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Hugo Chávez

caused the economy to falter, with inflation,[26] poverty[7]
and shortages in Venezuela increasing. Chávez’s presidency also saw significant increases in the country’s
This name uses Spanish naming customs: the first
and corruption within the
or paternal family name is Chávez and the second or murder rate
police force and government.[31][32] His use of enabling
maternal family name is Frías.
acts[33][34] and his government’s use of Bolivarian
propaganda was also controversial.[35][36][37][38]
Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈuɣo
rafaˈel ˈtʃaβes ˈfɾ]; 28 July 1954 – 5 March 2013) was Internationally, Chávez aligned himself with the Marxista Venezuelan politician and the President of Venezuela Leninist governments of Fidel and then Raúl Castro in
from 1999 until his death in 2013. He was the leader of Cuba, and the socialist governments of Evo Morales
the Fifth Republic Movement from its foundation in 1997 (Bolivia), Rafael Correa (Ecuador), and Daniel Ortega
until 2007, when it merged with several other parties to (Nicaragua). His presidency was seen as a part of the
form the United Socialist Party of Venezuela (PSUV), socialist "pink tide" sweeping Latin America. Chávez
described his policies as anti-imperialist, being a promiwhich he led until 2012.
nent adversary of the United States’s foreign policy as
Born into a working-class family in Sabaneta, Barinas, well as a vocal critic of US-supported neoliberalism
Chávez became a career military officer, and after be- and laissez-faire capitalism.[39] He described himself as
coming dissatisfied with the Venezuelan political system a Marxist.[40][41][42][43][44] He supported Latin Ameribased on the Punto Fijo Pact,[1] he founded the clan- can and Caribbean cooperation and was instrumental in
destine Revolutionary Bolivarian Movement-200 (MBR- setting up the pan-regional Union of South American
200) in the early 1980s. Chávez led the MBR-200 in an Nations, the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas, the
unsuccessful coup d'état against the Democratic Action Bank of the South, and the regional television network
government of President Carlos Andrés Pérez in 1992, TeleSUR. Chavez’s ideas, programs, and style form the
for which he was imprisoned. Released from prison af- basis of "Chavismo", a political ideology closely associter two years, he founded a political party known as the ated with Bolivarianism and Socialism of the 21st CenFifth Republic Movement and was elected president of tury.
Venezuela in 1998. He was re-elected in 2000 and again
in 2006 with over 60% of the vote. After winning his
fourth term as president in the October 2012 presidential
1 Early life
election,[2] he was to be sworn in on 10 January 2013, but
Venezuela’s National Assembly postponed the inauguration to allow him time to recover from medical treatment 1.1 Childhood
in Cuba.[3] Suffering a return of the cancer originally diagnosed in June 2011, Chávez died in Caracas on 5 March Further information: Early life of Hugo Chávez
Hugo Chávez was born on 28 July 1954 in his paternal
2013 at the age of 58.[4][5]
grandmother Rosa Inéz Chávez’s home, a modest threeFollowing the adoption of a new constitution in 1999,
room house located in the rural village Sabaneta, Barinas
Chávez focused on enacting social reforms as part
State. The Chávez family were of Amerindian, Afroof the Bolivarian Revolution. Using record-high oil
Venezuelan, and Spanish descent.[45] His parents, Hugo
revenues of the 2000s, his government nationalized key
de los Reyes Chávez and Elena Frías de Chávez, were
industries, created participatory democratic Communal
schoolteachers who lived in the small village of Los RasCouncils, and implemented social programs known as
the Bolivarian Missions to expand access to food, hous[46][47]
ing, healthcare, and education.[6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14] Hugo was born the second of seven children.
This led to improvements in areas such as poverty, couple lived in poverty and sent Hugo and his older
literacy, income equality, and quality of life.[7][15] brother Adán to live with their grandmother Rosa,
Going into the 2010s, economic actions performed whom Hugo later described as being “a pure human be[49]
She was a devout
by Chávez’s government over the previous decade ing... pure love, pure kindness.”
such as overspending
and price Roman Catholic, and Hugo was an altar boy at a local
controls[21][22][23][24][25] proved to be unsustainable and church. Hugo described his childhood as “poor... [but]
very happy”.[51]
For other uses, see Hugo Chávez (disambiguation).





progressing with them to the Venezuelan National Baseball Championships. He also wrote poetry, fiction, and
drama, and painted,[60] and he researched the life and
political thought of 19th-century South American revolutionary Simón Bolívar.[61] He also became interested
in the Marxist revolutionary Che Guevara (1928–67) after reading his memoir The Diary of Che Guevara.[62]
In 1974, he was selected to be a representative in the
commemorations for the 150th anniversary of the Battle
of Ayacucho in Peru, the conflict in which Simon Bolívar’s lieutenant, Antonio José de Sucre, defeated royalist forces during the Peruvian War of Independence. In
Peru, Chávez heard the leftist president, General Juan
Velasco Alvarado (1910–1977), speak, and inspired by
Velasco’s ideas that the military should act in the interSabaneta, Barinas, where Chávez was born and raised.
ests of the working classes when the ruling classes were
perceived as corrupt,[63] he “drank up the books [VeAttending the Julián Pino Elementary School, Chávez lasco had written], even memorising some speeches alwas particularly interested in the 19th-century federalist most completely.”[64]
general Ezequiel Zamora, in whose army his own greatgreat-grandfather had served.[52][53] In the mid-1960s, Befriending the son of Panamanian President Omar
Hugo, his brother and their grandmother moved to the Torrijos (1929–1981), another leftist military general,
city of Barinas so that the boys could attend Daniel Chávez visited Panama, where he met with Torrijos, and
was impressed with his land reform program that was
O'Leary High School.[54]
designed to benefit the peasants. Influenced by Torrijos
and Velasco he saw the potential for military generals to
seize control of a government when the civilian author1.2 Military Academy: 1971–1975
ities were perceived as serving the interests of only the
In contrast to Torrijos and Velasco,
Aged seventeen, Chávez studied at the Venezuelan wealthy elites.
critical of Augusto Pinochet, the
Academy of Military Sciences in Caracas, following a
had recently seized control in
curriculum known as the Andrés Bello Plan, instituted
CIA.[66] Chávez later
by a group of progressive, nationalistic military officers.
This new curriculum encouraged students to learn not said, “With Torrijos, I became a Torrijist. With Velasco
only military routines and tactics but also a wide vari- I became a Velasquist. And with Pinochet, I became
ety of other topics, and to do so civilian professors were an anti-Pinochetist”. In 1975, Chávez graduated from
brought in from other universities to give lectures to the the military academy as one of the top graduates of the
military cadets.[55][56][57]

1.3 Early military career: 1976–1981
Further information: Military career of Hugo Chávez

Supporters of Hugo Chávez at his funeral at the Military academy
of Venezuela.

Living in Caracas, he saw more of the endemic poverty
faced by working class Venezuelans, and said that this
experience only made him further committed to achieving social justice.[58][59] He also began to get involved
in activities outside of the military school, playing baseball and softball with the Criollitos de Venezuela team,

I think that from the time I left the academy I was oriented
toward a revolutionary movement... The Hugo Chávez
who entered there was a kid from the hills, a Ilanero{sic}
with aspirations of playing professional baseball. Four
years later, a second-lieutenant came out who had taken
the revolutionary path. Someone who didn't have obligations to anyone, who didn't belong to any movement,
who was not enrolled in any party, but who knew very
well where I was headed.
Hugo Chávez[71]
Following his graduation, Chávez was stationed as a
communications officer at a counterinsurgency unit in
Barinas,[72] although the Marxist-Leninist insurgency
which the army was sent to combat had already been erad-

icated from that state.[73] At one point he found a stash
of Marxist literature that apparently had belonged to insurgents many years before. He went on to read these
books, which included titles by Karl Marx, Vladimir
Lenin and Mao Zedong, but his favourite was a work
entitled The Times of Ezequiel Zamora, written about
the 19th-century federalist general whom Chávez had
admired as a child.[74] These books further convinced
Chávez of the need for a leftist government in Venezuela:
“By the time I was 21 or 22, I made myself a man of the
In 1977, Chávez’s unit was transferred to Anzoátegui,
where they were involved in battling the Red Flag Party,
a Marxist-Hoxhaist insurgency group.[76] After intervening to prevent the beating of an alleged insurgent by other
soldiers,[77] Chávez began to have his doubts about the
army and their methods in using torture.[75] At the same
time, he was becoming increasingly critical of the corruption in the army and in the civilian government, coming
to believe Venezuela’s poor were not benefiting from the
oil wealth, and began to sympathize with the Red Flag
Party and their cause and their violent methods.[78]
In 1977, he founded a revolutionary movement together
with Luis R. Gonzalez an William Jimenez, within the
armed forces, in the hope that he could one day introduce
a leftist government to Venezuela: the Venezuelan People’s Liberation Army (Ejército de Liberación del Pueblo
de Venezuela, or ELPV), consisted of him and a handful
of his fellow soldiers who had no immediate plans for direct action, though they knew they wanted a middle way
between the right wing policies of the government and the
far left position of the Red Flag.[77][79][80] Nevertheless,
hoping to gain an alliance with civilian leftist groups in
Venezuela, Chávez set up clandestine meetings with various prominent Marxists, including Alfredo Maneiro (the
founder of the Radical Cause) and Douglas Bravo.[81][82]
At this time, Chávez married a working-class woman
named Nancy Colmenares, with whom he had three
children: Rosa Virginia (born September 1978), Maria
Gabriela (born March 1980) and Hugo Rafael (born October 1983).[83]


Later military career and the
Bolivarian Revolutionary Army200: 1982–1991

Logo of MBR-200.

