Absorptivity & Emissivity table 1 plus others.
aS
E
Solar
Surface
aS/E
Silver, Highly polished
Gold, Highly polished
Barium Sulphate with Polyvinyl Alcohol
Emissivit
Comment Referenc
ratio
y
s
e
0.02 0.03
3
Marks (1)
0.02 0.04
3
Marks (1)
The Fridge
0.06
0.88
0.07
Aluminum polished
Magnesium Oxide Paint
Magnesium/Aluminium Oxide Paint
Aluminum quarts overcoated
Aluminum, Highly polished
0.09
0.03
0.09
0.9
0.09
0.92
0.11 0.04 0.37
0.06
Snow, Fine particles fresh
Zinc Orthotitanate with Potassium Silicate
Aluminum anodized
Aluminum foil
0.13
0.13
0.14
0.15
0.82
0.92
0.84
0.05
0.16
0.14
0.17
3
?
The Fridge
?
?
Aluminum foil gets very hot because of this high ratio.
Potassium Fluorotitanate White Paint
Zinc Oxide with Sodium Silicate
Paint, White zinc oxide
GSFC White Paint NS74
Titanium Oxide White Paint with Potassium Silicate
0.15
0.15
0.16
0.17
0.17
0.88
0.92
0.93
0.92
0.92
0.17
0.16
0.17
0.18
0.18
The Fridge
The Fridge
?
The Fridge
The Fridge
Zerlauts Z93 White Paint
Cromium
Cromium
Dow Corning White Paint DC007
GSFC White Paint NS43C
0.17
0.026666667
0.086666667
0.19
0.2
0.92
0.08
0.26
0.88
0.92
0.18
3
3
0.22
0.22
The Fridge
Marks (1)
Marks (1)
The Fridge
The Fridge
Titanium Oxide White Paint with Methyl Silicone
Zerlauts S13G White Paint
Light colored paints, firebrick, clay, glass
BiphenylWhite Solid
0.2
0.2
0.04  0.40
0.23
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.86
0.22
0.22
0.24
0.27
The Fridge
The Fridge
U of Miss
The Fridge
P7641A White Paint
Zirconium Oxide with650 Glass Resin
0.23
0.92
0.23 0.15 0.88
0.21  0.26
0.19
0.24
0.9
0.25
0.87
LO/MIT
I/II
products
are low
emissivit
0.25 y, non
thickness
0.26 dependen
1.38 t coatings.
0.27
0.29
Material
Solec LO/MIT selective surface paint
Catalac White Paint
Hughson White Paint Z202
Absorption
3
0.1
0.1
0.3
3
?
The Fridge
The Fridge
?
Marks (1)
The Fridge
The Fridge
Solec
The Fridge
The Fridge
Hughson White Paint Z255
Hughson White Paint Z255
0.25
0.25
0.89
0.89
0.28
0.28
The Fridge
The Fridge
3M401 White Paint
Hughson White Paint A276
Hughson White Paint V200
0.25
0.26
0.26
0.91
0.88
0.89
0.27
0.3
0.29
OSOH White Paint 63W
Opal Glass
0.27
0.28
0.83
0.87
0.33
0.32
?
The Fridge
The Fridge
The Fridge
Sherwin Williams White Paint (A8W11)
Mautz White House Paint
Snow, Ice granules
0.28
0.3
0.33
0.87
0.9
0.89
0.32
0.33
0.37
GSFC White Paint NS44B
Sperex White Paint
0.34
0.34
0.91
0.85
0.18
0.4
Dupont Lucite Actylic Lacquer
GSFC White Paint NS37
Sherwin Williams F8WJ2030 w Polasol V6V241
Sherwin Williams White Paint (F8WJ2030)
0.35
0.36
0.36
0.39
0.9
0.91
0.87
0.82
0.39
0.4
0.41
0.48
0.39
0.87
0.4 0.40 0.87
0.30  0.50
0.60
0.44 0.20 0.88
0.40  0.65
0.30 0.85
0.50  0.70
0.95
0.6
0.88
0.65
0.13
0.65 0.85 0.93
0.45
0.46
0.8
0.5
0.65  0.80
0.95
0.8
0.28
0.87
0.09
0.88
0.88
0.91 0.28 0.94
0.88  0.94
0.49
0.92
0.08
0.92
0.1
0.92
0.72
0.93
0.3
0.81
2.9
9.7
1
0.97
Tedlar White Paint
Hughson White Paint Z202+1000
Aluminum paint (bright)
Hughson White Paint A276+1O36
Dull brass, copper, galv. steel, aluminum
Colored paints, brick, light brick,
Concrete
Galvanized metal new
Brick, red (Purdue)
Concrete and stone, dark
Galvanized metal weathered
Metal, plated Black chrome
Anodize Black
Martin Black Velvet Paint
Solec Solkote selective surface paint
Metal, plated Nickel oxide
Metal, plated Black sulfide
Pyramil Black on Beryllium Copper
Metal, plated Cobalt oxide
Polyethylene Black Plastic
Martin Black Paint N1501
Tedlar Black Plastic
Iron and Steel, strongly oxidized
Hughson Black Paint L300
Paladin Black Lacquer
Black Crystal
Crystal Clear
Carbon Black Paint NS7
Carbon Black Paint
Chemglaze Black Paint Z3O6
0.94
0.94
0.94
0.95
0.92
0.94
0.9
0.95
0.84
0.95 0.08 0.75
0.92  0.98
0.25 0.09
0.95  0.97
0.14
0.96
0.88
0.96
0.88
0.96
0.91
2.1
0.67
0.68
5
0.68
The Fridge
The Fridge
The Fridge
?
The Fridge
The Fridge
The Fridge
The Fridge
The Fridge
The Fridge
The Fridge
The Fridge
U of Miss
The Fridge
SOLKOT
E
HI/SORBII is an
optical
coating
specificall
y
formulate
This
is
d
for
stainless
solar
steel
thermal
heated
applicatio
until the
ns.
nickel
oxidizes.
U of Miss
U of Miss
?
?
?
U of Miss
?
?
The Fridge
The Fridge
2.36
Solec
11
?
9.2
?
1.28
The Fridge
Thermafin
3.1 's Black
?
1.01 Crystal
The Fridge
1 Selective The Fridge
Surface
1.04 Coating
The Fridge
(apparentl Marks (1)
3 Thermafin
y
replaced
1.13 's Crystal The Fridge
with
1.27 Clear
The Fridge
"Crystal
Selective
5.76 Surface
Clear").
Thermafin
8.35 Coating. Thermafin
The Fridge
1.09
1.09
1.05
The Fridge
The Fridge
Delrin Black Pastic
GSFC Black Silicate MS94
0.87
0.89
1.1
1.08
GSFC Black Paint 3131
Hughson Black Paint H322
Velesat Black Plastic
Solchrome
Ebanol C Black
0.96
0.86
0.96
0.86
0.96 0.10 0.85
0.94  0.98
0.14
0.97
0.73
1.12
1.12
1.12
8
1.33
Ebanol C Black384 ESH* UV
3M Black Velvet Paint
Parsons Black Paint
Flat black paint
Paint, Black (Parsons)
0.97
0.75
0.97
0.91
0.98 0.97 0.91
0.97  0.99
0.99
0.98
0.98
1.29
1.07
1.08
1
1
Selective surfaces
Solec LO/MIT selective surface paint
White paint
Solec SOLKOTE selective surface paint
Copper, aluminum, or nickel plate with CuO coating
0.21  0.26
0.23  0.49
0.88  0.94
0.08  0.93
Black Crystal
Copper treated with NaCIO2 and NaOH
Solchrome
Crystal Clear
Metal, plated Black sulfide
Metal, plated Black chrome
Metal, plated Nickel oxide
0.96
0.96
0.15 0.19
0.28 0.49
0.09 0.21
0.08 0.25
0.92  0.98
0.87 0.10 0.13
0.14 0.94  0.98
0.09
0.14
0.95  0.97
0.92
0.1
0.87
0.92
0.09
0.08
1.38
2.36
3.37
5.76
6.69
8
8.35
9.2
9.7
11
The Fridge
The Fridge
Solchrom
e
Systems
India
Limited.
SOLKOT
I
E
understan
HI/SORBLO/MIT
d is
this
II
anis
I/II
lamp
optical
products
black
coating
are
low
Thermafin
mixed
specificall
emissivit
's
Black
with
spar
y
y,
non
Crystal
varnish.
formulate
thickness
Selective
d for
dependen
Surface
solar
tCoating
coatings.
thermal
(apparentl
applicatio
y
replaced
ns.
with
Solchrom
Thermafin
"Crystal
e
's
Crystal
Clear").
Systems
Clear
India
This
is
Selective
Limited.
stainless
Surface
steel
Coating.
heated
until the
nickel
oxidizes.
The Fridge
The Fridge
The Fridge
Solchrome
The Fridge
The Fridge
The Fridge
The Fridge
U of Miss
?
Solec
U of Miss
Solec
U of Miss
Thermafin
U of Miss
Solchrome
Thermafin
?
?
?
