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Date

Developments in Jazz

1619
1817 New Orleans city council establishes "Congo Square"
as an official site for slave music and dance.
1865
1892 Pianist Tommy Turpin writes Harlem Rag, the first
known ragtime composition.
1895 Pianist Scott Joplin publishes his first two rags.
Cornetist Buddy Bolden forms his band.
1896
1897 The first piano rags appear in print. Ragtime grows in
popularity.
1898
1899 Scott Joplin's Maple Leaf Rag is published and sells
over 100,000 copies.
1900 A cutting contest (a colloquial term for music
competition) for ragtime pianists is held at New York's
Tammany Hall. Louis Armstrong is born.
1901 Charles Booth's performance of J. Bodewalt Lange's
Creole Blues is recorded for the new Victor label.
This is the first acoustic recording of ragtime to be
made commercially available. The American
Federation of Musicians (the musicians union) votes
to suppress ragtime.
1902 The John Philip Sousa Band records the ragtime
piece, Trombone Sneeze, written by Arthur Pryor.
Lincoln Park is opened in New Orleans, as a center
for ragtime and early jazz performances. Scott Joplin
publishes The Entertainer: a Ragtime Two-Step,
which would become a popular hit nearly 70 years
later. Pianist Jelly Roll Morton claims to have
invented jazz in this year.
1903 Pianist and composer Eubie Blake publishes his first
piano rags.
1904 Cornetist Buddy Bolden begins to develop a
reputation in New Orleans for playing music that
fuses elements of blues and ragtime.
1905 A black newspaper in Indianapolis releases a
statement in reaction to racist songs popular during
this period: "Composers should not set music to a set
of words that are a direct insult to the colored race."
1906 Jelly Roll Morton composes King Porter Stomp.
1907 Cornetist Buddy Bolden is committed to a mental
institution without having ever recorded any music.
Scott Joplin moves to New York.
1908
1909 The US Marine band records Joplin's Maple Leaf
Rag.

Historical Events
The first Africans are sold into slavery in America.

Slavery is abolished in the US by the 13th
Amendment to the US Constitution.

Cinema is born.
Racial segregation is upheld by the Supreme Court.
Radio technology is introduced.

The US goes to war with Spain.

US President William McKinley is assassinated.
Painter Pablo Picasso's first exhibit is held in Paris.
Theodore Roosevelt becomes president.

The Wright brothers make their first successful flight.

Scientist Albert Einstein presents his special theory of
relativity. Pizza is introduced at Lombardi's in New
York.

The first wireless broadcast of classical music is
produced in New York.
Alcohol is banned in North Carolina and Georgia.
Alcohol is banned in Tennessee. Robert Peary
reaches the North Pole. William Howard Taft becomes
president.

Date

Developments in Jazz

1910 The Original Dixieland Jass Band performs in
London. Will Marion Cook tours Europe with his
Southern Syncopated Orchestra which includes
clarinetist Sidney Bechet. After the tour Bechet stays
in Europe. New Orleans trombonist Kid Ory moves to
Los Angeles and forms a band, bringing jazz to new
ears.
1911 Pianist Scott Joplin publishes his opera Treeemoisha.
Irving Berlin records Alexander's Ragtime Band,
which becomes a hit but is scorned by ragtime
purists.
1912
1913 The word "jazz" first appears in print. James Reese
Europe records ragtime arrangements in New York
with the first black ensemble to be recorded.
1914 Pianist W.C. Handy writes St. Louis Blues.
1915 Trumpeter King Oliver forms a band in New Orleans
with clarinetist Sidney Bechet.
1916
1917 Scott Joplin dies. The classic era of ragtime ends.
The Original Dixieland Jass Band (an all white group)
makes the first jazz recording, Livery Stable Blues,
and also becomes the first jazz group to appear on
film in the movie, The Good for Nothing. The US
Navy closes New Orleans's Storyville red-light district.
Jazz musicians begin to leave the city for the North.
1918 Trumpeter King Oliver leaves New Orleans for
Chicago. Tenor saxophonist Coleman Hawkins tours
with blues singer Mamie Smith and begins to develop
a unique style of playing.
1919 The Original Dixieland Jass Band performs in
London. Will Marion Cook tours Europe with his
Southern Syncopated Orchestra which includes
clarinetist Sidney Bechet. After the tour Bechet stays
in Europe. New Orleans trombonist Kid Ory moves to
Los Angeles and forms a band, bringing jazz to new
ears.
1920 Blues singer Mamie Smith records Crazy Blues,
making it the first blues recording by a black singer.
Pianist and composer Duke Ellington forms a dance
band in Washington DC with drummer Sonny Greer.
Charlie Parker is born.
1921 The town of Zion, Illinois bans jazz performances,
labeling them "sinful." Pianist James P. Johnson
records The Harlem Strut and Carolina Shout, the
earliest stride piano recordings, in New York.

Historical Events
The NAACP is founded. Mark Twain dies. Marie
Curie isolates radium.

Raold Amundsen reaches the South Pole. Civil War
occurs in Mexico.

The Titanic sinks.
60-floor Woolworth Building is completed, making it
the largest building in the world. Woodrow Wilson
becomes president.
World War I begins in Europe. The Panama Canal
opens to commercial traffic.
Albert Einstein presents his general theory of relativity.
Revolution occurs in Russia.
The US enters World War I.

World War I ends. A flu epidemic kills an estimated
20 million people worldwide. Singer, actor, and civil
rights activist Paul Robeson graduates first in his class
from Rutgers University.
Race riots break out in Chicago. The first airplane
crosses the Atlantic Ocean, piloted by John Alcock &
Arthur Whitten Brown. Mexican rebel leader Emilio
Zapata is ambushed and murdered by government
forces. Physicist Ernest Rutherford discovers a way
to split the atom.
Prohibition is instated in the US. The 19th
Amendment is passed in the US, guaranteeing
woman the right to vote.

A crisis occurs surrounding German war reparations.
Adolf Hitler is elected leader of the Nazi Party. Russia
is refused entry to the League of Nations. The first
Miss America contest is held. Warren G. Hardin
becomes president.

