You are on page 1of 6


This article is about the historic car maker. For the malised the transfer of Alsace from Germany to France,
current successor, see Bugatti Automobiles.
Bugatti was able to obtain, at the last minute, a stand at the
For other uses, see Bugatti (disambiguation).
15th Paris motor show in October 1919.[1] He exhibited
three light cars, all of them closely based on their prewar equivalents, and each fitted with the same overhead
Coordinates: 48°31′32″N 07°30′01″E / 48.52556°N
camshaft 4-cylinder 1,368cc engine with four valves per
cylinder.[1] Smallest of the three was a "Type 13" with a
Automobiles Ettore Bugatti was a French car racing body (constructed by Bugatti themselves) and usmanufacturer of high-performance automobiles, founded ing a chassis with a 2,000 mm (78.7 in) wheelbase.[1] The
in 1909 in the then German city of Molsheim, Alsace by others were a "Type 22" and a "Type 23" with wheelbases
Italian-born Ettore Bugatti. Bugatti cars were known for of 2,250 and 2,400 mm (88.6 and 94.5 in) respectively.[1]
their design beauty (Ettore Bugatti was from a family of
artists and considered himself to be both an artist and
constructor) and for their many race victories. Famous
Bugattis include the Type 35 Grand Prix cars, the Type
41 “Royale”, the Type 57 “Atlantic” and the Type 55 1.2 Racing successes
sports car.
The death of Ettore Bugatti in 1947 proved to be the end The company also enjoyed great success in early Grand
for the marque, and the death of his son Jean Bugatti Prix motor racing: in 1929 a privately entered Bugatti
in 1939 ensured there was not a successor to lead the won the first ever Monaco Grand Prix. Racing success
factory. No more than about 8,000 cars were made. culminated with driver Jean-Pierre Wimille winning the
The company struggled financially, and released one last 24 hours of Le Mans twice (in 1937 with Robert Benoist
model in the 1950s, before eventually being purchased and 1939 with Pierre Veyron).
for its airplane parts business in the 1960s. In the 1990s, Bugatti cars were extremely successful in racing. The litan Italian entrepreneur revived it as a builder of lim- tle Bugatti Type 10 swept the top four positions at its first
ited production exclusive sports cars. Today, the name race. The 1924 Bugatti Type 35 is probably the most sucis owned by German automobile manufacturing group cessful racing car of all time, with over 2,000 wins. The
Type 35 was developed by Bugatti with master engineer
and racing driver Jean Chassagne who also drove it in the
car’s first ever Grand Prix in 1924 Lyon.[2] Bugattis swept
to victory in the Targa Florio for five years straight from
1 Under Ettore Bugatti
1925 through 1929. Louis Chiron held the most podiums
Founder Ettore Bugatti was born in Milan, Italy, and the in Bugatti cars, and the modern marque revival Bugatti
automobile company that bears his name was founded Automobiles S.A.S. named the 1999 Bugatti 18/3 Chiron
in 1909 in Molsheim located in the Alsace region which concept car in his honour. But it was the final racing sucwas part of the German Empire from 1871 to 1919. The cess at Le Mans that is most remembered—Jean-Pierre
company was known both for the level of detail of its en- Wimille and Pierre Veyron won the 1939 race with just
gineering in its automobiles, and for the artistic way in one car and meagre resources.
which the designs were executed, given the artistic nature
of Ettore’s family (his father, Carlo Bugatti (1856–1940),
was an important Art Nouveau furniture and jewelry designer).


1.3 Aeroplane racing

World War I and its aftermath

In the 1930s, Ettore Bugatti got involved in the creation
of a racer airplane, hoping to beat the Germans in the
During the war Ettore Bugatti was sent away, initially to Deutsch de la Meurthe prize. This would be the Bugatti
Milan and later to Paris, but as soon as hostilities had 100P,[3][4] which never flew. It was designed by Belbeen concluded he returned to his factory at Molsheim.[1] gian engineer Louis de Monge who had already applied
Less than four months after the Versailles Treaty for- Bugatti Brescia engines in his “Type 7.5” lifting body.

