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Modern

STEEL CONSTRUCTION

June 2014

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june 2014
23 nSBA 2014 Prize
Bridge Awards

features
23

nSBA 2014 Prize Bridge Awards

50

long life for longfellow

54

Safety hazard Prevention, By


Design

This years Prize Bridge Awards winners


range from a reconstructed bridge that
had been partially destroyed by a barge
to a massive delta frame spanning the
Shenandoah River.
by jiM taLbot
Built to be one of the finest and most
beautiful bridges in the country, Bostons
Longfellow Bridge gets a modern upgrade
while maintaining the character dictated by
its original vision.

by jie Zuo
When safety is addressed during design, it
can become easier to implement during
construction.

column
business issues

17

how green Are We?


by john Cross, P.e.
The more input we receive from our
industry, the more completely we can
attempt to answer that question.

in every issue
departments
6 eDitors note
9 steeL interChanGe
12 steeL QuiZ
59 neW ProDuCts
60 neWs & eVents
66 struCturaLLy sounD
resources
64
65

MarKetPLaCe
eMPLoyMent

PriZe briDGe aWarD & sustainabiLity CoMMenDationreconstructed Category

huey P. lOng BRIDge, neW ORleAnS, lA., p. 30

On the COveR: the Phyllis j. tilley Memorial Pedestrian bridge, fort Worth, texas, Prize bridge awardspecial Purpose Category, p. 32. (Photo: )
MoDern steeL ConstruCtion (Volume 54, number 6) issn (print) 0026-8445: issn (online) 1945-0737. Published monthly by the american institute of steel
Construction (aisC), one e. Wacker Dr., suite 700, Chicago, iL 60601. subscriptions: Within the u.s.single issues $6.00; 1 year, $44. outside the u.s. (Canada
and Mexico)single issues $9.00; 1 year $88. Periodicals postage paid at Chicago, iL and at additional mailing offices. Postmaster: Please send address changes to
MoDern steeL ConstruCtion, one east Wacker Dr., suite 700, Chicago, iL 60601.
DISClAIMeR: aisC does not approve, disapprove, or guarantee the validity or accuracy of any data, claim, or opinion appearing under a byline or obtained or
quoted from an acknowledged source. opinions are those of the writers and aisC is not responsible for any statement made or opinions expressed in MoDern
steeL ConstruCtion. all rights reserved. Materials may not be reproduced without written permission, except for noncommercial educational purposes where
fewer than 25 photocopies are being reproduced. the aisC and Modern steel logos are registered trademarks of aisC.

june 2014

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editors note
editorial Offices

1 e. Wacker Dr., suite 700


Chicago, iL 60601
312.670.2400 tel

editorial Contacts

eDitor & PubLisher


scott L. Melnick
312.670.8314
melnick@modernsteel.com

DuRIng My quARteR-CentuRy At AISC, ive had a wonderful time meeting and


hearing stories from some of the most significant people in the structural steel industry.
from Duane Miller to egor Popov to jon Magnusson, ive been lucky to share a moment
or two of their time.
But other than my knowing them, can you
guess what else they have in common?
Theyre all winners of AISC Lifetime
Achievement Awards. During the past 15
years, AISC has presented 68 Lifetime
Awards, 70 Special Achievement Awards,
seven Robert P. Stupp Awards for Leadership
Excellence, five J. Lloyd Kimbrough Awards
and six Geerhard Haaijer Awards for Excellence in Education.
Ive had the privilege of being the only person to have sat in on every meeting of the various awards committees that nominated these
156 peopleand Ive been able to suggest those
whom I believe have made a significant contribution to AISC and the structural steel industry.
But if you had the opportunity to give an
award, who would you nominate? Who deserves an AISC Lifetime Achievement Award?
These awards honor living individuals who
have made a difference in AISCs and the
structural steel industrys success. They provide special recognition to individuals who
have given outstanding service over a sustained period of years.
The individual should have:
made a positive impact on advancing the
use of structural steel
many years of sustained service to AISC
(such as involvement on AISC Committees and Task Groups as well as successful
completion of AISC special assignments)
earned recognition from other industry
groups
the respect of their professional peers
been generally acknowledged as having
reached the pinnacle of their profession
demonstrated, over an extended period
of time, innovation and originality in
design, construction or academic concepts in structural steel design
6

june 2014

What about a Special Achievement Award?


These awards provide special recognition to
individuals who have demonstrated notable
singular or multiple achievements in structural steel design, construction, research or
education. They honor living individuals who
have made a positive and substantial impact
on the structural steel design and construction industry. Here are the criteria:
The award is presented for achievement
on projects or research that showed innovation and originality and helped to advance the use of structural steel. The event
for which the individual is honored should
have made a positive and substantial impact on the structural steel industry.
The event for which the individual is
honored should be recognized by the
individuals peers as to the impact of the
achievement.
Individuals are eligible to receive more
than one Special Achievement Award if
future activities warrant additional awards.
AISC also is accepting nominations for the
Stupp, Haaijer and Kimbrough Awards. These
awards are only presented occasionally, and
only to those who stand head-and-shoulders
above their peers.
If you have potential nominees for any of
these awards, Id love to hear them! Visit: www.
surveymonkey.com/s/aiscaward and fill out
the brief form. And to learn more about these
awards and view a list of previous winners, visit
www.aisc.org/awards.

senior eDitor
Geoff Weisenberger
312.670.8316
weisenberger@modernsteel.com
assistant eDitor
tasha Weiss
312.670.5439
weiss@modernsteel.com
DireCtor of PubLishinG
areti Carter
312.670.5427
areti@modernsteel.com
GraPhiC DesiGner
Kristin egan
312.670.8313
egan@modernsteel.com

AISC Officers

Chair
jeffrey e. Dave, P.e.
ViCe Chair
james G. thompson
seCretary & GeneraL
CounseL
David b. ratterman
PresiDent
roger e. ferch, P.e.
ViCe PresiDent anD Chief
struCturaL enGineer
Charles j. Carter, s.e., P.e., Ph.D.
ViCe PresiDent
jacques Cattan
ViCe PresiDent
john P. Cross, P.e.
ViCe PresiDent
scott L. Melnick

Advertising Contact

account Manager
Louis Gurthet
231.228.2274 tel
231.228.7759 fax
gurthet@modernsteel.com
for advertising information,
contact Louis Gurthet or visit
www.modernsteel.com

Address Changes and


Subscription Concerns
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admin@modernsteel.com

Reprints

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the reprint outsource, inc.
717.394.7350
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If youve ever asked yourself Why? about something related to


structural steel design or construction, Modern Steel Constructions
monthly Steel Interchange column is for you! Send your
questions or comments to solutions@aisc.org.
Drift limits

For a single-story steel moment frame building with


CMU non-load-bearing walls, what requirements control
the analysis requirements and allowable lateral displacement of the frame?
The intent of the AISC 360 Specification (a free download from
www.aisc.org/2010spec) is to provide requirements related
to the design and detailing of steel systems for the forces
resulting from an analysis. It is not intended to dictate the
analysis procedure itself. Analysis requirements are typically
addressed in the building code, such as IBC, or in ASCE 7 in
the absence of an applicable building code.
That said, there are a couple objectives to be considered
in establishing analysis and lateral displacement criteria. First,
there is structural stability, and this is addressed to some
degree in the building codes as follows:
Basic requirements in ASCE 7-10, Section 1.3
Stability coefficient requirements in ASCE 7-10, Section
12.8.7
Seismic drift limits as defined in ASCE 7-10, Section
12.12
Structural steel-related stability requirements are given in
Chapter C of AISC 360-10, and some of the related methods
and provisions are covered in Appendices 7 and 8.
There also are serviceability criteria. These are not
addressed prescriptively in the codes and should be evaluated
on a project-specific basis, taking into consideration the
end users needs and expectations, the architectural finishes
(exterior and interior) and the detailing of how those finishes
will attach to the structure and/or accommodate structure
movements. ASCE 7-10 Appendix C addresses serviceability
requirements, but in very general terms.
In my practice, I often refer to the 1993 AISC Engineering
Journal article Serviceability Limit States Under Wind Load,
written by Larry Griffis. In this article, he discusses drift limits
in depth and provides some guidelines for establishing limits
based on different material finishes. Additionally, there is
AISC Design Guide No. 3 Serviceability Design Considerations
for Steel Buildings, 2nd Edition. These resources are available
for free download by AISC members at www.aisc.org/epubs.
Susan Burmeister, P.E.

grouting of Base Plates

When should the base plates be grouted for a multistory


structure?
AISC Design Guide 10 (a free download at www.aisc.
org/dg) provides the following guidance on this subject:
Until the column bases are grouted, the weight of the
framework and any loads upon it must be borne by the
anchor rods and leveling nuts or shims. These elements
have a finite strength. The timing of grouting of bases

steel
interchange

must be coordinated between the erector and the general


contractor.
It also states: Leveling nuts bear the weight of the frame
until grouting of the bases. Because the anchor rod, nut
and washers have a finite design strength, grouting must be
completed before this design strength would be exceeded by
the accumulated weight of the frame. For example, the design
strength of the leveling nuts may limit the height of frame to
the first tier of framing prior to grouting. Also, it is likely that
the column bases would have to be grouted prior to placing
concrete on metal floor deck. Properly installed shim stacks can
support significant vertical load. There are two types of shims:
those placed on (washer) or around (horseshoe) the anchor
rods. Shims placed on or around the anchor rods will have a
lesser tendency to become dislodged. Independent shims must
have a reasonable aspect ratio to prevent instability of the stack.
In some instances shim stacks are tack welded to maintain the
integrity of the stacks. When shim stacks are used, care must be
taken to ensure that the stacks cannot topple, shift or become
dislodged until grouting. Shims are sometimes supplemented
with wedges along the base plate edges to provide additional
support of the base plate.
AISC Design Guide 1 also provides some guidance. Section
2.9.1 states: When designing anchor rods using setting nuts
and washers, it is important to remember these rods are also
loaded in compression and their strength should be checked for
push out at the bottom of the footing. It is recommended that
use of the setting nut and washer method be limited to columns
that are relatively lightly loaded during erection.
Section 2.9.3 states: Column erection on steel shim stacks
is a traditional method for setting base plate elevations that
has the advantage that all compression is transferred from
the base plate to the foundation without involving anchor
rods. Steel shim packs approximately 4 in. wide are set at the
four edges of the base plate. The areas of the shim stacks are
typically large enough to carry substantial dead load prior to
grouting of the base plate.
Carlo Lini, P.E.

PJP groove Welds in Compression

AISC Specification Table J2.5 provides three conditions


related to partial-joint-penetration groove welds
subjected to compression:
1) Column-to-base plate and column splices designed
per Section J1.4(1)
2) Connections of members designed to bear other
than columns as described in Section J1.4(2)
3) Connections not finished-to-bear
For case 2, the nominal strength of the weld is 0.6 FEXX.
For case 3, the nominal strength is 0.9 FEXX. Why is the
weld assumed to have less strength when the members
are finished-to-bear than when the members are not
finished-to-bear?
Modern Steel ConstruCtion

steel interchange
The Commentary to the AISC Specification provides the
following information related to the first two cases:
Column splices have historically been connected
with relatively small PJP groove welds... Section M4.4
recognizes that, in the as-fitted product, the contact may not
be consistent across the joint and therefore provides rules
assuring some contact that limits the potential deformation
of weld metal and the material surrounding it. These welds
are intended to hold the columns in place, not to transfer
the compressive loads. Additionally, the effects of very small
deformation in column splices are accommodated by normal
construction practices Therefore the compressive stress in
the weld metal does not need to be considered as the weld
metal will deform and subsequently stop when the columns
bear. Other PJP groove welded joints connect members that
may be subject to unanticipated loads and may fit with a gap.
Where these connections are finished to bear, fit-up may not
be as good as that specified in Section M4.4, but some bearing
is anticipated and the weld is designed to resist loads defined
in Section J1.4(2) using the factors, strengths and effective
areas in Table J2.5.
Essentially what the Commentary is saying is that with
a column, we expect pretty good (but not perfect) bearing.
With members other than columns we expect pretty good
(but maybe less perfect) bearing. We have a lot of certainty
relative to what a column is, what its connection will look
like and how it will behave. We have less certainty relative to
what a member other than a column is, what its connection
will look like and how it will behave, but we still design the
weld for little load based on the fact that the members bear,
so we knock down the strength of the weld to account for the
uncertainty.
Now that weve compared Cases 1 and 2, lets compare
Cases 2 and 3. For Case 2, we already discussed that we use
0.6 because we ask little of the weld in terms of the design
load, but we have a good bit of uncertainty. For the members
not designed to bear, we ask a lot of the weld, but we feel we
have little in the way of uncertainty. For instance, for tension
on a PJP groove weld, where we also apply the 0.6 factor, the
Commentary states:
The factor 0.6 on FEXX for the tensile strength of PJP
groove welds is an arbitrary reduction that has been used
since the early 1960s to compensate for the notch effect of the
unfused area of the joint, uncertain quality in the root of the
weld due to the inability to perform nondestructive evaluation
and the lack of a specific notch-toughness requirement for
filler metal. It does not imply that the tensile failure mode is
by shear stress on the effective throat, as in fillet welds.
For PJP groove welds in compression, were not really
concerned with any of these factors, which explains why we
permit a higher nominal stress for Case 3.
Larry S. Muir, P.E.
10

june 2014

Stiffened Plates in flexure

What section(s) in the AISC Specification can be used


to determine effective width of stiffened plates used in
built-up sections subjected to flexure?
Because the AISC Specification is written with buildings
and other structures similar to buildings in mind, there are
no provisions for the effective width of plate in stiffened
plate structures. The effective width used in design varies,
depending on the type of structure you are designing (bin,
stack, tank, ship, etc.). For general flat plate structures, API
Bulletin 2V, Design of Flat Plate Structures, published by the
American Petroleum Institute, can be used to determine the
effective width.
A few of other sources may also be helpful:
Page 6.6-7 of Design of Welded Structures by Blodgett
uses an effective width of 12t on each side of the
stiffener, where t is the plate thickness. This is similar
to the value in Section J10.8 of the 2010 AISC
Specification (a free download available from www.aisc.
org/2010spec), which allows an effective width of web
to be used in the design of stiffened beam and plate
girder webs.
Tables B4.1a and B4.1b of the AISC Specification can
be used to determine the maximum effective width of
compression elements.
The steel stack code, ASME STS-1, allows an effective
width of only 8t on each side of the stiffener.
Bo Dowswell, P.E., Ph.D.

the complete collection of steel interchange questions and answers is available online.
find questions and answers related to just about any topic by using our full-text search
capability. Visit steel interchange online at www.modernsteel.com.