Five years after his creation of the ELPV, Chávez went
on to form a new secretive cell within the military, the
Bolivarian Revolutionary Army-200 (EBR-200), later
redesignated the Revolutionary Bolivarian Movement200 (MBR-200).[55][84][85] He was inspired by Ezequiel
Zamora (1817–1860), Simón Bolívar (1783–1830) and
Simón Rodríguez (1769–1854), who became known as
the “three roots of the tree” of the MBR-200.[86][87]
Later, Chávez said that “the Bolivarian movement that
was being born did not propose political objectives...
Its goals were imminently internal. Its efforts were directed in the first place to studying the military history
of Venezuela as a source of a military doctrine of our
own, which up to then didn't exist”.[88] However, he always hoped for the Bolivarian Movement to become a
politically dominant party that would “accept all kinds of
ideas, from the right, from the left, from the ideological
ruins of those old capitalist and communist systems.”[89]
Indeed, Irish political analyst Barry Cannon noted that
the MBR’s early ideology “was a doctrine in construction, a heterogeneous amalgam of thoughts and ideologies, from universal thought, capitalism, Marxism, but
rejecting the neoliberal models currently being imposed
in Latin America and the discredited models of the old
Soviet Bloc.”[90]
In 1981, Chávez, by now a captain, was assigned to teach
at the military academy where he had formerly trained.
Here he introduced new students to his so-called “Bolivarian” ideals and recruited some of them. By the
time they had graduated, at least thirty out of 133 cadets
had joined his cause.[91] In 1984 he met Herma Marksman, a recently divorced history teacher with whom he
had an affair that lasted several years.[92][93] During this
time Francisco Arias Cárdenas , a soldier interested in
liberation theology, also joined MBR-200.[94] Cárdenas
rose to a significant position within the group, although he
came into ideological conflict with Chávez, with Chávez
believing that they should begin direct military action in
order to overthrow the government, something Cárdenas
thought was reckless.[95]
After some time, some senior military officers became
suspicious of Chávez and reassigned him so that he would
not be able to gain any more fresh new recruits from
the academy. He was sent to take command of the remote barracks at Elorza in Apure State,[96] where he organized social events for the community and contacted
the local indigenous tribal peoples, the Cuiva and Yaruro.
Distrustful as they were because of the mistreatment at
the hands of the Venezuelan army in previous decades,
Chávez gained their trust by joining the expeditions of
an anthropologist to meet with them. Chávez said his
experiences with them later led him to introduce laws
protecting the rights of indigenous tribal peoples.[97] In
1988, after being promoted to the rank of major, the
high-ranking General Rodríguez Ochoa took a liking to
Chávez and employed him to be his assistant at his office
in Caracas.[98]

and fifty soldiers and some eighty civilians injured during the ensuing violence. Venezuela While Chávez and the other senior members of the MBR200 were in prison.[102][103][104] Though members of Chávez’s MBR-200 movement had allegedly participated in the crackdown. he opposed neither once he got into office. five army units under Chávez’s command moved into urban Caracas. centrist Carlos Andrés Pérez (1922–2010) was elected President.[111] After numerous betrayals.1 3 POLITICAL RISE: 1992–1998 Operation Zamora coup attempt: 1992 Main article: 1992 Venezuelan coup d'état attempts In 1989.[129] Pérez himself was then impeached a year later for malfeasance and misappropriation of funds for illegal activities. Pérez initiated Plan Ávila and a violent repression of protesters. Despite years of planning.[109] The plan involved inside members of the military.[135] On his tours around the country he met Marisabel Rodríguez.[118] Many viewers noted that Chávez in his speech had remarked that he had failed only "por ahora" (for now).[132] In 1994. Chávez delayed the MBR200 coup until the early twilight hours of 4 February 1992. . where he remained wracked with guilt. feeling responsible for the coup’s failure.[126][127] ProChávez demonstrations that took place outside of San Travelling around Latin America in search of foreign supCarlos led to his being transferred to Yare prison soon port for his Bolivarian movement. his relationship with Herma Marksman broke up in July 1993. where Hugo Chávez was held after attempting to overthrow President Pérez in 1992.[99][100][101] In an attempt to stop the widespread protests and looting that followed his social spending cuts.[123][124][125] The San Carlos military stockade.[128] The government meanwhile began a temporary crackdown on media supportive of Chávez and the coup.[130][131] 3 Political rise: 1992–1998 A painted mural in support of the Fifth Republic Movement (MVR) found in Barcelona.4 2. to call on remaining coup members to lay down their arms. and soon after freed Chávez and the other imprisoned MBR-200 members. defections. though Caldera banned them from returning to the military. and though he had promised to oppose the United States government’s Washington Consensus and the International Monetary Fund's policies. following instead the neoliberal economic policies supported by the United States and the IMF. after.[105] Chávez did not participate since he was then hospitalized with chicken pox and later condemned the event as "genocide". known as El Caracazo unfolded. angering the public. and other unforeseen circumstances.[55][119][120][121][122] and many Venezuelans. promoting his Bolivarian cause of social revolution. unable to communicate with other members with Pérez managing to escape Miraflores Palace. who would give birth to their daughter shortly before becoming his second wife in 1997.[110] Initially prepared for December. Chávez and a small group of rebels found themselves hiding in the Military Museum. began seeing him as someone who stood up against government corruption and kleptocracy.[108][116] with the fighting during the coups resulting in the deaths of at least 143 people and perhaps as many as several hundred.[113][114][115] Another unsuccessful coup against the government occurred in November. the coup quickly encountered trouble since Chávez could command the loyalty of less than 10% of Venezuela’s military forces.[136][137] Chávez was arrested and imprisoned at the San Carlos military stockade. he visited Argentina.[133][134] Chávez went on a 100-day tour of the country.[110] On that date. Rafael Caldera (1916–2009) of the centrist National Convergence Party and who had knowledge of the coup was elected president. the overwhelming of military locations along with communication installations and the establishment of Rafael Caldera in power following the capture and assassination of President Perez.[112] Fourteen soldiers were killed. particularly poor ones.[106][107] Chávez began preparing for a military coup d'état[104][108] known as Operation Zamora. in uniform.[117] Chávez gave himself up to the government and appeared on television. errors.

Hernán Grüber Ódreman.000 soldiers. the Partido Comunist Venezolano (Venezeuelan Communist Party) and the Movimiento al Socialismo (Movement for Socialism). front runner Irene Sáez was backed by one of Venezuela’s two primary political parties. Indeed. both the main two political parties.45%. offer free medical care and vaccinations. he for instance gave one of the founders of MBR. Jesús Urdaneta. remove stagnant water that offered 4 Presidency: 1999–2013 breeding areas for disease-carrying mosquitoes. a Yale University-educated economist who represented the Project Venezuela party.Plan Bolívar 2000.[145][147] Chávez’s promises of widespread social and economic reforms won the trust and favor of a primarily poor and working class.[148] With his support increasing. Copei. centrist and centre-right figures to government positions as well.1 First presidential term: 2 February 1999 – 10 January 2001 Chávez’s presidential inauguration took place on 2 February 1999.1 1998 election At the start of the election run-up. Chile. and made one of the 1992 coup leaders. Copei and Democratic Action. and their divorce was finalised in January 2004. and finally Cuba.February 1999. including promoting various leftist allies to key positions. having much in common with those of contemporary Latin American leftists like Brazil’s president Lula da Silva. President). believing that the oligarchy would never allow him and his supporters to win an election.8 million for the plan. capitalist and centre-left. but only Rhenish capitalism.[161] The Chávez government’s initial policies were moderate. States in an attempt to convince wealthy investors to do Voter turnout was at 63.[150][151] Academic analysis of the election showed that Chávez’s support had Chávez set into motion a social welfare program called come primarily from the country’s poor and the “disen.[113][143][144][145] 3. “led to gaps emerging between rulers and ruled which favoured the emergence of a populist leader”.[153] $113 million. and Sáez’s decreasing.4. the position in charge of the Bolivarian Intelligence Agency. and by August he was registering 39%.20% of the vote.[146] Chávez’s revolutionary rhetoric gained him support from Patria Para Todos (Fatherland for All).”[154][155] He appointed new figures to a number of government posts. whose standard of living had de.[162][163] Chávez initially believed that capitalism was still a valid economic model for Venezuela. reappointing Caldera’s economy minister Maritza Izaquirre to that same position and also appointing the businessman Roberto Mandini to be president of the state-run oil company Petroleos de Venezuela.”[154] The involvement of a number of his immediate family members in Venezuelan politics led to accusations of nepotism. sailors and members of the air force going out into the streets of Venezuela where they would repair roads and hospitals.[138] After his return to Venezuela. Plan Bolívar 2000 involved 70.[152] and much of massacre. and during the usual presidential oath he deviated from the prescribed words to proclaim that “I swear before God and my people that upon this moribund constitution I will drive forth the necessary democratic transformations so that the new republic will have a Magna Carta befitting these new times. Chávez and his supporters founded a political party.[140] By now Chávez was a supporter of taking military action.[141] while Francisco Arias Cárdenas insisted that they take part in the representative democratic process. on the state radio .[157] His critics referred to this group of government officials as the "Boliburguesía" or “Bolivarian bourgeoisie”. coupled with increases in poverty and crime.[139] A drop in per capita income.[142] As a result. Cárdenas soon joined the Radical Cause socialist party and won the December 1995 election to become governor of the oil-rich Zulia State.[165] even visiting the New York Stock Exchange in the United Voter turnout in the election is the subject of dispute.[156] Chávez also appointed some conservative.[160] In June 2000 he separated from his wife Marisabel. put their support behind Henrique Salas Römer. where he met Castro and became friends with him. and sell food at low [168][169][170][171] Further information: History of Venezuela (1999– prices. though some state that the program costed the middle and upper class vote went Römer. Chávez said he would set aside $20. Aló Presidente (Hello.1 First presidential term: 2 February 1999 – 10 January 2001 Uruguay. governor of the Federal District of Caracas. By May 1998. the Fifth Republic Movement (MVR – Movimiento Quinta República) in July 1997 in order to support Chávez’s candidature in the Venezuelan presidential election.[149] 5 4. the tenth anniversary of the Caracazo creased rapidly in the previous decade. Chávez was critical of President Caldera and his neoliberal economic policies. present) In May 2000 he launched his own Sunday morning radio show.[158][159] and highlighted the fact that it “included few people with experience in public administration. not the USsupported neoliberalism of former governments.[166][167] election with 56. which he organised to begin on 27 chanted middle class”. Chávez’s support had risen to 30% in polls.[164] He followed the economic guidelines recommended by the International Monetary Fund and continued to encourage foreign corporations to invest in Venezuela. Colombia. with Chávez winning the so. 1998.