After the war. Dr. Harold Carr found a rare 1937 Bugatti Type 57S Atalante when cataloguing the doctor’s belongings after his death in 2009. In the 1960s. many of the exposed surfaces of the engine compartment featured Guilloché (engine turned) finishes on them. Bugatti’s axles were forged such that the spring passed though a carefully sized opening in the axle. 4. “weight was the enemy”.4. the car failed to perform to expectations and the company’s attempts at automobile production were halted. Snecma merged Messier and Bugatti into Messier-Bugatti in 1977. According to Bugatti. The Mullin Museum in Oxnard. California bought After a long decline. the original incarnation of Bugatti it at auction for $351. 3 Design Bugattis are noticeably focused on design. the Autorail (Autorail Bugatti). Bugatti planned a new factory at Levallois.2 1956 Formula One tunes. Following Ettore Bugatti’s death. After acquiring Messier. including the Type 73 road car and Type 73C single seat racing car.[6] lake.1 4 Most important models built 5 Attempts at revival The company attempted a comeback under Roland Bugatti in the mid-1950s with the mid-engined Type 251 race car. Rather than bolt the springs to the axles as most manufacturers did.5 A family tragedy • 1938 Type 57SC Atlantic from the Ralph Lauren collection • 1933 Type 59 Grand Prix racer from the Ralph Lauren collection 4. Virgil Exner designed a Bugatti as part of his "Revival Cars" project. 3. Bugatti continued manufacturing airplane parts and was sold to Hispano-Suiza. also a former auto maker turned aircraft supplier. During the war.[8] when Ettore Bugatti died on 21 August 1947.4 Railcar Ettore Bugatti also designed a successful motorised railcar. Because much of the car’s original equipment is intact. in 1963. a northwestern suburb of Paris. the business declined further and On 10 July 2009. a much more elegant solution requiring fewer parts. and safety wires had been threaded through almost every fastener in intricately laced patterns. Jean died while testing a Type 57 tank-bodied race car near the Molsheim factory. a 1925 Bugatti Brescia Type 22 which made its last appearance as a business in its own right at had lain at the bottom of Lake Maggiore on the border of Switzerland and Italy for 75 years was recovered from the a Paris Motor Show in October 1952.2 6 MODERN REVIVALS 1. Snecma took over HispanoSuiza in 1968. and was shown at the 1965 Turin Motor Show. Finance was not forthcoming. it can be restored without relying on Development of a 375 cc supercharged car was stopped replacement parts. Carr’s Type 57S is notable because it was originally owned by British race car driver Earl Howe.1 Racing victories The death of Ettore Bugatti’s son. * The World Constructors’ Championship was not awarded before 1958. He famously described his arch competitor Bentley's cars as “the world’s fastest lorries” for focusing on durability.3 Notable finds in the modern era Relatives of Dr. Designed with help from Gioacchino Colombo. on 11 August 1939 marked a turning point in the company’s for. Engine blocks were hand scraped to ensure that the surfaces were so flat that gaskets were not required for sealing. 3 seat Vinet 6 Modern revivals . in Paris in 2010. Jean Bugatti. A show version of this car was actually built by Ghia using the last Bugatti Type 101 chassis.343 at Bonham’s Rétromobile sale ceased operations in 1952. Bugatti designed and planned to build a series of new cars. (key) 2 After World War II World War II left the Molsheim factory in ruins and the company lost control of the property. and Exner then turned his attention to a revival of Stutz. but in all Bugatti built only five Type 73 cars.[5] 1. Gallery • 1913 Bugatti 22.