Larry Muir is director of technical assistance and Carlo Lini is staff engineertechnical
assistance at aisC. susan burmeister and bo Dowswell are consultants to aisC.

steel interchange is a forum to exchange useful and practical professional ideas and
information on all phases of steel building and bridge construction. opinions and
suggestions are welcome on any subject covered in this magazine.
the opinions expressed in steel interchange do not necessarily represent an official position of
the american institute of steel Construction and have not been reviewed. it is recognized that the
design of structures is within the scope and expertise of a competent licensed structural engineer,
architect or other licensed professional for the application of principles to a particular structure.
if you have a question or problem that your fellow readers might help you solve, please
forward it to us. at the same time, feel free to respond to any of the questions that you
have read here. Contact steel interchange via aisCs steel solutions Center:
1 e Wacker Dr., ste. 700, Chicago, iL 60601
tel: 866.ASK.AISC fax: 312.803.4709
solutions@aisc.org

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The answers to this months Steel Quiz can be found in AISC


Design Guide 13 Wide-Flange Column Stiffening at Moment
Connections as well as on the AISC and Modern Steel Construction
websites (www.aisc.org and www.modernsteel.com).

2 Determine the maximum panel


zone shear, V p, for the interior
column shown in figure 2.
assume an inflection point at mid
height of each story, and that the
W2150 is CjP groove welded
to the W14 column flange. use
the following moments for asD,
or 1.5 times these moments for
LrfD.
Dead load moment from each
beam, MDL= 30.0 kip-ft
Live load moment from each
beam, MLL= 37.5 kip-ft

160k
W1640

20k

100 k-ft

fig. 1

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30-0

MW-1

Calculate maximum
panel zone shear.
W2150

W2150

MW-2

fig. 2

3 if you are checking panel zone shear


for an oMf, iMf or sMf connection,
can equations j10-11 and j10-12
in the 2010 aisC Specification be
used?

4 size the doubler plate thickness

required along with the required


weld sizes for Weld a and Weld
b shown in figure 3. the required
shear strength of the doubler plate,
VDP, is equal to 30 kips for asD and
45 kips for LrfD. use astM a36
plate material.
Weld a

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MW-1 = MW-2 = 40.0 kip-ft

16

W1443

Moment due to wind load,

W1443

use the loads shown in figure 1


for asD for design, or 1.5 times
the loads shown for LrfD.
a) What is the story shear, Vc?
b) how does the axial load affect
the web panel zone shear
check?
c) What is the required web panel
zone shear strength, Vp?

assume that the inflection point


is at the midpoint of each story
and that the story heights are
equal to 12 ft. also assume that
the beam axial load is transferred
through the beam flange only
and that the effect of panel-zone
deformation on frame stability is
not considered in the analysis.

12-0

1 for the following questions,

14-0

steel quiz

fig. 3

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b) adding a full depth stiffener
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steel quiz

ansWers

1 a) the story shear, Vc, is determined by dividing the

sum of the moments transferred to the column by the


distance between the inflection points, h. the total
moment transferred to the column is equal to 100 ft-k and
the distance between the panel points is equal to 12 ft.
therefore, Vc = 100 kip-ft/12 ft = 8.33 kips for asD; 12.5
kips for LrfD by similar process (see figure 4, below).
b) the axial load transferred to the column does not
affect the shear in the panel zone, just the shear in the
column below the panel zone. note that section j10.6
states, this section applies to double-concentrated
forces applied to one or both flanges of a member at the
same location. Double-concentrated force is defined in
the aisC Specification as two equal and opposite forces
applied normal to the same flange, forming a couple.
c) the required web panel zone shear strength, Vp, is
equal to the beam flange force due to the moment (the
axial force is ignored in this calculation), minus the story
shear (see figure 4). the flange force, Pf, is equal to the
moment divided by the moment arm, which is equal to
the depth of the beam minus the thickness of the beam
flange. for asD, Pf = 100 kip-ft 12 in./ft/(16 in. 0.505
in.) = 77.4 kips, and Vp = 77.4 kips 8.33 kips = 69.1
kips. for LrfD, by similar process, Pf = 116 kips and Vp =
104 kips.
inflection point
assumed at h/2

Check web panel zone shear


for shear at panel zone, Vp

Vc = Mbeam/h
= 100 k-ft /12 ft = 8.3k
h = 12 ft

Vc
Pf
dbeam tflg

Vp

Pf
Where:
Vc
Pf = Mbeam/(dbeam tflg)
Pf = 100 k-ft /(16-0.505) = 77.4 k
Vc

a) force Distribution

b) shear Diagram

fig. 4

the panel zone is 33.0 kips. the moment due to dead


load is equal and opposite on both sides of the column
and cancels out. to maximize the panel zone shear, live
load is considered on one side only, and the controlling
load combination is 0.75L + 0.75(0.6W). the sum of the
moments at this location is equal to 0.75MLL + 0.750.6
(MW-1+MW-2) = 0.75 37.5 kip-ft + 0.75 0.6 (40.0 kip-ft
+ 40.0 kip-ft) = 64.1 kip-ft. the distance between the
inflection points is equal to (12 ft/2)+(14 ft/2) = 13 ft.

june 2014

3 yes. Commentary section e1.6b in the aisC Seismic

Provisions states: the required shear strength of the


panel zone may be computed from the basic code
prescribed loads, with the available shear strength
computed using equations j10-11 and j10-12 of the
Specification. this may result in a design where initial
yielding of the frame occurs in the panel zones. this is
acceptable behavior due to the high ductility exhibited
by panel zones.

4 for LrfD, the required web doubler plate thickness is

equal to tDP =VDP/(0.6Fydcol)=45kips/(0.9 0.6 36


ksi 13.7 in.) =0.168 in. the asD solution results in the
same thickness by similar calculation. use a -in. plate.
for Welds a the flange force is delivered directly to
the doubler, and these can be minimum-size fillet welds.
for Welds b, the shear load that is transferred is equal to
45 kips 16 in./(13.7 in. (2 0.53 in.)) = 57.0 kips. the
weld length is equal to 16 in. therefore the required fillet
weld leg size = 57.0 kips / 1.392 kips/in./sixteenth 16
in. = 2.6 sixteenths. the asD solution results in the same
requirement by similar calculation.
Can we use a 3/16-in. fillet weld? Probably not,
because a fillet weld detail must account for the
plate bevel and its effect on the doubler capacity; the
bevel changes the effective throat in most cases (this
is illustrated in aisC Design Guide 13). this can be
accounted for by making the plate thicker or the fillet
weld larger or both. Depending on the preference of
the fabricator, it may be more economical to prepare the
doubler plate and use a groove weld. refer to figure
4-13 in aisC Design Guide 13 for more information.

5 c) almost always. When it comes to designing column

2 for the asD solution, the required shear strength for

14

the story shear is Vc = 64.1 kip-ft/13 ft = 4.93 kips. the


required strength for the web panel zone shear is equal
to the total flange force (sum of moments divided by
the moment arm) minus the story shear. this equals Vp =
[64.1 kip-ft 12 in./ft/(20.8 in. 0.535 in.)] 4.93 kips =
33.0 kips. for LrfD, the corresponding answer by similar
process is 49.5 kips.

doublers and/or column stiffeners, it is nearly always


more economical to size a column to avoid adding these
types of reinforcement because shop labor is far more
expensive than material cost. sometimes, stiffening cant
be avoidedbut when it can it should be.

anyone is welcome to submit questions and answers for steel Quiz. if


you are interested in submitting one question or an entire quiz, contact
aisCs steel solutions Center at 866.asK.aisC or at solutions@aisc.org.

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business issues
hOW gReen
ARe We?
by john Cross, P.e., LeeD aP

I hAve Often Been ACCuSeD of bleeding green because


of my fanatical loyalty to the Green Bay Packers. But how
green am I, really?
It is one thing to say that I am green but quite another to
prove it. My proof comes in a variety of ways: season tickets at Lambeau Field; stock in the Packers; jerseys from Favre,
Rodgers, Cobb, Driver, Bulaga and Gado; a spotlighted 5-fttall combination green G and Lombardi Trophy in my front
yard, XLVPACK license plates, myriad other Packer memorabilia and most importantly the Packer flag that flew in front
of the office of Illinois Governor Pat Quinn to pay off a bet
with Wisconsin Governor Scott Walker after the Packers beat
the Bears in the 2010 NFC Championship game (yes, that was
mine). When it comes to being a Packers fan, I can objectively
demonstrate how green I am.
Fabricated structural steel is touted as a green construction
material. But how green are we?
Just as I can demonstrate my Packer greenness in a variety
of ways, we can also demonstrate the greenness of fabricated
structural steel. Steel is the most recycled material in the world
and structural steel has one of the highest percentages of recycled content of any steel product, often approaching 100%. At
the same time it is currently estimated that 98% of all structural
steel at the end-of-life is recycled back into new steel products.
From an emissions perspective we know that since 1990, energy
intensity, per ton, from steel production has been reduced by
28% and carbon emissions have declined by 35%. Studies have
been performed that demonstrate that the embodied environmental impacts of steel-framed buildings are equal to or less
than buildings constructed in concrete or wood. We can objectively demonstrate how green we are.
everyones green
But just as nearly every Packers fan can claim to be green in
some way, so can nearly every construction material. Structural
steel is recycled, concrete is regional and wood is bio-based.
These competing claims have created confusion in the marketplace as well as a knee-jerk reaction on the part of members
of the green construction community against what they have
wrongly labeled as single-attribute materials. The problem
isnt single-attribute materials, but rather single-attribute evaluation methodologies. To overcome this concern, the major
sustainability codes, standards and rating systems have placed a
higher degree of emphasis on encouraging transparency in the
reporting of environmental impacts associated with the production of all construction materials.

LEED V4, which entered the marketplace last November,


provides credit to projects that use at least 20 products that
have published environmental product declarations (EPDs).
The ASHRAE 189.1 committee is in the process of amending
that standard (Standard for the Design of High-Performance, Green
Buildings) to include the provision of 10 EPDs as a compliance
path for material selection. And a variety of proposals are
working their way through the International Green Construction
Code process to require the provision of EPDs.
Simply put, structural steel fabricators will soon be asked
by general contractors (who in turn would have been asked
for these by architects, engineers or project owners) to supply
EPDs on projects following LEED, ASHRAE or IgCC guidelines and requirements.
At the same time, there is an increasing emphasis on the
performance of life-cycle assessments (LCAs) comparing the
environmental impacts of products, assemblies or whole buildings as a means of lessening the overall impact of building construction and operation on the environment.
The difference between an EPD and an LCA is that the
EPD is a summary statement of the LCA, listing only five
or six impact categoriessuch as global warming potential,
ozone depletion, acidification, eutrophication and primary
energy consumptionwhile the LCA will go into much
greater detail on individual processes and impacts associated
with those processes.
The data required to either construct an EPD or to conduct
an LCA originates in a life-cycle inventory (LCI) of the processes
and material required to produce a product. In the case of fabricated structural steel this means collecting data from mills that
produce hot-rolled sections, plate or coil regarding their inputs

John Cross (cross@aisc.org) is an


aisC vice president.

Modern Steel ConstruCtion

17

business issues
of raw materials and energy and their outputs of steel, byproducts
and emissions. In the case of hollow structural sections (HSS) the
inputs and outputs of the secondary process of creating HSS from
coil are added to the LCI information for coil production itself.
key Component
But the process does not end there. The product delivered to
the job site is not a hot-rolled section, steel plate or HSS. The
delivered product is a fabricated hot-rolled section, a fabricated
steel plate or a fabricated HSS. This means that inputs and outputs associated with the fabrication process must also be included.
AISC is currently working with an outside consultant and the
three AISC member hot-rolled structural mills to develop industry average LCI data for use in producing an LCA for hot-rolled
structural steel. We are also discussing the development of similar
data for HSS with the three AISC member HSS producers and
the Steel Tube Institute. Plate data will be available through AISI.
Again, these are not the products that are delivered to the
job site. What is delivered to the job site is fabricated product,
so the EPD will need to be for fabricated structural steel. This
means that as an industry we must collect the data necessary
to develop industry average fabrication impacts. This was done
internally by AISC a few years ago in the form of a brief survey

of our fabricator members, but now must be redone in a more


rigorous manner using an outside consultant so the EPDs that
are produced can be certified by a third party.
A Clearer Picture
If you are a fabricator member of AISC, later this summer
you will be receiving a questionnaire that will include questions
regarding your 2013 production tonnage, material purchases,
waste, electricity consumption, water consumption and data on
a variety of other consumables. In addition, you will be asked to
identify your firm and the location of your shop by zip code in
order that the consultant can determine the electric power grid
mix (renewable, coal, natural gas, nuclear) in your area. Only the
consultant will see your individual shop responses, with all data
being reported to AISC as anonymous averages. A list of participating firms will be posted on the AISC website.
Im sure you are already asking yourself, Is this really necessary? Thats a perfectly valid question.
For all the hype we hear about green buildings, adoption
of green codes and standards has been much slower than
anticipated. LEED V4 is a quantum leap in complexity beyond
LEED 2009 (see Up To Speed on LEED, 02/2014) and green
construction practices have not lived up to their economic

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F I E L D

S U P P O R T

T E C H N I C A L

E X P E R T I S E

Learn
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Specify New Millennium. We are your unparalleled resource


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business issues
environmental impacts from average steel fabrication
acetylene
truck, Diesel
toluene

argon

Carbon Dioxide
electricity

truck, Gasoline
Waste to Landfill

nitrogen

oxygen

Propene

Lubricants

natural Gas

Propene thermal

Water

Global Warming Potential [kg Co2-equiv.]


eutrophication Potential [kg n-equiv.]
acidification Potential [mol h+ equiv.]
smog Potential [kg nox-equiv.]
total Primary energy Demand [Mj]
non-renewable Primary energy Demand [Mj]

10

20

50
%
fabrication environmental impacts by source (from the 2010 aisC member fabricator survey).
note the dominance of electricity consumption.

promisesi.e., additional construction costs have not been justified by operational savings. This may mean that fewer projects
will pursue LEED certification or be required to comply with
the requirements of the green codes and standards. I doubt you
will be asked to provide an EPD for fabricated structural steel
on the majority of your projects over the next three to four
years. But you will be asked for this information on some of
your projects, and architects and engineers will be making decisions relating to the framing systems for projects based on the
LCA data available for comparative construction materials.
the More the Merrier
So now you are probably saying to yourself, If this is industry average data, Ill let everyone else submit their data and
just provide the industry average EPD when asked. Well, that
doesnt quite work for two reasons.
First, LEED contains some qualifying language of the EPD
that says it can only be used by firms in which the manufacturer is explicitly recognized as a participant by the program
operator. While the interpretation of what this means is under
discussion within USGBC, it is clear that if you want to make
sure you can use the industry average EPD to meet the requirements of your project you will at a minimum need to be an
AISC member and have participated by submitting your shops
data. (Note: This also means that the industry average EPD
data will only apply to mill material supplied from producers
that participated in the collection of mill data.)
Second, if everyone took that attitude, we wouldnt be able
to develop an industry average!
On top of that, it is also possible that you may want to
develop an EPD that is specific to your shop. A companyspecific EPD receives more credit under LEED V4 than an
industry average EPD and could be used to demonstrate that
20

june 2014

30

40

60

70

80

90

100

the environmental performance of your company exceeds the


industry average. That is the theory being promoted by the
green community as a motivation for improving overall environmental performance. However, it is questionable whether
company-specific EPDs have any realistic meaning in the
structural steel industry.
The environmental impacts of the fabricating process vary
greatly by the requirements of each specific project, and the
mix of projects being fabricated in a shop will vary year to year.
Some will be high-tonnage, low-shop-hour projects while others may require significantly more shop activity on a per-ton
basis. For that reason, EPDs on a per-shop basis will not be an
accurate estimate of actual environmental impacts for a given
project or shop and are therefore not a valid basis for comparison of a specific firm with the industry average.
If you are following all of this, you may have just had a
light bulb go on and realized that even the industry average EPD or LCA for fabricated structural steel doesnt really
capture what the actual environmental impacts will be for a
specific project. You are absolutely correct! They are only
an average of the average shops average project. The current process does not allow for any adjustment of the EPD
or LCA based on the level of complexity of a given project,
thus making it our goal to include language in the EPD that
highlights this concern.
Bottom line: There will be an industry average EPD and
LCA for fabricated structural steel (hot-rolled, HSS and plate).
At a minimum, the EPDs will be available to AISC members
that participate in the shop data collection effort to meet the
documentation requirements of green rating systems, codes
and standards (keep an eye out for the survey later this summer). From there, we will be able to objectively demonstrate

how green fabricated structural steel is.