Painter Claude Monet dies. Herbert Hoover becomes president. Handy as musical director. Valentine's Day Massacre occurs in Chicago. 1928 Clarinetist Benny Goodman makes his first recordings. The US and Britain use military force in China. Italian leader Benito Mussolini commences his dictatorship. 1927 Louis Armstrong makes his first recordings with his Hot Seven. Handy is released. which was the Hot Five plus drums and tuba. The St. The first television is introduced. The film St. Cornetist Bix Beiderbecke joins Paul Whiteman's band. Historical Events Vladimir Ilyich Lenin. increasing the band from six to eleven members. The Wall Street stock market crashes. The first Academy Awards are held in Hollywood. Japanese troops enter China. The first electrical recording of classical music is made in the US. The Ku Klux Klan marches in Washington DC. The Jazz Singer. Louis Armstrong makes his first recordings with his group. Charles Lindbergh makes the first solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean. 1929 Pianist Fats Waller participates in a mixed-race recording session in which he is forced to play behind a screen to separate him from the white musicians. the Hot Five. American labor leader A. and pianist James P.C. Pianist Fats Waller gives lessons to pianist Count Basie. Yugoslavia is formed under King Alexander. Pianist and bandleader Duke Ellington begins his residency at the Cotton Club in Harlem. The first "talkie" film is released. Johnson records Charleston. Philip Randolph organizes the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters to help bring American blacks into the mainstream of the American labor movement. Johnson's band. Stalin becomes dictator of Russia. James P. . Jean Goldkette's Orchestra is dissolved. 1925 Blues singer Bessie Smith and trumpeter Louis Armstrong record the classic version of W. leader of the Communist Revolution. Louis Blues for Columbia Records. Electrical recordings are introduced. 1926 Trumpeter Louis Armstrong has a huge hit and pioneers scat singing with his first recorded original composition. featuring his Hot Five. dies. which becomes a huge hit and gives rise to a dance of the same name. Bandleader Fletcher Henderson's group records with saxophonist Coleman Hawkins. featuring blues singer Bessie Smith. Frisbee is played for the first time by a group of students using empty Frisbie Baking Company pie plates. The Harlem Globetrotters basketball team is organized by Abe Saperstein in Chicago. Handy's St.Date Developments in Jazz 1924 Duke Ellington makes his first recordings as leader of the Washingtonians. starring Al Jolson. Pianist Jelly Roll Morton's group the Red Hot Peppers records in Chicago. The Original Dixieland Jass Band disbands. Columbia Broadcast System (CBS) is inaugurated. the Wolverines. Tennessee teacher John Thomas Scopes is convicted for teaching Darwin's theories of evolution to high school students. The Fascist Party wins the Italian elections. Heebie Jeebies. Louis Blues about the life of pianist W. make their first recordings. Cornetist Bix Beiderbecke and his band. George Gershwin debuts Rhapsody in Blue along with Paul Whiteman's band.C.

Kentucky.the first jazz composition to use swing in the title. Duke Ellington and his orchestra begin their first tour of Europe. political arrests. Tiger Rag. Japan invades Manchuria. 1931 Cornetist Bix Beiderbecke dies of pneumonia at age 38. followed by the creation of the Dachau concentration camp. which is thought by many to be a duet. Italy invades Ethiopia. Pianist Art Tatum records his first piano solo. Cornetist Buddy Bolden dies. Mahatma Ghandi is imprisoned. 1932 Duke Ellington records It Don't Mean a Thing (If it Ain't' Got That Swing. Prohibition ends in the US.Date Developments in Jazz 1930 Trumpeter Louis Armstrong records Body and Soul. Goodman begins recording with a racially integrated trio that includes pianist Teddy Wilson and drummer Gene Krupa. The Nazi coup fails in Austria. 1934 Fletcher Henderson's band folds due to financial difficulties and Henderson sells some of his arrangements to clarinetist Benny Goodman. The Quintette du Hot Club de France. Clarinetist Jimmy Dorsey and trombonist Tommy Dorsey form the Dorsey Brothers Orchestra. Adolf Hitler begins his dictatorship in Germany. Japan forms a Manchurian Republic and later attacks Shanghai. The first paperback books are published. The Empire State building is opened in New York. Adolph Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany. The journal Down Beat: the Contemporary Music Magazine is launched in Chicago. RCA demonstrates the first 33 1/3 rpm long-playing disc. who performs with his band at Billy Rose's Music Hall in New York. Spain becomes a Republic. Berlin radio station Funkstunde bans jazz broadcasts. John Cockcroft splits the atom in Cambridge. Aviator Charles Lindbergh's son is kidnapped. The jet engine is invented. Clarinetist Benny Goodman records Fletcher Henderson's arrangement of Jelly Roll Morton's King Porter Stomp. including What a Little Moonlight Can Do. and the appropriation of Jewish finances by the government. President Franklin Roosevelt initiates economic recovery in the US. Duke Ellington and Billie Holiday appear in the film Symphony in Black. 1935 Pianist and bandleader Bennie Moten dies. There is massive worldwide unemployment. gives its first public performance at the Ecole Normale de Musique in Paris. The first photographs of the Loch Ness monster are published in Britain's Daily Mail. Franklin D. . Historical Events The planet Pluto is discovered. featuring guitarist Django Reinhardt and violinist Stephane Grappelli. Vocalist Ella Fitzgerald makes her first recordings. 1933 With the rise of the Nazi party in Germany. Singer Bessie Smith makes her last recordings. Outlaws Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow are shot dead. Roosevelt becomes president. Pianist Lil Hardin separates from her husband Louis Armstrong and forms an all-female band. In a recording session with Armstrong. The first cheeseburger is served in Louisville. Radio City Music Hall opens in New York. Singer Billie Holiday makes her first recording. Jimmie Lunceford's band replaces Cab Calloway’s at the Cotton Club in Harlem. George Gershwin's threeact opera Porgy and Bess opens at the Alvin Theater in New York. Blues singer Leadbelly is released from prison in Louisiana after writing a song to the governor asking for a pardon. Billie Holiday makes several recordings with pianist Teddy Wilson. percussionist Lionel Hampton plays his first vibraphone solo and decides to make that his main instrument. Bandleader Cab Calloway becomes a regular at the Cotton Club. The electric guitar is invented. Bandleader Paul Whiteman and his orchestra star in the movie The King of Jazz. Pianist Count Basie forms the Barons of Rhythm with members of Moten's band. UK. Italian troops invade Albania.

Slovakia. Italy declares war on Britain and France. where musicians such as pianist Thelonious Monk. Germany occupies Paris. Singer Ma Rainey dies. Gone with the Draft. which combines elements of classical music and swing. Blue Note records is founded. . a radio science-fiction drama about a Martian invasion. Germany invades Norway and Denmark. Holland and Belgium fall to Germany. Germany occupies Bohemia. Actor Orson Welles broadcasts War of the Worlds. Minton's Playhouse in New York becomes a hot spot for jazz. Historical Events Germany annexes Austria and Sudetenland. After the Goodman concert." The Spanish Civil War ends. and Cottontail. trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie. with controversial lyrics regarding lynchings which causes it to be banned from several radio stations. Lester Young records Lester Leaps In with Count Basie. Glenn Miller records the hugely successful In The Mood. setting a new standard for improvisational sophistication on the saxophone. Coleman Hawkins records Body and Soul. and Lithuania and invades Poland. Hitler and Mussolini agree to a "Pact of Steel.Date Developments in Jazz 1938 Benny Goodman's band hosts a sold out concert at Carnegie Hall which features a jazz history element and a jam session with members of Duke Ellington’s and Count Basie's bands. and Publishers (ASCAP) issues a broadcast ban of ASCAP works. Cornetist King Oliver dies after years in poverty working as a pool-room janitor. African Americans and Puerto Ricans begin moving to northern cities. Benny Goodman hires guitarist Charlie Christian. The American Society of Composer. The Soviet Union attacks Finland. Authors. Count Basie's band and Chick Webb's band have an informal competition at the Savoy Ballroom. Winston Churchill becomes Prime Minister of Britain. and drummer Kenny Clarke are featured. Trumpeter Cootie Williams leaves Ellington's band and is replaced by trumpeter and violinist Ray Nance. and causes a nationwide panic. Nat King Cole's trio records the timely piece. 1940 Composer and bandleader Duke Ellington hires saxophonist Ben Webster and records Ko-Ko. Artie Shaw retires. Chick Webb dies and Ella Fitzgerald takes over his band. Billie Holiday records Strange Fruit. 1939 A new band led by trombonist Glenn Miller gains notoriety through regular radio broadcasts. resulting in the growth of rival organization Broadcast Music Incorporated (BMI). Moravia. Goodman's band records Bach Goes to Town: Prelude and Fugue in Swing. Vibraphonist Lionel Hampton's big band records Flying Home. World War II breaks out in Europe. Shopping carts are introduced for the first time in Oklahoma. Military conscription is introduced in Britain. Concerto for Cootie.

