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Introduction to FEFLOW

Volker Clausnitzer
DHI Groundwater Modelling Centre

FEFLOW – More than Groundwater
FEFLOW handles groundwater flow
and related processes in one
software environment, one user
interface, and one simulation model:

• Variably saturated flow
• Contaminant transport
• Heat transport
• Density-affected flow
• Chemical reactions
• And more ...

FEFLOW – More than Groundwater
Primary development goal:

FEFLOW is intented to be

•Easy to use and intuitive –


quickly master everyday
groundwater projects,
but at the same time

•Powerful and comprehensive –
to model complex subsurface

Complex Processes - Geometry

Finite-element discretization
Triangular or quad elements (2D)
Prisms or cuboids (3D)
3D or 2D horizontal/vertical/axisymmetric projection
1D and 2D for fracture/pipe/borehole flow

Complex Processes .Physics Groundwater and vadose-zone flow • Saturated flow (Darcy law) • Unconfined conditions (different approaches) • Unsaturated / variably saturated flow (Richards equation) • Fracture flow • Density.and viscosity-dependent flow www. .Complex Processes . Decay • Multispecies simulation • Kinetic reaction systems www.Physics Transport • Heat transport (advection-conduction equation) • Solute transport (advection-diffusion equation) • Combined solute/heat transport • Sorption.

dhi-wasy. and postprocessing GIS/CAD/ASCII file interfaces for import and export 2D/3D map support Advanced computational methods – Powerful mesh generators – Automatic time-stepping scheme – Algebraic multigrid solver – Parallelization … www.Ease of use • • • • • User interface for preprocessing. .

de .dhi-wasy.Visualization • 2D top / cross-section views • 3D views • 2D / 3D map support • 3D clipping and carving • Live. interactive visualization during simulation run • Hardware acceleration via OpenGL • 3D stereoscopic display/projector support currently in betatesting www.

de .FEFLOW Viewer • Free (no license required) • Works with existing FEFLOW models • Visualization and analysis • Export of figures and animations • Model and results files • Use by modeler – No license necessary for postprocessing – Share your model with colleagues even if licenses are limited • Usage by consulting clients – No need to purchase an additional license – Deliver viewable model files to customers www.dhi-wasy.

de .Extensibility • Open programming interface – Documented API interface – User can develop plug-ins for o Additional functionality o Workflow automation • Application Examples – – – – Groundwater / surface water coupling Integration of technical installations in geothermal modeling Import of model properties Export of model results • Development Services – Plug-in development as a consulting service www.dhi-wasy.

de . nutrient management) • Remediation / natural attenuation • Capture-zone delineation • Saltwater intrusion • Geothermal energy • Industrial porous materials • … www. salinization. drainage.Fields of Application • Regional groundwater management • Mine water management • Construction and tunneling • Groundwater – surface water interaction • Agriculture (irrigation.dhi-wasy.

de .dhi-wasy.FEFLOW Community www.

info/forum www.dhi-wasy.FEFLOW Community .feflow.

-Ing. Alexander Renz www.-Ing.dhi-wasy. we offer – – – – Training courses Solutions Software customization Consulting in modeling projects – Model review Dipl. Peter Schätzl Dipl. Bastian Rau .-Ing. Julia Mayer Dipl.User Support • We help by – Giving advice on FEFLOW modeling – Analyzing possible model improvements – Explaining theoretical background and functionality FEFLOW Services Team Æ Support Æ Training Æ Plug-in Solutions • In addition.-Ing.

dhi-wasy.Why FEFLOW? • Highly scalable software package – Different feature levels available • Optimal cost efficiency for every application • Upgrades possible at any time – One software for current and future projects • No need for additional software and training • Saves time and money • Commercial software – – – – – DHI guarantees consistent services Close contact to support staff Software performance benchmarked and documented Quality assurance Ongoing development .

Optimization of landscape water regime 2. Construction of an underground liquefied natural-gas storage system .dhi-wasy.Application Examples 1.

Agricultural Development Planning Glietzener Polder. Germany .dhi-wasy.

Objectives Concept for landscape water regime that accommodates . and general landscape water balance goals: •Improvement of agricultural conditions •Sustainment of low-water discharge. securing of minimum discharge in low-water periods •Improvement of groundwater and surface water quality •Flood protection •Improvement of the ecological role of water bodies www. environmental.dhi-wasy. .Conflicting Objectives Agriculture Environment Potential for conflict Landscape water balance www.

using the target levels as goal for future planning . GW-SW model for different system states Calculation of depth to groundwater using the groundwater levels and a DEM Intersection of depth to groundwater with defined target levels. definition of areas of conflict Simulation of scenarios lowering the potential for conflict.Approach 1.dhi-wasy. Calculation of groundwater and surface water levels applying a coupled 2. 3. 4.

de .Coupled Model FEFLOW-MIKE11 FEFLOW www.dhi-wasy.

Initial State (March) too dry too wet acceptable www.Target .

# S 631 . change of storage levels Installation of weirs and low weirs (ground sills) Desludging of ditches Closure of Altreetz pumping station Neue Stauer Gabow St-07 U % Sohlschwelle U % Wehr U % Angepasste Bauwerke # S St-02 241 S#% U Paulshof II S # St-12 St-09 211 U % U % # # S S 301 331Bienwerder # S 371 # S St-11 # S St-05 % U 844 St-03 401 U % U % Zäckericker St-08 U % Loose/ Oder Paulshof I Gabow # S 843 Zäckericker Loose/ Dorf St-04 St13 S# 532 U % U % St-06 U % # S 842 Zollbrücke 611 U % U % # S www. # S St-10 St-01 701 Nasser Polder/ Güsteb.dhi-wasy.Planned Measures • • • • • Modification of target water levels for pumping stations Adaptation of structures.

