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Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology

The Western States Water Mission

CUAHSI Hydroinformatics meeting


16 July 2015

Water Cycle and Freshwater Availability


Next Challenge : Adding Integrated Value to the Measurements
CLOUDS

FRESHWATER STORAGE IN
ICE AND SNOW

CloudSat, MODIS

Airborne Snow Observatory


(ASO)

WATER VAPOR
AIRS, MLS, GPS-RO
Tempest (2017)

PRECIPITATION
GPM
RainCube (2017)

RIVERS & LAKES


SWOT (2020)

EVAPOTRANSPIRATION
ECOSTRESS (2017)

WATER STORAGE
IN OCEANS
Jason Series, SWOT (2020)

EVAPORATION
GROUND-WATER

SOIL MOISTURE

GRACE, GRACE-FO (2017)

SMAP

Aquarius

Towards an optimized management information product


-

There is some best-estimate of


water state based on a
combination of models and data

Beyond scientists and to user


friendly applications for water
managers and the public

Active operational assimilation of


all current products

Remove obstacles in downloading,


aggregating and interpreting
outputs

Advancing to the management


spatial scale

Including robust uncertainties!!!

The Western States Water Mission: An example of a


systems approach to hydrology

Stakeholders/Customers

Estimates with Uncertainties

(Prospective
customers)

Colorado Water
Conservation Board

40

Coupled and Validated Models

20

30

(Notional)

10

CA Total Usable Freshwater (million acre-feet)

Observations

1
month
ago

1
season
ago
Retrospective Record

1
year
ago

The Western States Water Mission: A robust effort to


improve state estimates of water availability
ASO

State Estimation with Uncertainties


Near-Real Time, plus 1979-present
Western US
3km2 catchment-grid with river routing
Decision support for Western States
RHEAS
A. Konstantinos/JPL

Operational, high-resolution assimilation


of satellite, airborne, in situ products
R2O path for process modeling &
optimal assimilation practices for
GRACE, SMAP, ASO, SWOT, etc

Precipitation measurement mission


GPM

Core satellite launched in February 2014

Really a constellation of many satellites

Like TRMM but at all latitudes

Measures light, heavy, frozen

Global coverage

2-4 hour frequency

~5-km resolution

Soil Moisture Active-Passive


SMAP

Launched January 2015

Beta product due October


2015

Soil moisture and freezethaw state

Global coverage

3-km radar and 9-km


combined active-passive

2-3 day latency for level-3

Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment


GRACE and GRACE-FO

Launched 2002

Still flying and returning data, with


periodic outages to conserve power

Monthly, global TWSA

Measures total integrated water storage


change beneath the satellites

~2-3 degree resolution

JPL-RL05m [Watkins, 2015]

MODIS snow-covered area


MODSCAG

Snow area and grain size

Most accurate MODIS snow products


(Rittger et al., 2013)

Monthly, global fractional area

Based on 500m MODIS tiles

~24-hour turn around

1.
2.
3.

Dozier, J., Painter, T.H., Rittger, K., & Frew, J.E. (2008). Time-space continuity of daily maps of
fractional snow cover and albedo from MODIS. Advances in Water Resources, 31, 1515-1526, doi:
10.1016/j.advwatres.2008.08.011.
Painter, T.H., Rittger, K., McKenzie, C., Slaughter, P., Davis, R.E., & Dozier, J. (2009). Retrieval of
subpixel snow covered area, grain size, and albedo from MODIS. Remote Sensing of Environment,
113, 868-879, doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2009.01.001.
Rittger, K., Painter, T.H., & Dozier, D. (Submitted). Assesment of methods for mapping snow cover
from MODIS. Advances in Water Resources, Anniversary Issue.