[182][183] The elected members of the constituent assembly put together a new constitution. the new constitutional assembly voted to give themselves the power to abolish government institutions and to dismiss officials who were perceived as being corrupt or operating only in their own interests. granting itself the power to overhaul the judicial system.[174][175] The referendum went ahead on 25 April 1999. was eventually replaced by the 1999 Constitution. founded in July. mayors and councilmen would be voted for on the same day. Francisco Arias Cárdenas. national and regional congressmen. Brazil in 2003 Under the new constitution.[176] Of the 1.6 4 network. El Correo del Presidente (The President’s Post). the country. governors.[182] For the position of president. Opponents of the Chávez regime argued that it was therefore dictatorial. Chávez’s closest challenger proved to be his former friend and co-conspirator in the 1992 coup. This presidential election in July 2000 would be a part of a greater “megaelection”. which would be able to rewrite the nation’s constitution. Despite the large number of opposition candidates. was renamed the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela) at Chávez’s request. He followed this with his own newspaper. and a referendum on the issue of whether to adopt it was held in December 1999.171 candidates standing for election to the assembly.[177][178] 4. but which was later shut amidst accusations of corruption in its management. Chávez had control of all three branches of government.[174][177][178] On 12 August 1999. The Supreme Court. in which the members of the constitutional assembly would be voted into power. as well as from indigenous tribal groups.[178][184][185] The constitution gave greater powers to the president. composed of representatives from across Venezuela. making it unique not only in Latin America but the entire world. discussed his latest policies.1.[173] 4.1 Constitutional reform Chávez then called for a public referendum which he hoped would support his plans to form a constitutional assembly.[179][180] Most jurists believed that the new constitutional assembly became the country’s “supreme authority” and that all other institutions were Chávez visiting Porto Alegre.[190] Although some of his .2 Second presidential term: 10 January 2001 – 10 January 2007 Chávez holds a miniature copy of the 1999 Venezuelan Constitution at the 2003 World Social Forum held in Brazil. Then Chávez called for an election to take place on 25 July. with his supporters taking 125 seats (95% of the total). for which he acted as editor-in-chief. the referendum saw an abstention vote of over 50%. over 900 of them were opponents of Chávez. which was then officially known as the Republic of Venezuela. including all of those belonging to indigenous tribal groups. 72% approved the new constitution’s adoption.[187][188][189] Going into the elections. it was legally required that new elections be held in order to re-legitimize the government and president. De Frente con el Presidente (Face to Face with the President). not only by extending their term but also by giving them the power to legislate on citizen rights as well as the economic and financial matters that they were formerly unable to do. Chavez’s supporters won another overwhelming electoral victory creating “a very pro-Chávez Constitutional Assembly”.[186] As a part of the new constitution. although among those voting. as well as a Thursday night television show.[186] It also gave the military a role in the government by providing it with the mandated role of ensuring public order and aiding national development.[172] In his television and radio shows. the first time in the country’s history that the president. with 88% of voters supporting the proposal.[174][175] PRESIDENCY: 1999–2013 subordinate to it. which ruled that the assembly did indeed have such authority. he answered calls from citizens. and was an overwhelming success for Chávez.[181] The assembly also declared a “judicial emergency”. something it had been expressely forbidden from doing under the former constitution. sang songs and told jokes. whereas the opposition were voted into only 6 seats. which created the “Supreme Tribunal of Justice” in its place. who since becoming governor of Zulia state had turned towards the political centre and begun to denounce Chávez as autocratic.

just after the American-led invasion of Afghanistan in retaliation for 11 September attacks against the U. the government introduced a new Hydrocarbons Law through which they sought to gain greater state control over the oil industry: they did this by raising royalty taxes on the oil companies and also by introducing the formation of “mixed companies”. Terrorism cannot be fought with terrorism. with U.” the protest was successful enough for the government to retract the proposed education reforms and instead enter into a consensusbased educational program with the opposition.76% of the vote (the equivalent of 3.[193] That year. cor- them pointed to Chávez’s personal friendship with Cuba’s Fidel Castro and the one-party socialist government in Cuba as a sign of where the Bolivarian government was taking Venezuela.[196] Others did not hold such a strong view but still argued that Chávez was a “free-spending. Venezuela was the world’s fifth largest exporter of crude oil. . the Venezuelan Federation of Chambers of Commerce. the opposition movement had been “strong but reasonably contained. Petróleos de Venezuela S. therefore dominating the country’s economy.2. with oil accounting for 85. The prominent businessman Pedro Carmona (1941–) was chosen as the CD’s leader. an organization known as the Coordinadora Democrática de Acción Cívica (CD) was founded.000 people). In 2001. in return receiving 20.000 trained Cuban medics and educators. He commented that “They are not to blame for the terrorism of Osama Bin Laden or anyone else”. a larger majority than his 1998 electoral victory.S. such as this one to eliminate illiteracy in Venezuela. [with] complaints centering mainly on procedural aspects of the implementation of the constitution”.3% of the country’s exports. Chávez was re-elected with 59. and called on the American government to end “the massacre of the innocents.[198] 4. and so in November 2001 they ernment accused it of trying to turn Venezuela from voted to allow him to pass 49 social and economic a democracy into a dictatorship by centralising power decrees.” The U.[196] They received support Meanwhile.4.The CD and other opponents of Chávez’s Bolivarian govlan National Assembly.011.[196][201] missions.[189] granting Chávez increasingly autocratic powers. who called them “selfish and individualistic. Chávez helped to further cement his geopolitical and ideological ties with the Cuban government of Fidel Castro by signing an agreement under which Venezuela would supply Cuba with 53. but the Chávez administration wished to curb this foreign control over the country’s natural resources by nationalising much of it under the state-run oil company. which was primarily by middle class parents whose children went to privately run schools. the 2000 elections had led to Chávez’s sup.” Although the protesters were denounced by Chávez.[198][199] Previous administrations had sought to privatise this industry. The protest movement. under which the Venezuelan opposition political parties. which were picked up by the media worldwide.[191][192] again primarily receiving his support from the poorer sectors of Venezuelan society. whereby the PdVSA could have joint control with private companies over industry.S.[189] The first organized protest against the Bolivarian government occurred in January 2001.000 Cuban medics and teachers).[195] 7 porations having a significant level of control. the Frente Institucional Militar and the Central WorkChávez’s second term in office saw the implementation of social ers Union all united to oppose Chávez’s regime. Many of At the start of the 21st century. (PdVSA).[194] However.[200] Later into 2001.757.000 barrels a day (in exchange for 40. which would have seen the publication of textbooks with a heavy Bolivarian bias.from various foreign sources.S. when the Chávez administration tried to implement educational reforms through the proposed Resolution 259 and Decree 1. all of the 32 operating agreements signed with private corporations during the 1990s had been converted from being primarily or solely corporate-run to being at least 51% controlled by PdVSA. Chávez showed pictures of Afghan children killed in a bomb attack on his television show. porters gaining 101 out of 165 seats in the Venezue. most of the country’s media.2 Second presidential term: 10 January 2001 – 10 January 2007 supporters feared that he had alienated those in the middle class and the Roman Catholic Church hierarchy who had formerly supported him. In the ensuing decade. Venezuela’s growing alliance with Cuba came at the same time as a deteriorating relationship with the United States: in late 2001. by Islamist militants.1 Opposition and the CD During Chávez’s first term in office. corporate powers.000 barrels of oil per day at preferential rates. government responded negatively to the comments.A. dramatically aiding the Caribbean island’s economy and standard of living after its "Special Period" of the 1990s.[196][197] This move antagonized the opposition amongst its supporters in the Constituent Assembly and movement particularly strongly. By 2006. this would be increased to 90. marched to central Caracas shouting out the slogan “Don't mess with my children.