The US and Britain declare war on Japan. Japan bombs Pearl Harbor. Saxophonist Charlie Parker makes his first recordings with Jay McShann and begins participating in the famous Minton's Playhouse jam sessions where bebop is created. Historical Events Germany invades Yugoslavia. Clarinetist Sidney Bechet plays five different instruments on The Sheik of Araby and Blues of Bechet. Trumpeter Roy Eldridge joins drummer Gene Krupa's orchestra as featured soloist. Hawaii. using some of the earliest overdubbing techniques. ASCAP's broadcasting boycott ends. . Russia and send troops to North Africa. which becomes the band's signature tune.Date Developments in Jazz 1941 Duke Ellington's band records composer Billy Strayhorn's Take the 'A' Train. Jelly Roll Morton dies. The British army goes to Libya and Ethiopia. The US declares war on Germany and Italy.

Trumpeter Roy Eldridge joins drummer Gene Krupa's orchestra as featured soloist. Japan wages campaigns in East Indies. and Cottontail. The US bombs Germany. Trombonist Glenn Miller dissolves his band and enlists in the Air Force where he forms a new band. Russia. Clarinetist Sidney Bechet plays five different instruments on The Sheik of Araby and Blues of Bechet. Italy declares war on Britain and France. ASCAP's broadcasting boycott ends. Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie join pianist Earl Hines band. Eddie Condon's integrated band appears on CBS television. Britain captures Tripoli. Germany occupies Paris. Germany invades Norway and Denmark. The American Society of Composer. Germany surrenders at Stalingrad and Tunisia. which becomes the band's signature tune. Minton's Playhouse in New York becomes a hot spot for jazz. The US and Britain declare war on Japan. Hawaii. Pianist Art Tatum establishes a trio with guitarist Tiny Grimes and bassist Slam Stewart. Italian leader Benito Mussolini resigns after the Allied invasion of Sicily. resulting in the growth of rival organization Broadcast Music Incorporated (BMI). using some of the earliest overdubbing techniques. Malaya. The US declares war on Germany and Italy.Date Developments in Jazz 1940 Composer and bandleader Duke Ellington hires saxophonist Ben Webster and records Ko-Ko. and Beige and New World A’Comin' at Carnegie Hall. where musicians such as pianist Thelonious Monk. Italy turns against Germany. The jitterbug dance becomes popular in the US. Winston Churchill becomes Prime Minister of Britain. African Americans and Puerto Ricans begin moving to northern cities. 1942 Pianist Fats Waller appears at Carnegie Hall. Vibraphonist Lionel Hampton's big band records Flying Home. Gone with the Draft. Saxophonist Charlie Parker makes his first recordings with Jay McShann’s band and begins participating in the famous Minton's Playhouse jam sessions where bebop is created. 1941 Duke Ellington's band records composer Billy Strayhorn's Take the 'A' Train. The British army goes to Libya and Ethiopia. and Publishers (ASCAP) issues a broadcast ban of ASCAP works. and sends troops to North Africa. Germany invades Yugoslavia. Glenn Miller publishes a text-book for arranging music. Authors." 1943 Duke Ellington's Orchestra performs Black. USSR. trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie. Germany attacks Stalingrad. The American Federation of Musicians bans its members from participating in studio recordings for record companies that fail to pay royalties to performers. Holland and Belgium fall to Germany. . Brown. Japan bombs Pearl Harbor. and Burma. Nat King Cole's trio records the timely piece. Composer Leonard Bernstein performs in Boston as a jazz pianist. and drummer Kenny Clarke are featured. Historical Events The Soviet Union attacks Finland. Concerto for Cootie. Billboard magazine publishes the first black record chart under the title "Harlem Hit Parade. Trumpeter Cootie Williams leaves Ellington's band and is replaced by trumpeter and violinist Ray Nance. The Allies land on mainland Italy. Jelly Roll Morton dies. Eighteen-year-old singer Sarah Vaughan wins a talent competition at Harlem's Apollo Theater.

Cologne falls to the Allies. The bikini is introduced. Trumpeter Cootie Williams makes the first recording of pianist Thelonious Monk's 'Round About Midnight. Composer Anton Webern is accidentally shot to death by US military policeman in Austria. his first session as a leader. President Franklin Roosevelt dies. leading Davis to quit school. Paris and Brussels are liberated. helping to establish an interest in bebop. The US drops atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The United Negro College Fund is established. 1946 Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie perform at "Jazz at the Philharmonic" in Los Angeles. Berlin is captured by Russian troops. Guitarist Django Reinhardt and violinist Stephane Grappelli are reunited after their wartime separation. President Juan Peron assumes power in Argentina. Pianist Mary Lou Williams gives the first performance of her Zodiac Suite at New York's Town Hall. with Dizzy Gillespie on piano. "Jazz at the Philharmonic" in Los Angeles. Ebony Magazine is founded. Lester Young is drafted into the army. The Allies land on Normandy beaches on what becomes "D-Day." An unsuccessful assassination attempt is made on Adolph Hitler. Miles Davis on trumpet. and appears in the film Jammin' the Blues. Los Angeles. Glenn Miller disappears in an Air Force flight from London to Paris. German forces surrender. Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie leave Billy Eckstine's band. Parker records Now's The Time. Davis records Ornithology and Night in Tunisia with Parker in Los Angeles and then rejoins Billy Eckstine's band. Dizzy Gillespie forms a big band that includes pianist John Lewis and drummer Kenny Clarke. and Max Roach on drums. Billie Holiday performs at Town Hall in New York. The American Federation of Musicians lifts the recording ban. 1945 Dizzy Gillespie records Be-Bop. Parker and Gillespie play in Los Angeles. Mao Tse-Tung revives the Chinese Civil War. Adolph Hitler commits suicide. Warsaw and Budapest fall to the USSR. Italian leader Benito Mussolini is lynched. Trumpeter Miles Davis arrives in New York to study at Juilliard School of Music and begins playing with Parker and Gillespie. Parker performs with Miles Davis in Little Tokyo. The US Army crosses the German border. Japan surrenders. Italy becomes a republic. Truman becomes president. Historical Events The siege of Leningrad ends. Harry S. Hungary becomes a republic. Monk makes his first recordings with the Coleman Hawkins Quartet. Composer Bela Bartok dies. is voted most popular saxophonist by Down Beat magazine. Charlie Parker hires Miles Davis to replace Dizzy Gillespie at the Three Deuces on 52nd Street.Date Developments in Jazz 1944 Producer Norman Granz initiates the series. The United Nations is founded. .