We can help you overcome the


biggest fabrication challenges.
CONTACT US TO DISCUSS HOW
WE CAN ASSIST YOU WITH THE
FOLLOWING SERVICES:
Structural steel fabrication of
large or complex weldments
for infrastructure, building
and industrial projects
Blasting of fabricated steel
and application of primer
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paint systems.
Transportation of fabricated
components to the jobsite.
Erection of fabricated steel
and concrete.
From subway stations and big city skyscrapers to clean energy projects, High Steel has
successfully partnered with building and industrial steel fabricators for the fabrication,
coating, and transportation of large or complex built-up steel components.

Contact: Rich Truxel, Sales Manager


(717) 207-4303 or RTruxel@high.net

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NSBA

2014 Prize Bridge

AWARDS

FiFTEEn bridgES havE EarnEd national


recognition in the 2014 Prize Bridge Awards
Competition. Conducted by the National Steel Bridge
Alliance (NSBA), the program honors outstanding and
innovative steel bridges constructed in the U.S.
The awards are presented in several categories:
major span, long span, medium span, short span,
movable span, reconstructed, special purpose,
accelerated bridge construction and sustainability.
This years winners range from a reconstructed bridge
that had been partially destroyed by a barge to a
massive delta frame spanning the Shenandoah River.
Winning bridge projects were selected based on
innovation, aesthetics and design and engineering
solutions, by a jury of five bridge professionals:
Benjamin Beerman, Senior Structural Engineer,
Federal Highway Administration/Resource
Center, Atlanta
Thomas R. Cooper, P.E., P.Eng., Lead Structural
Engineer, Parsons Brinckeroff, Denver
Robert Healy, Director of Structures, RK&K,
Baltimore
Thomas P. Macioce, P.E., Division Chief of
the Bridge Design and Technology Division,
Pennsylvania Department of Transportation,
Harrisburg, Pa.
Bert Parker, Senior Vice President/Chief
Administrative Officer, Garver, Little Rock, Ark.
This years competition attracted more than 30
entries and included a variety of bridge structure
types and construction methods. All structures were
required to have opened to traffic between May 1,
2011 and September 30, 2013.
The competition originated in 1928, with the
Sixth Street Bridge in Pittsburgh taking first place,
and over the years more than 300 bridges have won
in a variety of categories. Between 1928 and 1977,
the Prize Bridge Competition was held annually, and
since then has been held every other year, with the
winners being announced at NSBAs World Steel
Bridge Symposium.

2014 PrizE bridgE award winnErS


Prize bridge award winners
Major Span: Shenandoah River Bridge Delta Frame,
Jefferson County, W.Va.
Medium Span: Dixie Highway Flyover, Boca Raton
and Deerfield Beach, Fla.
Moveable Span: Willis Avenue Bridge, New York
Reconstructed: Huey P. Long Bridge, New Orleans
Special Purpose: Phyllis J. Tilley Memorial Pedestrian
Bridge, Fort Worth, Texas
Merit award winners
Major Span: Sakonnet River Bridge, Tiverton and
Portsmouth, R.I.
Long Span: Iowa Falls Bridge, Iowa Falls, Iowa
Medium Span: North Halsted Street Tied Arch
Bridge, Chicago
Medium Span: Ramp TE over I-95, New York
Short Span: River Road Over Ironstone Brook,
Uxbridge, Mass.
Short Span: Dodge Creek Bridge, Elkton-Sutherlin
Highway (OR138), Ore.
Reconstructed: Eggners Ferry Bridge Emergency
Replacement, Trigg and Marshall Counties, Ky.
Special Purpose: Christina and John Markey
Memorial Pedestrian Bridge, Revere, Mass.
accelerated bridge Construction Commendations
Willis Avenue Bridge, New York
River Road Over Ironstone Brook, Uxbridge, Mass.
130th Street and Torrence Avenue Railroad Truss
Bridge, Chicago
Eggners Ferry Bridge Emergency Replacement, Trigg
and Marshall Counties, Ky.
Sustainability Commendations
Dodge Creek Bridge, Elkton-Sutherlin Highway
(OR138), Ore.
Huey P. Long Bridge, New Orleans
Keene Road Bridge, Richland, Wash.

Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION

23

Something rarely seen,


hopefully leading
to a resurgence
of this structure type.
Benjamin Beerman
PRIZE BRIDGE AWARD
Major Span Category

ShEnandOah rivEr bridgE dELTa


FraME, JEFFErSOn COunTY, w.va.

he opening verse to John Denvers


Take Me Home, Country Roads
hints at the natural beauty of
the Shenandoah River Valley in West
Virginias eastern panhandle.
To accommodate increasing travel
demands to the area, which is about an
hour from Washington, D.C., the West
Virginia Division of Highways initiated a
project to improve West Virginia Highway 9, including a new bridge across
the Shenandoah River. HDR developed a
delta frame design that delivered significant savings compared to proposals for
more traditional designs. The resulting
signature shape of the Shenandoah River
Bridge is as pleasing to the bottom line
as it is to the eye.
The triangular shape of the delta
frame, one of the most basic structural
forms, yields a sense of stability and
strength, of simplicity and functionality.
The earth-tone reddish-brown color of
the weathering steel blends with the natural colors of the valley and is bounded
and complemented by the natural concrete color of the deck and barriers, as
well as the piers and abutments.
HDR and Trumbull performed preliminary design on both concrete and steel
options, but the anticipated construction
24

JUNE 2014

costs for concrete were much greater


than for steel. There was enough of a difference that it became obvious that steel
would be more economical, so the preliminary design of the concrete alternative was set aside.
The Shenandoah River Bridge would
be one of the longest delta frames ever
constructed, with 300-ft spans between
legs and 600 ft between main piers. Although the bridge type is no longer common, its ability to support long spans at a
significant height with few piers made it
an ideal fit for traversing the Shenandoah.
The unique shape of the new deltaframe Shenandoah River Bridge strikes a
pose worthy of its picturesque West Virginia surroundings, and delivered significant savings compared to proposals for
more traditional designs. Trumbulls bid
of $40 million for the bridge meant that
the West Virginia Division of Highways
would save $8 million, thanks to this creative design solution; the next lowest bid
came in at $48 million.
The new bridge is a much easier
structure type to inspect and maintain
than some of the other viable bridge
types (including the originally proposed
truss), especially since it was constructed
of uncoated weathering steel. This material eliminates the need for costly future
painting, which also could have had a
negative impact on the environment. As
part of the design, a future-staged redecking scheme was presented in the
plans and analyzed to ensure its viability. A potential future deck replacement
would not force a temporary closure of
the bridge, which would have a negative
impact on the public.
You can read more about this project
in Decision: Delta (12/2013).
Owner
West Virginia Department of
Transportation, Division of Highways,
Charleston, W.Va.
Engineer
HDR Engineering, Inc., Weirton, W.Va.
general Contractor
Trumbull Corporation, Pittsburgh
Steel detailer
Tensor Engineering, Indian Harbour
Beach, Fla. (AISC Member/NSBA
Member)

3,000

CONTRACTORS

100,000

IRONWORKERS

These are numbers you cant ignore: Over 3,000 Contractors,


over 100,000 Ironworkers and billions of dollars in
contracts for the worlds most recognizable projects.
There are literally thousands of reasons to
put yourtrust in Ironworkers.

Ironworkers
SAFETY, QUALITY, PRODUCTIVITY
www.ironworkers.org | www.impact-net.org

Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION

25

Painted steel box girders provided a clean and efficient


solution to a curved alignment traversing the street-level
intersections below. Tom Cooper
PRIZE BRIDGE AWARDMedium Span Category

dixiE highwaY FLYOvEr, bOCa raTOn and dEErFiELd bEaCh, FLa.

he Dixie Highway is done doubling up. The last remaining two-lane stretch, in northern Broward and Palm Beach
Counties (Fla.), has been expanded to four lanes in the
form of a flyover that crosses the Florida East Coast (FEC) Railroad, several local streets and the Hillsboro Canal, a waterway
that separates the cities of Boca Raton and Deerfield Beach.
Two separate structures were constructed using a total of
3,250 tons of structural steel. The main bridge is a 1,390-ft,
eight-span, S-curved, steel box girder bridge with a super-elevation transition. The steel tubs are 6 ft and 7 ft deep for ease
of maintenance and sit 16 ft to 30 ft above grade. The second bridge is a single-span, 218-ft single steel box pedestrian
bridge connecting Pioneer Park in Deerfield Beach to Boca
Raton over the canal.
Design challenges included integral pier cap girders at each
column and the large number of vertical and horizontal clearances and transitions between the main bridge and ramps.
Waterway width was also a challenge; while Hillsboro Canal
is technically a navigable waterway, it is not wide enough to
accommodate construction barges. The long box tub girder
26

JUNE 2014

spans were lifted into place by two 250-ton crawler cranes


working in tandem. It was the first time a 192.5-ton steel cap,
the single largest component, was ever lifted over and permanently set above the FEC Railroad, which continued to operate
freight trains through the construction site every half-hour on
weekdays. As construction activities needed to be coordinated
with the railroads train schedule, most heavy lifts took place on
weekends and overnight hours.
With only seven months allotted for design and release to
construction, the fast-track design-build project finished 95
days ahead of schedule and $7.5 million under budget. The
bridge officially opened in July 2012 and was funded through
a $40 million American Recovery and Reinvestment Act grant.
The completed project, including associated roadway, drainage, signalization and drainage improvements, eliminates an
existing at-grade crossing of the FEC Railroad, reduces travel
times for local businesses and residents and provides a more
efficient hurricane evacuation route for the area. Now, all motorists, pedestrians, and bicyclists can travel safely and efficiently between Boca Raton and Deerfield Beach.

Owner
Florida Department of Transportation, District Four, Fort
Lauderdale, Fla.
Engineer
Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc, West Palm Beach, Fla.

Steel Team
Fabricator
Tampa Steel Erecting Company, Tampa, Fla. (AISC
Member/NSBA Member/AISC Certified Fabricator)

general Contractor
Cone & Graham, Inc., West Palm Beach, Fla.

Erector
V&M Erectors, Inc., Pembroke Pines, Fla.
(AISC Member/AISC Certified Erector)
detailer
Tensor Engineering, Indian Harbour Beach, Fla.
(AISC Member/NSBA Member)

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Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION

27

A highly dramatic and incredibly complex example of


the float in method of accelerated bridge replacement.
Bert Parker

PRIZE BRIDGE AWARDMovable Span


ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION COMMENDATIONMovable Span Category

wiLLiS avEnuE bridgE, nEw YOrk

he Willis Avenue Bridge brings boroughs together.


The bridge is integral to connecting Manhattan
and the Bronx, carrying roughly 72,000 vehicles
per day via four lanes of traffic across the Harlem River.
It also provides an important pedestrian and bicycle
corridorand is on the route of the New York City
Marathon.
The 25-ft vertical clearance of the 350-ft-long swing span
28

JUNE 2014

portion allows most vessels in the river to pass below, but


the span swings open periodically to permit the passage
of tall vessels. Although the swing span is the centerpiece
of this bridge, this is just a short segment of the threequarter-mile-long structure. Elevated ramp connections are
provided from First Avenue at E. 125th Street and from the
Northbound FDR Drive in Manhattan to Willis Avenue and
to Bruckner Boulevard in the Bronx.

Due to structural deterioration and


alignment issues, the bridge needed
to be replaced. The new swing span is
a steel through truss and the approach
spans include trapezoidal box girders and
straight and curved plate girders as well as
transverse box girders straddling Harlem
River Drive and the at-grade section of
Willis Avenue below the bridge. A total
of roughly 8,000 tons of structural steel
were incorporated in the final project. A
separate curved girder ramp, designed
by a consultant for New York State DOT,
provides a direct connection to the Major
Deegan Expressway.
The 2,500-ton swing span portion was
preassembled and floated into position
on-site. This highly publicized operation
included the spectacle of the bridge
floating down the Hudson River roughly
160 miles from the assembly site near
Albany, including a tour around the tip
of Manhattan and below the citys East
River bridges. Floating the swing span in
allowed simplified erection on land and
rapid site installation, minimizing impacts
on navigation and vehicular traffic.
A 9-ft-diameter spherical roller thrust
bearing supports the entire swing span
while minimizing friction during span
operation and providing needed seismic
restraint. This is the largest application of
this type in the world for a spherical roller
thrust bearing. Swing span machinery,
electrical and maintenance areas were
integrated with floor system framing
below deck level to simplify future
maintenance access and integrate the
mechanical and structural components
in a way that provided direct load paths
from the balance wheels and center
wedges to the main structural members.
The truss arrangement offers a
modern design solution that is consistent
with other historic swing spans on the
river and provides a defined gateway
to the Bronx. The clean closed box
truss members are detailed to minimize
future maintenance needs, while features
such as architectural fences and pier
treatments are used to enhance the
appearance of this significant bridge.
The project produced a range of
social and economic benefits including
essentially eliminating traffic impact
during construction, improving highway
safety and operations and providing a
continuous, mile-long, 12-ft-wide bikeway/
walkway on the bridge that interconnects
the bike routes at both ends.