0.20 < -0.Ist) [m] > 0.25 0.-0.25 .15 .de Nasser Polder/ Güst eb.0.10 -0.25 Neue Stauer Gabow St-07 U % Sohlschwelle U % Wehr U % Angepasste Bauwerke # S St-02 241 #S% U Z Paulshof II # S St-12 Z U % St-09 211 # S U % # S # S 371 331Bienwerder 301 Z St-11 # S St-05 844 St-03 # S % U 401 U % U % Zäckericker St-08 U % Loose/ Oder Schöpfwerke ZZ Z Paulshof I Gabow # S 843 Zäckericker Loose/ Dorf St-04 St13 Z # S 532 U % U % Entschlammungsstrecken St-06 U % # S 842 Zollbrücke # S St-10 St-01 611 U % U % # S 701 www.dhi-wasy.15 .15 -0.25 .3 0.-0.20 .20 . # S 631 .-0.Predicted Change in Water Level März (Plan .0.0.30 0.10 .0.05 -0.10 -0. L.20 0.05 .15 0.-0.10 . A ug Aug Sept Sep Okt Oct Nov Dez Nov Dec .Target Compliance SW -Gebiet Paulshof I Paulshof I Area Controlled by Pumping Station Ist-Zustand Initial Plan-Zustand Predicted 50 Fraction of Total Area Flächenanteil [%] [%] 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Jan Jan Feb Feb März Mar AApr pr Mai Jun May Jun Jul M onat www.

7 million m³/yr A ltr ee tz N as se rP ol de r P au ls ho fI I oo se rL ow Zä ck er ic ke G ab nw er de r B ie ne P au ls ho fI lb rü ck e -3500 Zo l 3 /d] [m [m³/d] Change from initial pumping rate Differenz (berechnet [Plan]-gemessen [Ist]) Modification of Pumping Rates .2000 1500 1000 500 0 -500 -1000 -1500 -2000 -2500 -3000 SW-Ge bie te Reduction of pumped water quantity by 8% ~1.dhi-wasy.

Cavern Construction for LNG Storage .dhi-wasy.

de .Principle Stainless Steel LNG Cavern -162° C Insulation Ice Ring www.dhi-wasy.

de .dhi-wasy.Simulation Objectives • Represent the dewatering process over a 4-year construction period with • • • a complex construction schedule Inflow/drainage for all parts of the underground structure Impact on groundwater level in the surrounding area Seawater intrusion potential www. .Physical Processes • Density-dependent variably saturated flow • Advective-dispersive transport of dissolved constituents www.

de .Model Domain www.dhi-wasy. .Model Domain www.

de .Spatial Discretization Superelement mesh • 253 polygons • 463 lines www.dhi-wasy.

de .125 elements • 498.Spatial Discretization Finite-element mesh • 956.914 nodes www.dhi-wasy.

de .Spatial Discretization Finite-element mesh – Cavern structures www.dhi-wasy.

Spatial Discretization Finite-element mesh – Cavern structures .dhi-wasy.

de .Material Properties Saturated conductivity Porosity Granitic Gneiss 10-9…10-8 m/s 1% Mica Schist 10-7 m/s 1% Altered zone 1…2 x 10-6 m/s 5% Insulation 10-11 m/s 1% www.dhi-wasy.

Effective saturation Kr = Seff δ δ=2 www.Material Properties Effective saturation .509 Relative conductivity vs. Pressure head Seff = (1 + |αψ|-n)-m α = 0.1 m-1 n = 1.964 m = 0.dhi-wasy.

de .dhi-wasy.Boundary Conditions Groundwater recharge www. .Boundary Conditions Flow (Hydraulic head) • Dirichlet condition along coastline • No-flow (zero-value Neumann) condition elsewhere Transport (Solute concentration) • Dirichlet (fixed-concentration) condition for infiltrating seawater along coastline • Zero-value Neumann condition for fluid leaving domain along coastline • Impermeability condition elsewhere www. .Boundary Condtions Internal surfaces of the structure are treated as Seepage face • Dirichlet condition of fixed atmospheric pressure for outwarding-pointing head gradient • No-flow (zero-value Neumann) condition otherwise www.

de .’s must continuously be introduced during the simulation.C.dhi-wasy.C. Solution: Seepage-face activation via a separate module using the FEFLOW Open Programming Interface: • arbitrary node groups and activation intervals • arbitrary pressure • import capability from ASCII files • saves all information with the problem file www.’s as construction progresses. New B.Transient Boundary Conditions Simulation requires successive activation of seepageface B.

Initial Condition Steady-state head and solute-concentration distributions obtained for undisturbed conditions .dhi-wasy.

de .dhi-wasy.Simulation Results Pressure 00 dd 360 360 dd 720 720 dd 1080 1080 dd www.

dhi-wasy.Simulation Results Pressure 0d 360 d 720 d 1080 d . .Simulation Results Solute concentration www.

Simulation Results Groundwater table .dhi-wasy.