate nominal scene center points. payload. That part of a spacecraft (e.g. ETM+) that is separate from the equipment or operations necessary to maintain the spacecraft in orbit. payload correction data. Image support data imbedded in the wideband data stream. Includes satellite attitude, ephemeris, time, angular displacement sensor (ADS) data and payload state. perigee. The point in the orbit of a heavenly body (e.g. satellite) at which it is nearest the Earth. pixel. Picture element provided by a single detector scene sample output. pitch. The rotation of a spacecraft about the horizontal axis normal to its longitudinal axis (in the along-track direction) so as to cause a nose-up or nose-down attitude. polar stereographic. An azimuthal stereographic projection commonly used with Landsat data acquired about 65° latitude. In this projection, the meridians are straight lines converging at the pole (central point), and lines of latitude are concentric circles about this point. Like the UTM projection, the polar stereographic is a conformal projection, meaning that angular relationships are preserved. pole wander. The apparent motion in the poles of the Earth relative to inertial coordinate system. Changes in moments of inertia are due to changes in moments of density due primarily to tides and liquid mass. The National Imager and Mapping Agency (NIMA) generates pole wander data which are used by the Landsat 7 system in the conversion of downlinked ephemeris from inertial to fixed reference, during Level 0R processing. precision correction. Post-processed geometric correction of satellite data using ground control points to correlate the spacecraft's predicted position with its actual geodetic position. prime meridian. Meridian of longitude 0 degrees, used as the origin for measurements of longitude. The meridian of Greenwich, England, is the internationally accepted prime meridian on most charts. Q quantization level. The number of numerical values used to represent a continuous quantity. quaternion. A vector of four components; the position is contained in the first three components and an associated scalar rater is located in the last component of this four element vector. R radian. The angle subtended by an arc of a circle equal in length to the radius of the circle: 57.3° radiance. Measure of the energy radiated by an object. In general, radiance is a function of viewing angle and spectral wavelength and is expressed as energy per solid angle. Rayleigh scattering. Selective scattering of light in the atmosphere by particles that are small compared with the wavelength of light. reflectance. The ratio of the radiant energy reflected by a body to that incident upon it. In general, reflectance is a function of the incident angle of the energy, viewing angle of the sensor, spectral wavelength and bandwidth, and the nature of the object. registration. The process of geometrically aligning two or more sets of image data such that resolution cells for a common ground area can be digitally or visually superimposed. roll. The rotation of a spacecraft about its longitudinal axis (in the along-track direction) so as to cause a side-up or side-down attitude. The roll axis is referred to as the y axis. row. The latitudinal (nominal) center line of a Landsat scene. Row 1 is at latitude 80° 47'N, row 60 is at the equator, and row 122 is at latitude 81° 51'S. In total there are 248 rows. S sampling rate. The number of samples taken per unit time, i.e., the rate at which signals are sampled for subsequent use, such as for modulation, coding, and quantization. saturation. The condition where energy flux exceeds the sensitivity range of a detector. S band. A radio frequency band extending from approximately 2.0 to 4.0 gigahertz. sidelap. The extent of lateral overlap