NELSPRUIT
EFFECTIVE AS OF 19 JANUARY 2009
950
METRE
MASS
/TON
KG/M
344
274
275
237
172
237
172
2.907
3.650
3.636
4.219
5.814
4.219
5.814
47.03
57.57
59.76
67.46
89.83
79.00
103.23
METRE
MASS
PRICE /M
0.50mm ISQ 550 Z200
0.58mm ISQ 300 Z200
0.80mm ISQ 230 Z200
0.50mm ISQ 550 Z275
0.58mm ISQ 300 Z275
/TON
275
237
172
275
237
KG/M
3.636
4.219
5.814
3.636
4.219
EXCL.
80.07
88.75
115.42
0.80mm ISQ 230 Z275
172
5.814
Galvanize
d metal
AVG
PRICE /M SQ.METRE EXCL
GALVANISED
0.40mm ISQ 300 Z160
0.50mm ISQ 550 Z160
0.50mm ISQ 550 Z275
0.58mm ISQ 300 Z275
0.80mm ISQ 230 Z275
0.58mm ISQ 300 Z600
0.80mm ISQ 230 Z600
EXCL.
IBR
10.5
68.55
83.93
87.12
98.34
130.95
115.16
150.49
61.70
75.53
78.40
88.51
117.85
103.64
135.44
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.205
0.92
0.87
0.92
0.205
0.205
0.205
CHROMADEK
10.5
105.05
116.44
151.43
0.87
0.09
9.7
0.1
0.09
METRE
MASS
PRICE /M
/TON
300
265
188
KG/M
3.333
3.774
5.306
EXCL.
75.69
87.21
118.24
0.47mm
0.53mm
1200x0.55mm f/feed
METRE
/TON
297
263
188
MASS
KG/M
3.367
3.802
5.306
PRICE /M
EXCL.
90.74
100.39
131.08
8.5/76 CORRUGATED
GALVANISED
0.30mm ISQ 550 Z100
0.50mm ISQ 550 Z275
METRE
/TON
514
283
MASS
KG/M
1.946
3.534
0.47mm
0.53mm
1200x0.55mm f/feed
COLORBOND
74.385
0
0
0.08
IBR
110.34
127.14
172.37
10.5
99.30
114.42
155.13
SQ.METRE EXCL
IBR
10.5
132.28
119.05
146.35
131.71
191.09
171.98
PRICE 8.5 CORR
METRE SQ.METRE
30.11
49.35
Withdrawn
3.6 0.762195 204.1052
4.6 0.762195
0
5.6 0.762195
0
6 1224.631
7
0
8
0
0.92
Metal,
plated
Black
sulfide
0.87
Metal,
plated
Black
chrome
0.92
Metal,
plated
Nickel
oxide
SQ.METRE EXCL
ZINCALUME AZ150
4649.063
20864.09
19730.17
20864.09
4649.063
4649.063
4649.063
Metal,
plated
Black
chrome
SQ.METRE EXCL
IBR
116.73
129.37
168.26
3.95
9.2
9.7
11
3.95
3.95
3.95
Total
Energy
W/m2
Length
width
DayHours
W/3.6m
141.1938
7.2 0.762195 774.8438
6
633.65
7.2 0.762195 3477.348
6
599.2125
7.2 0.762195 3288.361
6
633.65
7.2 0.762195 3477.348
6
141.1938
7.2 0.762195 774.8438
6
141.1938
7.2 0.762195 774.8438
6
141.1938
7.2 0.762195 774.8438
6
Requirem
Price
entm
14.4 1,012.84
14.4 1,239.98
14.4 1,287.08
14.4 1,452.92
14.4 1,934.68
14.4 1,701.41
14.4 2,223.42

Hello,
Hello,
sorry, I missed the first request. Attached what I use to calculate
the azimuth (direction) and the elevation (hight over the horizon) of
the sun. If you estimate for each front of your house for which angles
the sun is shinig on the front you can do the appropriate actions with
your rollerblinds. That how I did it.
sorry, I missed the first request. Attached what I use to calculate
the azimuth (direction) and the elevation (hight over the horizon) of
the sun. If you estimate for each front of your house for which angles
the sun is shinig on the front you can do the appropriate actions with
your rollerblinds. That how I did it.
Sorry, code is in German, but you should get the idea.
Sorry, code is in German, but you should get the idea.
Longitude
Latitude
26
24
K
0.01745
30.4451833333
365.3422
06/Aug/15 18:30 # Source: http://www.jgiesen.de/SME/tk/index.htm
2015219
daycountl
deklin
timediff
x
42375.50
18.7310295243
7.2333333333
0.4048085935
#NAME?
#sunhight
24.1485724527
#VALUE!
(ARCSINapproximated through polynom)
use vars ('$altitude', '$SolZen');
# Source: http://www.jgiesen.de/SME/tk/index.htm
Date above in "Julian" format, with a fourdigit year
(2007174)
#daycountl = (month1)*30 + date + 0.5
#deklin = 23.45*cos(K*360*(daycount+10)/365)
#timediff = hour + minute/60  (15.0longitude)/15.0  12
#x = sin(K*latidute)*sin(K*deklin) +
cos(K*latidute)*cos(K*deklin)*Math.cos(K*15*timediff)
#sunhight = x/K + 0.25*x*x*x/K (ARCSINapproximated through polynom)
use vars ('$altitude', '$SolZen');
if ($New_Minute  $Reload  $Startup  state_changed $Anwesend eq OFF) {
my $tageszahl
my deklin
my $zeitdiff =
;
my $x =
$altitude =
my $y =
$SolZen =
$SolZen =
if ($New_Minute  $Reload  $Startup  state_changed $Anwesend eq OFF) {
216.50 my $tageszahl = ($Month  1) * 30 + $Mday + 0.5;
my KValue = 0.01745;
18.7310295243 my deklin = 23.45 * cos( KValue * 360 * ($daycount + 10) / 365);
7.2333333333 my $zeitdiff = $Hour + $Minute / 60  (15 $config_parms{longitude}) / 15  12;
0.4048085935 my $x = sin(KValue * $config_parms{latitude}) * sin(KValue * deklin) +
cos(KValue * $config_parms{latitude}) * cos(KValue * deklin) *
cos(KValue*15*$zeitdiff);
24.1485724527 $altitude = $x/KValue + 0.25*$x*$x*$x/KValue;
0.4230288569 my $y = (sin(KValue * $config_parms{latitude}) *$x  sin(KValue * deklin)) /
(cos(KValue * $config_parms{latitude}) * sin(atan2(
sqrt(1  $x * $x), $x)));
25.0306820903 $SolZen = atan2( sqrt(1 $y * $y), $y) / KValue;
334.9693179097 $SolZen = 360  $SolZen if ($Hour > 12);
}
SolZen is the direction of the sun (0 is north)
altitude is the hight of the sun. (0 is she is half down the hoizont)
SolZen is the direction of the sun (0 is north)
altitude is the hight of the sun. (0 is she is half down the hoizont)
To trigger actions I use the following vars:
my $Sonne_NO = 0;
my $Sonne_NW = 0;
my $Sonne_SO = 0;
my $Sonne_SW = 0;
To trigger actions I use the following vars:
my $Sonne_NO = 0;
my $Sonne_NW = 0;
my $Sonne_SO = 0;
my $Sonne_SW = 0;
$Sonne_SO = ($SolZen >= 95 && $SolZen <= 250 &&
$altitude >=30 && $altitude <=90) ? 1 : 0;
$Sonne_NO = ($SolZen >= 0 && $SolZen <= 130 &&
$altitude >=30 && $altitude <=90) ? 1 : 0;
$Sonne_NW = ($SolZen >= 275 && $SolZen <= 150 &&
$altitude >=30 && $altitude <=90) ? 1 : 0;
$Sonne_SO = ($SolZen >= 95 && $SolZen <= 250 &&
$altitude >=30 && $altitude <=90) ? 1 : 0;
$Sonne_NO = ($SolZen >= 0 && $SolZen <= 130 &&
$altitude >=30 && $altitude <=90) ? 1 : 0;
$Sonne_NW = ($SolZen >= 275 && $SolZen <= 150 &&
$altitude >=30 && $altitude <=90) ? 1 : 0;
Of course you have to change the values in the round brackets to your needs.
Of course you have to change the values in the round brackets to your needs.
KR
KR
1.1 Beam radiation
F
33.5at the
0.516547
Anglofdistance,
roof or object(more
or less tracking
the sunasorthe
static
Outside
the atmosphere,
mean solar
the beam irradiance,
also known
solar constant (I0),
S 1367 W.m2 (Page 1986).
0 0.068139
onishorizon
ie level and the SunEarth distance varies slightly across
is
The Earth’sFlat
orbit
lightly eccentric
F
the year. Therefore,
a correction factor , to allow for the varying solar distance, is applied in calculation of the
1 0.068138677
extraterrestrial irradiance G0 normal to the solar beam [W.m2]:
I0 =
1
G0 =
where:
1367.0000 W.m2
G0 = I0
FltincAnlge
1397.6558
FltincAngle
= 1 + 0.03344 cos (j’  0.048869)
e =
the day angle j’ is in radians:
3
(2)
j’ = 2 j/365.25
j’ = 43.1954
2511.641 =j
and j is the day number which varies from 1 on January 1 st to 365 (366) on December 31st.
The beam irradiance normal to the solar beam B0c [W.m2], is attenuated by the cloudless atmosphere, and calculated as follows:
B0c = G0 exp {0.8662 TLK m R(m)}
4
B
=
The
TLK is the air mass 2 Linke atmospheric turbidity factor [dimensionless] corrected by Kasten (1996).
