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EDUCATION AND CAREER GUIDANCE LETS HELP THE STUDENTS CHOOSE A RIGHT CAREER!

Reference No: 13-PR-04-DJ-RO,TR


A project co-financed by the European Commission
Lifelong Learning Programme - Comenius Regio Partnerships

_______________________________________________________________________________________

RESEARCH REPORT
REGARDING THE VOCATIONAL COUNSELING AND CAREER
GUIDANCE SERVICES OFFERED TO STUDENTS WITHIN THE
EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND FROM DOLJ COUNTRY

conducted in the Comenius Regio Partership

Education and Career Guidance - Let's help the students


choose a right career!

PROJECT PARTNERS:

EDUCATION AND CAREER GUIDANCE LETS HELP THE STUDENTS CHOOSE A RIGHT CAREER!
Reference No: 13-PR-04-DJ-RO,TR
A project co-financed by the European Commission
Lifelong Learning Programme - Comenius Regio Partnerships

_______________________________________________________________________________________
NAME OF PROGRAMME:

Lifelong Learning Programme - Comenius Regio Partnerships


NAME OF PROJECT:
EDUCATION AND CAREER GUIDANCE LETS HELP THE STUDENTS CHOOSE A
RIGHT CAREER!
Nr. ref: 13-PR-04-DJ-RO,TR

Authors Experts for study research:


Alina Marinela STNCULESCU
Mirela Florentina ISUF
Serkan ATK
Hamide YAAR KAVAS
Ahat BALAK
Nejat ZDEMR
Coordinators:
Project manager: prof. tefan VASILE
Asistant manager: prof. Elena Diana BRTUCU
Guideline expert: Elisabeta Ciocan
Project manager: Kamil ELEBYILMAZ
Asistant manager: Selim Burak KUHU
Published:
April 2014
Casa Corpului Didactic Dolj

Publisher:
Mersin National Education Directorate

Contact:
Str. Ion Maiorescu, Nr. 6,
Craiova, Dolj
www.studentscareer.ro
www.facebook.com/studentscareer
comenius.students.career@gmail.com

Contact:
Dumlupnar Mah. Adnan
Menderes Bulvar Yeniehir/ Mersin
www.studentscareer.ro
www.facebook.com/studentscareer
arge33mersin@gmail.com

This project has been funded with support from the European Commission.
This publication reflects the view of the author. The European Comission and its agencies cannot be
responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein

EDUCATION AND CAREER GUIDANCE LETS HELP THE STUDENTS CHOOSE A RIGHT CAREER!
Reference No: 13-PR-04-DJ-RO,TR
A project co-financed by the European Commission
Lifelong Learning Programme - Comenius Regio Partnerships

_______________________________________________________________________________________

CONTENTS
1.CONTEXT.................................................................................................................................... 4
2.STAGES OF THE RESEARCH STUDY ....................................................................................... 5
2.1. Establishing the research problem ........................................................................................ 5
2.2. Stating the aim, the objectives and the research hypotheses ............................................... 5
2.3. Sampling .............................................................................................................................. 6
2.3.1. Students sample ............................................................................................................ 8
2.3.2. Education institutions representatives Sample ............................................................... 9
2.3.3. Parents Sample ........................................................................................................... 10
2.3.4.Teachers Sample .......................................................................................................... 10
2.3.5.Local community representatives Sample ..................................................................... 10
2.4.Establishing the research methods and techniques ............................................................. 10
2.4.1.The sociological questionnaire survey ........................................................................... 10
2.4.2.The focus-group ............................................................................................................ 11
2.5.Projecting and shaping the necessary instruments .............................................................. 11
2.6.Collecting the information .................................................................................................... 12
2.7.The results analysis ............................................................................................................. 13
2.7.5. Report on the results of the survey based on a questionnaire - Students ..................... 13
2.8.Drawing the conclusions and writing the research report ..................................................... 21
3.CONCLUSION ........................................................................................................................... 22
4. RECOMMENDATIONS ............................................................................................................. 25
BIBLIOGRAPHY ........................................................................................................................... 27
APPENDIX 1. INTERVIEW GUIDLINES FOR FOCUS GROUPS ................................................ 28
Interview guideline for school managers .................................................................................... 28
Interview guideline for parents ................................................................................................... 28
Interview guideline for teachers ................................................................................................. 28
Inteview guideline for the local community representatives ....................................................... 28
APPENDIX 2. STUDENTS QUESTIONNAIRE ............................................................................. 29

