You are on page 1of 15

Journal of Thermoplastic


Fabrication and Characterization of Jute Fabric-Reinforced PVC-based
R.A. Khan, M.A. Khan, H.U. Zaman, F. Parvin, T. Islam, F. Nigar, R. Islam, S. Saha and
A.I. Mustafa
Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials 2012 25: 45 originally published online 13
June 2011
DOI: 10.1177/0892705711404726
The online version of this article can be found at:

Published by:

Additional services and information for Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials can be found
Email Alerts:

>> Version of Record - Feb 15, 2012
OnlineFirst Version of Record - Jun 13, 2011
What is This?

Downloaded from at UNIV FED DE SAO JOAO DEL REI on June 14, 2013

00/0 DOI: 10. The values of TS and BS were improved to 77% and 46%. 2011. respectively. Degradation tests of the composites (up to 6 months) were performed in soil medium and showed partial degradation Journal of THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITE MATERIALS. KEY WORDS: polyvinyl chloride. Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology.2 GPa.sagepub. respectively. Farah Nigar. and 3. 2013 45 . University of Dhaka.I. Khan. tensile modulus (TM). bending strength (BS). Scanning electron microscopic analysis was carried out to investigate the interfacial properties of the composites.* Mubarak A. jute. Vol. Suvasree Saha and A.Fabrication and Characterization of Jute Fabric-Reinforced PVC-based Composite Ruhul A. Zaman and Fahmida Parvin Nuclear and Radiation Chemistry Division. Bangladesh Towhidul Islam. E-mail: dr.ruhul_khan@yahoo.sagepub. and bending modulus (BM) of the composite (40 wt% jute fabrics) were found to be 59. 62. compared to the matrix material PVC. Reprints and permissions: sagepub.nav Downloaded from jtc. Four layers of jute fabrics were compression molded with five layers of PVC. *Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. Haydar U. at UNIV FED DE SAO JOAO DEL REI on June 14. compression molding.3 GPa. Bangladesh ABSTRACT: Jute fabrics (hessian cloth) reinforced polyvinyl chloride (PVC) based composites were prepared by compression molding. composites. Mustafa Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering. 25—February 2012 0892-7057/12/01 45–14 $10.6 MPa. Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission. natural fiber. It was found that the composite containing 40% jute fabrics showed the best Dhaka 1000. The values of tensile strength (TS). Dhaka 1000. GPO Box: 3787.1177/0892705711404726 ß The Author(s).3 MPa. Rafiqul Islam. Jute content varied from 40–60 wt% in the Figure 1 appears in color online http://jtc.

or process of composite materials in general. scientists found natural fibers as a potential candidate for applications in consumer goods. Jutereinforced PVC-based composite is partially degradable-type composites which can compete with synthetic fiber-based composite materials. In this investigation. and recyclable nature [9–11]. INTRODUCTION ESEARCH ON POLYMER and composite materials gained a significant attention due to their versatile applications in many fields. The synthetic materials are undoubtedly good in mechanical properties and durability. namely a-cellulose. biodegradability. and modulus than plastic and is commercially available in tropical countries. Jute has three principal constituents. Therefore. partition boards. false ceilings.46 R.5]. So. A. jute appears to be a promising material due to its low cost. When they are subjected to a combustion process or landfill at the end of their life cycle. But they are not biodegradable and cause environmental pollution. It can be very cost-effective material especially for building and construction industry (panels. 2013 . The architecture of jute fabrics (hessian cloth or burlap) is shown in Figure 1. Natural fiber composite is of great demand in the whole world for environmental and ecological concerns [12–16]. Early works on composites focused mostly on the synthetic matrix and reinforcement [1–3]. and storage R Downloaded from jtc.sagepub. and lignin. jute fabrics were selected. Jute fabrics are made of jute fibers. Jute is a natural biodegradable fiber but PVC is not biodegradable. This leads to advantages with regard to technical. packaging. material recycling. automobile and railway coach interiors. Jute composites can thus ensure a very effective and value-added application avenue for the natural fiber. low-cost housing and automotive interior components. Interest in using natural fibers as reinforcement in polymer matrix as partial replacement of synthetic fibers has grown significantly during the last decade because of their low cost. to fabricate partially degradabletype low-cost and lightweight at UNIV FED DE SAO JOAO DEL REI on June 14.). etc. low-abrasive nature and low density. nonabrasive nature. and many others. Among all natural fibers. jute fabrics (hessian cloth) are used as reinforcing agent and PVC as the matrix material. an attention is focused to invent environment-friendly composite materials to replace synthetic composite [4. fully biodegradable composites have not enough thermo-mechanical properties compared to that of the synthetic fiber-reinforced composites [6–8]. Therefore. hemicellulose. Unfortunately. Khan et al. Jute is a very cheap and lightweight natural. high strength. low density. the released amount of CO2 of the fibers is neutral with respect to the assimilated amount during their growth.