1405.6251881
0c term 0.8662
The parameter m in equation (4) is the relative optical air mass [] calculated using the formula (Kasten and Young 1989):
0.8662 TLK
m = (p/p0)/(sin h0ref + 0.50572 (h0ref + 6.07995)1.6364)
5
m=
0.000132005
where h0ref is the corrected solar altitude h0 (an angle between the sun and horizon) in degrees by the atmospheric refraction component h0ref:
h0ref=0.061359 (0.1594+1.123 h 0 + 0.065656 h02)/(1 + 28.9344 h0 + 277.3971 h02)
h0ref=
6
h
h0ref = h0 + h0ref
=
0.088324295 h0ref
The p/p0 component in equation (5) is correction for given elevation z [m]:
ref
0
m = (p/p0)/(sin h0ref + 0.50572 (h0ref + 6.07995)1.6364)
m=
0.000131841
given elevation z [m]
0.068139
p/p0 = exp (z/8434.5)
7
p/p0 =
exp 8.08E006
The parameter R(m) in equation (4) is the Rayleigh optical thickness at air mass m and is calculated according to the improved formula by Kasten
(1996) as follows:
for m <= 20:
R(m) = 1/(6.6296 + 1.7513 m  0.1202 m 2 + 0.0065 m3  0.00013 m4)
8
R(m) =
for m > 20 0.0966083099
R(m) = 1/(10.4 + 0.718 m)
9
R(m) =
The beam irradiance on a horizontal surface Bhc [W.m2] is then calculated as:
Bhc = B0c sin h0
10
Bhc =
95.70334393
where h0 is the solar altitude angle given by equation (13).
The beam irradiance on an inclined surface Bic [W.m2] is calculated as:
Bic = B0c sin exp
11
Bic =
0.443651829
or
Bic = Bhc sin exp/sin h0
12
Bic =
95.70334393
where exp is the solar incidence angle measured between the Sun and an inclined surface (equation 17).
1.2 Diffuse radiation
[top of the page]
As the cloudless sky becomes more turbid, the diffuse irradiance increases while the beam irradiance decreases. The estimation of the diffuse
component on a horizontal surface Dhc [W.m2] is made as a product of the normal extraterrestrial irradiance G0, a diffuse transmission function Tn
dependent only on the Linke turbidity factor TLK, and a diffuse solar altitude function F d dependent only on the solar altitude h0 (Scharmer and Greif
2000):
Dhc = G0 Tn(TLK) Fd(h0)
22
Dhc = 11.243516004
The estimate of the transmission function Tn(T LK) gives a theoretical diffuse irradiance on a horizontal surface with the Sun vertically overhead for the
air mass 2 Linke turbidity factor. The following second order polynomial expression is used:
Tn(TLK) = 0.015843 + 0.030543 TLK + 0.0003797 TLK2
23
Tn(TLK) = 0.042014457
The solar altitude function is evaluated using the expression:
Fd(h0) = A1 + A2 sin h0 + A3 sin2 h0
24
Fd(h0) =
0.191471072
where the values of the coefficients A1, A2 and A3 are only depended on the Linke turbidity T LK defined in the following expressions:
A1' = 0.26463  0.061581 TLK + 0.0031408 TLK2
25
A1' =
0.3203280121
A1 = 0.0022/Tn(TLK)
A1 =
if A1' Tn(TLK) < 0.0022
0.052362929
A1 = A1’
if A1' Tn(TLK) >= 0.0022
A2 = 2.04020 + 0.018945 T LK  0.011161 TLK2
A2 =
2.0431251574
A3 = 1.3025 + 0.039231 TLK + 0.0085079 TLK2
A3 =
1.330098394
The model for estimating the clearsky diffuse irradiance on an inclined surface Dic [W.m2] distinguishes between sunlit, potentially sunlit and
shadowed surfaces. The equations are as follows (Muneer 1990):
a) for sunlit surfaces and nonovercast sky (h 0 in radians):
if h0 >= 0.1 (i.e. 5.7)
Dic = Dhc {F(N) (1  Kb) + Kb sin exp/sin h0}
26
Dic =
12.225899132
if h0 < 0.1
Dic = Dhc {F(N) (1  Kb) + Kb sin N cos ALN/(0.1  0.008 h0)}
27
Dic =
Dic = Dhc {F(N) (1  Kb) + Kb sin N cos ALN/(0.1  0.008 h0)}
12.045134036
where
A*LN = A0  AN
28
A*LN =
41.85630316
if  <= A*LN <=
ALN =
if ALN >
ALN =
ALN = A*LN  2
48.13948846
if A*LN < 
ALN =
ALN = A*LN
41.85630316
41.85630316
ALN = A*LN + 2
35.57311785
ALN =
35.57311785
b) for surfaces in shadow (exp < 0 and h0 >= 0):
Dic = Dhc F(N)
29
Dic =
0.068000335
where F(N) is a function accounting for the diffuse sky irradiance that may be calculated by the following equation (N in radians):
F(N) = ri(N) + (sin N  N cos N  sin2 (N/2)) N
30
F(N) =
0.9979697021
where ri(N) is a fraction of the sky dome viewed by an inclined surface [dimensionless]:
ri(N) = (1 + cos N)/2
31
ri(N) =
0.9988397292
and value of N for surfaces in shadow is 0.25227. For sunlit surfaces under clear sky the term N is calculated as:
N = 0.00263 – 0.712 Kb – 0.6883 Kb2
32
N=
0.2096863034
The Kb is a measure of the amount of beam irradiance available (proportion between beam irradiance and extraterrestrial solar irradiance on a
horizontal surface):
Kb = Bhc/G0h
33
Kb =
0.099136409
where G0h [W.m2] is calculated as:
G0h = G0 sin h0
34
G0h =
965.37029235
1.3 Ground reflected radiation
[top of the page]
The estimation of the clearsky ground reflected irradiance for inclined surfaces (Ri) relies on an isotropic assumption.
The ground reflected clearsky irradiance received on an inclined surface [W.m2] is proportional to the global horizontal
irradiance Ghc, to the mean ground albedo g and a fraction of the ground viewed by an inclined surface r g(N) (Muneer 1997):
Ri = g Ghc rg(N)
Ri =
35 where:
2.815131552
rg(N) = (1  cos N)/2
36
rg(N) =
0.1469712839
and global irradiance on a horizontal surface Ghc [W.m2] is given as a sum of its beam and diffuse component:
Ghc = Bhc + Dhc
37
Ghc = 95.77148261
Albedo=
0.2
In Scharmer and Greif (2000, page 141) typical albedo values for a variety of ground surfaces are listed. In general the values of 0.2 or 0.15 are mostly
used.
1.4 Position of the Sun
[top of the page]
The position of the Sun with respect to a horizontal surface is given by the two coordinates – solar altitude h0 (an angle between the Sun path and a
horizontal surface), and solar azimuth A0 (horizontal angle between the Sun and meridian  measured from East), and is calculated as follows (Krcho
1990, Jenèo 1992):
13
sin h0 =
cos A0 =
sin h0 = xC31 cos T + xC33
0.340337123
cos A0 = (xC11 cos T + xC13)/((xC22 sin T)2+ (xC11 cos T + xC13)2)1/2
0.7467630113
where:
14
xC11 = sin j cos d
0.946106518
xC13 = cos j sin d
xC13 =
0.019710877
xC22 = cos d
xC22 =
0.9479235317
xC31 = cos j cos d
xC31 =
0.058664117
xC33 = sin j sin d
xC33 =
0.3178874949
The Sun declination [rad] is computed according to Gruter (1984):
xC11 =
15
=
= arcsin (0.3978 sin (j’  1.4 + 0.0355 sin (j’  0.0489)))
0.324144552
where the calculation of the day angle j’ [radians] is explained in equation (3). The hour angle T [rad] is calculated from the local solar time t expressed
in decimal hours on the 24 hour clock as:
16
T=
T = 0.261799 (t  12)
1.9634925
The position of the Sun with respect to an inclined surface (the solar incidence angle) is defined by the angle exp (Krcho 1990, Jenèo 1992). If an
inclined surface is defined by the inclination angle N and the azimuth (aspect) AN (an angle between the projection of the normal on the horizontal
surface and East) then:
17
sin dexp = yC31 cos (T  l’) + yC33
sin dexp = 0.4927440754
where:
I' =
0.068138677
yC31 = cos j’ cos d
18
yC31 =
0.510574812
yC33 = sin ’ sin
yC33 =
0.2973569259
and:
19
sin ’ =
tg ’ =
sin ’ =  cos sin N cos AN+ sin cos N
0.9988140968
tg ’ =  (sin N sin AN)/(sin sin N cos AN+ cos cos N).
0.42411256
The hour angle of the time of sunrise/sunset over a horizontal surface T hr,s can be calculated then as:
20
cos Thr,s = xC33/xC31
cos Thr,s = 5.4187723122
The hour angle of the time of sunrise/sunset over an inclined surface T ir,s can be calculated by analogy:
21
cos (Tir,s  l’) = yC33/yC31.
cos (Tir,s  0.5823963872
2 Computing realsky radiation
[top of the page]
The realsky irradiance/irradiation are calculated from clearsky raster maps by the application of a factor parameterizing the attenuation of cloud cover.