between images acquired over adjacent ground tracks. signal-to-noise ratio. The ratio of the level of the information-bearing signal power to the level of the noise power. More precisely, the signal-to-noise ratio of the mean DN to the standard deviation in DN. This is a temporal noise definition in that the mean DN is the time averaged value and the standard deviation in DN is the standard deviation in the time series. space oblique mercator. A variation on the basic mercator map projection based on the dynamics of satellite motion. The movements of the satellite, sensor, and the Earth, expressed as functions of time, are used to calculate which latitudes and longitudes on the Earth correspond to locations in the projection plane. spectral band. An interval in the electromagnetic spectrum defined by two wavelengths, frequencies, or wave numbers. spectral response. The response of a material as a function of wavelength to incident electromagnetic energy, particularly in terms of the measurable energy reflected from and emitted by the material. spectral signature. The quantitative measurement of the properties of an object at one or several wavelength intervals. Spectral signature analysis techniques use the variation in the spectral reflectance or emittance of objects as a method of identifying the objects. steradian. A unit of measure of solid angles. Formally, it is the angle subtended at the center of the sphere by a portion of the surface whose area is equal to the square of the radius of the sphere. There are 4 pi steradians in a sphere. subinterval. Is a contiguous segment of raw wideband data received during a Landsat 7 contact period. Subintervals are caused by breaks in the wideband datastream due to communication dropouts and/or the inability of the spacecraft to transmit a complete observation (interval) within a single Landsat 7 contact period. The largest possible subinterval is 35 full scenes long with a partial scene preamble and postamble. The smallest possible subinterval is a single ETM+ scene. sun elevation angle. The angle of the Sun above the horizon. solar zenith angle. Reciprocal of the sun elevation angle. sun synchronous. An Earth satellite orbit in which the orbital plane remains at a fixed angle with respect to the Sun, precessing through 360° during the period of a year. swath. Refers to the 185 kilometer wide ETM+ imaging ground track. T telemetry. The science of measuring a quantity, transmitting the measured value to a distant station, and there, interpreting or recording the quantity measured. temporal. Pertaining to, concerned with, or limited by time. temporal resolution. The expected repeat time between measurements over the same location. thermal band. A general term for intermediate and long wavelength infrared-emitted radiation, as contrasted to short wavelength reflected infrared radiation. In practice, generally refers to infrared radiation emitted in the 3-5 µm and 9-14 µm atmospheric windows. thermal infrared. The preferred term for the middle wavelength ranges of the infrared region extending roughly from 3 µm at the end of the near infrared, to about 15 or 20 m where the far infrared commences. In practice the limits represent the the envelope of energy emitted by the Earth behaving as a graybody with a surface temperature around 290 K. Seen from space, the radiance envelope has several brighter bands corresponding to windows in the atmospheric absorption bands. The thermal band most used in remote sensing extends from 8 to 15 µm. time, Greenwich mean. Mean solar time of the meridian of Greenwich, England (longitude 0), used by most navigators and adopted as the prime basis of standard time throughout the world. Abbreviated GMT. time, mean Sun. The mean Sun time at a given location on the Earth is