Owner
New York City Department of
Transportation, New York

general Contractor
Kiewit Constructors, Inc./Weeks
Marine Inc., a Joint Venture

Engineer
Hardesty & Hanover, New York

Steel detailer
Tenca Steel Detailing, Quebec,
Canada (AISC Member)

Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION

29

A span-by-span method of steel truss assembly and


erection allowed the bridge to be widened
without falsework in the river.
Tom Macioce

PRIZE BRIDGE AWARD & SUSTAINABILITY COMMENDATIONReconstructed Category

huEY P. LOng bridgE, nEw OrLEanS

t the grand opening of the Huey P. Long Bridge Widening Project last June, Louisiana Secretary of Transportation and Development Sherri H. LeBas hailed
the event as the rebirth of a great bridge, which symbolizes
the continued rebirth of this great city.
Originally completed in 1935, the bridge was built to
carry both rail and highway traffic. At 23,000 ft between
railroad abutments, the main spans of the bridge included
two 18-ft highway travel lanes cantilevered off of the railroad bridge.
After a study conducted determined that a new crossing
was not a viable option, the Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development in 1986 began investigating widening the existing span. Modjeski and Masters, the structural
firm that designed the original Huey P. Long Bridge, was also
engaged to design the expansion.
The final approved design involved expanding lanes
from two 9-ft lanes to three 11-ft lanes, with a 2-ft inside
shoulder and an 8-ft outside shoulder. As an expansion of
this magnitude was unprecedented, design teams faced

30

JUNE 2014

the additional challenge of executing an extensive analysis of the new main bridge superstructure, as well as the
original bridge.
Construction for the massive project began in April 2006.
The seven-year schedule was broken into four phases of
construction, including:
Phase I: Main Support Widening (piers) Began April
2006, completed end of May 2009. Prime contractor:
Massman Construction Co.
Phase II: Railroad Modifications Began October 2006,
completed June 2008. Prime Contractor: Boh Bros.
Construction Co.
Phase III: Main Bridge Widening (truss) Began early
2008 completed July 2012. Contractor: MTI, a joint
venture of Massman Construction Co., Traylor Brothers,
Inc. and IHI, Inc.
Phase IV: New Approaches Construction Began June
2008 and concluded August 2013. Contractor: KMTC,
a joint venture of Kiewit, Massman Construction Co.,
and Traylor Brothers, Inc.

During the first phase, river piers


were widened from 60 ft to 80 ft by
encasing the lower portion of existing
piers with concrete. The encasements
supported a new steel W frame that
was in turn used to support the widening trusses. The 53-ft-tall steel frame
is 152 ft wide at the top but only 75
ft wide at its bearings. Once the steel
W frame was supported, teams could
widen the main river spans.
You can read more about this project
in The Long Way Home (12/2012).
Owner
New Orleans Public Belt Road Railroad,
New Orleans
Louisiana Dept. of Transportation &
Development, Baton Rouge, La.
Program Managers
Louisiana Timed Managers, Baton Rouge
Engineer
Modjeski and Masters, Inc., New Orleans
general Contractor
MTI, a joint venture of Massman
Construction Co., Traylor Brothers Inc.,
and IHI Inc.
Massman Construction Company
KMTC, a joint venture of Kiewit,
Massman Construction Co., and Traylor
Brothers, Inc.
Boh Brothers Construction
Steel Team
Fabricators
W&W/AFCO Steel, Little Rock, Ark.
(AISC Member/NSBA Member/AISC
Certified Fabricator)
American Bridge Manufacturing,
Reedsport, Ore. (AISC Member/NSBA
Member/AISC Certified Fabricator)
Industrial Steel Construction, Gary, Ind.
(AISC Member/NSBA Member/AISC
Certified Fabricator)
Cosmec Inc., Athens, Texas (AISC
Member/NSBA Member AISC
Certified Fabricator)
Steel detailers
Candraft Detailing Inc., New
Westminster, B.C., Canada
(AISC Member)
Genifab Detailing and Engineering for
Fabricators, Quebec, Canada
(AISC Member)
Tensor Engineering,
Indian Harbour Beach, Fla.
(AISC Member/NSBA Member)

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Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION

31

The bridge is incredibly graceful, light and striking,


enhancing the landscape and natural river and park environment.
Robert Healy

PRIZE BRIDGE AWARDSpecial Purpose Category

PhYLLiS J. TiLLEY MEMOriaL PEdESTrian bridgE, FOrT wOrTh, TExaS

esidents of Ft. Worth now have an elegant new path over


the Trinity River. Connecting Trinity Park to a new trail that
terminates in downtown Fort Worth, the new Phyllis J. Tilley Memorial Bridge has a graceful profile that enhances the
serene landscape. A steel arch with a span of 163 ft supports
steel stress ribbon segments and precast concrete planks
over the river, complementing the adjacent historic Lancaster vehicular bridge.
The 368-ft-long, 12-ft-wide steel stressed ribbon/arch
combination bridge is named for Phyllis Tilley, an advocate
for use of the riverfront. Pedestrians and bicyclists crossing the bridge will experience a smooth, undulating ADAcompliant bridge surface. At night, the bridge is illuminated
with a combination of white and blue LED lighting for increased safety and aesthetic appeal. The absence of vertical arch support struts reduces the horizontal loads created
by periodic river flooding. The bridges slim profile belies
32

JUNE 2014

the strength and versatility of the design, which enables the


structure to sustain a 500-year flood event without raising
flood elevations more than one inch.
One important challenge with stress ribbon bridges is
achieving a deck running slope that meets ADA accessibility
requirements and maximum allowable slopes. Since a stress
ribbon bridge is in fact a catenary structure that derives its
strength from the sag of the supporting ribbon, the deck slope
must follow the sag of the ribbon, and this slope can easily exceed ADA limits. To meet this challenge, the precast concrete
deck panels were designed with varying thicknesses to provide
a finished deck surface with a series of short ramps and landings that meet ADA requirements.
This bridge represents a cooperative funding effort by the
City of Fort Worth, federal agencies and private donations
through Streams and Valleys, Inc., a local not-for-profit organization that helps to protect and enhance the Trinity River and

its adjacent trails. These groups invested a


total of $2.5 million for a bridge that has
already had a significantly positive impact
on the local area since its dedication in August 2012. The bridge is the first pedestrian crossing of the Clear Fork of the river
in the last 20 years.

Bridge
Steels
High Strength
Weathering and
High Strength

Owner
City of Fort Worth, Texas

A588 A847
A572-50 A709-50
A709-50W

Engineer of record
Freese and Nichols, Inc., Fort Worth
Structural bridge Engineer
Schlaich Bergermann and Partner, LP,
New York

PRODUCTS

architect
Rosales + Partners, Boston, Mass.
general Contractor
Rebcon, Inc., Dallas

GRADES

Serving Our Customers Since 1981


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205.664.2950 800.868.6798 f: 205.663.3391
www.centralsteelservice.com

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SQUARES TUBING
Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION

33

MERIT AWARDMajor Span Category

SakOnnET rivEr bridgE, TivErTOn and POrTSMOuTh, r.i.

he Sakonnet River Bridge carries R.I. Highway 24 over


the Sakonnet River, a tidal passage separating the
Town of Portsmouth on Aquidneck Island to the west
and the Town of Tiverton on the mainland to the east.
Located just to the south of where the Sakonnet River
opens into Mount Hope Bay, the Sakonnet River Bridge setting is one of mixed use, comprised of established neighborhoods with 19th and early 20th century homes, pleasure
boat marinas, fishing wharves and commercial real estate.
The replacement structure accommodates two 12-ft lanes
in each direction, 4-ft-wide high-speed shoulders, 10-ft-wide
low-speed shoulders and a 13-ft-wide bicycle/pedestrian
shared-use path on the north side of the bridge; this path
introduces a pedestrian and bicycle connection between the
two towns that has been absent for more than half a century.
After studying bridge types for the replacement structure, it was decided that the most reasonable and prudent
decision would be to design and advertise two separate
structure types. These types included 1) an unpainted
weathering steel trapezoidal box girder structure and 2) a
twin segmental concrete trapezoidal box structure. Extensive architectural enhancements were included to dress
up these economic structure types.
The final design has ten girder spans ranging from 100 ft to
400 ft. Several enhancements, including a boat ramp and handicap accessible fishing pier, were included in the contract. The
project was advertised in October of 2008 and bidding opened
the following January. The low bid was about $165 million for
the steel alternative design, which was then constructed. Due
to overlapping areas with the existing bridge, the new bridge
was built in phases in order to maintain traffic at all times, and
34

JUNE 2014

four full lanes of traffic were operational on the new structure in


September of 2012.
Ultimately, this bridge is noteworthy for its cost-effective structure type, which is tastefully enhanced with architectural and lighting features. In addition, innovative pile
details allowed for combined side-friction and end-bearing in difficult soils, thereby minimizing driving depths.
An incentive/disincentive program helped to fast-track
the construction schedule, rendering the existing bridge
out-of-service as soon as possible and lifting the heavy
truck restrictions of this highway route. An automated
electronic vibration and displacement instrumentation
and alert system was attached to the existing bridge, and
several of the existing piers were pre-outfitted for emergency jacking.
Owner
Rhode Island Department of Transportation, Providence, R.I.
Engineer
Commonwealth Engineers & Consultants, Inc.,
Providence, R.I.
general Contractor
Cardi Corporation, Warwick, R.I.
Steel Team
Fabricator
Hirschfeld Industries - Bridge, Colfax, N.C. (AISC
Member/NSBA Member/AISC Certified Fabricator)
detailer
abs Structural Corporation, Melbourne, Fla. (AISC
Member/NSBA Member)

MERIT AWARDLong Span Category

iOwa FaLLS bridgE, iOwa FaLLS, ia

he site of the Iowa Falls Bridge in Iowa


Falls, Iowa, has seen a lot of action
over the last century.
The recently built bridge replaced a 1928
concrete arch bridge that had undergone
seven rehabilitation efforts, including major
ones in 1976 and 2000. Eventually, the original structure of the concrete span was found
to be structurally deficient, functionally obsolete and too costly to rehabilitate again.
Although the structure was on the National
Register of Historic Places, the Iowa DOT
opted to demolish it and replace it with a
modern steel bridge on the same alignment.
The arch rib used on this structure used
a nearly square cross section rather than a
rectangular configuration common with traditional arch ribs. Consequently, the web
plates near the base of the arch are thicker
than normal. Conventional design practices
use wind bracing between the arch ribs to
minimize lateral bending forces in the arch
rib as a result of wind loads perpendicular
to the arch rib. However, due to the widthto-span ratio, a trussed bracing system was
deemed inefficient and impractical. Instead,
four struts were provided between the arch
ribs to allow them to share the lateral loads,
which required designing the arch ribs and
struts for biaxial bending plus compression.
Redundancy was designed into the hanger
cables and tiebacks at the abutment. In case
of damage to the hanger cables, the cables
were designed to accommodate full roadway
traffic with any one of the four cables in a set
removed or damaged. The tiebacks at the
abutments are encased in HSS and grouted to
add additional protection to withstand small
impacts, such as those associated with light
excavation equipment that might be used if
the buried utilities off the end of the bridge
had to be accessed. Also, by using lightweight
backfill, the abutment was designed so the
failure of one tie will not result in a progressive
failure of the remaining ties in the abutment.
As part of its bridge infrastructure program,
the Iowa DOT focuses on investigating the
use of new high-performance materials,
new design concepts and construction
methods, and new maintenance methods.
These progressive efforts are intended to
increase the life span of bridges while also
making them safer and more cost-effective.
By increasing the longevity of the Iowa Falls
Bridge and thus minimizing traffic disruption,
the public will experience fewer constructionrelated travel delays moving forward.

To achieve the greatest service life on the Iowa Falls Bridge, a number
of corrosion-resisting systems were incorporated into the design. The structural steel is A709 Grade 50 weathering steel. Areas exposed to road-salt
spray and runoff are painted with a three-coat paint system to further protect
the structure. The inside of the arch rib is also prime-coated for its entire
length. The sockets, pins and threaded rods connecting the hanger cables
to the arch rib and interior floor beams are galvanized. The cables have a
Class A zinc coating on their interior strands and a Class C zinc coating on
the exterior strands for additional corrosion protection.
The Iowa DOT testing and monitoring program, developed in coordination with the Iowa State University Bridge Engineering Center, collects performance data for structures to compare against design-based structural
parameters and to determine if the structural response is appropriate. Its
most challenging research program has been related to developing structural
health monitoring (SHM) to determine the real-time and continuous structural
conditions of a bridge. For the Iowa Falls Bridge, the goal was to implement
a multi-sensor continuous SHM system for general performance evaluation
(structural, environmental, etc.) that can easily be adapted to other highway
and interstate bridges and other monitoring needs. The system allows easy
access to real-time data the Iowa DOT can react to immediately. To this end,
a SHM system was developed by the BEC and placed on the bridge. Sensors
monitor wind speed, potential icing conditions, traffic, heavy loads, corrosion,
moisture, strain on the arch and cables and other conditions to help evaluate
the performance of the structure, its materials and its long-term safety.
Owner
Iowa Department of Transportation, Ames, Iowa
Engineer of record
HDR Engineering, Inc., Omaha, Neb.
general Contractor
Cramer and Associates, Grimes, Iowa

Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION

35

MERIT AWARDMedium Span Category

nOrTh haLSTEd STrEET TiEd arCh bridgE, ChiCagO, iL

ust a few years ago, the Halsted Street Bridge over the
Chicago River North Branch Canal put in its 100th year
of service.
Built in 1908, the movable double-leaf trunnion bascule
truss bridge provided navigable waterway accessibility for
vessels too tall to pass beneath when it was closed. Due to
the cost of maintaining a movable bridge and the lack of
high-mast vessels using the canal, the movable mechanisms
of the bridge were decommissioned over 25 years ago
and the movable spans were locked together in the closed
position.
More recently, the bridge became identified as the only
remaining bottleneck to Halsted Street traffic and had
become structurally obsolete (in 2007, it earned a sufficiency
rating of 25.9 out of 100), and the Chicago Department of
Transportation (CDOT) retained structural engineer Lochner
to design a replacement.
The new replacement structure consists of a 157-ftlong, 80-ft-wide steel tied arch bridge main span flanked
by two 36-ft three-sided precast concrete arch approach
spans. With the new bridge deck 22-ft wider than the
existing bridge, the replacement bridge carries two lanes
each of northbound and southbound vehicular traffic, with
one bike lane and pedestrian sidewalk placed on each
side. Architectural enhancements were incorporated into
the project, including architectural lighting and railings.
The pleasantly wide sidewalks of the bridge are shielded
from the vehicle traffic by cables and railings. This design
arrangement provides the motorists as well as pedestrians
with a much safer traffic environment.
To accommodate the roadway with four vehicular lanes
and two bike lanes, the arch ribs are spaced at 60 ft. centerto-center; the rib element is a 2-ft, 6-in-wide by 3-ft-deep
welded steel box. For simplicity, the rib is braced with a
lateral system that consists of only four top struts rigidly

36

JUNE 2014

framed with the ribs. The interior of the tie girder is painted
bright white for the convenience of future inspection via
cameras through the hand holes.
The major force carrying cambered members also
include arch ribs, ties and cable hangers. For the tied
arch bridge, which is designed as a rigid moment frame
in nature, member cambering not only serves to achieve
a desired final bridge geometry, but also helps to reduce
the member forces by injecting a counteracting force
into the structural system through erection. Similar to the
prestressing concept used for the concrete structure,
introduction of the counteracting torsional moments
imposed on the steel structural system allow the design
to minimize the structural size and maximize the efficiency
of the steel usage. Although the savings of the structural
steel to the project was a direct benefit, additional indirect
benefits included the use of lighter false work and reduction
in demand for the crane capacity.
The original bridge was closed after Thanksgiving Day of
2010, and on Christmas Eve of 2011 the main construction
of the project was complete and Halsted Street Bridge was
open to vehicular and pedestrian traffic on schedule. The
total final construction cost, including approach spans and
roadway construction, was $13.7 million, well under the
allocated city budget for the project.
The tied arch bridge is a valid design option for
enhancing an urban setting with an aesthetically
pleasing structure. The successfully completed project
demonstrates that a short-span tied arch can be done
economically with attention to the steel details that
accommodate both accessibility and constructability.
Plus, its size speaks to its adaptability and usefulness
in tight quarters, and it validates that site issues can be
overcome by thoughtful design.
For more on this project, see Chicago Crossing (06/2013).