Examples of explicit calculations of this parameter can be found in Becker (2001), Kitler and Mikler (1986). However, the cloudiness observation by a
meteorological service routine is usually prone to subjective errors and does not describe sufficiently the physical nature and dynamic spatialtemporal
pattern of different types of cloud cover. Therefore, a simpler parameter has to be used. The solutions for horizontal and inclined surfaces are slightly
different.
For the assessment of global irradiance/irradiation on a horizontal surface under overcast conditions Gh the clearsky values Ghc are multiplied by clearsky index kc (Beyer et al 1996, Hammer et al 1998, Rigollier et al. 2001):
Gh = Ghc kc
38
Gh =
953
The index kc represents the atmospheric transmission expressed as a ratio between horizontal global radiation under overcast and clearsky conditions.
For a set of ground meteorological stations the clearsky index can be calculated from measured global radiation G hs and computed values of clearsky
global radiation Ghc:
Ghs
953
Ghc
95.77148261
kc = Ghs/Ghc
39
kc =
9.950770041
As an alternative the kc can be derived also from other climatologic data (e.g. cloudiness, cf. Kasten and Czeplak 1980). The raster maps of k c must be
then derived by spatial interpolation. The k c can be calculated directly as a raster map from shortwave surface irradiance measured by satellites. This
method is based on the complementarity between the planetary albedo recorded by the radiometer and the surface radiant flux (Cano et al 1986, Beyer
et al 1996, Hammer et al 1998).
To compute the overcast global irradiance/irradiation for inclined surfaces, Gi the diffuse Dh and beam Bh components of overcast global radiation and
of the clearsky index kc have to be treated separately as follows from the equations (26), (27), (29) and (37):
Dh = Dhc kdc
40
Dh =
22.3922599
Bh = Bhc kbc
Bh =
190.6
The ratio of diffuse to the global radiation Dh/Gh for clear and overcast skies changes according to the cloudiness. In Europe the D h/Gh values are
typically in interval 0.31.0 (Kasten and Czeplak 1980). The underlying physical processes are quite complicated and computationally represented only
by empirical equations (cf. Scharmer and Greif, 2000, Kasten and Czeplak 1980, Hrvo¾ 1991). However, for many meteorological stations, besides the
global horizontal radiation Ghs, the diffuse component Dhs is either measured or calculated from cloudiness, sunshine or other climatologic data. The
raster map of Dhs/Ghs can be derived from the point values by spatial interpolation. Consecutively, the raster maps of diffuse and beam components of
the clear sky index can be computed:
Dhs/Ghs
41
0.8
Dh = Gh Dhs/Ghs
Dh =
762.4
Bh = Gh – Dh
Bh =
190.6
kdc = Dh/Dhc
42
kdc =
67.807970366
kbc = Bh/Bhc
kbc =
1.991570954
where subscript s is meant to distinguish data measured on meteorological stations B hs and Dhs from the estimated values Bh, and Dh.
3 Implementation in GRASS GIS
[top of the page]
The presented solar radiation model is a substantial improvement of the older version (Hofierka 1997), which application
was limited only to small areas and clearsky beam radiation. The new model provides a solution for all three components
of global solar radiation under clearsky or overcast conditions. Large areas can be modelled accurately using spatially
variable parameters, and shadowing effects of terrain can be modelled by new effective shadowing algorithm.
The r.sun works in two modes. In the mode 1  for the instant time  it calculates a solar incident angle [degrees] and solar irradiance values [W.m2]. In the mode 2 the daily sum of solar irradiation [Wh.m2.day1] and duration of the beam irradiation are
3.1 Model inputs
[top of the page]
The model requires only a few mandatory input parameters – digital terrain model (elevation, slope, aspect – elevin, slopein, aspin), day number day
(for mode 2), and additionally a local solar time time (for mode 1). However, several other parameters can be set to fit the specific user needs. These
parameters have default values that are used unless they are overridden by user settings as a single value or a name of the raster. The table 1 presents
a list of all input parameters.
Paramete
r
name
elevin
aspin
Type
Descripti
on
Mode
Units
Interval
of values
elevation
aspect
(solar
panel
azimuth)
1, 2
1, 2
meters
decimal
degrees
0 – 8900
0 – 360
slopein
raster
slope
(solar
panel
inclination
)
1, 2
decimal
degrees
0 – 90
linkein
raster
Linke
atmosphe
ric
turbidity
1, 2
dimension
less
0  7
lin
single value
Linke
atmosphe
ric
turbidity
1, 2
dimension
less
0  7
albedo
raster
single value
latin
raster
ground
albedo
ground
albedo
latitude
1, 2
alb
lat
single value
latitude
1, 2
coefbh
raster
clearsky
index for
beam
compone
nt
1, 2
dimension
0–1
less
dimension
0–1
less
decimal
90 – 90
degrees
decimal
90 – 90
degrees
dimension
0–1
less
coefdh
raster
clearsky
index for
diffuse
compone
nt
1, 2
dimension
less
day
single value
single value
day
number
solar
declinatio
n
1, 2
declin
dimension 0 – 366
less
0.40928
radians
– 0.40928
time
single value
local
(solar)
time
step
single value
dist
single value
of input
raster
raster
1, 2
1, 2
1, 2
0–1
1
decimal
hours
0 – 24
time step
2
sampling
distance
coefficient
for
shadowin
g
1, 2
decimal
0.01 – 1.0
hours
dimension 0.1 – 2.0
less
Table 1: r.sun input parameters
Solar declination is computed internally using equation (15) and day number unless an explicit value of declin is used. In the case that user’s data are localised in GRASS location with defined projection, r.sun uses internal GRASS function to get geograp
3.2 Model outputs
[top of the page]
According to the setting of output parameters the model automatically recognises between modes 1 and 2. When calculating in mode 1 the solar
incident angle incidout, and solar irradiance raster maps beam_rad, diff_rad and refl_rad are computed. Calculation in mode 2 gives the sums of
solar irradiation within a specified day for selected components of global irradiation beam_rad, diff_rad and refl_rad. A raster map showing duration of
beam irradiation insol_time can be computed as well.
Besides clearsky irradiances/irradiations, the model can calculate overcast radiation on conditions that coefbh and coefdh input raster maps are defined, expressing the beam and diffuse components of clearsky index (equations 42).
The incidence angle and irradiance/irradiation maps can be computed without considering the terrain shadowing by default or with shadowing effects
by setting the flag s. In mountainous areas this can lead to very different results especially at low sun altitudes. The value of a shadowed area is written
to the output maps as zero. The table 2 presents a list of all output raster maps.
Besides output raster maps, the model stores basic solar radiation parameters used in the computation in r.sun_out.txt local text file. Currently it
contains day number, solar constant, extraterrestrial irradiance, solar declination, interval of latitude, times of sunrise and sunset, time step, interval of
used Linke turbidity and ground albedo.
Solar radiation modeling for periods longer or shorter than one day can be done using UNIX shell scripting within GRASS GIS environment. The
example can be found in the book by Neteler and Mitasova (p. 326).
Paramete Description
r
name
incidout
solar
incidence
angle
Mode
Units
1
decimal
degrees
beam_rad beam
irradiance
diff_rad
diffuse
irradiance
ground
refl_rad
reflected
irradiance
1
W.m2
1
W.m2
1
W.m2
insol_time duration of the
beam
irradiation
2
min.
beam_rad beam
irradiation
2
Wh.m2
.day
diff_rad
diffuse
irradiation
2
Wh.m2
.day1
refl_rad
ground
reflected
irradiation
2
Wh.m2
.day1
δ
azimuth
The azimuth of a celestial body is the angle between the vertical plane
containing it and the plane of the meridian
An extreme state of adversity; the lowest point of anything
The point below the observer that is directly opposite the zenith on the
imaginary sphere against which celestial bodies appear to be projected
Having a daily cycle or occurring every day
(astronomy) the angular distance to a point on a celestial object measured north
or south from the celestial equator; expressed in degrees; used with right
ascension to specify positions on the celestial sphere
nadir
albedo
ξ
diurnal
Declination
β
Tilt angle
zenith
Z
Penumbra
Latitude
local latitude
γ
φ
θ
Longitude
solar hour angle(1  8760)
ω
Solar Year
Vernal Equinox(Nhem)
365.3422
0
23.5
0
23.5
Solstice
tilt angle of the collectors
angle between surface normal and solar ray
The point above the observer that is directly opposite the nadir on the imaginary
sphere against which celestial bodies appear to be projected
cos1 (sinφ sin δ + cosφ cosδ cosω (H))
A fringe region of partial shadow around an umbra
An imaginary line around the Earth parallel to the equator
An imaginary great circle on the surface of the earth passing through the north
and south poles at right angles to the equator
15o x (Time (hours past noon)
H
The angular distance along the celestial equator from the observer's meridian to the hour circle of a given celestial body
(astronomy) the angular distance of a celestial point measured westward along the celestial equator from the zenith crossing; the right ascension for an observer at a particular location and time of day
The time for the earth to make one revolution around the sun, measured between two vernal equinoxes
01 March 2008 South
2008
Vernal Equinox Mar. 21/22
Summer Solstice Jun. 21/22
Autumnal Equinox Sept. 21/22
Winter Solstice Dec. 21/22
0
22
3/22/2008
23.5
22
3/22/2008
0
22
3/22/2008
23.5
22
3/22/2008
8/30/2008
Either of the two times of the year when the sun is at its greatest distance from the celestial equator
collector width
northsouth spacing between collectors
D/H
beam insolation (Wh/m2)
diffuse insolation (Wh/m2)
eight ( β sin A H = ) (meters)
collector length ( meters)
annual energy received (kWh)
angle between surface normal and solar ray
A
D
d
Ib
Id
Hh
L
l L/H Q
θς
γ
δ
ξ
η
Io
solar azimuth
solar declination angle
relative shaded area
screening angle
Go
Extra terrestrial irradiance
correction factor for solar irradiation
Day angle in radians
Solar Constant
e
j'
Boc
Ψ also inclination
Beam irradiance
Io after correction with e
Beam irradiance normal to solar beam
TLK
Normal
(geometry) forming a right angle
ψ1sin(360(T/365.25))
1367 W.m2
W.m2
ψ
Hemisphere
23.5
S
21 Mar 2008 20 Sep 2008
δ
ψ1sin(360(T/365.25))
δ
φ
θ
θ
N or S
20 Sep 2008
=
ψ
=
=
23.36
334.4159
=
=
=
25.5841
30.67493
2520
S
E
n = (x/r)i + (y/r)j + (z/r)k
= cos(φ)cos(θ)i + cos(φ)sin(θ)j + sin(φ)
0.9968617883
#VALUE!
cos(ψ)i + sin(ψ)k.