pianist John Lewis. Norman Granz pairs Canadian pianist Oscar Peterson with bassist Ray Brown at a "Jazz at the Philharmonic" concert at Carnegie Hall. Miles Davis. The first Festival International de Jazz is held in Paris. Louis Armstrong and Billie Holiday appear in the film New Orleans. Civil War ends in Greece. In the US. a judge rules that it is illegal for homeowners to refuse to sell to black buyers. The People's Republic of China is founded by Chairman Mao TseTung. Communists assume power in Hungary. Chano Pozo introduces Afro-Cuban jazz in New York. The club Birdland. Gillespie records Manteca bringing attention to his Afro-Cuban jazz. where Gillespie performs Cubana Be/Cubana Bop. 1949 Miles Davis and composer/arranger Gil Evans record Birth of the Cool. Sidney Bechet. Thelonious Monk records several compositions. Davis makes his first recordings as a leader. The first microwave oven is introduced. Gillespie's Cuban drummer. and others. The Atlantic label is founded. Parker appears at Carnegie Hall. opens on Broadway. Israel is founded. Communists gain control of Czechoslovakia. featuring Parker. Pianist Lennie Tristano records early examples of free jazz improvisation. The Central Intelligence Agency is created by President Harry Truman. Columbia Records introduces the first long-playing vinyl discs. Chano Pozo. The West German Federal Republic is established. Mahatma Ghandi is assassinated in New Delhi. 1948 Dizzy Gillespie brings bebop to Europe. Drummer Art Blakey forms group. leading to the blacklisting of ten filmmakers. Billie Holiday performs twice at Carnegie Hall. Miles Davis forms a nonet which appears for two weeks at the Royal Roost as a replacement for pianist Count Basie's band. Jackie Robinson becomes the first African American in major league baseball. Miles Davis continues to perform with Charlie Parker at the Three Deuces and makes a series of recordings with Parker. Vietnam achieves independence from France. The House Un-American Activities Committee begins investigating communism in Hollywood. Stan Kenton performs progressive jazz at Carnegie Hall with a 25-piece orchestra. Pianist Dave Brubeck records in San Francisco with his piano trio. The Republic of Erie is established. Saxophonist Ben Webster rejoins Duke Ellington's band. . India and Pakistan gain independence from Britain. Britain abandons Palestine. The first passenger jet aircraft makes a flight. Writer George Orwell's 1984 is published. The sound barrier is broken in the US. named after Charlie "Bird" Parker. The USSR isolates Berlin. Billie Holiday is convicted for possession of heroin. Ella Fitzgerald and Dizzy Gillespie appear at a sold out concert at Carnegie Hall. Dizzy Gillespie. and drummer Max Roach. Kenny Clark. is shot dead in Harlem. The East German Democratic Republic is established. Historical Events Crisis occurs in Palestine. Parker records numerous tracks for the Dial and Savoy labels. featuring Charlie Parker. South Africa establishes the apartheid system. performing at the Nice Jazz Festival in France along with Louis Armstrong and others. both times breaking box-office records.Date Developments in Jazz 1947 Louis Armstrong appears at Carnegie Hall with Billie Holiday.

United Nations troops take Seoul. Benny Goodman's band goes on tour with Louis Armstrong's All Stars eventually leading to a fight that ends with Goodman having a nervous breakdown. Composer Serge Prokofiev dies. Milt Jackson and John Lewis rename their group the Modern Jazz Quartet. Soviet leader Josef Stalin dies. The Korean War begins. Bassist Charles Mingus and drummer Max Roach form the Debut label.D. Queen Elizabeth II is coronated in London.Date Developments in Jazz 1950 Pianist Oscar Peterson makes his first recordings. Writer Samuel Beckett's publishes Waiting for Godot. Charlie Parker. Dwight D. Pianist Errol Garner composes Misty. The Immigration and Naturalization Act is passed. and drummer Kenny Clarke. Monk is arrested for possession of drugs and banned from performing in NY nightclubs for six years. and Dizzy Gillespie. Saxophonist Charlie Parker and pianist Thelonious Monk record together. bassist Ray Brown. Trombonist Bob Brookmeyer replaces Chet Baker in Gerry Mulligan's quartet. 1953 Dave Brubeck's quartet records Jazz at Oberlin during a highly acclaimed college tour. Salinger publishes The Catcher in the Rye. Vocalist Sarah Vaughan records in NY with trumpeter Miles Davis. . The Soviet Union declares its nuclear weaponry. The Korean War ends. Historical Events Writer George Orwell (1984) dies. Pianist Dave Brubeck forms his first quartet with saxophonist Paul Desmond. Carnegie Hall presents a concert devoted to California jazz featuring trumpeter Chet Baker and saxophonists Gerry Mulligan and Paul Desmond. China invades Tibet. Gerry Mulligan's piano-less quartet records My Funny Valentine. Pianist John Lewis forms the Milt Jackson Quartet with vibraphonist Milt Jackson. Writer J. 1951 The Miles Davis All Stars record their first longplaying album for Prestige. NATO is formed. Pianist Ahmad Jamal forms his first piano trio. Bandleader Fletcher Henderson dies. 1952 Charlie Parker records sessions with strings and Latin repertoire for Mercury. removing the last racial and ethnic barriers to naturalization. Pianist Count Basie and trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie both disband their big bands due to financial constraints.Eisenhower becomes president. Duke Ellington's 25th Anniversary is celebrated with two concerts at Carnegie Hall featuring Billie Holiday. saxophonist Stan Getz.