foreign contractors.[192][214] Unlike his original 1998 election victory. (PDVSA).000 striking employees for ilto the country. business leader Pedro Carmona declared himself president of an interim government.[211] Chávez faced a two-month management strike at the PDVSA. Chávez agreed to be detained and was transferred by army escort to La Orchila.[213] According to one observer.[189] Protests in support of Chávez along with insufficient support for Carmona’s regime. suffering from a lack of participatory democracy and an excessively authoritarian governmental structure. . during mass protests in Caracas recall referendum into Venezuelan politics.[204] A group of high-ranking anti-Chávez military officers had been planning to launch a coup against Chávez and used the civil unrest as an opportunity. the Bolivarian government began increased the country’s military capacity. in 2002 4. demanding his removal from the presidency. so the opposition called for such a referendum to take place.2. Chávez visited Europe in a private capacity. as well as a number of Super Tucano light attack and training planes from Brazil. A 2004 referendum to recall Chávez was defeated. purchasing 100. He used this new term to contrast the democratic socialism. 70% of the eligible Venezuelan population turned out to vote. The various attempts at overthrowing the Bolivarian government from power had only served to further radicalize Chávez.[90] against the Bolivarian government. Troop numbers were also increased. who “had practically abandoned Chávez” after he “had consistently moved towards the left in those five and a half years”. this move 4. whose replacement had been one of the reasons for the coup. which he wanted to promote in Latin America from the Marxist-Leninist socialism that had been spread by socialist states like the Soviet Union and the People’s Republic of China during the 20th century.[207] oil to poor working class communities in the continent. implementing a new economic team that appeared to be more centrist and reinstated the old board of directors and managers of the state oil company Petróleos de Venezuela S.2 Coup. quickly led In May 2006. this time Chávez’s electoral support came almost entirely from the poorer working classes rather than the middle classes. strikes and the recall referendum further damaged the strength of Chávez’s opposition by Main articles: 2002 Venezuelan coup d'état attempt.[203] twenty people were killed. which many felt was implementing totalitarian measures. In January 2005. 2004 The 1999 constitution had introduced the concept of a On 11 April 2002. merging elements of capitalism and socialism.[206] Carmona abolished the 1999 constitution and appointed a small governing committee to run the country. and Chávez was returned to where he announced plans to supply cheap Venezuelan power on 15 April. he began openly proclaiming the ideology of "Socialism of the 21st Century".3 “Socialism of the 21st century” A 2004 rally against Chávez in Caracas. with 59% of voters deciding to keep the president in power.A. to Carmona’s resignation.[215] Chávez visiting the USS Yorktown.000 AK-47 assault rifles and several helicopters from Russia. and the military to do their jobs instead. which had been social democratic in nature. arguing that the latter had not been truly democratic.8 4 PRESIDENCY: 1999–2013 Chávez’s response was to moderate his approach.[210] In 2002. and over 110 were wounded. something that was distinct from his earlier forms of Bolivarianism. a US Navy ship docked at Curaçao in the Netherlands Antilles.2.[212] The Chávez government’s reauthoritarian populist" whose policies were detrimental sponse was to fire about 19. after appointing political allies to head the PDVSA and replacing the company’s board of directors with loyalists who had “little or no experience in the oil industry”. recall referendum.[205] After the plotters gained significant power.[202] legally abandoning their posts and then employing retired workers.[208][209] At the same time. removing the many managers in the oil industry who had [213] Venezuelan general strike of 2002–2003 and Venezuelan been supportive of their cause to overthrow Chávez.

“In this new party. Chávez was once more elected. increasing street crime. and they approved this alteration to the constitution with over 54% in favor. Chávez’s socialist political party founded in 2007 Chávez had initially proclaimed that those leftist parties which chose to not dissolve into the PSUV would have to leave the government. as well as general public dissatisfaction with “the absence of internal debate on its content. the commission came to the conclusion that the constitution could include more socially progressive clauses.3 Third presidential term: 10 January 2007 – 10 January 2013 In the presidential election of December 2006. much larger party. [and] uniting the grassroots and leadership into one single body. Chávez won election as president for a fourth time.[222] There was initially much grassroots enthusiasm for the creation of the PSUV. with membership having risen to 5. beating his closest challenger Manuel Rosales.[230] Approximately 70% of the Venezuelan electorate voted.65% of votes. Led by the prominent pro-Chávez intellectual Luis Britto García. this time with 63% of the vote. a constitutional recognition of Afro Venezuelans and the elimination of discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation. however. party colours and slogans.[221][223] making it the largest political group in Venezuela.[214] The election was certified as being free and legitimate by the Organization of American States (OAS) and the Carter Center.[224] The On 7 October 2012. after several of those parties supporting him refused to do so. including the presidency.[214] something analysts argued was due to the top-down nature of the changes.[217][218][219] After this victory.[225] 4.”[220] 4.4 Fourth presidential term: 10 January 2013 – 5 March 2013 9 The Mayor of London Ken Livingstone welcomed him. Chávez publicly announced that those leftist political parties who had continually supported him in the Patriotic Pole would unite into one single. for instance increasing the presidential term limit to seven years.4 Fourth presidential term: 10 January 2013 – 5 March 2013 The logo for the PSUV.[216] to join the party.[229][230][231] 4. Chávez declared that the old parties must “forget their own structures. his third six-year term. and spoke of ruling beyond 2030.[233] There was significant support for Chávez amongst the Venezuelan lower class.[145] In the speech which he gave announcing the PSUV’s creation. which was a lower victory margin than in his previous presidential wins. with a hotly contested election between the two candidates. such as the shortening of the working week.[229] Under the 1999 constitution.4. the Bolivarian government set up a constitutional commission in order to review the 1999 constitution and suggest potential amendments to be made to it.1 United Socialist Party of Venezuela and domestic policy On 15 December 2006.7 million people by 2007. which saw a 74% voter turnout.95% of registered voters not turning out. and so brought about a referendum on 15 February 2009 to abolish the two-term limit for all public offices.”[221] In 2007. he could not legally stand for reelection again.[214][227] This would prove to the first electoral loss that Chávez had faced in the thirteen electoral contests held since he took power. the purpose of creating the PSUV was to “forge unity amongst the disparate elements [of the Bolivarian movement].[214] The government put the suggested changes to a public referendum in December 2007. PSUV). he ceased to issue such threats. who conceded his loss.3. in the 2012 Venezuelan presidential election[2][232] Turnout in the election was 80%. and in the end the proposed changes were rejected by 50. United Nations’ International Labour Organization howdescribing him as “the best news out of Latin America in ever expressed concern over some voters’ being pressured many years”. providing grassroots input into policy and leadership formation. with 43. Chávez promised an “expansion of the revolution.”[145] According to political analyst Barry Cannon.[214] It also suggested measures that would have increased many of the president’s powers.”[221] It was hoped that by doing so. This will allow real leaders to emerge. it would decrease the problems of clientelism and corruption and also leave the movement less dependent on its leadership:[221] as Chávez himself declared. He defeated Henrique Capriles with 54% of the votes versus 45% for Capriles. Chávez discussed his wish to stand for re-election when his term ran out in 2013. because they are not the most important thing for the fatherland. as well as dissatisfaction with the running of the social programmes. Chávez’s opposition blamed him for unfairly using state funds to spread largesse before the election to bolster Chavez’s support .”[228] In order to ensure that his Bolivarian Revolution became socially engrained in Venezuela. the United Socialist Party of Venezuela (Partido Socialista Unido de Venezuela. and with corruption within the government. allowing the president to run for election indefinitely and centralizing powers in the executive.[226] Abstention rate was high however. allowing any elected official the chance to try to run indefinitely. the bases will elect the leaders.

he emphasised the role of so-called "participatory democracy".[239] The inauguration of Chávez’s new term was scheduled for 10 January 2013. Diosdado Cabello.. Rousseau said.' That’s why the only way to save the world is through socialism. it’s giving power to the people.1 Bolivarianism stating that the constitution must be respected and the Venezuelan government had not been transparent regard.10 5 POLITICAL IDEOLOGY Acting executive officials produced orders of government signed by Chávez. Bolivia’s idential elections were held.[238] As a part of his socialist ideas. From left to right: Paraguay’s Fernando Lugo. He has also indicated that it is distinctly different from state socialism". it’s much more than that. it’s a way of life.. as implemented by the governments of the Soviet Union and the People’s Republic of China. 5. which he claimed increased democratic participation. Chávez propagated what he called “socialism for the 21st century”. Due to the death of Chávez. a democratic socialism. The Venezuelan Bishops Conference opposed the verdict.[235][236] Near to Chavez’s death.Main articles: Bolivarianism and Bolivarian Circles ing details about Chávez’s health.. which is what’s happening in almost all the so-called democratic Western capitalist countries.. Brazil’s Lula da Silva and Ecuador’s Rafael Correa specifies that the speaker of the National Assembly. [Democracy is not just turning up to vote every five or four years]. Vice President Nicolas Maduro took over the presidential powers and duties for the remainder of Chávez’s abbreviated term until presChávez (far right) with fellow Latin American leftist presidents in 2009.[237] among his primary electoral base. social justice. The National Assembly president Diosdado Cabello proposed to postpone the inauguration and the Supreme Court decided that. other than to say that it is about establishing liberty. the formality could be bypassed. “Chávez has not clearly defined twenty-first century socialism. he was not able to return to Venezuela for that date. Only the rule of law sets you free. who claimed that Chávez was too sick to be in control of his faculties. and solidarity. Guillermo Cochez.[234] . even claimed that Chávez had been brain-dead since 31 December 2012. equality. being just another term of the sitting president and not the inauguration of a new one. recently dismissed from the office of Panamanian ambassador to the Organization of American States. the lower class. two American attachés were expelled from the country for allegedly undermining Venezuelan democracy. should assume the interim presidency if a president cannot be sworn in. it is not the government of the rich over the people. which were suspected of forgery by some opposition politicians. but as he was undergoing medical treatment at the time in Cuba.[232] 5 Political ideology Democracy is impossible in a capitalist system. but according to the pro-Chavez academic Gregory Wilpert. June 2010[164] Chávez in June 2012. Hugo Chávez. Venezuela’s constitution Evo Morales. and was implemented through the foundation of the Venezuelan Communal Councils and Bolivarian Circles which he cited as examples of grassroots and participatory democracy. 'Between the powerful and the weak all freedom is oppressed. Capitalism is the realm of injustice and a tyranny of the richest against the poorest.