Its intrinsic properties make it demanding and suitable for numerous applications [27–32]. PVC has outstanding chemical resistance to a wide range of corrosive fluids and offers more strength and rigidity than most of the other thermoplastics.Jute Fabric-Reinforced PVC-based Composite 47 Figure 1. 2013 . Thermoplastic matrix materials are the most important parts of a composite. Downloaded from jtc. It is because PVC is easy to fabricate and it can last for long time. There are several reasons why PVC has the broadest range of application and its use has grown more rapidly than other plastics [22–26]. It is a nonpolar and has a low permeability to gases. durable.sagepub. PVC exhibits greater tensile strength (TS) and high softening temperature (1558C). Architecture of jute fabrics (hessian cloth or burlap). Throughout the world. The objective of this research work was to study the mechanical and degradation properties of jute fabric-reinforced PVC-based partially biodegradable composites. It is a very popular material and has many and varied uses within industry and fabrication applications. devices [17–21].com at UNIV FED DE SAO JOAO DEL REI on June 14. PVC is a thermoplastic polymer and widely used as an engineering material because it possesses several vital and useful properties. It is inexpensive. above 50% of PVC manufactured is used in the field of construction. and flexible.

The architecture of hessian cloth is shown in Figure 1. bending strength (BS). The impact strength (IS) was measured using impact tester (MT-3016) according to DIN EN IS0 179 standard in the flat wise. un-notched mode. 2013 .. EXPERIMENTAL Materials Hessian cloth (unbleached commercial grade. Germany). After a certain period. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sheets were purchased from Polyolefin Company Ltd. made of Tossa Jute) was collected from Bangladesh Jute Research Institute (BJRI). Downloaded from jtc. composite containing steel plates was cooled to room temperature using another press (same model) and then cut to the desired size for testing. Mechanical Properties of the Composites The mechanical properties such as TS. All the results were taken as the average values of 10 at UNIV FED DE SAO JOAO DEL REI on June 14. Bangladesh. Hardness was determined by HPE Shore-A Hardness Tester (model 60578. Khan et al.sagepub. Dhaka. samples were withdrawn carefully. Soil Degradation Tests of the Composites Composite samples were buried in soil (having at least 25% moisture) for different periods of time. Singapore. Composites Fabrication The PVC sheets were cut into small pieces (15  12 cm2) and kept in the desiccator until composite fabrication. and dried at 1058C for 6 h and kept at room temperature for 24 h and then measured for their mechanical properties. A. washed with distilled water. and bending modulus (BM) were determined for the composites according to DIN 53455 and DIN 53452 standard methods by a universal testing machine (INSTRON 1011) with a gauze length of 20 mm. tensile modulus (TM). Jute fabrics were dried in an oven at 1058C for 1 h and then cut into small pieces of dimension 15  12 cm2. Composites were prepared by sandwiching four layers of jute fabrics between five sheets of PVC and then the sandwich construction was heat pressed at 1908C (above the melting point of PVC) for 5 min between two steel plates using heat press (Carver Laboratory.48 R. USA Model 3856) under a pressure of 5 tons. Then.