bassist Paul Chambers. Drummer Art Blakey forms the Jazz Messengers. Saxophonist Julian "Cannonball" Adderley performs in NY for the first time. Trumpeter Clifford Brown dies in a car accident. . The Warsaw Pact is agreed upon. Disneyland opens in Los Angeles. Chuck Berry's Maybelline becomes a hit. Pianist Horace Silver leaves the Jazz Messengers. the latter featuring Thelonious Monk and Milt Jackson. Bassist Charles Mingus makes his first recordings with the Jazz Composers Workshop. Drummer Max Roach forms a hard bop quintet with trumpeter Clifford Brown. The highly popular Chet Baker Quartet records My Funny Valentine and But Not For Me. Cookin'. 1955 Charlie Parker dies.Date Developments in Jazz 1954 Miles Davis records Walkin' and Miles Davis and the Modern Jazz Giants. The USSR crushes the Hungarian rebellion. The film The Glenn Miller Story is released. Miles Davis records Relaxin'. The first nuclear power is produced in the Soviet Union. Miles Davis makes his first recordings with a new quintet featuring saxophonist John Coltrane. Saxophonist Sonny Rollins records Saxophone Colossus. Bill Haley and the Comets introduce the hit song Shake. Historical Events The US tests the hydrogen bomb on Bikini Atoll. Rattle and Roll. Pianist Lennie Tristano experiments with overdubbing. and Steamin' and then tours Europe. The Dave Brubeck Quartet records Jazz Goes To College. Jonas Salk perfects the polio vaccine. 1956 Bassist Charlie Mingus records Pithecanthropus Erectus. The Vietnam War begins. Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers record live in NY. Singer Elvis Presley releases Heartbreak Hotel. Art Blakey records the album Hard Bop. starring Jimmy Stewart and featuring Louis Armstrong and others. NBC launches the Nat King Cole Show. The first American jazz festival is organized in Newport. Trumpeter Lee Morgan makes his first recordings. Kentucky Fried Chicken goes on sale in the US. Charlie Parker attempts suicide and is later admitted to Bellevue Hospital. and drummer Philly Joe Jones. American composer Charles Ives dies. Duke Ellington's popularity is resparked by an appearance at the Newport Jazz Festival and by a cover story in Time Magazine. pianist Red Garland. Rhode Island by George Wein. Brubeck appears on the cover of Time magazine. breaking new ground in collective improvisation. Scientist Albert Einstein dies. Drummer Shelly Manne records West Coast Sound. Actress Marilyn Monroe marries playwright Arthur Miller. The Supreme Court rules that racial segregation in public schools in unconstitutional. Art Tatum dies.

Bill Evans records Everybody Digs Bill Evans with the influential modal track Peace Piece. The European Economic Community is established. Bassist Charles Mingus records Tijuana Moods. Pianist and arranger Toshiko Akiyoshi wins a poll in Down Beat and receives an award from the Berklee College of Music. Historical Events Composer Arturo Toscanini dies. The first stereo record is issued. and blues singer Mahalia Jackson. Miles Davis records Milestones. The State Department sends Benny Goodman on a tour to the Far East. Bandleader W. Leonard Bernstein's West Side Story opens in Washington DC. featuring early modal jazz. Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers record Moanin'. Billie Holiday performs Fine and Mellow in a live TV broadcast. . Davis records On Green Dolphin Street with pianist Bill Evans.Date Developments in Jazz 1957 The Modern Jazz Quartet provides the score for the film Sait-on jamais. Miles Davis and arranger Gil Evans record Miles Ahead. recording Joao Gilberto's Chega de Saudade. Louis Armstrong causes controversy by speaking out against President Dwight Eisenhower. Davis and Gil Evans record large-ensemble arrangements of composer George Gershwin's opera Porgy and Bess. Painter Pablo Picasso's mural The Fall of Icarus is unveiled. Saxophonist John Coltrane records the album Blue Trane. using elements of Latin music. The film St. Dr. Dave Brubeck performs in Denmark. Governor Faubus of Arkansas calls out the National Guard to prevent desegregation. The hovercraft is invented. Blakey records Holiday for Skin with three jazz drummers and seven Latin percussionists and tours Europe with the Jazz Messengers. Oscar Peterson performs in Amsterdam. Sonny Rollins records Freedom Suite with Oscar Pettiford and Max Roach. The skateboard is invented in California. Thelonious Monk records with the Jazz Messengers. Composer Antonio Carlos Jobim launches the bossa nova craze. Seuss' children's book The Cat in the Hat becomes a bestseller. Davis records the soundtrack for the French film L'Ascenseur pour l'echafaud and performs the music in Paris with bassist Pierre Michelot and drummer Kenny Clarke. Ella Fitzgerald. Clarinetist Jimmy Dorsey dies. Brandies University commissions Third Stream works by Charles Mingus and others. The Boeing 707 jet revolutionizes air travel. Louis Blues depicts Handy's life and features Nat King Cole. Handy dies. using the liner notes to attack racism in America. a defining album for hard bop.C. 1958 Critic Barry Ulanov speaks out against sexism in jazz in an article in Down Beat. Composer Jean Sibelius dies. The USSR launches the first Sputnik satellite. and tours Europe performing the music.

Hawaii and Alaska join the US. Pianist Oscar Peterson forms a trio with bassist Ray Brown and drummer Ed Thigpen. Panama is invaded by Cuban forces. Earth receives its first pictures of the dark side of the moon. a free jazz album. Dave Brubeck and his quartet record Time Out. Historical Events Fidel Castro assumes power in Cuba. which includes Paul Desmond's hit Take Five. Saxophonist Lester Young dies. Two monkeys are sent into space by NASA and return safely. The first cassette tapes are introduced in the US. China is barred from joining the United Nations. . Architect Frank Lloyd Wright dies. Singer Buddy Holly dies. John Coltrane records Giant Steps. Coleman's group performs free jazz at the Five Spot in New York. Los Angeles-based saxophonist Ornette Coleman records The Shape of Jazz to Come.Date Developments in Jazz 1959 Thelonious Monk appears at Town Hall. Miles Davis records Kind of Blue. The first Xerox machines are introduced. Duke Ellington composes the score for the film Anatomy of a Murder. which pioneers modal jazz and becomes a classic. Billie Holiday is arrested for possession of drugs and dies soon after. Clarinetist Sidney Bechet dies.

The Beatles become a sensation with their first single Love Me Do. The Berlin Wall is completed. Ellington records an album with Charles Mingus and drummer Max Roach and an album with John Coltrane.Date Developments in Jazz 1960 Trumpeter Miles Davis records Sketches of Spain. Crowd disturbances disrupt the Seventh Newport Jazz Festival. and then tours Europe. Ornette Coleman records Free Jazz. Pianist Thelonious Monk tours Europe. 1962 Saxophonist Stan Getz and guitarist Charlie Byrd record Desafinado. Drummer Max Roach records We Insist!: Freedom Now Suite. Guitarist Joe Pass makes his first album. Carnegie Hall hosts a bossa-nova concert. Writer William Faulkner dies. The Newport Jazz Festival relocates to New York after rioting in its original location. which uses Flamenco music. Trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie appears at Carnegie Hall. Johnson becomes president. Miles Davis performs and records with his new group with Herbie Hancock. Writer Ernest Hemingway dies. Saxophonist Oliver Nelson records Blues and the Abstract Truth. Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts opens in New York. influenced by saxophonist Ornette Coleman. a landmark in extended structure and free improvisation. Twelve-year-old singer Stevie Wonder releases his first album. 1963 Charles Mingus records The Black Saint and The Sinner Lady. African-American students stage sit-ins in North Carolina. Pianist Cecil Taylor and saxophonist Archie Shepp record The World of Cecil Taylor. Saxophonist John Coltrane and trumpeter Don Cherry collaborate on the album Avant-Garde. The first laser beam is demonstrated. The Modern Jazz Quartet records an album with orchestral accompaniment. Coltrane records My Favorite Things with his new quartet. Writer Joseph Heller's novel Catch-22 is published. The Cuban missile crisis occurs. Trumpeter Cootie Williams rejoins Duke Ellington's band. Astrud Gilberto's Girl from Ipanema becomes a huge hit featuring Stan Getz. bassist Ron Carter. saxophonist George Coleman. . which uses overdubbing. John F. Kennedy becomes president. Ornette Coleman's avant-garde quartet disbands. Takin' Off. Drummer Shelly Manne opens the club "Shelly's Manne-Hole" in Los Angeles. Pianist Herbie Hancock records his first album as a leader. Civil rights leader Martin Luther King addresses a rally in Washington DC. the latter written about the governor who opposed desegregation. Davis and arranger Gil Evans appear at Carnegie Hall. Trumpeter Lee Morgan records the best-selling The Sidewinder. Lyndon B. Historical Events Writer Albert Camus is killed in a car crash. President John F. 1961 Drummer Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers tour Japan. Miles Davis records live at San Francisco's Black Hawk. Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin is the first man in space. Bassist Charles Mingus and saxophonist/clarinetist Eric Dolphy record What Love and Fables of Faubus. Actress Marilyn Monroe dies. Down Beat magazine prints several articles attacking Ornette Coleman's music and the current (free jazz) music of John Coltrane and Eric Dolphy. Count Basie tours Japan. Kennedy is assassinated. Cuban exiles attempt to overthrow Cuban leader Fidel Castro in the Bay of Pigs invasion. Cecil Taylor records live in Copenhagen. and 17-year-old drummer Tony Williams. which sparks renewed interest in bossa nova. The birth-control pill is introduced. Bill Evans records Conversations with Myself.