determined by the distance in longitude from the Greenwich meridian. The mean Sun time at any location is determined by dividing the difference in longitude from Greenwich (in degrees, moving east) by 15 and adding the result to the current GMT. This will be mean Sun time relative to Greenwich, expressed in hours. transmittance. The ratio of the energy per unit time per unit area (radiant power density) transmitted through an object to the energy per unit time per unit area incident on the object. In general, transmittance is a function of the incident angle of the energy, viewing angle of the sensor, spectral wavelength and bandwidth, and the nature of the object. U ultraviolet radiation. Electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength than visible radiation but longer than X-rays; roughly, radiation in the wavelength interval between 10 and 4,000 angstroms. umbra. The complete or perfect shadow of an opaque body, as a planet, where the light from the source of illumination is completely cut off. universal transverse mercator. A widely used map projection employing a series of identical projections around the world in the intermediate latitudes, each covering 6 degrees of longitude and oriented to a meridian. The UTM projection is characterized by its property of conformality, meaning that it preserves scale and angular relationships well, and by the ease with which it allows a useful rectangular grid to be superimposed on it. The UTM projection is most commonly used with landsat data. UT1-UTC time correction data. Universal Time (UT) 1 is determined from observations of stellar transits to determine local mean sidereal time corrected to remove the effects of polar motion. Universal Time Coordinated (UTC) is defined to be equal to that of the International System used for atomic time, but it is kept with .9 seconds of UT1 by periodic leap-second adjustments. V virtual channel data unit (VCDU). The CCSDS protocol data unit consisting of a fixed length data structure. It is used for bidirectionally space/ground communications on a CCSDS virtual channel. visible radiation. Electromagnetic radiation of the wavelength interval to which the human eye is sensitive; the spectral interval from approximately 0.4 to 0.7 µm. W wavelength. Wavelength = 1/frequency. In general, the mean distance between maximums (or minimums) of roughly periodic pattern. Specifically, the shortest distance between particles moving in the same phase of oscillation in a wave disturbance. world geodetic system (WGS). The reference Earth model used by the Landsat 7 system. worldwide reference system. A global indexing system for Landsat data which is based on nominal scene centers defined by path and row coordinates. X X-band. A radio frequency band extending from approximately 8.0 to 12.5 gigahertz. Y yaw. The rotation of a spacecraft about its vertical axis so as to cause the spacecraft's longitudinal axis to deviate left or right from the direction of flight. The yaw axis is referred to as the z axis. Z zenith. The point in the celestial sphere that is exactly overhead. Menu Menu Menu Menu Menu Menu Menu Menu Menu Menu Menu Menu Menu Menu Menu Menu Menu Menu Menu Menu Menu Menu Menu Menu Menu ψ Hemisphere 21 Mar 2008 δ ψ1sin(360(T/365.25)) δ φ 23.5 S 20 Sep 2008 N or S 20 Sep 2008 = ψ = = -23.36 334.4159166667 = = = θ θ 25.584083333 S 30.6749333333 E 2520 n = (x/r)i + (y/r)j + (z/r)k = cos(φ)cos(θ)i + cos(φ)sin(θ)j + sin(φ) 0.9968617883 cos(ψ)i + sin(ψ)k. 0.7760875917 The dot product of this vector with the unit normal is cos(ψ)cos(φ)cos(θ) + sin(ψ)sin(φ) 0.9586290838 This is the cosine of the zenith angle so the angle of elevation η is given by: η = 90° - cos-1[cos(φ)cos(ψ)cos(θ)+sin(ψ)sin(φ)] Fict Date Latitude Radian 365.34220000 SolarYear 88.1223302604 The elevation