impact.801 GPa.8 4.681 GPa. Materials TS (MPa) BS (MPa) IS (kJ/m2) Hardness (Shore A) PVC sheet 33. 0. IS. at UNIV FED DE SAO JOAO DEL REI on June 14.8%. IS. and hardness of PVC sheet.49 Jute Fabric-Reinforced PVC-based Composite Table 1. and 60 wt% jute) were prepared and the mechanical properties were evaluated. and 98 Shore-A. BS. TM. respectively. TS of composites against jute content in PVC. BM. 2013 .sagepub. It was Downloaded from jtc. 40. respectively. The values of TS and BS of the composites with regards to percentages (%) of jute content in the composites are shown in Figures 2 and 3.5 Figure 2. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Comparative Studies of the Mechanical Properties of the Composites Jute fabric-reinforced PVC matrix composites (20.94 98  0.4 MPa.94 kJ/m2. 42. TS. and hardness of the PVC sheet were investigated and the values are represented in Table 1. The mechanical properties such as tensile.47 42. TS. 4. 15. BS.8 MPa. elongation at break (Eb%). bending. and hardness of the PVC sheet are found to be 33. The mechanical properties of the jute/PVC composites as a function of jute fabrics were measured.

while BS values of these are found to be 48.6 MPa. which promotes micro-crack formation at the interface and the resulting composite property is again found to decrease [33].sagepub. Khan et al. the density of the fibers is just right for maximum orientation and the fibers actively participate in uniform stress transfer from the continuous polymer matrix to the dispersed fiber phase.1 and 54. It was found that both TM and BM showed continuously increasing trends from 20% to 40% jute Downloaded from jtc. respectively.8 MPa.3 and 62. Figure 3. there was a notable reduction in mechanical properties of composites.26% increase in TS and BS. A similar improvement in the TM and BM was also observed in Figures 4 and 5. A. BS of composites against jute content in PVC.83 and 51.17% and 46. stress gets accumulated at certain points of the composites and highly localized strains occur in the matrix. than those of PVC matrix. respectively. As a result. respectively. beyond 40% of fiber content. as at this level. TSs of 20% and 60% jute-containing composites are found to be 39. respectively. 2013 . at UNIV FED DE SAO JOAO DEL REI on June 14.13 MPa. observed that the values of TS and BS of composites were increased linearly with the increase in jute fabrics to 40%. This implies poor fiber–matrix adhesion. the composite shows poor mechanical properties due to poor fiber population and lowload transfer capacity to one another. respectively. for 40% jute-containing composite which gained 77.50 R. The values of TS and BS are found to be 59. At lower levels of fiber content. High levels of jute content lead to agglomeration within the matrix and nonuniform stress transfer takes place.

2013 51 .sagepub. TM of composites against jute content in PVC. BM of composites against jute content in PVC. Figure 5. Downloaded from jtc.Jute Fabric-Reinforced PVC-based Composite Figure at UNIV FED DE SAO JOAO DEL REI on June 14.

For 20 and 60% jute-containing composites. respectively.52 R. and the values are found to be 1358 and 3200 MPa. A. The percentage of elongation at break (Eb%) of the composites was decreased with increasing jute content in composites because of low Eb% of the fibers compared to at UNIV FED DE SAO JOAO DEL REI on June 14. Composite containing 40% jute showed 99. 40%. respectively.41% and 299.67 kJ/m2 and then decreased whereas only 4. Khan et al. The incorporation of jute into PVC matrix has resulted in reduction of the elongation at break which is represented in the Figure 6. From Figure 7. and 60% jute-containing composites.94 kJ/m2 is found for PVC sheet. 13. 11. and 9. The values of Eb% were found to be 15. Shore-A hardness of the composites indicated that due to incorporation of jute fibers inside PVC. the hardness of the composite did not reduce but had almost similar properties. On the other hand.8.6. it is clear that jute composites gained huge mechanical properties over the matrix material and thus indicated good fiber matrix Downloaded from jtc. respectively.2. Variation of elongation at break with jute fiber content in composites. 2013 . respectively. Figure 6. the values of BM showed 1900 and 2800 MPa.sagepub.5% higher TM and BM than those of PVC sheet. Hardness of the composites is represented in Table 2. content in polymer matrix further increasing of jute content decreased the values.7 for PVC sheet. 20%. the values of TM were found to be 972 and 657 MPa. it was found that IS values gradually increased with increasing jute content in composites up to 40% and the value is 21. From this investigation.