The US Civil Rights Bill is passed. Strangelove. John Coltrane records A Love Supreme. 1965 Miles Davis records ESP with his new quintet. which is an experimental album that resembles contemporary classical music. Writer T. Down Beat announces it will cover rock music as well as jazz. an important avantgarde jazz group. Cultural Revolution occurs in China. The film The Sound of Music receives an Oscar for Best Picture. The Miles Davis Quintet records Sorcerer and Nefertiti. The first spacewalk occurs.S. Joe is introduced. Race riots break out in New York. Trumpeter Thad Jones and drummer Mel Lewis form a rehearsal orchestra that is to last for years. Herbie Hancock records Maiden Voyage. The Six-Day War occurs in the Middle East. 1967 John Coltrane makes his last recordings and dies soon after of liver disease. Barbara Jordan becomes the first African American woman to win a seat in the Texas Senate. with the other members of Miles Davis' group plus trumpeter Freddie Hubbard. a classic modal tune. 1966 Duke Ellington receives the President's Gold Medal of Honor. The first Montreux Jazz Festival is held in Switzerland. Pianist Nat King Cole dies of cancer. The Apollo space crew is killed in a launchpad fire. Avantgarde tenor saxophonist Albert Ayler records the album Ghosts.I. a historic work that explores structural freedom. featuring mostly compositions by Wayne Shorter. Thirty-four people are killed in Los Angeles race riots. Blind multi-instrumentalist Roland Kirk performs at the Newport in Europe festival.Date Developments in Jazz 1964 The Miles Davis Quintet records the classic live album My Funny Valentine. and soon after saxophonist Wayne Shorter replaces George Coleman. Eliot dies. Filmmaker Stanley Kubrick releases Dr. John Coltrane records Ascension. Bandleader Paul Whiteman dies. . Thad Jones and Mel Lewis debut with their big band at the Village Vanguard in New York. Clarinetist and flutist Eric Dolphy records Out To Lunch. The soldier doll G. Cleveland. and Chicago. Herbie Hancock introduces electric piano to popular jazz in Miles Davis' group. which sells hundreds of thousands of copies. with trumpeter Freddie Hubbard and Tony Williams. The Dave Brubeck Quartet disbands. The Miles Davis Quintet records Miles Smiles. Singer Aretha Franklin has four top-ten hits. The first heart-transplant operation is performed. Historical Events South African political activist Nelson Mandela begins his life sentence. The US intensifies its involvement in Vietnam. France and Britain agree to construct a Channel Tunnel connecting the two countries. Pianist Horace Silver records Song for My Father. Cecil Taylor records Unit Structures. Composer Cole Porter dies. Star Trek appears on TV. Political activist Malcolm X is assassinated. a free jazz experiment influenced by Ornette Coleman. The Beatles appear in A Hard Day's Night and tour the US for the first time. Trumpeter Lester Bowie forms the Art Ensemble of Chicago.

Avant-garde saxophonist Anthony Braxton. Herbie Hancock records the album Speak Like a Child with trumpeter Thad Jones and bassist Ron Carter. The lottery system is established for the US draft. Writer Mario Puzo's The Godfather is published. Later in the year.Date Developments in Jazz 1968 Vibraphonist Gary Burton appears at Carnegie Hall. the first critical study of the origins of the music. Neil Armstrong becomes the first man to land on the moon. Miles Davis records In a Silent Way. Tony Williams forms the group Lifetime with guitarist John McLaughlin and organist Larry Young. Guitarist Wes Montgomery. Historical Events Martin Luther King is assassinated. The Art Ensemble of Chicago records in Paris. whose album A Day in the Life is the best selling jazz album of the year. Rock guitarist Jimi Hendrix soars up the charts with two albums. The USSR invades Czechoslovakia. Filmmaker Stanley Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey is released. Davis records Bitches Brew. Golda Meir becomes Premier of Israel. records For Alto Saxophone and Three Compositions of New Jazz. Massive antiwar protests are staged in the US. Colonel Muammar Gaddafi seizes power in Libya. Composer Carla Bley's Jazz Composers Orchestra Association forms the New Music Distribution Service to disseminate its recordings. Hancock quits the Miles Davis Quartet. Students protest in Paris. 1969 Composer Gunther Schuller completes his book Early Jazz. the first important fusion album. Pianist Chick Corea and bassist Dave Holland join Miles Davis' band. . Bassist Paul Chambers dies from tuberculosis. a member of the Chicago Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians. Richard M. dies. Presidential candidate Robert Kennedy is assassinated. Nixon becomes president. The Woodstock pop music festival is held in New York.