0.7760875917
The dot product of this vector with the unit normal is
cos(ψ)cos(φ)cos(θ) + sin(ψ)sin(φ)
0.9586290838
This is the cosine of the zenith angle so the angle of elevation η is given by:
η = 90°  cos1[cos(φ)cos(ψ)cos(θ)+sin(ψ)sin(φ)]
365.34 SolarYear
88.1223302604
The elevation angle η of the sun at 4 P.M. on April 21st at latitude 45° is
found, assuming the spring equinox occurs at noon 00 P.M. on March 21:
19.50
Time
time
6Aug15
Fict Date
Latitude
Radian
lat
0 2510.829
Angle of incidence
180 16.87185 0.863735 0.999796 59.73853 83.09598
2.71 149.7385
1 2510.871
2 2510.912
165 16.86013 0.759288 0.999736 49.40151 72.75896
150 16.84839 0.603189 0.999581 37.09863 60.45607
2.93 139.4015
1.10 127.0986
3 2510.954
135 16.83665 0.406057 0.999076 23.95738 47.31483
2.98 113.9574
4 2510.996
120 16.8249 0.181305
0.99537 10.44581 33.80325
0.40 100.4458
5 2511.037
105 16.81313 0.055775
0.951438 3.197325 20.16012
1.53 86.80267
16.5406830016
6 2511.079
90 0.289055
90 16.80136
0.998178 16.80136 6.556083
2.62 73.19864
112.5
7 2511.121
75 16.78959
70 0.502663
0.999397 30.17636 6.818912
0.63 59.82364
0.0174532925
8 2511.162
60 16.777850 0.682069
0.999673 43.00556 19.64812
0.29 46.99444
9 2511.204
45
0.815068
0.999771 54.59413 31.23668
0.23 35.40587
Column K
10 2511.246
30 16.7542 0.892614
0.999809 63.20354 39.84609
1.36 26.79646
Column L
11 2511.287
15 16.74239 0.909431
0.999816 65.42684 42.06939
Column M
25.50
57.295779513
ψ
0.017453
T = 10 + 21 + 4/24 = 31.167
2511.6414
ψ = 23.5°sin(360(31.167/365.25)) = 23.5sin(30.719°) = 12.00°
θ = 360(4/24) = 60°
cos(φ) = cos(45°) = 0.7071
0.9025852843
η = 90°  cos1[(0.7071)cos(12°)cos(60°)+sin(12°)sin(60°)]
=
=
=
10
2.97 24.57316
Column N
10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
0 16.73057
0.864378 0.999796 59.81176 36.45431
0.79 30.18824
12 2511.329
0.9673239085
13 2511.371
30 0.760521
15 16.71874
0.999737 49.51018 26.15274
0.33 40.48982
Column P
14 2511.412
30 16.7069
50 0.604928
0.999584 37.22368 13.86623
2.66 52.77632
Column Q
15
16
17
18
2511.454
2511.496
2511.537
2511.579
45
60
75
90
16.69505 0.408185
70
16.68319 0.183678
90 0.053319
16.67133
16.65946 0.286683
0.999086
0.995489
0.946902
0.998147
24.09089 0.733439
10.58407 12.77338
3.056407 26.41385
16.65946 40.0169
0.82
2.86
0.91
1.22
Column R
65.90911
79.41593
93.05641
106.6595
19
20
21
22
23
24
2511.621
2511.662
2511.704
2511.746
2511.787
2511.829
105
120
135
150
165
180
16.64758
16.63569
16.62379
16.61188
16.59997
16.58804
0.999392
0.999671
0.99977
0.999809
0.999816
0.999796
30.03553
42.86973
54.47306
63.12329
65.42758
59.88518
1.82
2.19
2.78
1.39
0.17
1.99
120.0355
132.8697
144.4731
153.1233
155.4276
149.8852

90  58.273
Angle of incidence
30
Column I
Column J
0.0680859626
90°  cos1(0.0680859625608035)
90
16.766
1.638935
*
57.29578
90

93.90406
3.9041
31.73°
0.260270574
8/6/2015 19:46
363.9041
0.500537
0.680334
0.813842
0.891981
0.909436
0.865022
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
53.39298
66.22718
77.83051
86.48074
88.78503
83.24262
Column O
absorption.
absorption band.
acquisition.
albedo.
alignment data
altitude.
analogtodigital conve
angular velocity.
angle of drift.
anomaly.
aperture.
apogee.
ascending node.
atapertureradiance.
attenuation.
attitude.
azimuth.
background.
band sequential.
band, spectral.
BCH.
black body.
brightness value.
calibration data.
ETC
The process by which electromagnetic radiation (EMR) is assimilated and converted into other forms of energy,
primarily heat. Absorption takes place only on the EMR that enters a medium. A substance that absorbs EMR may also
be a medium of refraction, diffraction, or scattering; however, these processes involve no energy retention or
transformation and are distinct from absorption.
A range of wavelengths (or frequencies) of electromagnetic radiation that is assimilated by the atmosphere or other
substance.
(1) Image captured by satellite sensor. (2) The process of searching for and locking onto a received signal.
(1) The ratio of the amount of electromagnetic energy reflected by a surface to the amount of energy incident upon it,
often expressed as a percentage.
(2) The reflectivity of a body as compared to that of a perfectly diffusing surface at the same distance from the Sun, and
normal to the incident radiation. Albedo may refer to the entire solar spectrum or merely to the visible portion.
. Angular measurement of the physical position of the optical axis with respect to the primary space vehicle reference
axes.
Height above a datum, the datum usually being mean sea level. Refers to point above the Earth's surface rather than
those on it (elevation).
The process of sampling continuous analog signals in order to convert them into a stream of digital values. ETM+ data
undergo such a conversion prior to downlinking. Abbreviated as A/D conversion.
Also called rotational velocity, it is the amount of rotation that a spacecraft undergoes per unit time. For Landsat 7 it is
equal to 1.059 mrad/sec ((233 paths/cycle * 2*pi*1000 mrad/path) / (16 days/cycle * 86400 sec/day)).
The angle between the heading of the axis of a craft and its ground track.
A deviation from the norm.
An opening that admits electromagnetic radiation to a detector or film. An example would be the lens diaphragm
opening in a camera.
The point in the orbit of a heavenly body, especially of a manmade satellite, at which it is farthest from the Earth.
The point at which the orbit of an earth satellite intersects the plane of the equator going from south to north.
The radiance at the aperture of the sensor.
The reduction in the intensity of radiation with distance from its source due to atmospheric absorption and/or scattering.
It does not include the inversesquare decrease of intensity of radiation with distance from the source.
The angular orientation of a spacecraft as determined by the relationship between its axes and some reference line or
plane or some fixed system of axes.
Usually, Y is used for the axis that defines the direction of flight, x for the crosstrack axis, perpendicular to the direction
of flight, and z for the vertical axis. Roll is the deviation from the vertical (the angle between the zaxis of the vehicle and
the vertical axis, or angular rotation around the yaxis).
Pitch is the angular rotation around the xaxis.
Yaw is rotation around the zaxis.
The arc of the horizon measured clockwise from the north point to the point referenced. Expressed in degrees. Azimuth
indicates direction, not location.
B
Any effect in a sensor or other apparatus or system above which the phenomenon of interest must manifest itself before
it can be observed.
A format that arranges the data by band such that all of the data from band 1 followed by all of the data from band 2,
etc.
An interval in the electromagnetic spectrum defined by two wavelengths, frequencies, or wave numbers. With Landsat,
bands designate the specific wavelength intervals at which images are acquired.
An error detection and correction scheme named after its inventors Bose, Chanduri, and Hochergan.
An ideal body which, if it existed, would be a perfect absorber and a perfect radiator, absorbing all incident radiation,
reflecting none, and emitting radiation at wavelengths. In remote sensing, the exitance curves of black bodies at various
temperatures can be used to model naturally occurring phenomena like solar radiation and terrestrial emmitance.
In Landsat parlance, a number in the range of 0255 that is related to the amount of planetary radiance striking a
sensor's detector.
C
In remote sensing, measurements pertaining to the spectral or geometric characteristics of a sensor or radiation source.