EDUCATION AND CAREER GUIDANCE LETS HELP THE STUDENTS CHOOSE A RIGHT CAREER!
Reference No: 13-PR-04-DJ-RO,TR
A project co-financed by the European Commission
Lifelong Learning Programme - Comenius Regio Partnerships

_______________________________________________________________________________________

1.CONTEXT
The present research study is developing within the Comenius Regio partnership project
Education and Career Guidance - Let's help students choose the right career! (Consilierea
i educarea carierei S-i ajutm pe elevi s i aleag o carier potrivit!/ Eitim ve Kariyer
Planlama rencilerin Doru Kariyer Seimine Yardmc Olalm!), reference no. 13-PR-04DJ-RO,TR, cofinanced by The European Commision through the Lifelong Learning Programme,
and taking place during the period August 1st 2013- July 31st 2015 in the Dolj County - Romania
and the Mersin Province - Turkey under the government of the CCD Dolj ( Dolj County Teachers
Department) - the partnership coordinator and the National Education Department of the Mersin
Province - the regional coordinator, together with their national partners, namely ''Traian Vuia''
Highschool in Craiova, ''Traian'' Secondary School in Craiova, EduFor Craiova Association and
The Vocational and Technical Highschool Mezitli, The Informatics Highschool in Mersin and The
Education Burreau in the Bozyazi Region, respectively.
The main category of the target - group is represented by the teachers, but, at the same
time, school managers, parents, students, local communities representatives will be involved.
The General Objective of the project is the improvement of education and career
guidance services for students (students' ECG) in schools, in order to facilitate students' transition
to higher levels of education or labour market.
Specific objectives:
O1. Identifying the importance, relevance and quality of counselling and career guidance
services for students in schools, as well as the needs.
Results: survey through questionnaires, 4 focus group surveys for: parents, teachers, local
community representatives, representatives of educational institutions of different levels
(secondary school, college, university), electronic research study.
O2. Developing teachers skills for students ECG in Dolj County - Romania and Mersin
Turkey.
Results: teachers` job shadowing activities in the partner regions: comparing the education
systems of the two partner regions, in terms of counselling and career guidance; content analysis
of school programs and identifying opportunities offered by each discipline/ area for students
career education; reports on shadowing period; elaboration of a guide for students ECG and
support materials; elaboration of a blended learning training program for teachers, conducting the
blended learning training program with a number of teachers from different subject areas and
assess its impact on the target-group; accreditation of the training course.
O3. Reducing the distance between the school and the labou world, opening the schools
towards the community and identifying its opportunities for students career development,
preparing them for future "transitions" in their career.
Results:
- Focused interview with parents, business representatives/ local authorities (county
council, city council, work employment agency)/ associative structures in the community (volunteer
centers, parents associations, village sons` associations, former school students` associations
etc.), with the purpose of fostering the school-community partnership, establishing the modalities
through which students could involve themselves in the private life, identifying the opportunities of
getting them involved into the students career education, finding relevant examples in this respect,
proposing real activities, involving the youngsters into the local decisions, facilitating students
access to the information regarding the offer and evolution of the local/ regional labour market.
- Focused interview with the representatives of the higher levels education institutions (i.e.
secondary schools, highschools, universities) in order to identify these ones` needs, requirements
and offers and, thus, establishing in a set of activities for facilitating an experiential exchange and
connecting students to a higher level of education they intend to follow.
4

EDUCATION AND CAREER GUIDANCE LETS HELP THE STUDENTS CHOOSE A RIGHT CAREER!
Reference No: 13-PR-04-DJ-RO,TR
A project co-financed by the European Commission
Lifelong Learning Programme - Comenius Regio Partnerships

_______________________________________________________________________________________
- Participation of the local community representatives` in the three conferences of the
project.
O4. Increasing students' access to information for successful careers guidance.
Results: a regularly and periodically updated website with useful information and materials
for both teachers and students, for an efficient students ECG activity; a discussion forum with
sections dedicated to teachers and students and subsections for students' ECG and European
projects/ programs; a promotional flyer to promote the project and website among students and
teachers from each of the two partner regions; a e-newsletter every six months with the status of
project, results and latest news.
This research is an evaluation research, whose aim is to make a real appreciation
regarding the importance, relevance and quality of the couselling and career guidance offered to
students within the educational background, as well as the needs of all the stakeholders involved
both directly and indirectly in this activity (students, teachers, principals, counsellors, parents, local
community representatives) from the two partner regions.