Owner
Chicago Department of Transportation
Division of Engineering, Chicago
Engineers
H.W. Lochner, Inc., Chicago
HBM Engineering, Hillside, Ill.
Steel Team
Fabricator
Hillsdale Fabricators, St. Louis
(AISC Member/AISC Certified
Fabricator)

General Contractor
Walsh Construction,
Chicago

Detailer
Candraft Detailing, Inc., New
Westminster, B.C., Canada (AISC
Member)

Hollo-Bolt

by

ICC-ES approved

for compliance with the International Building Code

ICC-ES has published Evaluation Report ESR-3330 for designing Hollo-Bolt


connections to LRFD and ASD methods. This assures both building officials
and the wider building industry that Lindapters Original Expansion Bolt for
Structural Steel meets I-Code requirements.
Exclusive Hollo-Bolt features include:

ICC-ES Evaluation Report

4 Highest resistance to tensile loading in accordance

DIVISION: 05 00 00METALS
Section: 05 05 02METAL FASTENINGS

ESR-3330

Issued March 1, 2014


This report is subject to renewal March 1, 2015.

www.icc-es.org | (800) 423-6587 | (562) 699-0543

with AC437
4 Use in Seismic Design Categories (SDC) A, B and C

slits 90 degrees from each other. The collar is a circular


element having two flat surfaces (to accommodate
an open-ended wrench) with a circular hole integral with
the sleeve. The cone is a steel circular internally
threaded nut with grooves on the outer surface.
Nominal Hollo-Bolt sizes include 5/16 inch (M8), 3/8 inch
(M10), 1/2 inch (M12), 5/8 inch (M16), and 3/4 inch (M20),
with each size of bolt available in three lengths.

REPORT HOLDER:
LINDAPTER
LINDSAY HOUSE, BRACKENBECK ROAD
BRADFORD, WEST YORKSHIRE
BD7 2NF
UNITED KINGDOM
44 (0) 1274 521444
www.lindapter.com
www.lindapterusa.com

The Hollo-Bolt 5 Part Fasteners are similar, except that


they include a nitrile rubber washer and separate collar.
Figure 1 provides a picture of the Hollo-Bolt 3 Part and
Hollo-Bolt 5 Part. Table 1 provides part codes, design
strengths, and installation information.

EVALUATION SUBJECT:

HOLLO-BOLT
FASTENERS

3 PART AND HOLLO-BOLT

5 PART

1.0 EVALUATION SCOPE


Compliance with the following code:

4 Standard HDG product at standard pricing

2009 International Building Code (IBC)

Property evaluated:
Structural
2.0 USES

4 Available off-the-shelf in sizes 5/16 - 3/4


from your local distributor
4 Patented High Clamping Force design
(sizes 5/8 and 3/4)

ICC

A Subsidiary of the International Code Council

Hollo-Bolt
Fasteners are designed for connecting
structural steel to hollow structural
section (HSS) steel
st
members and other structural steel elements where

access is difficult or restricted to one side only. Hollo-Bolt


fasteners are intended for use with rectangular or square
HSS members and are recognized for resisting static
tension and shear loads in bearing-type connections. The
fasteners are alternatives to bolts described in Section J3
of AISC 360, which is referenced in Section 2205.1 of the
IBC, for bearing-type connections.
The Hollo-Bolt Fasteners may be used to resist wind
loads, and seismic loads in Seismic Design Categories
A, B and C.
3.0 DESCRIPTION
3.1 General:
Hollo-Bolt 3 Part Fasteners are assembled from three
components, consisting of the core bolt, the body (sleeve)
including the shoulder (collar), and the cone. The steel
core bolt features a threaded shank and hexagonal head.
The body is a steel segmented hollow cylinder, with four

3.2 Materials:
3.2.1 Set Screw: The core bolt is manufactured
from steel complying with EN ISO 898-1, Class 8.8,
having a specified Fu of 116,030 psi (800 MPa).
3.2.2 Body (sleeve) with Integral Collar, Body (sleeve
without collar), Collar and Cone: The parts are
manufactured from free cutting carbon steel Grade
11SMn30 or 11SMnPb30, conforming to BS EN 10087,
having a minimum tensile strength of 62,400 psi
2
(430N/mm ) (sizes up to LHB16) or 56,500 psi
(390N/mm2) (size LHB20); or cold drawn steel AISI
C10B21, having a minimum tensile strength of
68,000 psi (470N/mm2).
3.2.3
Rubber
Washer: The
measured on the A scale 80-90.

shore

hardness

is

3.2.4 Finish Coating: All components, except the


rubber washer, are hot dipped galvanized/high
temperature galvanized to BS EN ISO 1461, as
described in the quality documentation.
4.0 DESIGN AND INSTALLATION
4.1 Design:
The fasteners are alternatives to bolts described in
Section J3 of AISC 360, which is referenced in Section
2205.1 of the IBC, for bearing-type connections. The
design of the Hollo-Bolt Fasteners must comply with this
report, Section J3 of AISC 360 and the strength design

information for the Hollo-Bolt provided in Table 1 of this


report. The load-carrying capacity of the assembly
depends on the fasteners, the type of elements
connected, such as a HSS and its their cross

ICC-ES Evaluation Reports are not to be construed as representing aesthetics or any other attributes not specifically addressed, nor are they to be construed
recommendation for its use. There is no warranty by ICC Evaluation Service, LLC, express or implied, as
as an endorsement of the subject of the report or a recommendati
to any finding or other matter in this report, or as to any product covered by the report.
1000

Copyright 2014

Page 1 of 6

Visit www.LindapterUSA.com to download the full Evaluation Report today.


Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION

37

MERIT AWARDMedium Span

raMP TE OvEr i-95, nEw YOrk

he Ramp TE bridge replacement covers a lot of ground


(or at least spans over it).
The project is part of the rehabilitation of the
Alexander Hamilton Bridge complex on I-95, the Cross Bronx
Expressway (CBE) between Amsterdam Avenue in New York
County and Undercliff Avenue in Bronx County. The bridge
supports the tightly curved Ramp TE over the West Approach
spans of the main I-95 bridge.
The existing Ramp TE bridge was a 660-ft-long concrete
box girder design with 10 simple spans and a center line radius
of 210 ft. The bridge was located totally within a New York City
park and had an existing pier located in the median of the CBE,
in the center of the west approach spans of the Alexander
Hamilton Bridge.
The reconstruction of the Alexander Hamilton Bridge
required a widening to each side of the Mainline Bridge of 11
ft. In order to provide the necessary lateral clearances to permit
this widening, two of the piers of the Ramp TE bridge structure
needed to be relocated as they were positioned immediately
adjacent to the edge of the roadway deck of the main bridge.
Furthermore, one of the piers supporting Ramp TE was located
in the center median of the CBE, in the middle of Span 2W of
the Alexander Hamilton Bridge, and effectively prohibited the
relocation of traffic lanes during staged construction for the
mainline bridge on the west side of the Harlem River.
It was decided to replace the bridge structure in its entirety,
with a design that eliminated the pier in the central median
of the CBE. The new bridge structure for Ramp TE is a twin
steel tub girder structure supporting a reinforced concrete
composite deck. It was built in the same location as the existing
bridge and remains on a very tight centerline radius of 210 ft
with a 6% super elevation. The number of spans was reduced
from 10 equal spans of 66 ft to a five-span arrangement of
varying centerline lengths, with the piers positioned to suit the
existing features. The abutments were retained, as were two
pier shafts and foundations; new cap beams were constructed
for these shafts. The other two piers have foundations that
38

JUNE 2014

used existing spread footings but have complete new shafts.


The design of the new bridge structure was controlled fully
by the extremely tight radius of the center line. The client had
specified that the top flanges of the box girders be provided
with permanent horizontal bracing as a forward-looking
measure in the event that a re-decking project would be
required at some point in the future. The controlling condition
for the design of the top flange bracing was the placement
of the deck concrete, due to the unbalanced torsional effects
resulting from the concrete placement operation. As such, the
sequence for placing the concrete deck sections was rigorously
defined in the contract plans.
A further item of interest was that it had been agreed that
the structure would be fully continuous throughout its length.
This decision arose primarily from the fact that the original
bridge had two expansion joints located adjacent to existing
piers 4 and 7. These expansion joints had deteriorated severely
and it was decided that if possible there would be no interior
expansion joints in the new structure throughout its length. As
a result, the expansion arrangement of the bridge assumes that
the bridge is fixed at new pier 2 and will expand in a guided
fashion at all other piers and abutments.
Owner
New York State Department of Transportation, Long Island
City, N.Y.
Engineer
Jacobs, New York
general Contractor
Halmar International/CCA Civil, Nanuet, N.Y.
Steel Fabricator
Structal-Bridges, Claremont, N.H. (AISC Member/NSBA
Member/AISC Certified Fabricator)

MERIT AWARDShort Span


SUSTAINABILITY COMMENDATION

dOdgE CrEEk bridgE,


ELkTOn-SOuThErLin highwaY, OrE.

ne of the Oregon Department of


Transportations (ODOT) chief concerns is the increasing need for rehabilitation on the states older bridges.
And a chief concern in bridge design and
construction is the need for spans that are
cost-effective and are environmental friendlywhich is where superior materials like
weathering steel come in. Weathering steel
performs well in parts of Oregon that meet the
requirements of the Federal Highway Administration Technical Advisory T5140. However,
the state of Oregon was curious about steel
types that could reduce steel bridge lifecycle
costs in the coastal portion of the State. Highperformance steel (HPS) is an important step
in increasing toughness and provides a slight
increase to the corrosion index compared to
weathering steel. However, HPS may still be
vulnerable in corrosive and high humidity environments or coastal climates.
One conventional way to provide corrosion protection of bridge steels is to apply
protective paint coatings and periodically
recoat the bridge during its service life. But
the life-cycle cost of this design choice can
be much higher than the initial cost of the
bridge. An alternative to weathering steel,
HPS and painted steel girders is corrosionresistant ASTM A1010 Grade 50 steel that
needs no corrosion protection coating and
has better toughness that supersedes toughness properties of Grade HPS 50W. ASTM
A1010 is a low-cost stainless steel with 10.512%Cr that can perform for 125 years in

coastal environment without a need to maintain for corrosion.


Based on encouraging research and development results, ODOT went ahead
with a trial project to design and fabricate of the first public ASTM A1010 steel
plate girder bridge in the nation, and ArcelorMittal USA agreed to provide the
steel plate. The bridge, with a total length of 132 ft, 6 in. and a width of 42 ft, 8
in., uses just over 80 tons of structural steel. FHWA supported ODOTs proposal
by awarding an Innovative Bridge Research and Deployment grant to cover the
extra cost for design and fabrication of the first steel plate girders bridge for public use using ASTM A1010 corrosion-resistant steel in the nation.
Owner and Engineer
Oregon Department of Transportation, Salem
general Contractor
Concrete Enterprises, Inc., Salem
Steel Team
Fabricator
Fought & Company, Tigard, Ore. (AISC Member/NSBA Member/AISC
Certified Fabricator)
detailer
Carlson Detailing Service, Fort Worth, Texas (AISC Member)

Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION

39

MERIT AWARDShort Span


ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION COMMENDATION

rivEr rOad OvEr irOnSTOnE brOOk, uxbridgE, MaSS.

he Massachusetts Department of Transportation


(MassDOT) is a leader in the use of Accelerated
Bridge Construction (ABC) practices.
So when it decided to replace a small bridge carrying
River Road over Ironstone Brook in the Town of Uxbridge,
Worcester County, with a folded steel plate girder structure,
ABC guided the project.
The first application of its kind, the folded steel plate
girders were fabricated from a single steel plate of uniform
thickness that was then bent along multiple lines using a
hydraulic metal press break to form an inverted tub shaped
section. A system applicable for spans up to 60 ft in
length, this type of fabrication eliminates costly details and
processes that have made steel alternatives less competitive
than other materials for short span bridges. The need for
welding is significantly reduced, and the stability of the
resulting girder shape eliminates the need for both internal
and external cross framing.
To accelerate construction, the design used four 50-ftlong, 24-in.-deep folded steel plate girders, each prefabricated with a 6.5-in.-deep, 4-ksi concrete deck section
attached using -in.-diameter end welded shear studs.
Each beam utilized a single 0.5-in.-thick, 50-ksi steel plate
measuring 50 ft in length and 106 in. in width. These
dimensions were critical to ensure that the multiple bends
could be made using a standard press break. After bending
40

JUNE 2014

them to the required shape, a minimal number of welded


components were then attached to the beams, including
end plates, sole plates and headed shear studs. Four bolted
flange separator plates were also attached to the bottom
of each girder to help maintain shape, and the entire beam
was galvanized.
The decks were then cast in a precast shop with the
beams oriented in an upright position with falsework
supporting the cantilevers. The shipping width of each
interior superstructure module measured 10 ft, 2 in.
including headed rebars protruding 11 in. from each
edge of the precast slab. Each exterior module was 8 ft,
7 in. in width including a single edge of protruding rebar
and an integral concrete curb cast along the exterior
slab edge.
The design of the $1.7 million project (including
roadway construction and approach work) was completed
in July of 2010, and the construction contract was
awarded to the John Rocchio Corporation that October.
All four bridge replacements required thirteen weeks to
complete, and the roadway was once again open to traffic
in November of 2011. As the structure was the first folded
steel plate girder bridge ever constructed and placed
in service, MassDOT decided to instrument the bridge
components with strain gauges to monitor stresses in
the steel plates, deck and closure pours. Performance

is currently being monitored by the


University of Massachusetts.
MassDOT considers this project
a success as a new technology was
implemented at a competitive price
and resulted in a 28% reduction in the
on-site construction schedule when
compared to a more conventional
adjacent precast concrete box beam
alternative. The project has also opened
the door for a steel alternative in a span
range generally dominated by precast
concrete solutions.
Owner
Massachusetts Department of
Transportation, Boston
Engineer
Gannett Fleming, Inc., Mount Laurel, N.J.
general Contractor
John Rocchio Corporation, Smithfield, R.I.