[240] Political analyst and Chávez supporter Gregory Wilpert.2 Marxism 19th century general and politician Simón Bolívar provided a basis for Chávez’s political ideas. José Ramón Rivero)" Chávez explained. social justice. espoused by such figures as Colombian politician Jorge Eliécer Gaitán[250] and former Chilean president Salvador Allende. Chávez was advised and influenced by the Argentine fascist Norberto Ceresole. 'well.[40][41][42][43][44] In May 1996.”[244] In a 2009 speech to the national assembly.[65][249] Chávez was also well acquainted with the various traditions of Latin American socialism. (1817–1860). he said: “I am a Marxist to the same degree as the followers of the ideas of Jesus Christ and the liberator of America. the other two primary influences upon Bolivarianism are Simón Rodríguez (1769–1854).. Various international Marxists supported his government. having read the works of many Marxist theoreticians. that of permanent revolution. though he had described himself as a Marxist on some occasions. saying “When I called him (former Minister of Labour.”[241] Chávez’s ideology originating from Bolívar has also received some criticism because Chávez had occasionally described himself as being influenced by Karl Marx. the Venezuelan Federalist general. and national sovereignty.3 Other influences Chávez’s early heroes were nationalist military dictators that included former Peruvian president Juan Velasco Alvarado[61] and former Panamanian “Maximum Leader” Omar Torrijos. especially with Castro’s government assistance with the Bolivarian Missions. In many ways this is not a particularly different set of principles and ideas to those of any Chávez’s connection to Marxism was a complex one. a philosopher who was Bolívar’s tutor and mentor. “he said to me: 'President I want to tell you something before someone else tells you . what is the problem? I am also a Trotskyist! I follow Trotsky’s line.' is peculiar when considering Karl Marx’s own writings on Bolivar.[247][248] 5. Hugo Chávez proclaimed support for the ideas of Marxist Leon Trotsky. I am not communist. an ideology he developed from that of Simón Bolívar (1783–1830) and others.” and then cited Marx and Lenin.[246] In 2010.[249][250] Other indirect influences on Chávez’s political philosophy are the writings of American linguist Noam Chomsky[251] and the Gospel teachings of Jesus Christ.2 Marxism 11 other Enlightenment or national liberation thinker. and often publicly quoted them. believing it to be a sign of proletariat revolution as predicted in Marxist theory.[242][243] Beddow and Thibodeaux noted the complications between Bolívar and Marx. but I am not anti-communist.[252][253] Other inspirations . he gave an interview with Agustín Blanco Muñoz in which he remarked that “I am not a Marxist.[249] Cuban Communist revolutionaries Che Guevara and Fidel Castro also influenced Chávez. and Ezequiel Zamora.[243] 5. noted that “The key ingredients for Chávez’s revolutionary Bolivarianism can be summarized as: an emphasis on the importance of education. Latin American integration. in his study of Chávez’s politics. and I said. Bolívar was a 19th-century general who led the fight against the colonialist Spanish authorities and who is widely revered across Latin America today.. I am a Trotskyist'. Hugo Chávez defined his political position as Bolivarianism. stating that "[d]escribing Bolivar as a socialist warrior in the class struggle. Simon Bolivar.”[40][245] He was well versed in many Marxist texts. the creation of civilian-military unity. but I am not anti-Marxist. whom he dismissed as a false liberator who merely sought to preserve the power of the old Creole nobility which he belonged”. when he was actually member of the aristocratic 'criollos.5. a critic of Bolívar.[250] Early in his presidency. Along with Bolívar.

95.”[266] The social works initiated by Chávez’s government relied on oil products.[7] The See also: Economic policy of the Hugo Chávez govern.1 Economic and social policy cent in 2002 to 29.39 in 2011. 6 Policy overview putting Venezuela behind only Canada in the Western Hemisphere.[7] The Gini coefficient. GDP by 2008. according to the U. the state income from oil revenue grew “from 51% of total income in 2000 to 56% 2006". the World Bank also explained that Venezuela’s economy is “extremely vulnerable” to changes in oil prices since in 2012 “96% of the country’s exports and nearly The blue line represents annual rates. Brazil and Panama.50 in 1998 to . land reform.12 6 POLICY OVERVIEW of Chávez’s political view are Giuseppe Garibaldi..[269] and his administration’s dependence on petroleum sales was “one of the chief problems facing the Chávez government”.[15] and economic and social advances.[16][17][18][260][263] Into the 2010s.] to 89% in 2006". Chávez’s administration proposed and enacted democratic socialist economic policies.drop of Venezuela’s poverty rate compared to poverty in other South American countries was slightly behind ment and Economy of Venezuela From his election in 1998 until his death in March that of Peru.[262] with Venezuelans’ quality of life improving according to a UN Index.[18][260] 2013. the economic woes Venezuela suffered under President Nicolás Maduro would have still occurred with or without Chávez.[7][271] According to analysts. The red line represents half of its fiscal revenue” relied on oil production. cultural. aimed at providing public services to improve economic. healthcare and poverty. Economic Commission for Latin America.[254] Antonio Gramsci and Antonio Negri. and democratization of economic activity via workplace self-management and creation of worker-owned cooperatives. poverty began to rise in Venezuela increase and funding for healthcare in Venezuela began to decrease. while trends of annual rates given throughout the period shown.[264] Venezuelans aged 15 and older.2% could also read and write. the keystone of the Venezuelan economy. a measure of income inequality.[14] A 2010 OAS report[261] indicated achieve- Economists say that the Venezuelan government’s overspending on social programs and strict business policies contributed to imbalances in the country’s economy..[269] According to Cannon. according to Foreign Policy. also dropped from nearly .[255][256][257][258] ments in addressing illiteracy.6 per6. Chávez created the Bolivarian Missions.[269] In 2012.N.[269] oil exports increased “from 77% in 1997 [. World Bank for voters.[10][14][21][260] The Missions entailed the construction of thousands of free medical clinics for the poor. in a 2009 analysis of the Chávez administration stated that economic expansion during Chávez’s tenure “began when the government got control over the national oil company in the first quarter of 2003”. Meade wrote that Chávez’s popularity strongly depended “on the lower classes who have benefited from these health initiatives and similar policies. Domestic policies included redistribution of wealth.[12] Teresa A. tion then used such oil prices on his populist policies and Sources: International Monetary Fund. and social conditions. exports of everyis in billions of Local Currency Unit that has been adjusted for thing but oil “collapsed”.[272] The balance between the public and private sectors of the Venezuelan economy remained relatively unchanged .[268] Chávez gained a reputation as a price hawk in OPEC. contributing to rising inflation and widening shortages near the end of Chavez’s presidency.[263] The poverty rate fell from 48. pushing for stringent enforcement of production quotas and higher target oil prices.[265] though some scholars have refuted that literacy improvements during Chavez’s presidency resulted from his administration’s policies.5 percent in 2011. with Chávez’s administration suffering from Dutch disease as a result.[10] and the enactment of food[21] and housing subsidies.[18][267] Economist Mark Weisbrot.[259] With increasing oil prices in the early 2000s and funds not seen in Venezuela since the 1980s.[18][270] The Chávez administrainflation. with Venezuela having one of the highest literacy rates in the region.

[278] Be. he has done much to challenge the more extreme.scarcities of basic staples such as meat.[279] In October 2009. the Mercal goal to lower inequality in the access to basic nutrition.”[289] The Mercal netries. which had 16.As part of his strategy of food security Chávez cess to nutrition was high. cheese. powdered milk. despite several nationalizations the government still controlled the same percent of the economy as when Chavez was elected in 1998. ranking its freedom very low at 174 of 177 countries. food prices in Caracas were nine times higher than when the price controls were put in place and resulted in shortages of cooking oil. milk and sugar – port necessary goods.1 Economic and social policy 13 during Chavez’s presidency.[284][285] Shortages of food then occurred throughout the rest of Chávez’s presidency with food shortage rates between 10% and 20% from 2010 to 2013.1. Economists believe this policy increased shortages. shoppers had to wait .[23] Chávez’s strategy in response to food shortages consisted of attempting to inEmpty shelves in a Venezuelan market due to shortages in crease domestic production through nationalizing large parts of the food industry. chicken.[277] The ployees that distributed food at highly discounted main strategy for making food available to all economic prices. though such nationalizations Venezuela.[273] In January 2013 near the end of Chávez’s presidency.1 in 1999.[288] Simultaneously Chávez expropriated many ings for basic staple foods implemented in 2003.000 emand to achieve food sovereignty for Venezuela. and that malnutrition had fallen from 21% in 1998 work was criticized by some commentators as being a to 6%.6.[274] Nicholas Kozloff. according to estimates from the Central Bank of Venezuela in 2009. and social inequality in ac.”[275] tors and hoarders” for these scarcities[284] and strictly enforced his price control policy.[288] According to Commerce Mintween 1998 and 2006 malnutrition related deaths fell ister Richard Canan. for example lyn Di Luca reported that the average daily caloric in. cies: “Chávez has not overturned Chávez’s biographer.Shoppers waiting in line at a government-run MERCAL store. with the private sector accounting for a slightly larger share than before Chavez took office. In turn.[22] The price controls increased the demand for basic foods while making it difficult for Venezuela to import goods causing increased reliance on domestic production.[282][283] Chávez blamed “specula. neo-liberal model of development. allegedly did the opposite and caused decreased producIn the 1980s and 1990s health and nutrition indexes in tion instead.[280] Chávez also expropriated and redistributed 5 part of Chávez’s strategy to brand himself as a provider million acres of farmland from large landowners. network. and ran 6000 soup kitchens throughout the classes was a controversial policy of fixing price ceil. which reach a savings of 50 to 60% take of the Venezuelan people had reached 2790 calo. According to the Venezuelan government.1. and the shops feature his picture promiPrice controls initiated by Chávez created shortages of nently. the Heritage Foundation and the Wall Street Journal gave Venezuela’s economic freedom a low score of 36.[278] 6.[276] Chávez made it his stated started a national chain of supermarkets. There are some products. the Executive Direc. denouncing anyone who sold food products for higher prices as “speculators”.cheese and meat. having grown faster than the government between 2003 and 2006 when the economy was healthy. with freedom on a downward trend. where no profitability due to price regulations affect operations. twenty points lower than 56. the lack of dollars made it difficult to purchase more food imports.around 30%.1 Food and products In 2011.[24] One possible reason for shortages is the relationship between inflation and subsidies. “The average [savings] for the baby 50%.[286][287] Venezuela were generally low.private supermarkets. sugar and meat.compared with capitalist markets.600 outlets and 85. The Mercal network was also subject to frequent goods since merchants could no longer afford to im. stated of Chávez’s economic poli.and when scarce products arrived.[281] of cheap food.sic food bundle (at the Mercal Bicentennial markets) is tor of the National Institute of Nutrition (INN) Mari.