angle η of the sun at 4 P.M. on April 21st at lati found, assuming the spring equinox occurs at noon 00 P.M. o 19.50 Time 6-Aug-15 25.50 57.295779513 0.017453 T = 10 + 21 + 4/24 = 31.167 2511.6414 ψ = 23.5°sin(360(31.167/365.25)) = 23.5sin(30.719°) = 12.00° 16.5406830016 θ = 360(4/24) = 60° 112.5 0.0174532925 cos(φ) = cos(45°) = 0.7071 0.9025852843 η = 90° - cos-1[(0.7071)cos(12°)cos(60°)+sin(12°)sin(60°)] -0.0680859626 0.9673239085 90° - cos-1(-0.0680859625608035) 90 = = = 90 - 58.273 31.73° - 1.638935 * 90 - -3.9041 363.9041 0.017453 0.017453 57.29578 114.591559026165000000000000000000 3.142857 #VALUE! at 4 P.M. on April 21st at latitude 45° is ox occurs at noon 00 P.M. on March 21: time lat 0 1 2 2510.8289 2510.8705666667 2510.9122333333 -180 -16.87185 -0.863735 0.999796 -165 -16.86013 -0.759288 0.999736 -150 -16.84839 -0.603189 0.999581 3 2510.9539 -135 -16.83665 -0.406057 0.999076 4 2510.9955666667 -120 -16.8249 -0.181305 0.99537 5 2511.0372333333 -105 -16.81313 0.055775 0.951438 6 2511.0789 -90 -16.80136 0.289055 0.998178 7 2511.1205666667 -75 -16.78959 0.502663 0.999397 8 2511.1622333333 -60 -16.7778 0.682069 0.999673 9 2511.2039 -45 0.815068 0.999771 10 2511.2455666667 -30 -16.7542 0.892614 0.999809 11 2511.2872333333 -15 -16.74239 0.909431 0.999816 12 2511.3289 0 -16.73057 0.864378 0.999796 13 2511.3705666667 15 -16.71874 0.760521 0.999737 -16.766 57.29578 93.90406 14 2511.4122333333 30 -16.7069 0.604928 0.999584 15 16 17 18 2511.4539 2511.4955666667 2511.5372333333 2511.5789 45 60 75 90 -16.69505 -16.68319 -16.67133 -16.65946 0.408185 0.183678 -0.053319 -0.286683 0.999086 0.995489 0.946902 0.998147 19 20 21 22 23 24 2511.6205666667 2511.6622333333 2511.7039 2511.7455666667 2511.7872333333 2511.8289 105 120 135 150 165 180 -16.64758 -16.63569 -16.62379 -16.61188 -16.59997 -16.58804 -0.500537 -0.680334 -0.813842 -0.891981 -0.909436 -0.865022 0.999392 0.999671 0.99977 0.999809 0.999816 0.999796 Angle of incidence -59.73853 -83.09598 -49.40151 -72.75896 -37.09863 -60.45607 2.71 149.7385 2.93 139.4015 1.10 127.0986 -23.95738 -47.31483 2.98 113.9574 -10.44581 -33.80325 0.40 100.4458 3.197325 -20.16012 1.53 86.80267 16.80136 -6.556083 2.62 73.19864 30.17636 6.818912 0.63 59.82364 43.00556 19.64812 0.29 46.99444 54.59413 31.23668 0.23 35.40587 63.20354 39.84609 1.36 26.79646 65.42684 42.06939 2.97 24.57316 59.81176 36.45431 0.79 30.18824 49.51018 26.15274 0.33 40.48982 37.22368 13.86623 2.66 52.77632 24.09089 0.733439 10.58407 -12.77338 -3.056407 -26.41385 -16.65946 -40.0169 0.82 2.86 0.91 1.22 65.90911 79.41593 93.05641 106.6595 -30.03553 -42.86973 -54.47306 -63.12329 -65.42758 -59.88518 1.82 2.19 2.78 1.39 0.17 1.99 120.0355 132.8697 144.4731 153.1233 155.4276 149.8852 -53.39298 -66.22718 -77.83051 -86.48074 -88.78503 -83.24262 ψ 23.5 3/21/2008 δ ψ1sin(360(T/SolarYear)) δ = φ = = = θ = θ = ψ 11.91 334.497778 30.911 2520 n = (x/r)i + (y/r)j + (z/r)k = cos(φ)cos(θ)i + cos(φ)sin(θ)j + sin(φ) 1.0286547519 cos(ψ)i + sin(ψ)k. -1.059987322 The dot product of this vector with the unit normal is cos(ψ)cos(φ)cos(θ) + sin(ψ)sin(φ) -0.9991705883 This is the cosine of the zenith angle so the angle of elevation η is given by: η = 90° - cos-1[cos(φ)cos(ψ)cos(θ)+sin(ψ)sin(φ)] 88.1515713212 The elevation angle η of the sun at 4 P.M. on April 21st at latitude 45° is found, assuming the spring equinox occurs at noon 00 P.M. on March 21: 16 Fict Date 21-Apr-08 45.00 Radian 57.2957795131 T = 10 + 21 + 4/24 = 31.167 31.1666666667 ψ = 23.5°sin(360(31.167/365.25)) = 23.5sin(30.719°) = 12.00° 12.0016142662 θ = 360(4/24) = 60° 60 0.0174532925 cos(φ) = cos(45°) = 0.7071 0.7071067812 η = 90° - cos [(0.7071)cos(12°)cos(60°)+sin(12°)sin(60°)] -1 0.5259060019 0.6695489485 90° - cos-1(0.525906001927743) 90 = = 90 - 58.273 = 31.73° 1.017016 * 57.29578 90 - 58.27075 31.7293