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Calculation of the center of gravity

Calculation of the center of gravity is based on the fact that a torque exerted by the
weight of a system is the same as if it's total weight were located at the center of
gravity. This point is the average or mean of the distribution of the moment arms of
the object.
The calculation of the center of gravity of an object involves the summation of the
weights times their separations from a starting point divided by the total weight of
the object.
In the case of a highly irregular object, the weights can consist of individual
particles or even atoms. Calculus is then used to integrate the product of these
weights and the differential separations.
If the object is made up of regular parts, such as squares or circles, you can use
the fact that each has a CG at its geometric center. This is seen in the illustration

Calculating CG of weights

The center of gravity in the illustration is at the following separation from the
arbitrary zero-point:
CG = (aM + bN + cP)/(M + N + P)
For example, if:

a = 1 ft

b = 4 ft

c = 8 ft

M = 1 lb

It is easier to determine the center of gravity of many objects by experimentation than by calculation. The intersection of two or more vertical lines from the plumb line is the center of gravity for the object. its center of gravity is always directly below the point of suspension. such as squares. is at their geometric centers. You can find the center of gravity in an object experimentally by hanging it from several points and using a plumb line to mark the vertical line. N = 2 lb  P = 4 lb CG = (1*1 + 4*2 + 8*4)/(1 + 2 + 4) CG = 41/7 CG = 5. cubes. Plumb line technique When an object is suspended so that it can move freely. For other shapes or configurations. circles and spheres.9 ft from the zero point The approximate CG is shown in the illustration. Finding CG through experimentation The center of gravity for objects with regular shapes. . you need to either use experimentation or calculation.

the center of gravity provides the greatest impact in a collision. . you can find its balance point through experimentation. However. it can be more difficult if the object has some shape in the three dimensions.Measuring CG with plumb line This procedure is relatively easy for a flat object. Tipping point When you tilt an object on an edge. the balance point could easily be found. For the object in the illustration above. it would be difficult to find the balance point for an object with curved surfaces. Also. Balance point For some objects. Objects will spin about their CG. However. Weight balances on sharp edge Applications A lower center of gravity helps prevent an object—such as an automobile—from tipping over. it will tip over only when the center of gravity lies outside the supporting base of the object.

CG below balance point There are a number of novelty items and toys that use this principle. The object will readily balance and may oscillate or swing back and forth in that position.Object tips over when CG passes pivot point Objects that are heavier toward the bottom have a lower center of gravity and are thus more difficult to tip over. Spins about center of gravity . Automobiles and trucks have a lower center of gravity to improve their stability. CG below balance point An interesting application is when the center of gravity is below the balance or pivot point.

it too would rotate about its center of axis. The ball will follow a parabolic path until it hits the ground. Likewise. CG is best location to hit the ball . so it will simply spin as it is thrown in the air. and that axis would follow a parabolic path similar to that of the ball. the object will rotate around its center of gravity as it follows its path. Bat follows parabolic path as it spins Hitting a baseball The center of gravity is a point where all of the weight of the object is concentrated. A ball has its center of gravity at its center.If you throw an object in the air with a spin on it. if you threw a baseball bat in the air.

An object will tip over when the CG lies outside the object's support. Free rotation of an object is always around its center of gravity. The greatest force is applied through he center of gravity.When you swing a baseball bat. At that point. Summary The center of gravity (CG) is where all of the weight of an object appears to be concentrated. the best location to hit the ball is at the bat's center of gravity. The center of gravity of an object can also be found experimentally. efkjweflk e/f we fl kjf .lvwbwbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbee twwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwrbytw wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwbwords . This point is the average distribution of the weight of the object. the maximum force is applied to the ball for a given swing.