Sources: Banco Central de Venezuela. see Economy of Venezuela § Currency Black Market.000 citizens) from 1998 to 2013.3 Blue line represents implied value of VEF compared to USD. more than 100. Federal Reserve Bank.[297] The implied value or “black market value” is what Venezuelans believe the Bolivar Fuerte is worth compared to the United States dollar. to produce not only briquettes.[298] The high rates in the black market make it difficult for businesses to purchase necessary goods since the government often forces these businesses to make price cuts. but also. Chávez supported the construction of 184 communes. Sources: OVV. International Monetary Fund tinued to devalue for Venezuelan citizens and merchants since the government held the majority of the more reliable currencies. The communes produced some of their own food. this leads to shortages since they are unable to import the goods that Venezuela is reliant on. not the bureaucracy.000 stateowned cooperatives – which claimed to represent some 1. In the first few years of Chavez’s office.1. his newly created social programs required large payments in order to make the desired changes.2 Crime and punishment For more details on this topic. specifically communal councils and the newly formed communes. On February 5. steel. as of September 2010.5 million people – were formed with the assistance of government start-up credit and technical training. As Venezuela printed more money for their social programs. This leads to businesses selling their goods and making a low profit. the bolívar con- Murder rate (1 murder per 100. Hugo Chávez. 2003. of over 30. and were able to make decisions by popular assembly of what to do with government funds. a currency control board charged with handling foreign exchange procedures.[299] Since businesses make low profits. Dolar Paralelo. was initiated in 2009. the socialist society. the new society.[292] In 2010.” The Ministry for Communes. with $23 million in government funding. The red line represents what the Venezuelan government officially rates the VEF. see Crime in Venezuela. above all. El Salvador. the government created CADIVI.000 communal councils. May 2009[290] After his election in 1998. Chávez also criticised the bureaucracy still common in Venezuela saying.1. housing thousands of families. Venezuela. Its creation was to control capital flight by placing limits on individuals and only offering them so much of a foreign currency.[288] 6. The countries of Colombia. which oversees and funds all communal projects.[303][304] UN[303][304][305] * UN line between 2007 and 2012 is simulated missing data. the new man and woman. During the 1980s and 1990s there was a steady increase Currency controls For more details on this topic. when in discussion with his Communes Minister Isis Ochoa. that “All of the projects must be carried out by the commune.[300] 6. in crime in Latin America. and Brazil all had homicide rates .2 Communes Every factory must be a school to educate.[291] and the creation and maintenance.[294][295] According to Venezuela’s El Universal. examples of localised participatory democracy. which he intended to be integrated into regional umbrella organizations known as “Communes in Construction”.[296] This limit to foreign currency led to a creation of a currency black market economy since Venezuelan merchants rely on foreign goods that require payments with reliable foreign currencies. Chávez announced the location of 876 million bolivars ($203 million) for community projects around the country. and aluminum. one of the Chávez administration’s outstanding weaknesses is the failure to meet its goals of construction of housing.[292] Despite such promises.14 6 POLICY OVERVIEW in lines.[294] 6. the Venezuelan government often failed to construct the number of homes they had proposed.[293] In September 2010.[301][302] PROVEA. like Che Guevara said.

lead to higher rates of kidnapping. The majority of the deaths occur in crowded slums in Caracas. hundreds of thousands of Venezuelans were murdered due to violent crimes occurring in the country.[306][307][308] Director James Brabazon. responding to escalating crime rates in the country.1 Prisons During Chávez’s presidency.080 murders in Venezuela.”[325] Under Chávez’s administration. “With the change of political regime in 1999 and the initiation of the Bolivarian Revolution. it was reported that Venezuelan authorities would assign judicial police to Caracas area morgues to speak with families.inmates come out “more sort of trained and hardened mated 16.[312][313] He further explained that common criminals felt that the Venezuelan government did not care for the problems of the higher and middle classes. but that Chávez ignored it as well as corruption in the country. and alcohol.917.[27][28] The NGO found that the number of homicides in the country increased from 6..[309] During his terms as president.763 in 2013. stated “kidnapping crimes had skyrocketed . One prisoner explained how. after late Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez freed thousands of violent prisoners as part of controversial criminal justice system reforms” while kidnappings and murders also increased due to Colombian organized crime activity as well. The report also stated that international organised crime filters between Colombia and Venezuela with the assistance among “the highest spheres of government” in Venezuela.[324] 6. there were reports of prisoners having easy access to firearms. Source: CICPC[306][307][308] * Express kidnappings may not be included in data above the regional average.4% of the kidnappings happening away from rural areas. the number of kidnappings were at an esti.6. with the number of kidnappings over 20 times higher in 2011 than when Chavez was elected.[317] from Harvard University explained that Venezuelan prisIn leaked government INE data for kidnappings in the ons were “practically a school for criminals” since young year 2009..[320] At that time.332 investigations for kidnappings were opened or about 7% of the total kidnapping cases.[316] According to the United Edgardo Lander.2. Carlos Nieto—head of Window to Freedom—alleges that heads of gangs acquire military weapons from the state. No one else has these. drugs.[310] Gareth A.[319] Also in 2009.[322][323] According to the publications El Espectador and Le Monde diplomatique. marked by a further increase in the number and rate of violent deaths” showing that in four years. which in turn gave them a sense of impunity that created a large business of kidnapping-for-ransom.[312] In September 2010. . the murder rate had increased to 44 per 100. He also explained that pris673. rising crime in rural and urban areas of Venezuela was partly due to increased cross-border activity by Colombian right-wing paramilitary groups like Águilas Negras. crimes were so prevalent that by 2007 the government no longer produced crime data. Chávez supporters stated that the Bolivarian National Police has reduced crime and also said that the states with the highest murder rates were controlled by the opposition.” Use of internet and mobile phones are also a commonplace where criminals can take part in street crime while in prison. drug trafficking. we shoot them” and that he had “seen a man have his head cut off and people play football with it.000 in 1999 to 24. a sociologist and professor at the CenNations Office on Drugs and Crime. a period of transformation and political conflict began. with 90.[320] Number of kidnappings in Venezuela 1989–2011. especially among fellow state officials.[311] Kidnappings also rose tremendously during Chavez’s tenure. with one NGO finding the rate to have nearly quadrupled.[326] .[307] before the Venezuelan government blocked the ons are controlled by gangs and that “very little has been data.[29][30][315] In 2010 Caracas had the highest murder rate in the world.2 Crime and punishment 15 only 1. they would advise families not to report the murder of their family member to the media in exchange to have the process of recovering the victim’s body in an expedited manner. and homicides.. there were some factors beyond his control that led to the crime epidemic throughout Venezuela. “If the guards mess with us.[321] An International Crisis Group report that same year stated that when Chávez took office.000 people. done” to control them.. Jones and Dennis Rodgers stated in their book Youth violence in Latin America: Gangs and Juvenile Justice in Perspective that.[313][318][319] According to the leaked INE report. 80% of all being express kidnappings and the most common victim being lower-middle or middle class Venezuelans and middle-aged men. Chávez stated that Venezuela is no more violent than it was when he first took office. contrasting the CICPCs number of only than when they went in”. saying: “They have the types of weapons that can only be obtained by the country’s armed forces. in 2012 there were tral University of Venezuela with a PhD in sociology 13.[314] Homicide rates in Venezuela more than tripled.

corruption worsened. an [330] Burundi. authorities in Colombia claimed that through and poverty”. 116 of the 350 articles were concerned with human rights. “Chavez’s government funded FARC's office in Caracas and gave it access to Venezuela’s intelligence services” and said that during the 2002 coup attempt that. ( * ) Score was averaged according to Transparency Interna. Fifth Republic Movement (MVR). ment corruption. and Haiti) ). Chávez’s own political party.3 6 POLICY OVERVIEW Corruption old “Fourth Republic” political parties. These commuVenezuela. produced annually by the Berlin-based NGO.[328] According to the libertarian Cato Institute. Chávez created a system in which the FARC tions Index. “FARC also responded to requests from (Venezuela’s intelligence service) to provide training in Venezuela’s perception of corruption scores between 2004 and urban terrorism involving targeted killings and the use of 2013.explosives. “convening a constituent as.[332] Some criticism came from Chávez’s supporters. 6.Venezuelan diplomats denounced the IISS' findings say[336] sembly to write a new constitution. filling it with supporters of Chávez and made new been held between rebels and Ecuadorean officials” and measures so the government could dismiss justices from some documents claiming that FARC had “bought and the court. and 165th out of 176 (tied with order to weaken Colombian President Álvaro Uribe. respectively. Venezuela ranked 31st out of 101 countries according to how widespread the population perceive corruption as being in the government and in business. had been criticized as being riddled with the same cronyism. Hugo Chávez declared three goals nities.1 Aiding FARC According to the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS). Hugo Chávez and his allies took over the Supreme with other documents showing “high-level meetings have Court. Most Venezuelans beenemy of Chá that they had “basic inaccuracies”. bribes and the lack of transparency. According to Salazar. FARC may have undertaken assassinations of Chavez’s Source: Transparency International political opponents on behalf of the Venezuelan state. In the later years would receive money and weaponry from the Venezueof Chávez’s tenure.[337][338] the National Electoral Council of Venezuela was under In 2015. it was 158th out lan government. that corruption has increased. Chad.16 6. Venezuela’s trade unionists and indigenous communities have participated For more details on this topic. they power. In December 1998. Chávez’s former bodyguard Leamsy Salazar control of Chávez where he tried to “push a constitustated in Bumerán Chávez that Chávez met with the tional reform that would have allowed him unlimited ophigh command of FARC in 2007 somewhere in rural [329] portunities for reelection”. 6. and corruption that Chávez alleged were characteristic of the For more details on this topic.” for the new government.4. .[333][334][335] 6. this was done in of 180 countries in 2008.1 1999 Venezuelan Constitution In the 1999 Venezuelan constitution. see Corruption in in peaceful demonstrations intended to impel the government to facilitate labor and land reforms. criticize what they see as Chávez’s slow progress in protecting their interests against managers and mining concerns.[339] lieved the government’s effort against corruption is ineffective. However. eliminating govern. and fighting against social exclusion In 2007.[327] In financial and political ties that date back years” along 2004. see Human rights in Venezuela. these included increased protections for indigenous peoples and women. sold uranium". The Corruption PercepVenezuela.4 Human rights legislature and police are the most corrupt. would provide the Venezuelan government with drugs Transparency International (TNI) reports findings of corthat would be transported in live cattle and the FARC ruption in countries around the world.[331] In Gallup Poll's 2006 Corruption Index. parliament. while largely expressing their sympathy and support for Chávez. and that government institutions such as the judicial system.” The IISS continued saying that “the archive offers tantalizing but ultimately unproven suggestions that tional’s method. corruption has become widespread throughout the found in documents that Hugo Chávez offered payments government due to impunity towards members of the of as much as $300 million to the FARC “among other government. during Hugo Chávez’s time in laptops they had seized on a raid against Raul Reyes. The index lists Venezuela as the second least corrupt nation in Latin America. political patronage. behind Chile.