The US bombs North Vietnam. Filmmaker Stanley Kubrick's A Clockwork Orange is banned in the UK. Singer Elvis Presley dies. now with electric bass virtuoso Jaco Pastorius. Pop jazz group Spyro Gyra records its first album. records its best selling albums Black Market and Heavy Weather. Pianist Bill Evans records the album Alone. Pianist Thelonious Monk performs for the last time at the Newport Jazz Festival. The Mahavishnu Orchestra records Birds of Fire and Love Devotion Surrender. North Vietnam invades South Vietnam. Writer Alex Haley's Roots is published. 1975 Saxophonist Michael Brecker and his brother. 1979 Bassist Charles Mingus dies in Mexico. 1976 Pianist Dave Brubeck's quartet reunites for an anniversary concert. Bright Sized Life. The hit film musical Grease is released. Miles Davis performs in Japan. Fourteen-year-old trumpet virtuoso Wynton Marsalis performs with the New Orleans Symphony Orchestra. Pianist Thelonious Monk records in London. records in New York. Revolution occurs in Afghanistan. Hard bop trumpeter Lee Morgan is shot dead by his former mistress in New York. Trumpeter Louis Armstrong dies. Sue Mingus Historical Events Composer Igor Stravinsky dies. VSOP. Irakere. Alto saxophonist Paul Desmond dies. The Viking space probe transmits pictures from Mars. The US makes its final bombing of North Vietnam. The first video arcade game "Space Invaders" is a hug hit worldwide. Weather Report. The Khmer Rouge takes control of Cambodia. 1977 Pianist Errol Garner dies. Drummer Kenny Clarke returns to the US. Keyboardist Chick Corea records with his newly formed fusion group Return to Forever. The US celebrates the bicentennial of its independence with 4th of July festivities. Free jazz saxophonist Ornette Coleman's Skies of America is performed by the London Symphony Orchestra. Reggae star Bob Marley is signed to Island Records and brings Jamaican music and culture into the mainstream. Sun Ra's Arkestra tours Egypt. Punk rock becomes popular in Britain.Date Developments in Jazz 1971 Keyboardist Joe Zawinul's new fusion group. 1978 President Jimmy Carter hosts a jazz concert at the White House in honor of bassist and composer Charles Mingus. trumpeter Randy. 1972 Weather Report records I Sing the Body Electric. The first Polaroid cameras go on sale. Television reporter Max Robinson is the first African American to anchor network news. Jimmy Carter becomes president. Weather Report. Multi-instrumentalist Roland Kirk dies. The UK joins the European Economic Community. The US space shuttle makes a test flight. The Cuban band. Filmmaker Steven Spielberg's Jaws is released. Return to Forever records No Mystery. Guitarist John McLaughlin's newly formed Mahavishnu Orchestra records in New York. New York. and at the Newport Festival before going into retirement. The World Saxophone Quartet is founded. Beneath The Underdog. Bassist Charles Mingus performs at the Philharmonic Hall in New York. The SALT agreement limits US and USSR nuclear weapons. Pianist Herbie Hancock records live at Newport with his group. with electric bassist Jaco Pastorius. Margaret Thatcher becomes Britain's first female . Guitarist Pat Metheny records his first album. Filmmaker George Lucas' Star Wars is released. Bassist Charles Mingus publishes his autobiography. record together. Eleven Israelis are murdered by Arab terrorists in Munich at the Olympics. Keyboardist Bob James composes a popular fusion theme for the TV series Taxi. The Pat Metheny Group is formed. President Richard Nixon visits Communist China and the USSR. Pianist Thelonious Monk goes into retirement. British troops kill 13 people in Northern Ireland. Pianist Chick Corea records with vibraphonist Gary Burton. promotes Afro-Cuban music in Europe and the US. Guitarist John McLaughlin disbands the Mahavishnu Orchestra.

Filmmaker Francis Ford Coppola's movie Apocalypse Now is released. Dizzy Gillespie publishes his book. Prime Minister. Pianist Keith Jarrett and saxophonist Jan Garbarek record live. Nuclear disaster occurs at Three Mile Island.forms the Mingus Dynasty in honor of her late husband. Bandleader Stan Kenton dies in Los Angeles. To Be or Not To Bop. . The first Sony Walkman is introduced. Drummer Jack DeJohnette collaborates with saxophonist David Murray on Special Edition. Pianist Bill Evans makes his final recordings.

President Anwar Sadat of Egypt is assassinated. Winelight. The Message is one of the earliest rap hits. Saxophonist Sonny Stitt dies. before leaving Columbia Records and signing a seven figure deal with Warner Bros. Ronald Reagan is elected to his second term as President. The first compact discs are marketed. Poland declares martial law to quash trade union "solidarity. Trumpeter Wynton Marsalis and vocalist Bobby McFerrin are featured at the Kool Jazz Festival. Saxophonist David Sanborn records the album Voyeur. Helen's volcano erupts.T. 1983 Pianist Keith Jarrett make his first recordings of standards with drummer Jack DeJohnette and bassist Gary Peacock. reaches number one in the pop charts.000 Cuban refugees come to the US. The first black franchise is granted in South Africa. St. . 1981 Pianist Mary Lou Williams dies. British forces reclaim the Falklands forcing the surrender of Argentine troops. Historical Events Former Beatle John Lennon is murdered in New York City. Bassist Jaco Pastorius leaves Weather Report. The School Prayer Amendment is rejected by the Supreme Court. The US invades Granada. that includes the hit song Just the Two of Us. Sandra Day O'Connor becomes the first female Supreme Court Justice. Saxophonist Branford and trumpeter Wynton Marsalis joins Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers. Filmmaker Richard Attenborough receives eight Academy Awards for the film Ghandi. Drummer Shelly Manne dies. Pianist Bill Evans dies in New York. records his Grammy Award winning album." Former actor Ronald Reagan becomes president. Filmmaker Steven Spielberg receives three Academy Awards for E. Trumpeter Miles Davis comes out of retirement and records the funk and rock-influenced The Man with the Horn. Pianist Eubie Blake dies. Keyboardist Herbie Hancock's synthesized dance hit. 1984 Bandleader and keyboardist Sun Ra performs in Athens and is voted into the Down Beat Hall of Fame. Mt. Pianist Scott Joplin appears on a US postage stamp. Writer Tennessee Williams dies. Apple Computers launches the first Macintosh. Prince Charles marries Lady Diana Spencer. Race riots occur in Brixton. Argentina invades the Falkland Islands. composed by bassist Marcus Miller. 10. Miles Davis makes his first live performance since retirement at Avery Fisher Hall in New York. Jr. Pianist Earl Hines dies. Eighteen-year-old trumpeter Wynton Marsalis records at Montreux with Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers. featuring the Grammywinning song All I Need is You. Pianist Count Basie dies in Hollywood. London. The Iranian hostage crisis begins.. Rockit. The US completes its first successful space shuttle mission. Assassination attempts are made on President Reagan and Pope John Paul II. Indian Prime Minister Indira Ghandi is assassinated. Miles Davis records You're Under Arrest. The Iranian hostage crises ends. 1982 Pianist Thelonious Monk dies. Trumpeter Wynton Marsalis makes history by winning a jazz and classical Grammy Award in the same year. The Cabbage Patch dolls become a commercial success.Date Developments in Jazz 1980 Saxophonist Grover Washington. The AIDS epidemic begins.