Calibration data are obtained through the use of a fixed energy source such as a calibration lamp, a temperature plate,
or a geometric test pattern. The application of calibration data to restore measurements to their true values is called
rectification.
coherent noise. The noise associated with periodic signals arising from power supplies, transmitters and clock signal
typically.
color. That property of an object which is dependent on the wavelength of the light it reflects or, in the case of a
luminescent body, the wavelength of the light it emits. If, in either case, this light is of a single wavelength, the color
seen is a pure spectral color, but, if the light of two or more wavelengths is emitted, the color will be mixed. White light is
a balanced mixture of all the visible spectral colors.
color composite. A color image produced by the combination of three individual monochrome images in which each is
assigned a given color. For ETM+ data, if blue is assigned to band 1, green assigned to band 2, and red assigned to
band 3, a true color image will result.
cubic convolution. A highorder resampling technique is which the brightness value of a pixel in a corrected image is
interpolated from the brightness values of the 16 nearest pixels around the location of the corrected pixel.
D
data capture. The receipt and storage of return link mission data at the CADU level.
data continuity. A NASA requirement to ensure that Landsat 7 data are compatible to those obtained by earlier Landsat
satellites.
data granule. The increment of image data stored in the archive, i.e. an interval, swath, or WRS scene.
data loads. Data and command transfers from the MOC to the onboard computer.
dark shutter image data. The image data obtained from ETM+ detectors when the calibration shutter obscures the
detectors from incident electromagnetic radiation.
descending node. The point at which the orbit of an earth satellite intersects the plane of the equator going from north
to south.
detector. The composite circuitry supporting the development of a single output data sample.
detector sample. The process of determining the transfer characteristics (detector mean output as a function of
incident exposure) for each detector element.
digital terrain elevation data (DTED). Digital information produced by DMA which provides a uniform matrix of terrain
elevation values. DTED is commonly used to terrain correct Landsat data.
distortion. A change in scale from one part of an image to another.
dwell time. Refers to the momentary time interval during which a detector is able to, or allowed to, sense incoming
electromagnetic radiation within its intended instantaneous field of view.
dynamic range. The ratio of the maximum signal to the smallest measurable signal.
E
EDC. Earth Resources Observation System Data Center is a national archive, production, distribution and research
facility for remotely sensed data and other geographic information. (see EROS)
electromagnetic radiation. Energy emitted as result of changes in atomic and molecular energy states and propagated
through space at the speed of light.
electromagnetic spectrum. The system that classifies, according to wavelength, all energy (from short cosmic to long
radio) that moves, harmonically, at the constant velocity of light.
elevation. Vertical distance from the datum, usually mean sea level, to a point or object on the Earth's surface.
emission. With respect to electromagnetic radiation, the process by which a body emits electromagnetic radiation as a
consequence of its kinetic temperature only.
emissivity. Ratio of radiation emitted by a surface to the radiation emitted by a black body at the same temperature
under similar conditions. May be expressed as total emissivity (for all wavelengths), spectral emissivity (as a function
of wavelength), or goniometric emissivity (as a function of angle).
Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). The ETM+ is a fixedposition nadir viewing whiskbroom instrument. The
viewing swath is produced by means of an oscillating mirror system that sweeps across track as the sensor field of view
moves forward alongtrack due to satellite motion.
ETM+ scene. A set of ETM+ observations that covers 170 km in width by 185 km in length and is centered about a
WRS vertex.
engineering data. All data available onboard about health, safety, environment or status of the platform and
instruments.
ephemeris. A set of data that provides the assigned places of a celestial body (including a manmade satellite) for
regular intervals. Ephemeris data help to characterize the conditions under which remote sensing data are collected and
may be used to correct the sensor data prior to analysis.
EROS. The Earth Resources Observation System was established in the early 1970Õs under the Department of
InteriorÕ U.S. Geological Survey, to receive, process and distribute data from the United StatesÕ Landsat satellite
sensors and from airborne mapping cameras.
Evcuated tube Collector
F
fieldofview. The solid angle through which an instrument is sensitive to radiation. See effective resolution element,
instantaneous field of view, resolution.
focal length. In a camera, the distance measured along the optical axis from the optical center of the lens to the plane
at which the image of a very distant object is brought into focus.
focal plane. In a sensor, the plane occupied by the detectors, and on which the radiances sensed are incident.
frame. For Landsat 7, a frame is one Virtual Channel Data Unit with a frame synchronizer pattern (frame marker)
attached. This is the same as a Channel Access Data Unit (CADU).
G
geocentric. Any coordinate frame whose origin is relative to the Earth's center of mass.
geometric correction. The transformation of image data, such as Landsat data, to match spatial relationships as they
are on the Earth. Includes correction for bandtoband offsets, line length, Earth rotation, and detectortodetector
sampling delay. For ETM+ data, a distinction is made between data that have been geometrically corrected using
systematic, or predicted, values and data that have been geometrically corrected using precise ground control point
data and elevations models.
geodetic coordinates. Quantities which define the position of a point on the spheroid of reference (for example, the
Earth) with respect to the planes of the geodetic equator and of a reference meridian. Commonly expressed in terms of
latitude and longitude.
geodetic accuracy. A measure of how closely a point on the Earth can be located relative to its true absolute location.
geosynchronous. An Earth satellite orbit in which the satellite remains in a fixed position over a geographic location on
Earth.
Global Position System (GPS). A constellation of satellites that can be used to determine accurately the orbit data of
satellites.
ground control point (GCP). A geographic feature of known location that is recognizable on images and can be used
to determine geometric correction functions for those images.
ground track. The vertical projection of the actual flight path of a plane or space vehicle onto the surface of the Earth.
ground truth. Data which are acquired from field checks, highresolution remote sensing data, or other sources of
known data. Ground truth is used as the basis for making decisions on training areas and evaluating classification
results.
H
housekeeping data. All data available onboard about health, safety, environment, or status of the platform and
instruments.
hue. The attribute of a color that differentiates it from gray of the same brilliance and that allows it to be classed as blue,
green, red, or intermediate shades of these colors.
I
image. The recorded representation of an object produced by optical, electrooptical, opticalmechanical, or electronic
means. It is the term generally used when the electromagnetic radiation emitted or reflected from a scene is not directly
recorded on photographic film.
image enhancement. Any one of a group of operations which improves the interpretability of an image or the
detectability of targets or categories in the image. These operations include contrast enhancement, edge enhancement,
spatial filtering, image smoothing, and image sharpening.
image restoration. A process by which a degraded image is restored to its original condition. Image restoration is
possible only to the extent that the degradation transform is mathematically invertable.
imagetoimage registration. The registration between images taken at different times.
image transformation. A function or operator which takes an image as input and produces an image as its output.
Depending on the transform chosen, the input and output images may appear entirely different and have different
intrepretations. Fourier, Hadamard, and KarhunenLove transforms as well as various spatial filters, are examples of
frequently used image transformation procedures.
infrared. Pertaining to energy in the 0.7  100 µm wavelength region of the electromagnetic spectrum. For remote
sensing, the infrared wavelengths are often subdivided into near infrared (0.7  1.3 µm), middle infrared (1.33.0 µm),
and far infrared (7.0  15 µm). Far infrared is sometimes referred to as thermal or emissive infrared.
instantaneous field of view (IFOV). The solid angle through which a detector is sensitive to radiation. In a scanning
system this refers to the solid angle subtended by the detector when the scanning motion is stopped. Instantaneous
field of view is commonly expressed in milliradians. IFOV also refers to the ground area covered by this solid angle.
international ground station (IGS). Any Landsat ground station not belonging to the United States.
interval. Is a scheduled ETM+ image period along a WRS path, and may be from 1 to 90 full scenes in length.
irradiance. The measure, in units of power, of radiant flux incident on a surface.
J
jitter. Small rapid variations in a variable (such as a waveform) due to deliberate or accidental electrical or mechanical
disturbances or to changes in the supply of voltages, in the characteristics of components. Jitter effects arising from the
oscillating mirrors and other movable parts aboard the Landsat spacecraft are often a cause of certain anomalies in the
image data received and must be compensated for by the ground processing software.
K
Kband. A radio frequency band extending from approximately 12.5 to 36 gigahertz.
kernel. In the spatial domain, a kernel is a MxM operator which can be used in the convolution or multiplication with a
NxN image to accentuate certain features or properties of an image. A kernel can also be represented in the frequency
domain as a Fourier transform.
L
Lband. A radio frequency band extending from approximately 1.0 to 2.0 gigahertz.
Landsat 7. Consists of the spacecraft and the ETM+ payload.
level 0. Space vehicle or instrument data at full spacetime resolution with spacetoground communication artifacts
removed.
light, transmitted. Light that has traveled through a medium without being absorbed or scattered.
long term acquisition plan. The tasking of the sensor using cloud predictions to optimize the acquisition of cloud free
scenes.
lookup table. An array of values from which functions corresponding to a given argument can be obtained.