a clear distinction between matrix (PVC) and reinforcing agent (jute fabrics) is found. The interface of the composites was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). fibers (from jute fabrics) are distributed properly but for higher percentage (60% jute) of fibers in composite (Figure 8(b)).53 Jute Fabric-Reinforced PVC-based Composite Figure 7.5 98 at UNIV FED DE SAO JOAO DEL REI on June 14. 2013 . Downloaded from jtc. IS of composites against jute content in PVC. It is clear that for 40% jute/PVC composites (Figure 8(a)). The SEM micrographs of (A) 40% and (B) 60% jute fabric-reinforced PVC-based composites are presented in Figure 8. Materials Hardness (Shore A) 20% jute fiber/PVC composite 40% jute fiber/PVC composite 60% jute fiber/PVC composite 98  0.5 adhesion. At higher percentage of jute. This investigation was carried out based on the macroscopic point of view of the composite.sagepub. the matrix PVC is not good enough to cover all fibers of jute fabrics thus lowering the mechanical properties.5 99  0. Hardness of composites. Table 2.

Figure 9 shows the effect of degradation time Downloaded from jtc. Variation of TS and BS with soil degradation time of composite containing 40% jute content. 2013 . A.sagepub. Relative Degradation of the Mechanical Properties of the Composites Degradation tests of the composites were performed in soil at ambient conditions for up to 24 weeks. Figure 9. Figure at UNIV FED DE SAO JOAO DEL REI on June 14. Khan et al. Scanning electron microscopic images of the interface of (a) 40% and (b) 60% jute fabric-reinforced PVC-based composites.54 R.

TM and BM values were also decreased over degradation time and the results are depicted in Figure 10. respectively. The best mechanical properties of the composites were found for Downloaded from jtc. microbial degradation takes place as well as water may enter from the edges of the composites and thus degrade the fibers slowly inside the composite. as a result. It is found that after 24 weeks. on TS and BS of the composites.47% and 25. 2013 . respectively. the losses of TM and BM values are 20. When buried. It was observed that incorporation of jute in PVC matrix. Similarly. the mechanical properties of the composites improved. CONCLUSION Hessian cloth (jute fabrics) reinforced PVC matrix-based composites (20–60 wt% fiber) were prepared by compression molding and the mechanical properties were evaluated. it was observed that both TS and BS decreased slowly with time. the mechanical properties of the composites were decreased significantly. the losses of TS and BS values for 40% jute-containing composite are found to be 15% and 17%. After 24 weeks of soil degradation. for 40% jute-containing composite.Jute Fabric-Reinforced PVC-based Composite 55 Figure 10.84%.sagepub. From the test at UNIV FED DE SAO JOAO DEL REI on June 14. Variation of TM and BM with soil degradation time of the composite containing 40% jute.