Poor economic conditions forced the company to fail and operations ceased in September 1995.A. Toscana-Motors GmbH of Germany purchased the remaining parts stock from Dauer.2 Bugatti Automobiles S. ACBN Holdings S. and established Bugatti Automobili S.p. Bugatti’s liquidators sold Lotus Cars to Proton of Malaysia. which subsequently collapsed before moving in.4 tach. and it was inaugurated two years later—in 1990. (1998– present) Bugatti EB110 (1996) 6.5. After its Paris debut. of Luxembourg. a Ferrari service and race preparation garage in Germany. a coupé that debuted at the 1998 Paris Auto Show. The Campogalliano factory was sold to a furniture-making company.. A model specific to the US market called the “Bugatti America” was in the preparatory stages when the company ceased operations. a six-speed gearbox. Romano Artioli purchased Lotus Cars from General Motors. Perhaps the most famous Bugatti EB110 owner was seven-time Formula One World Champion racing driver Michael Schumacher who purchased an EB110 in 1994.p. Construction of the plant began in 1988. leaving the building unoccupied. 5-valve per cylinder.Main article: Bugatti Automobiles litre.A.S. The EB118 concept featured a 408-kilowatt (555 PS. Giugiaro of ItalDesign to produce Bugatti Automobiles’s On 27 August 1993. W-18 engine.S. the North American and European economies were in recession. commissioned Giorgetto Bugatti’s technical director from 1992 through 1994. to Modena Motorsport. (1987–1995) Italian entrepreneur Romano Artioli acquired the Bugatti brand in 1987. a 3. through his holding company.1 Bugatti Automobili S. Plans were made to list Bugatti shares on international stock exchanges. alongside the development of the first model.[9] By 1989 the plans for the new Bugatti revival were presented by Paolo Stanzani and Marcello Gandini. Volkswagen AG acquired the Bugatti brand in 1998. It used a carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer chassis. .2 Bugatti Automobiles S. These five SS versions of the EB110 were greatly refined by Dauer. quad-turbocharged 60° V12 engine. 6. Famed racing car designer Mauro Forghieri served as Bugatti Automobiles S. The first production vehicle the Bugatti EB110 GT. which had been repaired after a severe 1994 crash. Modena.S. the EB118 concept was shown again in 1999 at the Geneva Auto Show and the Tokyo Motor Show. first concept vehicle. (1998–present) 3 Bugatti presented a prototype large saloon called the EB112 in 1993.A.A. Italy.Bugatti Veyron 16.[10] After Dauer stopped producing cars in 2011.A.A. Schumacher sold his EB110.6. the EB118. German firm Dauer Racing purchased the EB110 licence and remaining parts stock in 1997 in order to produce five more EB110 SS vehicles. designers of the Lamborghini Miura and Lamborghini Coun. Artioli commissioned architect Giampaolo Benedini to design the factory which was built in Campogalliano. View of the assembly line building of the Bugatti Automobili factory in Campogalliano By the time the EB110 came to market. 547 bhp). and four-wheel drive.

Bugattiaircraft. Trade-247. Bugatti Automobiles S. [7] Georgano. Associated Press. 14: Pages 6 & [6] “Automobilia”. Popular Mechanics (Books. Retrieved 23 February 2015. Toutes les voitures françaises 1920 (salon [Oct] 1919) (Paris: Histoire & collections). Retrieved 2011-11-09. Schio. 2011-11-30. began assembling its first regular-production vehicle.S. 2009-01-02. One of 17. December 1934. Milan. “Bugatti on TradeTwentyfourSeven website”.[13] • Benedini. [11] “Bugatti: 1. p. January 2. Artioli. 1971 P. Robert (23 February 2015). 7 [3] “Bugatti Model 100 at the EAA Museum”. which was named La Finale. Retrieved 2011-05-27. 2000. [12] “Manufacturing the Veyron”. “The very last Bugatti Veyron has been sold”.001 horsepower. 1985) [8] “1937 Bugatti Atalante Supercar. Retrieved 2010-12-31. [9] AISA (2011). 12 November 2011.S. The Huffington Post.A. Romano.N. Nr. [4] “Bugatti Aircraft Association – 100P Airplane”. 9 External links • Bugatti Automobiles S. 28.A. “Un progetto nello spirito Bugatti". Nr.A. France assembly “studio”. EXTERNAL LINKS • The Bugatti Trust • Bugatti at LeMans . [10] Copyright. G. $1. Retrieved 2012-07-28. Road and Track. [13] Sorokanich. 200509-16. Bugatti sold its last Veyron Grand Sport Vitesse. (London: Grange-Universal. home of the Schlumpf Collection of Bugatti cars 8 References [1] “Automobilia”.4 9 Bugatti introduced its next concepts.24 million”. Found in English Garage. 31: 63. conference 100 (in Italian) (AISA). Retrieved 201012-31. CNN. the EB 218 at the 1999 Geneva Motor Show and the 18/3 Chiron at the 1999 Frankfurt Motor Show (IAA). Giampaolo. [2] L’Automobiliste. Bugatti in Italia. [5] “Streamlined Auto-Rail Car Used in France”. the Bugatti Veyron 16. Cars: Early and Vintage. (the 1001 BHP super car with an 8-litre W-16 engine with four turbochargers) in September 2005 at the Bugatti Molsheim. Toutes les voitures françaises 1953 (salon Paris oct 1952) (Paris: Histoire & collections). “Quasi un sacrilegio” (PDF). Est February 2003. Associazione Italiana per la storia dell'automobile.[11][12] On 23 February 2015. • Bugatti bibliography 7 See also • Musée National de l'Automobile de Mulhouse. Retrieved 2009-01-28. 2009”.com. Bugatti Automobiles S. 1886– Retrieved 2012-07-28.