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Happy Hallow Park & Zoo Bridge San Jose, CA.

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Dry Creek Bridge Denver, CO.

Ironwood Bridge Gilbert, AZ.

Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION

41

MERIT AWARDReconstructed Category


ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION COMMENDATION

EggnErS FErrY bridgE EMErgEnCY rEPLaCEMEnT, Trigg and MarShaLL COunTiES, kY.

n January 26, 2012, an 8,679-gross-ton cargo ship


struck a 322-ft-long span of the Eggners Ferry
Bridge.
The bridge carries U.S. 68 and KY 80 over Kentucky Lake
on the Tennessee River, and the collision effectively closed
the western gateway to the Land Between The Lakes National
Recreation Area and the only crossing of the lake in Kentucky.
Through an innovative approach to design and
construction, the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet (KYTC),
Michael Baker Jr., Inc., and Hall Contracting of Kentucky,
Inc., were able to replace the span and reopen the bridge to
traffic before Memorial Day that year.
Kentucky Lake is a major navigable reservoir adjacent
to the 170,000-acre Land Between The Lakes National
Recreation Area, which attracts thousands of tourists each
year. The Eggners Ferry Bridge is a 43-span, 3,348-ft-long
bridge that provides a vital access point to the recreation area
and an important link in the regions transportation system;
the detour around the damaged bridge was 42 miles.
Redundancy was an important part of the solution. The
preliminary design of the truss assembly was for a parallel
chord truss without verticals. Baker redesigned the gusset
plates to make all of them a uniform 0.75-in. thick and similarly
specified the use of identical sections for the top chord and
end diagonals, the bottom chord, the top bracing and struts,
the stringers and the floor beams. Designing the truss with
only six sizes of rolled sections helped the steel fabricator,
Padgett, Inc., and the steel detailer, Tensor Engineering
Company, to expedite the detailing and fabrication of the
parts by early April. Baker coordinated closely with Tensor to
have the shop drawings completed, reviewed and stamped
in less than three weeks. Easily accessible material, simple
and repetitive connections and high-tech fabrication were
the keys to expediting the project. The 13,000 bolt holes that
were used to assemble the truss were drilled using computercontrolled equipment, resulting in zero misfits.
The Eggners Ferry Bridge rehabilitation project
demonstrates the importance of careful coordination with the
steel detailer and fabricator and intelligent selection of materials

42

JUNE 2014

and fabrication details. The use of rolled steel sections in the


construction of the new truss eliminated the need for cutting
plates and welding, saving valuable weeks of fabrication.
Although a slightly heavier truss was used, the consistent sizes
of all the components of the new truss ultimately saved days in
the fabrication and assembly of the replacement truss. A similar
approach could be used by bridge engineers to accelerate the
delivery of other bridge replacements or repairs, or even new
bridge construction projects.
In addition, lifting a replacement superstructure onto
a bridges existing piers can accelerate construction and
minimize the need for lengthy closures, detours, and other
traffic disruptions. This project demonstrates that this
technique can be used effectively to accelerate repairs to a
severely damaged bridge.
On May 15, Hall floated the barge down the lake to
the bridge site and used two cranes to lift the new truss
from the barge onto the existing piers. The installation of
the stay-in-place forms and studs and the pouring of the
6.5-in.-thick concrete deck were completed by May 20. The
guardrail was installed and the bridge was opened to traffic,
with a celebration by the governor, local officials and the
community, on Friday, May 25two days ahead of schedule.
For more on this project, see Down but not Out (11/2012).
Owner
Kentucky Transportation Cabinet District 1, Paducah, Ky.
Engineer
Michael Baker Jr., Inc., Louisville, Ky.
general Contractor
Hall Contracting of Kentucky, Inc., Louisville
Steel Team
Fabricator
Padgett, Inc., New Albany, Ind. (AISC Member/NSBA
Member/AISC Certified Fabricator)
detailer
Tensor Engineering, Indian Harbour Beach, Fla. (AISC
Member/NSBA Member)

MERIT AWARDSpecial Purpose Category

ChriSTina and JOhn MarkEY


MEMOriaL PEdESTrian bridgE,
rEvErE, MaSS.

rom redevelopment comes new lifeand


sometimes a first.
The $1.8 million Markey Bridge is
the first cable-stayed pedestrian-only bridge
in Massachusetts and has already become an
important link between the MBTA Blue Line
Wonderland Station in Revere, Mass., and
Revere Beach, Americas first public beach
(established in 1896). Completed last July,
the bridge is part of the Revere Transit and
Streetscape Project, which was conceived as
part of a redevelopment plan for the areas
surrounding the Wonderland Station.
The final design and construction was
completed through a design-build contract, and
the cost of the bridge did not exceed the original
budget and completion time. The main span of the
bridge crossing Ocean Boulevard is 107 ft and the
overall length is 151 ft. The bridge was designed to
create a visual statement from a distance providing
enhanced and open views of the Atlantic Ocean,
and construction had to be coordinated with
accessibility to adjacent streets and the beach,
which increased the projects complexity.
A pair of 52-ft-tall outward-inclined towers
frame the access to the beach and its historic
pavilions. All steel components of the bridge
are tapered/angled by design, which allows for
unique perspectives from several vantage points.
The walking surface is 12 ft wide between stainless
steel railings that complement the inclination of
the towers. Energy-efficient LED aesthetic lighting
has been integrated into the railings, enhancing
the appearance of the crossing at night. All steel
components of the bridge have been treated with
a duplex hot-dip galvanizing process to protect
them from exposure to the marine environment.
Pedestrian traffic between the transit facility and
the beach has increased substantially since the
bridge opening, and a new hotel is planned to
open adjacent to the landmark footbridge in the
near future.
Owner
Massachusetts Department of Conservation
and Recreation, Boston
Engineer
AECOM, Boston
architect
Rosales + Partners, Boston
general Contractor
Suffolk Construction Company, Boston
Steel Fabricator and detailer
CIANBRO Corporation, Pittsfield, Maine (AISC
Member/NSBA Member/AISC Certified
Fabricator)
Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION

43

SUSTAINABILITY COMMENDATION

kEEnE rOad bridgE, riChLand, waSh.

n abandoned Union Pacific Railroad steel box bridge has


gained new life with its conversion into a major vehicular traffic bridge in the City of Richland, Wash.
This project required retrofitting the railroad bridge as the final
step in completing the Keene Road Corridor, which now serves as
a major east-west arterial in the rapidly growing Tri-Cities area of
Washington State.
KPFF provided the design expertise for the project, which has
been praised by civic leaders and state transportation officials alike
for recycling a bridge that had been out-of-service for decades. The
retrofitted bridge was designed to carry two westbound traffic lanes
as well as a shared-used pedestrian and bicycle pathway across
Interstate 182. The newly retrofitted bridge is parallel to Keene
Roads preexisting vehicular bridge, which previously carried both
east- and westbound traffic over the interstate.
The Union Pacific Railroad Bridge, originally built as a fourspan, 412-ft-long steel box structure, had not been under railroad
loading since its construction in 1981. The final bridge required an
additional 160 tons of steel in addition to the 300 tons that were part
of the existing structure. KPFFs winning design was a steel overhang
frame, or steel outrigger design, to support the widened portion of
the deck. Not only was this the least expensive of the four options
considered, but it also offered significant advantages over the other
alternatives (a two-span steel girder, four-span steel girder and rebar
tie steel overhang frame). The steel outrigger design made the best
use of the existing steel box reserve capacity, which was originally
designed for heavier railroad loading. The design live load of a train
is five times the load considered for truck vehicles on a bridge.
As noted, KPFF partially used the original concrete deck but didnt
want to count on the deck to resolve the tension forces between the
outriggers. So a steel plate was installed that crossed the top of the
box and attached to each outrigger. This adjustment allowed a major
part of the original deck to remain in the design.
The railroad tracks of the old bridge were originally positioned
within the boundaries of the steel box girder, which meant that the
bridge experienced zero torsion. KPFFs design doubled the width
of the bridge, which in turn located traffic lanesand their loads
outside the box girder and created significant torsion. To account for
the added torsion, KPFF reinforced the existing internal crossframes
of the box girder, a treatment that was never part of the original
railroad bridge design.
Construction began in August 2011 and proceeded with a
minimal number of traffic disruptionsunusual for a bridge project
over a major interstate. The bridge officially opened to the public
September 28, 2012.

Owner
City of Richland, Wash., Civil and Utility Engineering
Engineer
KPFF Consulting Engineers, Seattle
general Contractor
West Company, Inc., Medical Lake, Wash.
Steel Team
Fabricator
Rainier Welding, Inc., Redmond, Wash. (AISC Member/AISC
Certified Fabricator)
detailer
Adams & Smith, Inc., Lindon, Utah (AISC Member)
44

JUNE 2014

ACCELERATED BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION COMMENDATION

130Th STrEET and TOrrEnCE avEnuE raiLrOad TruSS bridgE, ChiCagO

he intersection of 130th Street and Torrence Avenue


in Chicago serves approximately 38,000 vehicles a
day, including traffic to and from the nearby Ford
Motor Company Plant.
In addition, more than 50 freight trains cross on two atgrade Norfolk Southern (NS) tracks near the intersection,
making it a major bottleneck for both rail and vehicular
traffic. To eliminate these conflicts, a three-tiered grade separation design was developed for the intersection, and the new
Chicago, South Shore & South Bend (CSS&SB) commuter/
freight railroad truss is a key component.
The complex reconfiguration involves 130th Street and
Torrence Avenue being realigned and lowered below the
existing NS tracks. Two new NS structures are being constructed on new alignments and the new CSS&SB structure
is already in place on its new alignment. Once fully completed, the project will provide a three-tiered grade separation to relieve traffic congestion and improve the efficiency of rail service in the area. Making sure all the project
components fit in this complex puzzle while maintaining all
rail traffic required the CSS&SB railroad truss span to be
constructed first.
The preliminary design, geometry and location of the truss
were based on minimizing impacts to railroad operations during
construction; meeting NS horizontal and vertical requirements
at both the existing and proposed alignments; tying back into
the CSS&SB existing tracks while accommodating a track spiral;
and accommodating the proposed widened and realigned
Torrence Avenue.
At the end of preliminary design, the proposed CSS&SB
structure consisted of a 368-ft-long truss with abutments
skewed at 45; the skew was implemented to have the shortest
span possible. During the early stages of the final design
phase, other geometric and logistical constraints by the site
and stakeholders surfaced, requiring the geometry of the truss
to be revisited. The detailing and fabrication of the skewed
portal frames of the truss were found to increase the cost of the
46

JUNE 2014

truss and make fabrication and construction more complex.


With accelerated bridge construction (ABC) techniques
already approved by major stakeholders, it was also noted
that maintaining a skewed truss would make installation more
challenging as the self-propelled mobile transporters (SPMTs)
would have to guide the truss into place while moving on a
diagonal. It was determined that a longer truss with squared
abutments would provide a more economical design and
would better facilitate construction.
The elimination of the skew had numerous advantages. The
volume of concrete required at the abutments was reduced
by approximately 30% due to the reduced width of the truss
substructures. The end floor beam span was also reduced from
approximately 57 ft, 8 in. to 40 ft, 2 in., eliminating the need
for an intermediate bearing for the floor beam. The revised
and final layout of the truss resulted in a 394-ft span center
to center of bearings with supports perpendicular to the
structure. The longer truss span required the east abutment to
shift a couple feet to the east due to an increase in bearing size
from the size estimated during preliminary design. This shift
brought the track closer to the truss due to the spiral curve
at the end of the truss span. Because of this, the engineer
had to make sure the bridge was wide and tall enough to
meet the railroads clearance requirements, and the width of
the truss increased from 36 ft, 8 in. to 40 ft, 2 in. center to
center of trusses.
The use of high-performance steel was the best, most
durable and economical material choice for the truss bridge.
It extended the bridges expected life to 100-plus years
and reduced long-term maintenance. This massive double
track, ballasted deck, through truss is just a part of the larger
complex grade separation structure, which also includes five
approach spans consisting of 54-in.-deep pre-stressed box
beams. The truss substructure consists of full height concrete
piers supported on driven steel piles. An excavation support
system was required to protect the existing NS tracks during
construction of the new piers.

Once the truss was in place, the


contractor and railroad teams continued
to work on the bridge, placing the
ballast and ties on the truss, installing the
catenary wires that power the CSS&SB
trains and putting the finishing touches
on the truss. On October 25, 2012,
the first CSS&SB train crossed the new
railroad truss bridge.
For more on this project, see Big Roll

(03/2013).
Owner
Chicago Department of Transportation
Division of Engineering, Chicago
Engineer
Alfred Benesch & Company, Chicago
general Contractor
Walsh Construction Company, Chicago

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Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION

47

At least it was to the construction team on the Missouri River Bridge


project when their initial concrete design priced over budget at almost
$45 million. They then had to scramble for other options.
Turned out the solution was steel. After coming up with a new design,
they turned to Nucor. And we were able to help them build a
beautiful, easy to maintain and environmentally friendly bridge at less
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Its Our Nature.

Long Life for

LONgfeLLOw
BY jIM TALBOT

Built to be one of the finest and most


beautiful bridges in the country,
Bostons Longfellow Bridge gets a modern
upgrade while maintaining the character
S TE

dictated by its original vision.

CE

NT
UR
IONS

STEEL CENTURIONS
SPANNING 100 YEARS

Our nations rich past was built on immovable


determination and innovation that found a highly
visible expression in the construction of steel
bridges. The Steel Centurions series offers a
testament to notable accomplishments of prior
generations and celebrates the durability and
strength of steel by showcasing bridges more than
100 years old that are still in service today.

50

jUNe 2014

SoME BRiDgES are downright poetic.


The Longfellow Bridge, which opened on August 3, 1906and was
formally dedicated on July 31, 1907joins Boston and Cambridge over
the Charles River. Originally called the Cambridge Bridge, it became the
Longfellow Bridge in 1927 to honor Henry Wadsworth Longfellow; his
poem The Bridge celebrated its timber predecessor, the West Boston Bridge,
built in 1793. Locals often call the Longfellow Bridge the Salt and Pepper
Bridge because the four ornate central granite towers look like shakers.
At the turn of the century, 33,000 people a day passed over the old West
Boston Bridge. In modern times the steel and granite Longfellow Bridge
carries 28,000 vehicles, 90,000 transit users and numerous pedestrians and
bicyclists daily. However, this has temporarily changed during the $255 million, three-and-a-half-year project to rehabilitate the bridge and restore its
historic character.
This project, scheduled for completion in 2016, will repair structural deficiencies, restore historical features and widen pedestrian walks and bicycle
lanes. To maintain historic accuracy, rivets rather than high-strength bolts
will replace failed rivets. The project will also restore or replicate the original
ornate pedestrian railings (some of which were stolen and sold for scrap).