M
major frame. For ETM+, a major frame period is one complete scan of the ETM+ scan mirror (either direction), which
includes not only the period during a scan but also the turnaround interval when the scan mirror changes direction for
the next scan.
map projection. Any systematic arrangement of meridians and parallels portraying the curved surface of a sphere or
spheroid upon a plane.
metadata. An archived set of descriptive information about a scene and the parent subinterval that provides a user with
geographic coverage, date of acquisition, sun angles, could cover, gain states, and other quality measurements.
minor frame. For ETM+ major frames are partitioned into minor frames which is the most fundamental element of the
data stream structure in which specific data measurands (e.g. imagery, PCD, time codes) are extracted.
mirror scan correction data. This data includes scan start time, first half scan time error, second half scan time error,
scan direction, and any other data which is required to perform mirror scan correction.
modulate. To vary, or control, the frequency, phase, or amplitude of an electromagnetic wave or other variable.
modulation transfer function (MTF). The modulation transfer function of an imaging system measures the spatial
frequency modulation response of the system. As an imaging system processes or records an image, the contrast
modulation of the processed or recorded image is different from the input image. The MTF can be thought of as a
curve, indicating for each spatial frequency the ratio of the contrast modulation of the output image to the contrast
modulation of the input image. It is formally defined as the magnitude of the Fourier transform of the line spread
function of the imaging system.
mosaic. An image made by piecing together individual images covering adjacent areas.
multiplexer. An electronic device which permits the transmission of multiple messages simultaneously on one
communication channel.
multispectral. Generally denotes remote sensing in two or more spectral bands, such as visible and infrared.
N
nadir. That point on the celestial sphere vertically below the observer, or 180° from the zenith.
narrowband data. The data includes the command or forward ranging in the narrowband forward link, and the
telemetry or return ranging in the narrowband return link.
near infrared. The preferred term for the shorter wavelengths in the infrared region extending from about 0.7 µm
(visible red) to about 3 µm. The longer wavelength end grades into the middle infrared. Sometimes called solar infrared,
as it is only available for use during the daylight hours. Also known as the shortwave infrared (SWIR).
node. Either of the two points at which the orbit of a heavenly body intersects a given plane, especially the plane of
ecliptic. With respect to Landsat, the orbital nodes occur at the equator, one on the descending, or daylight, track of the
orbit and the other on the ascending, or nighttime, track.
noise. Any unwanted disturbance affecting a measurement (as of a frequency band), especially that which degrades
the informationbearing quality of the data of interest.
Nyquist interval. The maximum time interval between equally spaced samples of a signal that will enable the signal
waveform to be completely determined. The Nyquist interval is equal to the reciprocal of twice the highest frequency
component of the sampled signal.
Nyquist's theorem: A theorem, developed by H. Nyquist, which states than an analog signal waveform may be uniquely
reconstructed, without error, from samples taken at equal time intervals. The sampling rate must be equal to, or greater
than, twice the highest frequency component in the analog signal.
O
optical transfer function (OTF). A mathematical statement that describes the relationship between the input and the
output of an imaging system. When the transfer function operates on the input, the output is obtained. Given any two of
these three entities, the third can be obtained.
orbit adjust. The adding to or taking away of orbital velocity. This is normally done to maintain altitude or orbit phasing
relationships.
orbital period. The interval in time between successive passages (orbits) of a satellite through a reference plane.
orthorectified. Describing an image in which terrain relief distortions have been removed.
P
panchromatic. A single band covering a broad range of wavelengths; usually used in context of collecting information
from the whole visible spectrum.
parallax. The apparent change in the position of one object, or point, with respect to another, when viewed from
different angles.
path. The longitudinal center line of a Landsat scene of a Landsat scene, corresponding to the center of an orbital
track. Sequential numbers from east to west are assigned to 233 nominal satellite tracks for Landsat 7. Path numbers
are used with row numbers to designate nominal scene center points.
payload. That part of a spacecraft (e.g. ETM+) that is separate from the equipment or operations necessary to maintain
the spacecraft in orbit.
payload correction data. Image support data imbedded in the wideband data stream. Includes satellite attitude,
ephemeris, time, angular displacement sensor (ADS) data and payload state.
perigee. The point in the orbit of a heavenly body (e.g. satellite) at which it is nearest the Earth.
pixel. Picture element provided by a single detector scene sample output.
pitch. The rotation of a spacecraft about the horizontal axis normal to its longitudinal axis (in the alongtrack direction)
so as to cause a noseup or nosedown attitude.
polar stereographic. An azimuthal stereographic projection commonly used with Landsat data acquired about 65°
latitude. In this projection, the meridians are straight lines converging at the pole (central point), and lines of latitude are
concentric circles about this point. Like the UTM projection, the polar stereographic is a conformal projection, meaning
that angular relationships are preserved.
pole wander. The apparent motion in the poles of the Earth relative to inertial coordinate system. Changes in moments
of inertia are due to changes in moments of density due primarily to tides and liquid mass. The National Imager and
Mapping Agency (NIMA) generates pole wander data which are used by the Landsat 7 system in the conversion of
downlinked ephemeris from inertial to fixed reference, during Level 0R processing.
precision correction. Postprocessed geometric correction of satellite data using ground control points to correlate the
spacecraft's predicted position with its actual geodetic position.
prime meridian. Meridian of longitude 0 degrees, used as the origin for measurements of longitude. The meridian of
Greenwich, England, is the internationally accepted prime meridian on most charts.
Q
quantization level. The number of numerical values used to represent a continuous quantity.
quaternion. A vector of four components; the position is contained in the first three components and an associated
scalar rater is located in the last component of this four element vector.
R
radian. The angle subtended by an arc of a circle equal in length to the radius of the circle: 57.3°
radiance. Measure of the energy radiated by an object. In general, radiance is a function of viewing angle and spectral
wavelength and is expressed as energy per solid angle.
Rayleigh scattering. Selective scattering of light in the atmosphere by particles that are small compared with the
wavelength of light.
reflectance. The ratio of the radiant energy reflected by a body to that incident upon it. In general, reflectance is a
function of the incident angle of the energy, viewing angle of the sensor, spectral wavelength and bandwidth, and the
nature of the object.
registration. The process of geometrically aligning two or more sets of image data such that resolution cells for a
common ground area can be digitally or visually superimposed.
roll. The rotation of a spacecraft about its longitudinal axis (in the alongtrack direction) so as to cause a sideup or
sidedown attitude. The roll axis is referred to as the y axis.
row. The latitudinal (nominal) center line of a Landsat scene. Row 1 is at latitude 80° 47'N, row 60 is at the equator, and
row 122 is at latitude 81° 51'S. In total there are 248 rows.
S
sampling rate. The number of samples taken per unit time, i.e., the rate at which signals are sampled for subsequent
use, such as for modulation, coding, and quantization.
saturation. The condition where energy flux exceeds the sensitivity range of a detector.
S band. A radio frequency band extending from approximately 2.0 to 4.0 gigahertz.
sidelap. The extent of lateral overlap between images acquired over adjacent ground tracks.
signaltonoise ratio. The ratio of the level of the informationbearing signal power to the level of the noise power.
More precisely, the signaltonoise ratio of the mean DN to the standard deviation in DN. This is a temporal noise
definition in that the mean DN is the time averaged value and the standard deviation in DN is the standard deviation in
the time series.
space oblique mercator. A variation on the basic mercator map projection based on the dynamics of satellite motion.
The movements of the satellite, sensor, and the Earth, expressed as functions of time, are used to calculate which
latitudes and longitudes on the Earth correspond to locations in the projection plane.
spectral band. An interval in the electromagnetic spectrum defined by two wavelengths, frequencies, or wave numbers.
spectral response. The response of a material as a function of wavelength to incident electromagnetic energy,
particularly in terms of the measurable energy reflected from and emitted by the material.
spectral signature. The quantitative measurement of the properties of an object at one or several wavelength intervals.
Spectral signature analysis techniques use the variation in the spectral reflectance or emittance of objects as a method
of identifying the objects.
steradian. A unit of measure of solid angles. Formally, it is the angle subtended at the center of the sphere by a portion
of the surface whose area is equal to the square of the radius of the sphere. There are 4 pi steradians in a sphere.
subinterval. Is a contiguous segment of raw wideband data received during a Landsat 7 contact period. Subintervals
are caused by breaks in the wideband datastream due to communication dropouts and/or the inability of the spacecraft
to transmit a complete observation (interval) within a single Landsat 7 contact period. The largest possible subinterval is
35 full scenes long with a partial scene preamble and postamble. The smallest possible subinterval is a single ETM+
scene.
sun elevation angle. The angle of the Sun above the horizon.
solar zenith angle. Reciprocal of the sun elevation angle.
sun synchronous. An Earth satellite orbit in which the orbital plane remains at a fixed angle with respect to the Sun,
precessing through 360° during the period of a year.
swath. Refers to the 185 kilometer wide ETM+ imaging ground track.