Robbot. KamikazeBot. Wiki13. Ericamick. L Kensington. DumbBOT. Jk2q3jrklse. SFGiants. Spanner pig. Stanny~enwiki.. DBigXray. Gran2. Ronhjones. Mschlindwein. Gadkwiddsss. F-86. DH85868993. contributors. Stearnsbrian. Baile. Myscrnnm. C'est moi. RedBot.jpg License: CC BY 2. N419BH. YurikBot. Leivick.W. Tompw. Tripod86.jpg Source: https://upload. Helpful Pixie Bot.wikimedia. Richard Barrett. Keinstein. Dscott626. Sgt Pinback. Retro00064. Reza 2638. E. Arthena. II MusLiM HyBRiD II. BaboneCar. James086.0 Contributors: originally posted to Flickr as BUGATTI AUTOMOBILI Original artist: Stefano Mecchia • File:Bugatti_logo. CALEB B. Chirag Patil. SpinyNorman. Chowbok. 4u1e. Ericd. Savh. Zach4636. Complainer. Hektor. Naraht. Maxymoo. Tyle7. Yk Yk Yk. Knowledgeum. Jevans19. NobelBot. Norm. Daniel J. Mark Arsten. ClueBot. MPerel. GdStBd. Vladwin.svg Source: https://upload. Mphoss. Falcadore. RussBot. Shadowjams. Ggm26. Slightsmile. JoanneB. VWphaetonfan. Dan100. Tony Webster. Bollyjeff. Javert. Jxp497. Marcika. Sanfranman59. Alastairgbrown. Androcee. MainlyTwelve. Ali. Dureo. Kariteh. RibotBOT.. Kristof vt. Ubel Feuer. NY89. Bigjimr. Betacommand. Fredamabob4. Werieth. Garyczek. Che829. Patch051. Oda Mari. Wiki alf. Trekphiler. DrDems. Jake Wartenberg. DW. Halfalah. Midgrid. VMS Mosaic. Pingveno. JonEditz. Uncle Dick. Karlthegreat. Sdean7855. Alonsodono. Gabbe. Puffin. M. Belmonter. AstarothCY. Everymorning. Joshmouton1. Stifle. Jorgenev. Derzsi Elekes Andor. Thevictor99. Lherrou. Bsadowski1. Gonzonoir. Zach1000. Buch-t.5 10 10. Pizn. Michael. Matttopp. Bongwarrior. Stewacide. Rdsmith4. Widr. Gtxsyntec96. Coolhawks88. Augustus Rookwood. CecilWard. Tutelary. Everton2kn8. Jeff G. Euchiasmus. Mark in wiki. AntiVandalBot. ZacBowling. Medek61. FlugKerl. Haechi1000. TheNewPhobia. SQL. Tdslk. Gurch. Courcelles. Mato. RThompson82. McCart42. Bobwont. Old Guard. LG4761. Stan Shebs. Infrogmation. Zer3k. Barneca. Jean-Éric Poclain. Wknight94. Macjena. Donnie Park. Kokeepoo. Scootey. Somedaypilot. Grs1969. GhostsGamerCod. Gosugatena. Click23. ImageRemovalBot. Uhai. Nudecline. John Anderson.0 de Contributors: ? Original artist: ? • File:BUGATTI_AUTOMOBILI. Messi2110. Winterhill school.2 Images • File:2007-06-15_18_Bugatti_EB_110_(bearb_-_kl). Krashlandon. Tresiden. Zimbricchio. Milany. DerHexer. Retireduser455656. CART fan. Mikeman67. Nickispeaki. WadeSimMiser. EmausBot. Philip Trueman. O. THEN WHO WAS PHONE?. Rjwilmsi. Krishnendu123456789. Mnealon. AnomieBOT. Tide rolls. Hdjdjxd. NaBUru38. Unknown99999999. Bilal Mazhar 80. JillandJack. Rich Farmbrough. Wayne Slam. Brianhenke. Quadpus. Adammathias. Peter Chastain. Iknowyourider. Mild Bill Hiccup. Jgmillar. Kaustav46. AGToth. OrphanBot. Lights. Kiebshmwne. Zhyar sardar. Cantle. Drhauk. Teutonic Tamer. FlaBot. Multixfer. Surcouf.jpg Source: https://upload. Kuru. Wtmitchell. Nakon. BSI. KylieTastic. Materialscientist. Satellizer. Dains16. Alek7886. Jaredwinfree. Ricardo monteiro. Loginnigol. Dusti. Monsieur Fou. Andy Christ. Hephaestos. Wakka wakka wing wing. David R. RA0808. Kingpin13. Kabir Singh1. EnthusiastFR. Orphan Wiki. Contributors: Scipius. LorenzoB. Skizzik. Lukeno94. Entheta. FlagSteward. Dreadstar. Pidzz. Arado. Kharissa. Mimihitam. Fivestrokes. Chriq. KrisBogdanov. Epicgenius. Azx2. Sidgaur111. Weetoddid. Dale Arnett. Legobot. Abenaske. THEunique. Sfoskett. Pol098. Bruce1ee. Jakeb101. InformationalAnarchist. Thomas. Mythbusterma. Beusson. RJaguar3. Gzuckier. PamD. Neurolysis. Faizan. Number6todd. Typ932. Liamagic. Lugia2453. Deon Steyn. Christian List.kunlee1. Frietjes. Banaticus. COENFN. Moebiusuibeom-en.zietz. Webclient101. Gabino4. Ut 28. Idioma-bot. 149AFK. Plexust. Mallexikon. Enigmaman. Touch Of Light.nelson. Ianb. Pinethicket. Stephan Leeds. Martin77044. D6. Wimt. IrishPete. Brossow. Jim1138. Mesto. Hazza101. Wahiba. Mr. SeanWillard. Waynerooney5. Lineface. Vanished User 8a9b4725f8376. Ripley. WolfgangFaber. Zedla. NawlinWiki. MusikAnimal. BjKa. Killer900009. Yamamoto Ichiro. Cometstyles. SassoBot. LocoBurger. TheVariableMan. Epbr123. CzMx hazard.wikimedia. Ich hieße Nick. Mervyn. Erik9bot. Cochranealtaguy. Jprg1966. Yobot. LittleOldMe. Michaelgy. Jj137. Nickersonl. HalfShadow. Le gludic~enwiki. 12m34a56r78c910o. FrigidNinja. RandomStringOfCharacters. SashatoBot. Wilybadger. Sekkk. Haza-w. Paul foord. FreplySpang. Nimbus227. Glane23. Thingg. CALR. Harry2258. Saebhiar. Thatguyflint. ClueBot NG. Nono64. Dawnseeker2000. Kappa. Woohookitty. Vermen1993. Margosbot~enwiki. Smrul. Kbdank71. 06BMaste. Wingsandsword. Chochopk. Seaphoto. Chobot. AlleborgoBot. Tmangray. Manxmatty. JYBot. 069952497a. Ianris. Ingham. Carcrazy. Stephenchou0722. Tnxman307. Rupert Nichol. Haukacik. Ojw2424. Amortias. The359. Superbeecat. Discospinster. LuK3. Tawkerbot2. Egmontaz. Hu12. Jitterro. Ketil3. Hotlorp. Michael Devore. Jackson Peebles.jpg License: CC BY-SA 2. Fleur44. Abtinb. I dream of horses. Awsomewcer. Harald Hansen. RicReis. NightCrawler. Yintan. Ahoerstemeier. Swaq. Qasar. The Thing That Should Not Be. Snigbrook. Readro. Papamama1234. Louis R14. Hannahmarymartin and Anonymous: 750 10. GregorB. Regibox. BibTheSeeker12. Charles01. ScottyBerg. Don4of4. 72Dino. Skarebo. Warren. Caltas. Pgk. AlphaEta. Werdna. Wetman. Tgies. Cloverleaf II.1 Text and image sources. SmackBot. Juan9909. BigBen212. Gilliam. Crecy99. Robykiwi~enwiki. Jackehammond. Edward321. Onorem. Mtking.Sollo. Nealium. Jan olieslagers. FinalRapture. Apollo. Bonadea. Frosty. DVdm. DeadEyeArrow. Poccil. Potato steak. Messmeup. Poopydoody. Bobblewik. Blades. Texture. Fraggle81. Sgtd0wns. Ferretpoop. John. Hvkhvk. MartinBot. William Avery. 18_Bugatti_EB_110_%28bearb_-_kl%29. Dgjesquire. Vetex007. Vayne. Rollinaris. Jc4p. EyOne. NuclearWarfare. OSX. Randhirreddy. Maximumjadehawk. Connor7103. A. MartinezMD. A More Perfect Onion. TwoTwoHello. SmartAss2011. MinecraftMario02. DSisyphBot. Seqqis. VolkovBot. Vegaswikian. Sam Diamond. VT hawkeye. Btm. El C. RandomAct. Mhoeker. OvidiuSamson. Tengel 10. Monty845. and licenses Text • Bugatti Source: https://en. TjBot. Abce2. UsernameUnknownSwag. Mikaey. SilverSoul91911. Virtualshropshire. Ouishoebean. Alansohn. Sardanaphalus. Monterey Bay. Hvn0413. Pc13. Sporti. Bobby wasabi 1010. Mrunal1555. Bluee