Human Rights Watch released a report reviewing Chávez’s human rights record over his first decade in power.[344] In particular. as well as mentioning improvements in women’s rights and indigenous rights. increased requirements for government transparency. and heavy reliance on opposition newspapers as sources.4 Human rights 17 and the Direccion de Inteligencia Seguridad y Prevención (DISIP) stating that they “allegedly used excessive force to control the situation on a number of occasions” during protests involving the 2004 Venezuela recall. 7 = not free) Source: Freedom House Shortly after Hugo Chávez’s election.[343] Amnesty International also criticized the Venezuelan National Guard Chávez meets with Hillary Clinton at the Summit of the Americas on 19 April 2009. exaggeration. (1 = Free.[350] Freedom House listed Venezuela as being “partly free” in its 2011 Freedom in the World annual report. housing. Amnesty International criticized President Chavez’s administration of not handling the 2002 coup in a proper manner. press freedom. and numerous other requirements to increase localized. noting a recent decline in civil liberties. Brazil and established the rights of the public to education. and civil society’s ability to promote human rights in Venezuela.6. community access to media. eroding the independence of the judiciary. and food. lack of context.[342] In 2004.[340][341] 6. and a right to participate in acts of civil disobedience. workers’ freedom of association. healthcare.[225] Freedom ratings in Venezuela from 1998 to 2013.[343] Chávez. the report accused Chávez and his administration of engaging in discrimination on political grounds. Amnesty International criticized the Chávez administration for targeting critics following several politically motivated arrests. amongst other things. It gave citizens the right to timely and impartial information. and of engaging in “policies that have undercut journalists’ freedom of expression.[347][348][349] The International Labor Organization of the United Nations had also expressed concern over voters being pressured to join the party. authoritarianism. participatory democracy. speaking at the 2003 World Social Forum in Porto Alegre. over a hundred Latin American scholars signed a joint letter with the Council on Hemispheric Affairs criticizing the Human Rights Watch report for its alleged factual inaccuracy.”[345] The Venezuelan government retaliated for the report by expelling members of Human Rights Watch from the country. illogical arguments. saying that violent incidents “have not been investigated effectively and have gone unpunished” and that “impunity enjoyed by the perpetrators encourages further human rights violations in a particularly volatile political climate”. It called for dramatic democratic reforms such as ability to recall politicians from office by popular referendum. In 2010.[346] Subsequently. human rights abuses. in favor of centralized administration.[343] It was also noted that many of the protesters detained seemed to not be “brought before a judge within the legal time limit”. threats to .4. but noted a “wide range of government policies that have undercut the human rights protections established” by the revised constitution.[344] The report praises Chávez’s 1999 amendments to the constitution which significantly expanded human rights guarantees. ratings for freedom in Venezuela dropped according to political and human rights group Freedom House and Venezuela was rated “partly free”.[351] A 2010 Organization of American States report found concerns with freedom of expression.2 Criticisms In 2008.

including in a 2006 Christmas speech where he complained that “a minority.1% of the cases resulted in only in an indictment by the Venezuelan Venezuelans protesting against the closing of RCTV.5 Media and the press ments sent via Twitter. He said Venezuela should boycott the OAS.000 complaints”.[364] Claims of antisemitism were prompted by various remarks Chávez made. the descendants of the same ones that crucified Christ”.[377] and that he “often discriminatory policies that have undercut journal.[261][357] In November 2014.[373] Chávez also had a Twitter account with more than 3.”[370] Reporters Without Borders criticized the Chávez administration for “steadily silencing its critics”. Venezuela appeared before the United Nations Committee Against Torture over cases between 2002 and 2014. the motive apparently being robbery rather than anti-semitism.[356] Venezuela said it would not accept an IACHR/OAS visit as long as Santiago Cantón remains its Executive Secretary. a spokesperson said.[378] .[364][367] A weeklong CICPC investigation revealed the synagogue attack to be an 'inside job'. Reporters Without Borders noted that “Venezuela is now among the region’s worst press freedom offenders.000 followers as of August 2012.[355] A Venezuelan official said the report distorted and took statistics out of context. which he felt is dominated by the United States.[371] In the group’s 2009 Press Freedom Index. Public Ministry. Gaer.18 6 POLICY OVERVIEW democracy.096 complaints of human rights violations received between the years 2011 and 2014. noted that in “only 12 public officials have been convicted of human rights violations in the last decade when in the same period have been more than 5.[352][353][354] OAS observers were denied access to Venezuela.200. “We don't recognize the commission as an impartial institution”.[374][375][376] A team of 200 people sorted through suggestions and com6. Chávez said Twitter was “another mechanism for contact with the public. unless the IACHR apologizes for what he described as its support of the 2002 coup.[358] Human rights expert of the UN committee.[359] The United Nations stated that there were 31. pointing out that its authors did not even come to Venezuela. attacks on a synagogue in Caracas were alleged to be influenced by “vocal denunciations of Israel” by the Venezuelan state media and Hugo Chávez even though Chavez promptly condemned the attacks blaming an “oligarchy”.saw Twitter as “a weapon that also needs to be used by ists’ freedom of expression.096 complaints. to evaluate Human Rights Watch criticized Chávez for engaging in many things and to help many people”.[354] Chávez rejected the OAS report.[368][369] Venezuela’s press as being “Not Free” in its 2011 Map of Press Freedom.[352][353] as well as erosion of separation of powers.[372] In 2006 Chávez inaugurated a statefunded movie studio called Villa del Cine (English: Cinema City). noting that "[t]he gradual erosion of press freedom in Venezuela continued in 2010. now had “taken possession of all of the wealth of the world”. a PanAmerican equivalent of Al Jazeera that sought to challenge the present domination of Latin American television news by Univision and the United States-based CNN en Español. He disclaimed any power to influence the judiciary. and said that “human rights violations in Venezuela have decreased”.[360] Of the 31.”[371] In July 2005 Chávez inaugurated TeleSUR.”[345] Freedom House listed the revolution”. the economic infrastructure and ability of the president to appoint judges to federal courts. Felice D. only 3.[360][361] Allegations of Anti-semitism See also: Accusations of Chávez anti-Semitism Chavez’s opposition to Zionism and close relations with Iran led to accusations of antisemitism[362][363] Such claims were made by the Venezuelan Jewish community at a World Jewish Congress Plenary Assembly in Jerusalem.[365][366] In 2009.

a political thriller that Chávez increasing arms purchases from Brazil. illustrations. Hugo). the latter of States of Banana (2011) by Giannina Braschi. Chávez and Colmenares remained married for • Hugo Chávez appears as a heroic character in the 18 years.[391] Chávez’s second wife was journalist Marisabel Rodríguez de Chávez.[392] Through that marriage. Mexican novelist Norma countries also played a major role in his policy. 2006 gration. and had been misperception of South America. one year after his death. Fidel Castro.throughout both his marriages. The film also is a “spiritual answer” and a tribute from Stone to Chávez. where he “sets out on a road trip had another daughter. Chávez focused on a variety of multinational institutions to promote his vision of Latin American inte. He first wed Nancy Colmenares. and TeleSUR. whom suffers from behavioural problems. Chávez of the Border.6 Foreign policy Further information: Foreign policy of the Hugo Chávez government Chávez refocused Venezuelan foreign policy on Latin Chávez with fellow South American presidents of Argentina and Brazil American economic and social integration by enacting bilateral trade and reciprocal aid agreements.19 6.[386] years. and Cristina Fernán. including his so-called “oil diplomacy”. Lula.[390] The couChávez leads left-wing Latin American leaders Evo ple separated soon after Chávez’s 1992 coup attempt. while interview. with Gomez released Swan Song. their relationship lasted nine Puerto Rico from the United States. Oliver Stone and teleSUR release dairy products.8 Personal life ated cartoons. and creHugo Chávez. Chávez had an affair with hisdez de Kirchner on a quest to liberate the people of torian Herma Marksman.[390][394] Allegations litical movements as well as the mainstream media’s were made that Chávez was a womanizer. a documentary about his political life. and Hugo Rafael.[389] 7 In popular culture • Syndicated cartoonists from around the world cre.provided Chávez with grandchildren. during which time they had three children: Rosa Latin American postmodern fantasy novel United Virginia. forming points to American involvement in the death of oil-for-expertise trade arrangements with Cuba. tions to his death.During his first marriage. Bilateral trade relationships with other Latin American • On January 15.[393] Both María and Rosa across five countries to explore the social and po. and videos of Hugo Chávez’s controversial political career and the reacChávez married twice. but these have remained unproven and are contradicted by statements provided by ing seven of its elected presidents. Rosinés. with whom he separated in 2002 • Oliver Stone directed the 2009 documentary South and divorced in 2004.”[387] .[388] ating unique barter arrangements that exchange Venezuelan petroleum for cash-strapped Argentina’s meat and • On 5 March 2014. including Petrocaribe.[379][380] Relationships with Cuba (Cuba–Venezuela relations) and Iran (Iran–Venezuela relations) were of particular importance. He also befriended pariah states such as the documentary film Mi Amigo Hugo (My Friend [381] Belarus and Iran.[382][383][384][385] a woman from a poor family in Chávez’s hometown of Sabaneta. Petrosur.Bolivarian memorabilia for sale in Venezuela. María Gabriela. Morales. 2014.