T
telemetry. The science of measuring a quantity, transmitting the measured value to a distant station, and there,
interpreting or recording the quantity measured.
temporal. Pertaining to, concerned with, or limited by time.
temporal resolution. The expected repeat time between measurements over the same location.
thermal band. A general term for intermediate and long wavelength infraredemitted radiation, as contrasted to short
wavelength reflected infrared radiation. In practice, generally refers to infrared radiation emitted in the 35 µm and 914
µm atmospheric windows.
thermal infrared. The preferred term for the middle wavelength ranges of the infrared region extending roughly from 3
µm at the end of the near infrared, to about 15 or 20 m where the far infrared commences. In practice the limits
represent the the envelope of energy emitted by the Earth behaving as a graybody with a surface temperature around
290 K. Seen from space, the radiance envelope has several brighter bands corresponding to windows in the
atmospheric absorption bands. The thermal band most used in remote sensing extends from 8 to 15 µm.
time, Greenwich mean. Mean solar time of the meridian of Greenwich, England (longitude 0), used by most navigators
and adopted as the prime basis of standard time throughout the world. Abbreviated GMT.
time, mean Sun. The mean Sun time at a given location on the Earth is determined by the distance in longitude from
the Greenwich meridian. The mean Sun time at any location is determined by dividing the difference in longitude from
Greenwich (in degrees, moving east) by 15 and adding the result to the current GMT. This will be mean Sun time
relative to Greenwich, expressed in hours.
transmittance. The ratio of the energy per unit time per unit area (radiant power density) transmitted through an object
to the energy per unit time per unit area incident on the object. In general, transmittance is a function of the incident
angle of the energy, viewing angle of the sensor, spectral wavelength and bandwidth, and the nature of the object.
U
ultraviolet radiation. Electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength than visible radiation but longer than Xrays;
roughly, radiation in the wavelength interval between 10 and 4,000 angstroms.
umbra. The complete or perfect shadow of an opaque body, as a planet, where the light from the source of illumination
is completely cut off.
universal transverse mercator. A widely used map projection employing a series of identical projections around the
world in the intermediate latitudes, each covering 6 degrees of longitude and oriented to a meridian. The UTM
projection is characterized by its property of conformality, meaning that it preserves scale and angular relationships well,
and by the ease with which it allows a useful rectangular grid to be superimposed on it. The UTM projection is most
commonly used with landsat data.
UT1UTC time correction data. Universal Time (UT) 1 is determined from observations of stellar transits to determine
local mean sidereal time corrected to remove the effects of polar motion. Universal Time Coordinated (UTC) is defined
to be equal to that of the International System used for atomic time, but it is kept with .9 seconds of UT1 by periodic
leapsecond adjustments.
V
virtual channel data unit (VCDU). The CCSDS protocol data unit consisting of a fixed length data structure. It is used
for bidirectionally space/ground communications on a CCSDS virtual channel.
visible radiation. Electromagnetic radiation of the wavelength interval to which the human eye is sensitive; the spectral
interval from approximately 0.4 to 0.7 µm.
W
wavelength. Wavelength = 1/frequency. In general, the mean distance between maximums (or minimums) of roughly
periodic pattern. Specifically, the shortest distance between particles moving in the same phase of oscillation in a wave
disturbance.
world geodetic system (WGS). The reference Earth model used by the Landsat 7 system.
worldwide reference system. A global indexing system for Landsat data which is based on nominal scene centers
defined by path and row coordinates.
X
Xband. A radio frequency band extending from approximately 8.0 to 12.5 gigahertz.
Y
yaw. The rotation of a spacecraft about its vertical axis so as to cause the spacecraft's longitudinal axis to deviate left or
right from the direction of flight. The yaw axis is referred to as the z axis.
Z
zenith. The point in the celestial sphere that is exactly overhead.
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ψ
Hemisphere
21 Mar 2008
δ
ψ1sin(360(T/365.25))
δ
φ
23.5
S
20 Sep 2008
N or S
20 Sep 2008
=
ψ
=
=
23.36
334.4159166667
=
=
=
θ
θ
25.584083333 S
30.6749333333 E
2520
n = (x/r)i + (y/r)j + (z/r)k
= cos(φ)cos(θ)i + cos(φ)sin(θ)j + sin(φ)
0.9968617883
cos(ψ)i + sin(ψ)k.
0.7760875917
The dot product of this vector with the unit normal is
cos(ψ)cos(φ)cos(θ) + sin(ψ)sin(φ)
0.9586290838
This is the cosine of the zenith angle so the angle of elevation η is given by:
η = 90°  cos1[cos(φ)cos(ψ)cos(θ)+sin(ψ)sin(φ)]
Fict Date
Latitude
Radian
365.34220000 SolarYear
88.1223302604
The elevation angle η of the sun at 4 P.M. on April 21st at lati
found, assuming the spring equinox occurs at noon 00 P.M. o
19.50
Time
6Aug15
25.50
57.295779513
0.017453
T = 10 + 21 + 4/24 = 31.167
2511.6414
ψ = 23.5°sin(360(31.167/365.25)) = 23.5sin(30.719°) = 12.00°
16.5406830016
θ = 360(4/24) = 60°
112.5
0.0174532925
cos(φ) = cos(45°) = 0.7071
0.9025852843
η = 90°  cos1[(0.7071)cos(12°)cos(60°)+sin(12°)sin(60°)]
0.0680859626
0.9673239085
90°  cos1(0.0680859625608035)
90
=
=
=
90  58.273
31.73°

1.638935
*
90

3.9041
363.9041
0.017453
0.017453
57.29578 114.591559026165000000000000000000
3.142857
#VALUE!
at 4 P.M. on April 21st at latitude 45° is
ox occurs at noon 00 P.M. on March 21:
time
lat
0
1
2
2510.8289
2510.8705666667
2510.9122333333
180 16.87185 0.863735 0.999796
165 16.86013 0.759288 0.999736
150 16.84839 0.603189 0.999581
3
2510.9539
135 16.83665 0.406057 0.999076
4
2510.9955666667
120 16.8249 0.181305
0.99537
5
2511.0372333333
105 16.81313 0.055775
0.951438
6
2511.0789
90 16.80136 0.289055
0.998178
7
2511.1205666667
75 16.78959 0.502663
0.999397
8
2511.1622333333
60 16.7778 0.682069
0.999673
9
2511.2039
45
0.815068
0.999771
10
2511.2455666667
30 16.7542 0.892614
0.999809
11
2511.2872333333
15 16.74239 0.909431
0.999816
12
2511.3289
0 16.73057 0.864378
0.999796
13
2511.3705666667
15 16.71874 0.760521
0.999737
16.766
57.29578
93.90406
14
2511.4122333333
30 16.7069 0.604928
0.999584
15
16
17
18
2511.4539
2511.4955666667
2511.5372333333
2511.5789
45
60
75
90
16.69505
16.68319
16.67133
16.65946
0.408185
0.183678
0.053319
0.286683
0.999086
0.995489
0.946902
0.998147
19
20
21
22
23
24
2511.6205666667
2511.6622333333
2511.7039
2511.7455666667
2511.7872333333
2511.8289
105
120
135
150
165
180
16.64758
16.63569
16.62379
16.61188
16.59997
16.58804
0.500537
0.680334
0.813842
0.891981
0.909436
0.865022
0.999392
0.999671
0.99977
0.999809
0.999816
0.999796
Angle of incidence
59.73853 83.09598
49.40151 72.75896
37.09863 60.45607
2.71 149.7385
2.93 139.4015
1.10 127.0986
23.95738 47.31483
2.98 113.9574
10.44581 33.80325
0.40 100.4458
3.197325 20.16012
1.53 86.80267
16.80136 6.556083
2.62 73.19864
30.17636 6.818912
0.63 59.82364
43.00556 19.64812
0.29 46.99444
54.59413 31.23668
0.23 35.40587
63.20354 39.84609
1.36 26.79646
65.42684 42.06939
2.97 24.57316
59.81176 36.45431
0.79 30.18824
49.51018 26.15274
0.33 40.48982
37.22368 13.86623
2.66 52.77632
24.09089 0.733439
10.58407 12.77338
3.056407 26.41385
16.65946 40.0169
0.82
2.86
0.91
1.22
65.90911
79.41593
93.05641
106.6595
30.03553
42.86973
54.47306
63.12329
65.42758
59.88518
1.82
2.19
2.78
1.39
0.17
1.99
120.0355
132.8697
144.4731
153.1233
155.4276
149.8852
53.39298
66.22718
77.83051
86.48074
88.78503
83.24262
ψ
23.5
3/21/2008
δ
ψ1sin(360(T/SolarYear))
δ
=
φ
=
=
=
θ
=
θ
=
ψ
11.91
334.497778
30.911
2520
n = (x/r)i + (y/r)j + (z/r)k
= cos(φ)cos(θ)i + cos(φ)sin(θ)j + sin(φ)
1.0286547519
cos(ψ)i + sin(ψ)k.
1.059987322
The dot product of this vector with the unit normal is
cos(ψ)cos(φ)cos(θ) + sin(ψ)sin(φ)
0.9991705883
This is the cosine of the zenith angle so the angle of elevation η is given by:
η = 90°  cos1[cos(φ)cos(ψ)cos(θ)+sin(ψ)sin(φ)]
88.1515713212
The elevation angle η of the sun at 4 P.M. on April 21st at latitude 45° is
found, assuming the spring equinox occurs at noon 00 P.M. on March 21:
16
Fict Date
21Apr08
45.00
Radian
57.2957795131
T = 10 + 21 + 4/24 = 31.167
31.1666666667
ψ = 23.5°sin(360(31.167/365.25)) = 23.5sin(30.719°) = 12.00°
12.0016142662
θ = 360(4/24) = 60°
60
0.0174532925
cos(φ) = cos(45°) = 0.7071
0.7071067812
η = 90°  cos [(0.7071)cos(12°)cos(60°)+sin(12°)sin(60°)]
1
0.5259060019
0.6695489485
90°  cos1(0.525906001927743)
90 =
=
90  58.273
=
31.73°
1.017016
*
57.29578
90

58.27075
31.7293