Powering Up
In 1889 the street railways of Boston switched from horse-driven
to electrical power. Traffic from Boston into the suburbs dramatically
increased. By 1894 gridlock slowed service and became a constant irritation to railway commuters. Elevated railways alleviated conditions
for a few years, but by the end of the 19th century, Boston, Cambridge
and the Boston Elevated Railway Co. requested that the state authorize
construction of a new bridge at or near the West Boston Bridge that
connected the two cities. The request was granted and led to the formation of the Cambridge Bridge Commission.
The legislation called for the new bridge to be suitable for all the
purposes of ordinary travel between the cities, including the elevated
and surface cars of the railway company. It also specified a drawbridge
no less than 105 ft wide with masonry piers and abutments, along with
a superstructure of iron or steel or both. The Commission appointed

Boston's Longfellow Bridge opened in 1907 and is currently


undergoing a rehabilitation project, which is scheduled for completion
in 2016.

The bridge is colloquially called the "Salt and Pepper


Bridge" thanks to the ornate granite towers that
resemble shakers.

Jim Talbot is a freelance


technical writer living in
Ambler, Pa. You can reach
him at james.e.talbot@
gmail.com.

Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION

51

Including approaches as well as an extension in 1959, the


bridge is nearly a half-mile long. A 105-ft deck accommodates
two railway tracks down the center, two traffic lanes on each
side and sidewalks for pedestrians and bicycles.

Wilham Jackson as chief engineer, who then engaged Edmund


M. Wheelwright as consulting architect.
A controversy erupted over designs for a draw versus a drawless bridge. Commerce on the Charles River had substantially
slowed and been replaced by railroads, but the U.S. War
Department would have to approve a draw-less bridge, which
was considered doubtful and would take years. Despite this, the
Commission voted for the draw-less design and petitioned the
state to permit the change, which was granted. In early February
1900, bills were introduced in the U.S Congress for a drawless bridge, the War Department agreed to it on February 14
and Congress voted to approve the bridge, signed by President
William McKinley, on March 29.
Best Bridge
Wheelwright was said to have been inspired by the 1893
Chicago Worlds Fair, which celebrated the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus arrival in the New World, and
wanted to emulate the great bridges of Europe. Additionally,
the Commission intended to make the new bridge one of
the finest and most beautiful structures in the country. The
four central towers are the bridges most distinctive feature
and bear the granite seals of Boston and Cambridge set above
ornate carvings of a Viking ships prow, a reference to a voyage
by Leif Eriksson up the Charles River at the turn of the first
millennium.
The superstructure over the water consists of 11 openspandrel steel arches, ranging in length from 101 ft at the
abutments to 188 ft at the center. The arches, weighing nearly
8,000 tons, rest on the ten piers and two large abutments and
provide about 26 ft of clearance over mean high water under
the central arch. Two large central piers188 ft long by 53
ft widefeature the architecturally prominent ornamental
stone towers.
Including approaches as well as an extension in 1959, the
bridge is nearly a half-mile long. A 105-ft deck accommodates
two railway tracks down the center, two traffic lanes on each
side and sidewalks for pedestrians and bicycles. The graceful
3% grade rising and descending from a central point was considered the limit for heavy teams of horses.

52

jUNe 2014

Each arch span consists of 12 two-hinge steel girder ribs.


The plate girders range in depth from 3 ft to 4 ft, with the larger
depths toward the center. Rib spacing depends on the expected
design loadsone under each sidewalk, three under each roadway and four under the railway tracks. Lattice struts and diagonal rods brace the ribs, and a cast steel shoe weighing about 2
tons supports each side of a rib.
Vertical posts spaced evenly along the arches extend from the
top rib flanges. Transverse 15-in. steel I-beams riveted to the top
of the posts serve as floor beams. Longitudinal 12-in. I-beam
stringers are framed to the floor beams or rest on them. Except
for the space allocated to the railway tracks, buckle plates were
riveted to the floor beams and stringers to serve as roadway surface and as lateral bracing for the floor system. Contractors paved
the original roadway with granite blocks, 6 in. deep, to provide
purchase for horses. The blocks rested on sand over a concrete
base, which in turn covered the buckle plates.
The piers and abutments consist of concrete masses of similar design supported by piles driven into the bolder clay to bedrock. Heavy facings of granite cover the piers and abutments
above the foundations. The piers are hollow and concrete cross
walls connect the two sides of the piers on the lines of the ribs
and skewbacks that transmit the arch thrust to the foundations;
the cross walls opposite the four center ribs merge into one
thick wall. The masonry above the foundation capstone and
arch skewbacks serves to carry the deck as it passes over the
piers. These are also hollow, containing concrete interior walls
where necessary to stiffen the walls and support deck loads.
Recent Rehabilitation
The Massachusetts Department of Transportation is undertaking the three-and-a-half-year rehabilitation project, which
includes improving multi-modal access and bridge-to-citystreet connections to meet ADA accessibility guidelines. The
deteriorated structural elements will be carefully rehabilitated
while preserving and restoring the bridges distinctive architectural features. The project includes:
Upgrading the structural steel elements supporting the
bridge deck
Restoring or replicating the bridges ornate pedestrian
railings
Replacing the rail transit tracks
Cleaning and conserving masonry
Designing an appropriate new lighting system
Work has already begun on the upstream salt and pepper
towers, which involves dismantling them to sidewalk level for
storage, cleaning and repair. During this time the contractor will
add interior stainless steel rods for seismic reinforcement and
to prevent further shifting. The fully restored upstream central
tower stonework will be reassembled on the bridge later this year,
and the two downstream towers will be dismantled and restored
when that side of the bridge is rehabilitated during the final phase
of construction, which is planned to begin in the fall of 2015.

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When safety is addressed during design,


it can become easier to implement during construction.

Safety Hazard
Prevention,

By DeSign
By jie zuo

The conTrolling conTracTor is typically re-

Jie Zuo is graduate engineer with


Walter P Moore in Kansas City;
previously, he was staff engineer at
AiSC.

54

june 2014

phase often can be eliminated if they are recognized; if they


are not addressed by the time the construction phase begins,
safety hazards must instead be planned around and prepared for.
Thus, as the designer chooses the plan and layout of the structure, safety can be improved through careful consideration of
the procedures, equipment and techniques required to build it.
High

Conceptual Design
Detailed engineering

Ability to
influence
Safety

Procurement
Construction
Start-up

Low
Project Schedule

sponsible for the means, method and overall safety of construction on the job site.
They must direct, coordinate and monitor the work of the subcontractors in a safe and efficient manner, knowing that the success of the project is often made by intricate planning and critical
decision-making while on-site. However, the controlling contractor is actually just one of many influences on construction safety.
Personal protective equipment is often the most visible evidence of the safety efforts undertaken on a job site. In fact, this
equipment more truly represents the last line of defense against
working hazards. Other mechanisms that can prevent hazards
from developing should be implemented to create hazard protection much earlier.
Over the course of a project schedule, the ability to influence construction safety decreases as the schedule progresses
(see Figure 1). This creates a conundrum. While safety is the
responsibility of the construction team and not the design team,
the decisions made in the design phase can improve and reduce safety hazards. Safety hazards anticipated in the design

Figure 1. The influence of safety over a project schedule.

Figure 2 shows a hierarchy of safety controls in the order


of their effectiveness, emphasizing that the most effective way
to address a working hazard is by eliminating it at its source,
when possible, in the design phase. If this cannot be done, each
solution below that in the hierarchy is slightly less effective but
still necessary.
In 2007, the National Institute of Safety Hazards (NIOSH)
partnered with a number of industry organizations and state
governments to launch a national initiative aimed at reducing
occupational hazards and controlling risks at the source where
they are createdor as early as possible in the schedule of a construction project. Recognizing the aforementioned conundrum,
the program calls for a new construction model based upon
extensive collaboration between the designer and controlling

In the design of beams, an engineer can specify a member

elimination
eliminate the hazard during design
Substitution
Substitution of less hazardous materials,
processes, operations or equipment
engineering Controls
Implement controls to minimize risk

Administrative
Controls
Training

effectiveness

warnings
Signs and labels

size with a flange width of at least 6 in., which allows for


an adequate walking surface.
In the design of columns, an engineer can specify holes for
safety cables at 24 in. and 45 in. above the metal deck for
guardrail installation, as shown in Figure 3. This satisfies
OSHA requirements and provides workable protection
for both the steel erector personnel on the bare metal
deck and workers from other trades after the concrete
slab has been placed.

PPe

figure 2. The hierarchy of safety controls.

Maximize off-Site Fabrication


The job site is a much less predictable environment than, say,
a fabrication shop. Both have moving parts but those on the
site are less regimentedplus there are uncontrollable aspects,
such as weather conditions. The fabrication shop, on the other
hand, is a more controlled atmosphere with fewer hazards and
also provides access to equipment that may not be available
in the field. By specifying work to be performed off-site, the
engineer can reduce potential hazards and may even increase
productivity or quality of work. For example, a worker making
a difficult overhead weld in the shop is subject to less risk than a
worker making the same weld in poor weather conditions while
being several stories up in the air.
Design for Fall Protection
Structural framing decisions can make fall protection easier
and more effective in the field. Here are some safety considerations for fall protection:

contractor and has resulted in technical reports, presentations


and workshops around the country. (For more information, visit
www.cdc.gov/niosh/programs/ptdesign.)
Further guidance is available from the American Society
of Safety Engineers, which developed a guide to help designers understand how to prevent hazards with design concepts.
ANSI/ASSE Z590.3-2011 Prevention Through Design: Guidelines
for Addressing Occupational Hazards and Risks in Design and Redesign Process became effective in January 2012 and can be used
by engineers and controlling contractors alike to learn how to
make it a successful process.
In addition, there are several more recommendations on
how engineers can help control hazards and mitigate dangers
before a construction worker even steps foot onto a job site.
One must keep in mind that in order for this type of construction model to be successful, the engineer must understand what
consequences their designs have on safety and that may require
collaboration with the controlling contractor.

figure 3. Placement of safety cable holes on a column.

Recognize that openings in the plan may require anchor-

age points for safety lanyards. Talk with a steel contractor about which beam sizes will work for the number of
anchorage points that will be required for a given beam
or opening.
Where there are floor openings, one can place beams
adjacent to the opening to support anchorage points for
safety lanyards.
It is prohibited to shop connect headed steel stud anchors
and deformed anchors where they will obstruct the walking surfaces of beams or joists.
When possible, one should design the steel framing with
a consistent floor layout. This makes it easier for the construction worker to learn the hazards of each individual
floor early and not have new hazards to face as floor layouts change.
Design Safe connections
Connection design decisions also can make fall protection
easier and more effective in the field. Here are some connection
safety considerations:
It is an OSHA requirement that column splices must be
located at least 4 ft above the finished working floor such
that it is away from the beam-column connection and allows for perimeter safety cables to be installed. However,
the 4-ft column extension limit is sometimes not enough
and can still cause interference between the splice plate
and the holes for safety cables shown in Figure 4a. For
constructability reasons, it is recommended that the column splice be conservatively located 5 ft above the top of
the beam shown in Figure 4b.
Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION

55

figure 4. Column splice elevation: (a) interference between


column splice and holes; (b) recommended 5 ft extension for
adequate clearance.

figure. 5 Angles are staggered and an extra row of holes is


provided in the column web to allow for safer erection.

OSHA requires a minimum of four anchor rods in ev-

ery base plate for temporary column stability before the


beams are erected.
There are additional hazards involved in the design of
connections where the beam is supported by hanging off
of a connecting element. This requires the use of a crane
to hold up the beam during installation. To avoid this
hazard, one can design a seat angle connection such that
the beam rests on top of the angle, making the connection installation safer and more stable.
When detailing all-welded connections, one should recognize that erection aids and bolts may be necessary to
provide immediate stability prior to welding.
Design of welded connections requiring difficult welding positions should be avoided when possible. Welding
in the flat position is the least problematic. Vertical and
overhead positions are more difficult because there is no
underlying support surface. Overhead is the most challenging position because gravity tends to make it difficult
to make a proper weld.
Consider cases where OSHA prohibits a double connection, such as when two double-angle connections frame
into opposite sides of a column web and share common
bolts. One solution is to stagger the double angles (Figure 5) such that the second row of bolts on the first beam
connection coincides with the first row of bolts on the
second beam connection. This allows the first beam to
connect to the column securely before beginning to
make the connection on the other side.
It is generally recommended to use as few bolt sizes as
necessary. Multiple bolt sizes, particularly sizes that appear identical to the naked eye, can lead to the wrong size
being used in the field.
56

jUNe 2014

It is important to understand what tools are required to

install a connection and provide adequate space in connection design to facilitate the use of those tools in assembling a connection.
control Roof and Floor openings
Design engineers and controlling contractors need to be
aware that small openings in floors and roofs must not be cut
until the trade contractor filling those openings is ready to
place the object. This applies to holes for such items as duct
work, piping and exhaust fans. Metal deck should span over
small openings until ready to be cut and filled. Large openings
that cannot be safely spanned by decking due to constructability,
such as elevator openings and stair openings, must be cut and
guarded by the steel erector.
Prevention of hazards through design requires collaboration.
It also leans upon the engineer to understand more about the
techniques and tools used on a construction site. Fortunately,
the steel fabricator can help!
The engineer and controlling contractor need to be able
to communicate effectively in order for them to understand

oSha Standard

notes

1926.502(b)(1)

Top edge height of top rails, or equivalent guardrail system members, shall be 42 in. (1.1 m) plus or
minus 3 in. (8 cm) above the walking/working level. when conditions warrant, the height of the top
edge may exceed the 45-in. height, provided the guardrail system meets all other criteria of this
paragraph.
Note: when employees are using stilts, the top edge height of the top rail, or equivalent member,
shall be increased an amount equal to the height of the stilts.

1926.754(c)(1)

Shear connectors (such as headed steel studs, steel bars or steel lugs), reinforcing bars, deformed
anchors or threaded studs shall not be attached to the top flanges of beams, joists or beam attachments so that they project vertically from or horizontally across the top flange of the member until
after the metal decking, or other walking/working surface, has been installed.

1926.756(e)(1)

The perimeter columns extend a minimum of 48 in. (1.2 m) above the finished floor to permit installation of perimeter safety cables prior to erection of the next tier, except where constructability
does not allow.

1926.755(a)(1)

All columns shall be anchored by a minimum of 4 anchor rods (anchor bolts).

1926.754(e)(2)(iii)

Metal decking holes and openings shall not be cut until immediately prior to being permanently
filled with the equipment or structure needed or intended to fulfill its specific use and which meets
the strength requirements of paragraph (e)(3) of this section, or shall be immediately covered.