[402][403] whose evangelical leader he “condemned to hell”. severe respiratory infection. Chávez became more attached to the Catholic Church.[412] Soon after this speech. after he discovered he had cancer. Vice President Nicolás Maduro announced on state television that Chávez had died in a military hospital in Caracas at 16:25 VET (20:55 UTC).[399] He also would declare his belief in Darwin's theory of evolution.[422] On 1 March 2013. but mouthed Chávez gave a public appearance on 28 July 2011. to banks in Venezuela’s political allies like Russia. however. Chávez announced he would undergo a new operation after doctors in Cuba detected malignant cells. he showed syncretistic practices such as the worship of the Venezuelan goddess María Lionza. In 2008 he expressed his skepticism of an afterlife.[418] It was announced on 3 January 2013 that Chávez had a severe lung infection that had caused respiratory failures following a strict treatment regimen for respiratory insufficiency.[407] 9 Illness Chávez walking with a cane accompanied by Rafael Correa in July 2011.[424] 10 Death Main article: Death and state funeral of Hugo Chávez On 5 March 2013. stating that “it is a lie that God created man from the ground.[409] On 3 July.[411] DEATH 57th birthday. he cursed the state of Israel. and he went on to call on the middle classes and the private sector to get more involved in his Bolivarian Revolution. shortly after his surgery.[398] He was. Chávez died from a massive heart attack.[417] It was announced 20 December by the country’s vicepresident that Chávez had suffered complications following his surgery. some of whose declarations were disturbing to the religious community of his country. further stating that he was heading for “complete recovery”. Chávez declared himself fully recovered from cancer just three months before the 2012 Venezuelan presidential election. which were largely stored in western banks. Jose Ornella said that near the end of his life Chávez could not speak aloud.[414] In November 2012.”[400] Among other things. something he saw as “vital” to its success.[423] On 4 March.[396] (liberation theology) and he publicly used the slogan of “Christ is with the Revolution!"[397] Although he traditionally kept his own faith a private matter. that Chávez’s tumour had been completely removed. Chávez returned to Venezuela after 2 months of cancer treatment in Cuba.[401] and he had some disputes with both the Venezuelan Catholic clergy and Protestant groups like the New Tribes Mission. more reflective and multi-faceted” outlook.[420] and it was reported that he was then undergoing further treatment. He intended at one time to become a priest.[419] However he was reported to have overcome this later that month.[426] Gen. a liberal Catholic. the operation took place on 11 December 2012. saying that such idea was false. the Venezuelan government denied.[416] Chávez suffered a respiratory infection after undergoing the surgery but it was controlled. in August Chávez announced that his government would nationalize Venezuela’s gold industry.[425] The Vice President said Chávez died “after battling a tough illness for nearly two years. Chávez announced plans to travel to Cuba for more medical treatment for cancer.[410] On 17 July 2011. that he was recovering from an operation to remove an abscessed tumor with cancerous cells.[408] Vice President Elías Jaua declared that the President remained in “full exercise” of power and that there was no need to transfer power due to his absence from the country.”[425] According to the head of Venezuela’s presidential guard. in which he stated that his health troubles had led him to radically reorient his life towards a “more diverse. Cuba.[415] On 8 December 2012.[404] In addition.[405][406] In his last years.20 10 other figures close to him. In June 2011.[395] Chávez was a Catholic. while at the same time also moving the country’s gold stocks. Vice President Nicolás Maduro said that Chávez had been receiving chemotherapy in Venezuela following his surgery in Cuba. it was announced by the Venezuelan government that Chávez’s breathing problems had worsened and he was suffering a new. which he won. China and Brazil. in general.[413] On 9 July 2012. Chávez over the course of his presidency became increasingly open to discussing his religious views.[421] On 18 February 2013. and his cancer was very advanced when he died. his his last words: “Yo no quiero morir. por favor no me . taking it over from Russian-controlled company Rusoro. television news reported that Chávez had returned to Cuba for further cancer treatments. stating that he interpreted Jesus as a Communist. He saw his socialist policies as having roots in the teachings of Jesus Christ. securing a fourth term as president. Chávez revealed in a televised address from Havana.

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London: British Broadcasting Corporation. Time (New York City: Time Inc. Retrieved 25 March The Carter Centre. “Hugo Chávez wins referendum allowing indefinite re-election”. Retrieved 8 April 2011.C. • Padgett. Georgia: don: Guardian Media Group). • Official personal blog (Spanish) Multimedia • PBS Frontline Documentary: The Hugo Chávez Show • Chavez: Inside the Coup: The Revolution Will Not Be Televised on YouTube • The Guardian: The Rise and Rule of 'Hurricane Hugo' audio slide show • Democracy Now! 16 September 2005 Interview: Part I and Part II with Hugo Chávez. “The new kid in the 13. London: BBC News. Greg. Retrieved 21 March 2011.33 • Beaumont. Hugo (subject) (15 June 2010). Retrieved 27 March 2011. • Pretel. in New York City • ABC News Video.2. The New York Times (New York City: The New York Times Company). London: Reuters. “Hugo Chávez: The Radical with Deep Pockets”. “Observation of the 1998 Venezuelan Elec• Bellos. Re• “Venezuela: Hugo Chávez’s Revolution”. 2011. Inter-American Court of Human Rights. Simon (16 February 2010). “Purging Loyalists. In Search of Hugo Chávez. Traci (11 January 2007). Retrieved 27 March 2011. Internatrieved 12 May 2011. Peter (7 May 2006). HARDtalk. Retrieved 25 March 2011. “War Drums in Latin America”. “In Search of Hugo Chávez”. July 2006 • Hugo Chávez collected news and commentary at Al Jazeera English • Hugo Chávez collected news and commentary at The Guardian . Tim (18 April 2005). 18 February 2008: The Politics of Venezuela’s Hugo Chávez • Appearances on C-SPAN Articles and Interviews • BBC News: Profile: Hugo Chávez • Shifter. The Washington Post (Washington D. Tim (30 April 2006). Enrique Andres (21 September 2009). Jennifer (February Group). (May–June 2006). “Venezuela exhumes unnamed dead in riot investigation”. 4 December 2006. Rory (16 February 2009). “Hugo Chávez.). JSTOR 20031966. 22 February 2007. 1999). The Progressive. Chávez Tightens His Inner Circle”. M. “Hugo Chávez: Leading the Left Wing Charge”. Retrieved 25 March 2011. The Guardian (LonHeads of Government” (PDF). Michael. Retrieved 30 March 2011. Retrieved 21 • Carl.2. • Shifter.). 14 May 2006. 11 November 2011. The Observer (London: Guardian Media • Trinkunas. 27 April 2007: Barbara Walters interviews Hugo Chávez • Interview with Hugo Chávez about the American threat on YouTube October 2009 • NPR Audio Report. Retrieved 10 April 2011.4 Interviews • Sackur. Retrieved 25 March 2011. Time (New York City: Time Inc. Tim (3 March 2008). Harold and McCoy. Foreign Affairs (New York City: Council on Foreign Relations) 85 (3): 45–59. Atlanta. • “Chávez wins Venezuela re-election”. • “Del Caracazo Case”. • Carroll. “New Venezuela tions: A Report of the Council of Freely Elected hands Chávez wide powers”. Retrieved 25 March 2011. tional Crisis Group. Chávez. Signs Trade Pact”. doi:10. President of Venezuela”. • “Chávez offers oil to Europe’s poor”. Hugo Chávez Interview. Time (New York City: Time Inc. The Guardian (London: Guardian Media Group). Foreign Affairs. Stephen. • Padgett. The Observer (London: Guardian Media Group).: The Washington Post Company). Retrieved 27 March 2011.).5 Websites and e-publications barrio”. 13. 14 External links • Padgett. “Nicaragua’s Ortega March 2011. Retrieved 25 March 2011. May/June 2006 issue • Palast.2307/20031966. Michael. • Romero. Alex (17 December 1999).

Archived from the original on 2013-03-27.34 • Hugo Chávez collected news and commentary at The New York Times • Hugo Chávez collected news and commentary at The Wall Street Journal • “Controversial Venezuelan Leader Hugo Chavez’s Death Teaches Vital Lesson About Cancer”. Miscellaneous • Extended biography by CIDOB (in Spanish) • Hugo Chávez at the Internet Movie Database • Works by or about Hugo Chávez in libraries (WorldCat catalog) 14 EXTERNAL LINKS .

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