Airborne Snow Observatory


ASO

snow water equivalent (SWE)

snow albedo

NASA/JPL, in partnership with the


California Department of Water
Resources

imaging spectrometer and scanning lidar

Surface Water and Ocean Topography


SWOT

Launching 2020

Wide-swath interferometery

River, lake and reservoir heights globally

2x per 21-days

~100-m spatial imaging

~1-cm @1-km precision

Mapping Groundwater Induced Subsidence Rates


Near El Nido, CA
Subsidence rate,
2007-2011

Slide courtesy of Tom Farr, NASA JPL


Subsidence rate,
May-October 2014

Regional Hydrologic Extremes Assessment System (RHEAS)

Built by Kostas Andreadis at JPL

Variable Infiltration Capacity


(VIC) hydrology model

Ensemble Kalman Filter

Has been successfully applied


and validated in the CONUS

Due to data latency: we will


conduct provisional (~7-days)
and stable (~3 months)
hindcasts

Like a reanalysis for land surface


hydrology

Hydrological Input, Estimation, and Prediction Resource (HIEPR)

TWS: GRACE, (GRSS)


Snow: MODSCAG, ASO
SM: SMAP, (AMSR-E, SMOS)
(ET: MODIS, UCB)
GRACE-FO, SWOT

(Precip: TRMM, CMORPH


PERSIANN, CCS, etc.)
(Topo: SRTM)

Surface storage
Stream gauges
Well level
Snow pillows
InSAR subsidence (w/
uncert.)
GPS
Snow surveys
Fisher ET
ECOSTRESS

Regional Hydrologic Extremes Assessment System (RHEAS)


Assimilate

RHEAS
Database

Model
(VIC)

Input

Model
(RAPI
D)

(all w/
uncertainty)
Total water
Groundwater
SWE
Snow depth
Snow cover %
Soil moisture
Freeze/thaw
ET
Snowmelt
Sublimation
Precipitation
Forecasts
(w/ uncertainty)
Runoff
(w/ uncertainty)
Surface flow

User Interface (UI)


Web interface
User guide

Visualization
Aggregation
Avg/Min/Max
Unit
conversion

Dynamic
interactive
map
Plots
Animations

Ingest

Stored values
or links

Ingestion Module (IM)

Passthrough

Surface storage
Subsidence (w/
uncer.)
Well level

Tables

Data Analytics Center Architecture

Data sources from space, airborne, ground sensors


Distributed Computation, workflow, vizualization

Interactive user interface

Courtesy: aso.jpl.nasa.gov

Western States Water Mission


FY15
Q1

Q2

Concept Studies
Pre-Phase A

FY16

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

FY17

Q3

Q4

Formulation
Phase A

Phase B

Q1

Q2

FY18

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Implementation
Phase C

Phase D

Phase E

General project/mission implementation plan


and top-level requirements development
Lower-level requirements develop, architecture development, stakeholder engagement,
development of an initial show and tell model, and coordination with the NASA Water Center
Component Development
Component Test
System Integration & Test
Deployment/Operations

Photo by Peter McBride

The Western States Water Mission (WSWM)


Will provide key stakeholders in California and the Western U.S. with actionable
information beginning in 2017
Planning for 2 data products :
RHEAS VIC near-real-time preliminary product [~1-week latency]
RHEAS VIC 3km2 catchment stable product [1979 to ~3-months ago]
Project personnel: James Famiglietti (Project Scientist), Ralph Basilio (Project
Manager), Amy Trangsrud (Systems Engineer), Kostas Andreadis, Cedric David, JT
Reager, Paul Ramirez, Dan Crichton, Duane Waliser, Michael Gunson,
Provides a tremendous opportunity for cooperation, synergy, and collaboration
with CUAHSI:
Leveraging years of CUAHSI experience in water data sharing
Specifically CUAHSI HIS for data downloading (e.g. USGS streamgages)
WaterML to serve our results (catchment IDs, web mapping?)
Links to Hydroshare, Hydrodesktop?

Questions, suggestions, discussion?


John.Reager@jpl.nasa.gov