establishing his reputation as a traditionalist. Jazz-pop musician Kenny G has a hit with Songbird. Drummer Philly Joe Jones dies. Scotland. Blue Note is relaunched with a concert at Town Hall with drummer Art Blakey. Miles Davis records Amandla. American TV evangelist Jim Bakker is forced to resign after admitting to an affair. Pianist Keith Jarrett is nominated for a Grammy for his recording of music by composer J. 1986 Clarinetist Benny Goodman dies. The Iran-Contra Scandal becomes public. 1988 Arranger Gil Evans dies in Mexico. Artist Andy Warhol dies. Pianist Chick Corea captures a new audience with his Elektrik Band with electric bassist John Patitucci and drummer Dave Weckl. George H.Date Developments in Jazz 1985 Drummer Kenny Clarke dies. Nineteen-year-old trumpeter Roy Hargrove records Diamond in the Rough. Bush becomes president. The stock market crashes. The US bombs Libya from a British air base. Writer Salman Rushdie is sentenced to death in Iran for writing his novel The Satanic Verses. Wynton Marsalis records Standard Time. Protesters are massacred at Tiananmen Square in Beijing. Major record labels begin massive reissues of classic jazz recordings on CD. trumpeter Freddie Hubbard. pianist Herbie Hancock. Trumpeter Woody Shaw dies. The antidepressant drug Prozac is launched. The Supreme Court upholds affirmativeaction hiring quotas. The Exxon Valdez oil spill occurs. A jumbo jet explodes over Lockerbie. Branford Marsalis tours with pop artist Sting. 1989 Trumpeter Roy Eldridge dies. The US space shuttle Challenger explodes on launch. Historical Events Singer and promoter Bob Geldof's charity concert "Live Aid" reaches a global audience. Actor Clint Eastwood directs Bird. A big band is formed to celebrate trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie's seventieth birthday. starring saxophonist Dexter Gordon as a character loosely based on pianist Bud Powell.S. Filmmaker Oliver Stone's Platoon receives an Academy Award. a biographical film of the life of Charlie Parker. . Trumpeter Thad Jones takes over the Count Basie band. and others. Free jazz saxophonist Ornette Coleman reunites his original quartet. beat up by a bouncer in a South Florida bar. China. The sunken cruise ship The Titanic is located. Ex-Nazi deputy Rudolf Hess commits suicide in a Berlin prison. Pop vocalist Whitney Houston becomes the first female artist to have an album go straight to number one in the Billboard charts. Trumpeter and producer Quincy Jones records Back on the Block with a wide variety of genres from bop to rap. John Zorn records the post-modern album Naked City. The film ‘Round Midnight is released. Pianist Herbie Hancock wins an Academy Award for his original score for the film ‘Round Midnight. Bach. President Ronald Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev sign the first treaty to reduce nuclear arms. reflecting the renewed interest in bebop and hard bop. Miles Davis records Aura in Denmark. The US invades Panama. Trumpeter Cootie Williams dies. Saxophonist Michael Brecker releases his first solo album. The Berlin Wall is opened. bassist Ron Carter. Artist Salvador Dali dies. Trumpeter Chet Baker dies in mysterious circumstances in Amsterdam. 1987 Electric bassist Jaco Pastorius dies.

bassist Ron Carter. Seuss dies. which features rap. de Klerk and political activist Nelson Mandela win Nobel Peace Prize. The Tailhook scandal occurs. with Pat Metheny. Kansas City. The Soviet Union falls. Film director Robert Altman's film. Mae Jemison becomes the first African American woman astronaut. Saxophonist Joshua Redman. 1993 Bandleader Sun Ra dies. Bill Clinton becomes president. Saxophonist Branford Marsalis becomes the bandleader on "The Tonight Show with Jay Leno. saxophonist Joshua Redman. Saxophonist Joshua Redman records two albums and establishes himself as the top star in the “young lion” jazz scene. Saxophonist Jan Garbarek has commercial success with his album Officium. Group suicide occurs among religious cult Heaven's Gate members in California. bassist Christian McBride. Poet Maya Angelou delivers a poem for the inauguration of President Clinton. Simpson is on trial for murder. South Africa has its first multi-racial election. Drummer Art Blakey dies. . Children's book writer Dr. South African Prime Minister F. featuring a reenactment of a 1930's jam session with pianist Geri Allen." with a group that includes pianist Kenny Kirkland. drummer Tony Williams and trumpeter Wallace Roney tour in a tribute to Miles Davis. saxophonist Wayne Shorter. Saxophonist Joe Henderson receives critical acclaim for his Miles Davis tribute album So Near. Trumpeter Miles Davis publishes his controversial autobiography Miles: The Autobiography (coauthored by Quincy Troupe). The Impulse record label is revived after 21 years. is released. The Warsaw Pact collapses. Carol Moseley-Braun becomes the first African American woman elected to the US Senate.Date Developments in Jazz 1990 Drummer Mel Lewis dies. Drummer Tony Williams dies. A bomb is set off at the Olympic games in Atlanta. Author Terry McMillan publishes the hit novel Waiting to Exhale. Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan organizes the Million Man March in Washington. bassist Bob Hurst. Historical Developments The Gulf War begins. Saxophonist Dexter Gordon dies. So Far (Musings for Miles). Pianist Herbie Hancock. Hip hop group US3 has a hit with a song that samples Herbie Hancock's Cantaloupe Island. Miles Davis appears at the Montreux Jazz Festival with Quincy Jones. records. Trumpeter Red Rodney dies. wins a Grammy Award. The Gulf War ends. featuring the Miles Davis tribute band. A $27 million jazz museum opens in Kansas City. Race riots break out in Los Angeles. 1996 Kenny Garrett releases Pursuance: The Music of John Coltrane. bassist Christian McBride. Oklahoma City Federal building is bombed. 1995 Trumpeter Roy Hargrove ousts Trumpeter Wynton Marsalis in the Down Beat critic polls. Civil unrest occurs in former Chechnya. Saxophonist Joshua Redman signs with Warner Bros. saxophonist James Carter. Pianist Chick Corea's Elektrik Band is refused permission to perform in Germany because of Corea's membership in the controversial Church of Scientology. 1994 Guitarist Joe Pass dies. Doo-Bop. Writer Toni Morrison wins the Nobel Prize for literature. and drummer Jeff Watts. A Tribute to Miles. Former football star O. and drummer Brian Blade tour as a trio. 1992 Miles Davis' final album. performing early work with arranger Gil Evans.W. Davis dies in California. Vocalist Sarah Vaughan dies. 1991 Saxophonist Stan Getz dies.J. DC. Composer Leonard Bernstein dies. Former Princess of Wales Lady Diana dies in a car accident. and others. 1997 Wayne Shorter wins a Grammy Award for his electric jazz album High Life. is released.

Bassist Dave Holland tours with a group featuring 2000 saxophonist Chris Potter. Guitarist Kevin Eubanks replaces Branford Marsalis as the bandleader on "The Tonight Show with Jay Leno. Vibraphonist Milt Jackson dies. Trumpeter Dave Douglas rises in popularity.Date Developments in Jazz 1998 Guitarist Pat Metheny and bassist Charlie Haden win Grammy Awards for their duet album Beyond the Missouri Sky. Singer Joe Williams dies. Historical Developments President Clinton is impeached. President Clinton is acquitted on impeachment charges after a Senate trial. Violence erupts in Israel. . Trumpeter Lester Bowie dies. The US Presidential election results are delayed due to confusion about votes in Florida." 1999 Trumpeter Art Farmer dies. Fifteen high school students are shot dead by two students at Columbine High School in Colorado.

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