Mountain. Excirial. Chienlit. Justangela. Boivie. Kaveneer. Wikibofh. Carewser. Falcon8765. TomasBat. Willirennen. Dhager11. CZmarlin. XLinkBot. Pyrope. Isarra (HG). Ssolbergj. Comatose51. Sunroof. Killermole.wikimedia. Snow Blizzard. Red Slash. Alpha Quadrant. Logancook123. Andy Dingley.wikipedia. Picka9. Katalaveno. Parkerconrad. Salvio giuliano. Nich148 9. JNW. Donner60. Cars az. Ducus10000. Vanpan. BG19bot. Tomasyoungx. Baxter9. Flowerpotman. Guanabot. Seyidov ibrahim. Kunlee. Tempodivalse. Kwamikagami. VoABot II. Hoo man. Bluebot. Richard Yin.Koslowski. Jusdafax. Ayocee. Lightbot. Chris the speller. Bahooka. Mike Rosoft. Misou. Novusuna. DocWatson42. Sublimate. Waggers.delanoy. Cydebot. Writ Keeper. Crediter. Zad68. Karen Johnson. RobinMiller. William Leadford. Postmortemjapan. Pennbradly. Coolguy415. Exeunt. Tomicalover. Fnlayson. Soohyun1115. Jsding. Puchiko. Hmains. Bgwhite. Nonky. Gaius Cornelius. Milobb. Mean as custard. Gillyweed. Quanzo. Zalgo. Wikipelli. Michaelsbll. Teles. N5iln. Hayzie 1992. Fixer88. VideoGameGurus. CambridgeBayWeather.svg License: Fair use Contributors: German Wikipedia Original artist: ? . Scoty6776. Letdorf. Snowolf. NewEnglandYankee. Gobbleswoggler. EuroCarGT. ChildofMidnight. Fluence. Luca’s Ade. Iridescent. Bellenders. Jamesx12345. Bunny Angel13. J. Porsche997SBS. Thijs!bot. BruceB9. Komowkwa. Piano360. Iohannes Animosus. Gscshoyru. ST47. CsDix. Winchelsea. Jay Luo. Makemi. Gogo Dodo. Luckas-bot. Dekisugi.

org/wikipedia/en/b/ba/Flag_of_Germany.svg License: Content license • Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3. CONTRIBUTORS.html?id=1669 Original artist: F l a n k e r • License: CC BY-SA 2.0 .wikipedia.svg Source: https://upload.0 Contributors: photo taken by Manju Original artist: Manju • License: PD Contributors: ? Original artist: ? • License: PD Contributors: ? Original artist: ? • File:Flag_of_Italy.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Transferred from en.svg Source: https://upload.svg Source: https://upload.svg Source: https://upload. AND LICENSES • File:Bugatti_veyron_in_Tokyo.6 10 TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES.wikimedia.png created by User:Equazcion Original artist: Tkgd2007 • File:Volkswagen_Group. transferred to Commons by User:Christian Giersing using CommonsHelper.wikimedia.svg License: PD Contributors: ? Original artist: ? • File:Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946)_crowned.wikimedia.svg Original artist: User:B1mbo and User:Madden • Source: https://upload.svg Source: https://upload.svg Source: License: Cc-bysa-3. svg License: Public domain Contributors: Recoloured Image:Flag of Germany (2-3).wikimedia.prassi.wikimedia.cnr.wikimedia.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Original artist: ? • File:Flag_of_France. Original artist: Original uploader was Gr1st at en.jpg Source: https://upload.wikipedia 10.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia. Based on Image:Question book.svg Source: %281861-1946%29_crowned.5 Contributors: http://www.0 Contributors: Created from scratch in Adobe Illustrator.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ? • File:Question_book-new.