This table provides additional information on the OSHA standards discussed in this article.

each others work. The benefits are increased productivity and


fewer lost-time accidents. Several major U.S. contractors have
successfully implemented this construction model in design-

build projects, and choosing to discuss safety in the design

phase can help your projects too.

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Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION

57

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Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION 59

news

People and Firms

nSBa

Bill McEleney named nSBa Managing Director


Bill McEleney has been promoted to
managing director of the National
Steel Bridge Alliance (NSBA), a division of AISC. McEleney has worked as
a director and regional director with
NSBA since 1997, and prior to that
spent 10 years as a regional engineer
with AISC.
Bill has long been respected as the
voice for steel bridges in the bridge
design and construction communities
and brings his extensive experience and
knowledge to lead our steel bridge market development and technical initiatives, said Roger Ferch, NSBAs executive director and AISCs president. His
leadership and vision will have a great
impact on the growth of NSBA and collaboration with our members and industry partners on the development, promotion and construction of cost-effective
steel bridges in the U.S.
McEleney was intimately involved
in the development of the AASHTO/
NSBA Steel Bridge Collaboration
and currently serves on its Steering
Committee. A joint effort between
AASHTO and NSBAwith representation from state DOTs, FHWA,
academia and the various industries
related to steel bridge design, fabrication and inspectionthe Collaboration provides a forum where public

and private professionals can work together to improve the quality and value
of steel bridges. McEleney also served
as a member of the ASCE Steel Connections Committee and the AREMA
Steel Bridges Committee 15.
NSBA is looking forward to building
on the foundation established since its
inception in 1996, said McEleney. We
expect to expand the scope of our fundamental technical activities while increasing our direct interaction with members
of the bridge design and development
community, as well as the general public
and their elected representatives.

The Structural Engineering


institute (SEi) of the american
Society of civil Engineers
(aScE) has elevated Jonathan
D. Mchugh, P.E., to the
membership grade of fellow.
One of the most esteemed
honors that structural engineers
can receive from their peers,
the SeI fellow grade is given
to a select group of leaders in
the profession.
McHugh is a
senior structural
project engineer
and project
manager based
in gannett
f l e m i n g s
Pittsburgh, Pa.,
office.
Kimberley S. Robinson, S.E.,
chief engineer at Star Seismic
(an AISC member), was recently
recognized as engineer of the
Year by both the Structural
Engineers association of
Utah (SEaU) and the Utah
Engineering council (UEc).
She was also recognized as a
distinguished alumna by the
University of Utah Department
of engineering.

SaFETY

Safety Supplement Public Review


A supplement to the AISC Specification
for Safety-Related Steel Structures for
Nuclear Facilities (ANSI/AISC N69012) is available for public review until
June 9. Developed by an AISC Adhoc
Subcommittee under Task Committee
12, Nuclear Facilities Design, and
ultimately approved by the AISC
Committee on Specifications, the draft
Supplement consists of a new appendix
providing requirements for the design
and construction of steel-plate composite
walls. The system consists of two steel
60

jUNe 2014

faceplates composite with structural


concrete sandwiched between them for
use in safety-related structures for nuclear
facilities.
The supplement, along with the
review form, is currently available at
www.aisc.org/N690S1PR1.
Copies
are also available (for a $15 fee) by
calling 312.670.5411. Please submit
comments, using the online form, to
Janet Cummins, AISCs engineering
and research coordinator, at cummins@
aisc.org by June 9 for consideration.

Modjeski and Masters has


appointed Thomas Murphy
to vice president and chief
technical officer. As the firms
newest principal and with nearly
two decades of engineering
experience, Murphy will
continue to provide technical
and managerial leadership to
his colleagues for many of the
firms complex and long-span
design projects. He formerly
served as senior associate and
structural project manager.

www.aisc.org/nightschool
Class begins June 23, 2014

AISC

Night School
Classical Methods of Structural Analysis
Presented by Louis F. Geschwindner, P.E., Ph.D.

Monday nights 7:00 p.m. Eastern Time


(90 minutes each)
6/23 Introduction and Basic Concepts
6/30 Strain Energy and Real Work
7/14 Deflections by Virtual Work
7/21 Moment Areas and Elastic Weights
7/28 Indeterminate Structures and the
General Method
8/11 Indeterminate Structures by Slope Deflection
8/18 Approximate Methods and Moment
Distribution
8/25 Classical Approaches applied to
Second-order Analysis

Theres always a solution in steel.


American Institute of Steel Construction
One E Wacker Drive, Suite 700
Chicago, IL 60601
www.aisc.org
312.670.2400

news
RESEaRch

Floor Beam Proves Fire-Resistant


Steel structures typically require special
partitions or fireproofing methods, but a
new steel floor system has been proven to
achieve a four-hour fire rating on its own.
Deltabeam, a slim-floor system for
multi-story buildings, was recently tested with the Underwriters Laboratories
(UL) in Northbrook, Ill. It successfully
passed the requirements of the one-,
two-, three- and four-hour ratings without any fire protection, making it the first
fire-rated exposed steel beam. (UL Ratings are now available at www.ul.com
under N904, N905 and N906.)

The systems manufacturer, Peikko


(an AISC member), recently posted a
YouTube video (www.youtube.com/
watch?v=_24GAof80uk) that includes
commentary from John Cross, an AISC
vice president, and Tabitha Stine, AISCs
director of technical marketing.
This type of design allows for a low
floor-to-floor height application with no
additional fire protection being required,
and thats a major benefit in the marketplace, said Cross. Those are the kinds of
questions we hear on a daily basis, and to be
able to say there is an innovative solution to

address that is huge.


UL is known as the authority for fire
ratings, added Stine. To get the local
building code to sign off on a tested assembly and for the architects and engineers to hang their hat on it, you need
that trusted designation by UL.

EnginEERing JoURnaL

Engineering Journal Q2 now online


The second quarter 2014 issue of
Engineering Journal is now available. This
is the first of two issues with a special
focus on the simple for dead load
continuous for live loador SDCL
design concept. The premise behind
the concept is that girders erected as
simple spans can be made to function
under live load as continuous spans by
providing continuity with a unique field
connection. In addition to covering
research, the journal will highlight two
successful SDCL bridge projects from
the engineers perspective. Here are the
Q2 articles:

2012-22R

Simple for Dead LoadContinuous


for Live Load Steel Bridge Systems
Atorod Azizinamini
2012-23R
Development and Experimental
Testing of Connections for the
Simple for Dead LoadContinuous
for Live Load Steel Bridge System
Nick Lampe, Nazanin Mossahebi, Aaron Yakel, Reza Farimani and Atorod
Azizinamini
2012-24
Numerical Analysis and Design
Provision Development for the

Simple for Dead LoadContinuous


for Live Load Steel Bridge System
Reza Farimani, Saeed Javidi, Derek
Kowalski and Atorod Azizinamini
2013-02
Continuous for Live Load Steel
Girder Construction in the Northern Panhandle of West Virginia
Anthony Ream and William Beining
Research 35
Current Steel Structures Research
No. 35
Reidar Bjorhovde
You can search the complete collection
of EJ articles at www.aisc.org/ej.

aWaRDS

higgins award nominations now Being accepted


AISC is now accepting nominations for
the T.R. Higgins Lectureship Award.
Each year the award recognizes an
outstanding lecturer and author whose
technical paper or papers, published
during the eligibility period, are considered an outstanding contribution to
the engineering literature on fabricated
structural steel.
The award is named for Theodore
R. Higgins, former AISC director
of engineering and research, who
was widely acclaimed for his many
contributions to the advancement of
engineering technology related to
62

jUNe 2014

fabricated structural steel. The award


honors Theodore for his innovative
engineering, timely technical papers
and distinguished lectures.
AISC encourages everyone involved
with steel construction to submit nominations. The author must be a permanent
resident of the United States and available to fulfill the commitments of the
award. The paper or papers must have
been published in a professional journal
between January 1, 2009 and January 1,
2014. The award winner will give a minimum of six presentations of the lecture
on selected occasions during the year.

Nominations must be received by


August 1, 2014. The 2015 award will
be presented at the 2015 NASCC: The
Steel Conference in Nashville. For
more information on the award, including nomination requirements, visit
www.aisc.org/higgins.
Send nominations to:
T.R. Higgins Award Nomination
c/o Janet T. Cummins
Engineering & Research Coordinator
American Institute of Steel Construction
One East Wacker Drive, Suite 700
Chicago, IL 60601
cummins@aisc.org

You
should
see
what
we
can do.

SteelDay
Its coming... 9.19.2014

SteelDay is an annual
event hosted by the
American Institute of
Steel Construction,
its members and
partners. Plan your
SteelDay visits and
see first hand why it
makes sense to build
with structural steel.

@aisc

/AISCdotORG
/AISCsteelTV

Theres always a solution in steel.


American Institute of Steel Construction
One East Wacker Drive, Suite 700
Chicago, IL 60601
312.670.2400

www.aisc.org

marketplace

Search employment ads online at www.modernsteel.com.

AISC QUALITY CERTIFICATION


IT WORKS... DONT WAIT!
For fabrication or erection help
Call Jim Mooney
your Quality Certification Connection

JAMES M. MOONEY & ASSOCIATES

941.223.4332 jmmoon94@aol.com

Contract Auditor
Quality Management Company, LLC is seeking contractors to
conduct audits for the AISC Certified Fabricator and AISC Certified
Erector Programs. Contractors must have knowledge of quality
management practices as well as knowledge of audit principles,
practices and techniques and knowledge of the steel construction
industry. If you are interested, please submit your statement of
interest contractor@qmconline.org.
Are you looking for software, products, or services for your next project?
You can find it in Modern Steel Constructions online product directory.

http://modernsteel.com/product_categories.php
If youre a provider of software, products, or services and would
like more information about being listed or enhancing your current listing,
contact Louis Gurthet at:

gurthet@modernsteel.com or 231.228.2274

Looking for something from an old issue of Modern Steel?

All of the issues from Modern Steel Constructions


first 50 years are now available as free PDF downloads
at www.modernsteel.com/backissues.

Like AISC on Facebook


facebook.com/AISCdotORG

Follow AISC on Twitter


@AISC
Visit steelTOOLS.org
Join the conversation at AISCs new
file-sharing, information-sharing website.
Here are just a few of the FREE resources now available:
More than 160 steelTOOLS utilities available for downloading
Discussion blogs where your can connect and share ideas with
your peers
Files posted by your peers in special interest libraries, including:
A Pocket Reference to W Shapes by Depth,
then Flange Width
Welding Capacity Calculator
Moments, Shears and Reactions for Continuous Bridges
Video: Bridge Erection at the SeaTac Airport
Got Questions? Got Answers?
Participate with us at steelTOOLS.org.

AISC Continuing Education Seminars


www.aisc.org/seminars.
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To advertise, call 231.228.2274 or e-mail gurthet@modernsteel.com.

employment

Search employment ads online at www.modernsteel.com.

Structural & Misc. Steel Fabrication


Our organization has been recruiting for the Structural and Misc. Steel
Fabricating industry for over 30 years. Current positions include:
Project Manager
Plant Superintendents
Chief Draftsman

General Manager
Estimators
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Quality Control
Detailers
Checkers

Please send resume to: Richard Stauffer


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phone: (610) 437-5040 fax: (610) 437-9650
e-mail: rstauffer@unitedemployment.com www.unitedemployment.com

Connection Design Engineer


International Design Services is seeking a steel
connection design engineer for our St. Louis office.
Minimum 4 years of experience and the ability to obtain a PE license. Working
knowledge of Mathcad is preferred. Candidate will have experience managing
others and will be responsible for the production of an engineering team.
Candidate must also skillfully interact with the detailing team, fabricator, general
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Program Engineer
AISC is seeking a Program Engineer to evaluate and assess the performance of
site audits and documentation audits conducted for the AISC Certified Fabricator
and the AISC Certified Erector Programs. The primary responsibility of the
position is to observe the audit process from audit plan issue to onsite closing
meeting in order to provide a performance report and training recommendations.
A knowledge of audit principles, practices and techniques is a must. A working
knowledge of specifications, codes and other regulations related to structural
steel and the construction industry is preferred.
The ideal candidate will have a Bachelors Degree and at least 5 years work
experience in the auditing industry, and/or the A/E design industry, and/or the
construction industry (AEC). This position is located in the AISC Chicago office.
The ability to travel over 50% of the time and attend industry events is required.

If you are interested in applying for this position, please forward your
resume and cover letter, including your desired salary requirements to:

HR@aisc.org

To advertise, call 231.228.2274 or e-mail gurthet@modernsteel.com.

RECRUITER IN STRUCTURAL MISCELLANEOUS


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Structural
Engineer
Hillsdale Fabricators, one of the largest steel fabricators in the Midwest and a
division of Alberici Constructors, Inc., is seeking a Structural Engineer for our St.
Louis office. This individual will be responsible for coordinating technical and
constructability matters with EORs, sublet detailing and engineering firms, clients,
erectors and the fabrication shop. They will also provide connection design sketches
and calculations, and will be responsible for generating designs for fabrication shop
positioning and lifting devices. In addition, this individual will work closely with
project management and will assist estimating with conceptual design estimates
and review design requirements and connections.
Qualified candidates should hold a Bachelors degree in Civil or Structural
Engineering, a P.E. and/or S.E. license, and possess a minimum of ten (10) years of
detailing, connection design and fabrication experience. An understanding of AISC &
AWS codes is required (CSA and CWB a plus).
Hillsdale Fabricators offers a competitive compensation/benefit package and
growth potential. EOE/M/F/D/V. For more information and to submit a resume, visit
http://www.alberici.com/Careers/Pages/Positions-Available.aspx.

Schuff Steel Company, a leader in the


fabrication and erection of structural steel,
is currently recruiting for Project Managers,
Estimators, Sales and several other positions for
its locations in Florida, Kansas, Texas, California
and Arizona. Schuff Steel offers competitive
salaries and a comprehensive benefits package. For a complete listing of
open positions, please visit our website at www.schuff.com.
Or you may email your resume to resume@schuff.com. EOE/AA
Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION

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structurally
sound

BUiLDing BLocKS

WiTh BaRcLaYS cEnTER (home of the NBAs Brooklyn


Nets) looming in the background, a high-rise residential
project is coming togetherblock by block. When its
completed next year, B2 will be the tallest modular building
in the world. The 32-story tower is one of more than a
dozen structures planned for the 22-acre Atlantic Yards site
in Brooklyn. The structures 4,000 sq. ft of retail space and

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jUNe 2014

363 residential unitshalf of which are intended for lowand middle-income tenantswill be built using 930 steelframed modules. Banker Steel (an AISC member/AISC
Certified fabricator) expanded one of its Lynchburg, Va.,
facilities by an additional 45,000 sq. ft to create a purposebuilt workshop that is solely dedicated to fabricating the
steel for the modules.