4. Walker. Mohanty. Preparation and Characterization of Jute Fiber Reinforced Shellac Biocomposites: Effect of Additive. I. Khan. Khan. Khan. Part 1: High Vacuum and Low Temperature.I. J. Ivan. M.A..K. Interfacial and Mechanical Properties of Environment Friendly Green Composites Made from Pineapple Fibers and Poly (hydroxybutyrate Co-Valerate) Resin. Pickering K. 10.. Khan. Drzal.J..H.K.. M.56 R.. Arifur Rahman. G. 2. T. An increase of 77% and 46% in TS and BS was observed with 40% jute fabric-reinforced composite as compared with the PVC matrix. (2008)... Khan. 29: 466–476.L. Zaman.A. I. Shubhra. 48: 1203–1210.. 9(1): 14–21. Studies on the Relative Degradation and Interfacial Properties Between Jute/Polypropylene and Jute/Natural Rubber Composites.A. 34: 3709–3719. A. R. Degradation tests in soil medium indicated that jute fabrics/PVC composites are partially degradable-type composite with advantages including low-cost natural fiber.. 2013 . S. and Mustafa. R. Mechanical.A. Misra. (2009)... N. 5. Physico-Mechanical and Degradation Properties of GammaIrradiated Biocomposites of Jute Fabric-Reinforced Poly(caprolactone). Md. Khan. (2003). Glass Technology. Luo. 276/ 277: 1–24.A. 11.U.J.. F.N.U. R. Mishra. Nayak. A.D..A. REFERENCES 1. Md. and Hinrichsen.. Khan. M...K. 29(12): 1838–1850. Parsons. Khan. Huque.. Ghoshal. (1999). Wambua. M.A. S. R. (2009). The Effect of Environment and Temperature on the Strength of E-glass Fibers. Md. S. Preparation and Characterization of Phosphate Glass Fibers and Fabrication of Poly(caprolactone) Matrix Resorbable Composites. 40% jute-containing PVC (60%) based composites. Beg. A. Kafi..S. Sultana.. T. Misra. P. Natural Fibers: Can They Replace Glass in Fiber Reinforced Plastics. M.A. M.A. S. 25(5): 665–681. M.. at UNIV FED DE SAO JOAO DEL REI on June 14..M. M.Z.S.. A.. Khan. 3. M. (1968)..H. R. Parija. A. 2(3): 231–234.E. M. (2003). 63: 1377–1385.-A. Study on the Mechanical Properties of Jute/Glass Fiber-Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Hybrid Composite: Effect of Surface Modification by Ultraviolet Radiation.. and Netravali. A.D. Abedin. Journal of Macromolecular Material Engineering. 9. M. and Fatema Mohamad Asri Ahmad. R.. and Noor. 7. Downloaded from jtc. Journal of Chemistry and the Chemical Technology. and Verport. S.A. Journal of Thermo Plastics Composite Materials. R. Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites. Pervin. Fernandez-Lahore.A. Saha. Zaman. L. H. N.. Khan et al. N. (2010). S. 29(7): 1078–1088.M. Biofibers. Sultana. S. Degradation and Interfacial Properties of Synthetic Degradable Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Composites.. Biodegradable Polymers and Biocomposites: An Overview. Islam. H. and Rudd. M. 8. (2006). Q. and Islam. 25(6): 575–588. A.A. Cameron. 6.G. Khan. Mohanty.T. Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites.. Jones. which indicated the potentiality of hessian cloth as reinforcing agent.sagepub. Composites Science and Technology. and Tripathy. M. (2000). and Khan. 12. S.I. Comparative Studies of Mechanical and Interfacial Properties Between Jute and E-glass Fiber-reinforced Polypropylene Composites. Haque. Journal of Material Science. Polymer Plastic Technology and Engineering. K. 63: 1259–1264. Khan..A. A. Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites.A. (2009). C. Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites. and Mustafa.I. G. S. Studies on Mechanical Performance of Biofibre/Glass Reinforced Polyester Hybrid Composites.. Khan... Journal of Composite Science and Technology.

Misra. (2004).K. (2004).... Biopolymers and Biocomposites. G. Biopolymers. 20(11): 4015–4020. Zaman. and Takeishi... Karmaker.. D. 17. Mechanical Properties of Natural Fibre Reinforced PVC Composites: A Review. 59(1–3): 251–261.H.. 28. (1985). Roe. 27.. 24.. 21.I. Khan. Wirawan. Hossain.. (eds). S.P. A. M. 55(11): 1–7. Studies on Jute Composites—A Literature Review.M. (2006). 26. R. Journal of Applied Polymer Science... Journal of Material Science. and Ali. New York. (2010). Haque. 31. S. 22. (2004). Effects of Copper Amine Treatment on Mechanical Properties of PVC/Wood-Flour Composites. Khan. A Literature Review.M. Fiber Science and Technology. and Mustafa. Fusion. (1997). 48: 760–766. Zainudin. A. B. 15.A. S. Electrical Conductivity. 18. Advanced Polymer Technology. 15: 41–46.A. and Drzal. C. Jiang. A. 49(7): 707–712. Islam. 25. Harte. and Kamdem. L. Taylor & Francis Inc. D. (2002). 24: 221–274. 14. (1981). H.N. at UNIV FED DE SAO JOAO DEL REI on June 14. H.U.C. 55: 158–164. Shibata.A. M.A. T. Polymer International. Nigar. 10(2): 70–78.B. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing. Zaman. H. K. Ozawa.. (1995). Li. 2013 .J. Jiang. In: Mohanti.. Polymer Degradation and Stability.Jute Fabric-Reinforced PVC-based Composite 57 13. K. 30(5–6): 609–629. P. and Du. 15: 612–616. Effect of the Incorporation of PVC on the Mechanical Properties of the Jute Reinforced LLDPE Composite. Sun.Z. S. A. 85: 129–138.. (2006).C. Uddin. Khan. Khan.sagepub. Jute Reinforced Polymer Composite by Gamma Radiation: Effect of Surface Treatment with UV Radiation. M. A. G. E.A. L. 99: 2167–2173. 29. M.A. and Biocomposites: An Introduction. 34(5): 729–792... Yosomiya. M. (1999). 16. 18(4): 351–363.. and Lakkad.T. Naidu.K. H. Saheb. Polymer Plastics Technology and Engineering. G. M.. Downloaded from jtc. H. and Hinrichsen.C. Alam. Shah. Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Jute Fabrics Reinforced Polyethylene/ Polypropylene Composites: Role of Gamma Radiation. J. Some Mechanical Properties of Untreated Jute Fabric Reinforced Polyester Composites. F.N. R. A. R.H. and Rajput. Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology. and Gassan.U. H. A.K.. 38(4): 531–535. Chen. Mohanti. (1991). Development of Poly (vinyl chloride)/Wood Composites.I. M. M. M. Interfacial Structure and Mechanical Properties of PVC Composites Reinforced by CaCO3 With Different Particle Sizes and Surface Treatment. Polymer Plastics Technology and Engineering. M. 30(3): 277–284. A. 19. and Sapuan. A. Drzal. and Ansell. Natural Fibers. 30. and Abedin. and Hinrichen. C. Polymer Plastics Technology and Engineering.. Teng. Khan.. D. Mohanty. R. Jute Reinforced Polyester Composites. Khan. Polymers for Advanced Technologies. C. (1999). Biodegradable Polyester Composites Reinforced with Short Abaca Fiber. L. Li.C.. Degradable Jute Plastic Composites. Misra. and Khan.. 23. Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology. N. (2009). 1–36. 20. Materials. Preparation and Properties of Composites Made from Rice Straw and Poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC). and Jog. Zhang. and Kamdem.S. C. (1999).N. Polymer Plastic Technology and Engineering. Journal of Progress in Polymer Science.A. K. (2009). 10(2): 59–69. pp.C. Natural Fiber Polymer Composites: A Review. M.L. Takachiyo. C. Polymer Plastic Technology and Engineering. Kafi. Kamel. S. (2006). Processing and Characterization of Jute Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic Polymers.H. Bledzki.. Selke. Polymer Degradation and Stability. A. H. A. 45(5): 607–613. Natural Fibers. Mechanical Properties of Jute Reinforced Plastic. Composites Reinforced with Cellulose Based Fibers. and Yang. Munikenche. Sains Malaysiana. and Mishra. M. (2005). Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Rigid Poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC)/Carbon Black (CB) Composites. Journal of Applied Polymer Science.

M. Effect of Fibre Loading and Fiber Ratio on the Mechanical Properties of Intimately Mixed Banana/Sisal Hybrid Fibre Reinforced Composites. 2013 . Kassel/ Germany. Yy. 32.58 R. (2007). Cao. Downloaded from jtc.. In: 5th Global Wood and Natural Fiber Composites Symposium. Study on the Interface Modification of Bagasse Fibre and the Mechanical Properties of its Composite with PVC.-S. Composites Part A: Applied Science and at UNIV FED DE SAO JOAO DEL REI on June 14. Wang. A. pp.-T. J. Idicula. Khan et al. 38: 20–25.-J. and Thomas. 33. D. 232–243. D. Zheng. (2004).-R.. S. 27–28 April. and Chen.sagepub.