2.STAGES OF THE RESEARCH STUDY


2.1. Establishing the research problem
The vocational counseling and career guidance services offered to students within the
educational background.
2.2. Stating the aim, the objectives and the research hypotheses
Aim: appreciation of the current state regarding the importance, relevance and quality of the
counseling and career guidance offered to students from the educational background, as well as
the needs of all the stakeholders involved both directly and indirectly in this activity (students,
teachers, principals, counsellors, parents, local community representatives) from the two partner
regions, the Dolj County- Romania and the Mersin Province Turkey.

Objectives: by completing this study we intend:


to identify students` perception and needs concerning the vocational counselling and career
guidance activity;
to identify parents` perception and needs concerning students` vocational counselling and
career guidance activity;
to identify both the school counsellors and teachers` perception and needs concerning the
students` vocational counselling and career guidance activity;
to identify the principals/ education instututions representatives` perception and needs
concerning the students` vocational counselling and career guidance activity;
to identify local community representatives` perception and needs (i.e. public authorities,
the private sector, the citizenry) concerning the students` vocational counseling and career
guidance activity;

Research hypotheses:

The vocational counseling and career guidance services are considered important by most
educational stakeholders/ factors;

The concern about students` vocational counseling and career guidance becomes a priority
aspect both to students, their parents and teachers, only during the finishing school years (i.e the
8th and 12th grades).
5

EDUCATION AND CAREER GUIDANCE LETS HELP THE STUDENTS CHOOSE A RIGHT CAREER!
Reference No: 13-PR-04-DJ-RO,TR
A project co-financed by the European Commission
Lifelong Learning Programme - Comenius Regio Partnerships

_______________________________________________________________________________________
2.3. Sampling
Sociology usually resorts to selective researches, based on representatives samples. If the
representation is assured, then the conclusions drawn by studying the sample cand be extended to
the whole population.
The sample is part of a whole, reproducing a scaled-down version of the studied society,
more exactly, assuring a certain representation in relation to the variables considered relevant to
the studied issue (gender, age, school studies, occupation, social background, nationality etc.).
A variable characterizing a certain population is a parameter. The same variable,
measured to the sample level, is called estimation.
The estimation limitsare represented by a confidence interval, in which the value of the
parameter is written in relation to the estimation.
By the margin of error we understand the equivalent deviate. The margin of error of
+/-3% is considered acceptable. In order to have such a good measuring accuracy, the sample
must include about 1,100 people, whose selection should be done by the principle of the equality
of chances. For a 400 people sample, the margin of error is of aproximately +/- 5%.
Within the present study, the sample for the questionnaire survey included 400 students
coming from Romania and 414 students coming from Turkey, belonging to the mass education.
The sampling itself assumes doing some different methodological operations, but tightly
connected between them:
1. The spacial division of the research
The research was carried in the Dolj County - Romania, as well as in the Mersin region Turkey.
2. Establishing the general colectivity
We will take into consideration all the groups of the persons implied directly or indirectly in
the activity which makes the objective of our research- students` vocational counseling and career
guidance:
Students - for the questionnaire survey
Teachers, principals, school counsellors, parents, local community representatives - for
the target-groups.
3. The division or the grouping of the population/ school units in relation to the social
characteristics considered important for the studied issue (gender, age, occupation etc).
The socio - demographic characteristics relevant within this context are:
gender (masculine, feminine);
shool grade (3rd 12th);
education level (primary, secondary, highschool);
social background ( big urban- Craiova, small urban- other town in the Dolj County;
rural).
The geographical location of theschool unit (central area/ peripherical area)
4. Selection of the samples on which the research is supposed to be done.
Mainly, there are two sampling modalities: aleatory (presumable) sampling and quota
sampling.
Concerning the aleatory (presumable) sampling there are three procedures:
a) Frequent selection- a lottery procedure by reintroducing the extracted unit into the urn
b) One-frequency selection- a lottery procedure without reintroducing the extracted unit into
the urn
c) The mechanicselection - a list with all the people in a general collectivity is done, then a
statistical interval is considered, calculated by the following operation: k=N/n (N- the genaral
colectivity, n- the sampling). E.g.: if N=1,000, and n=100, then k, i.e. the statistical interval/
measuring step is 10. A satrting number is extracted through the lottery procedure, which is smaller
6

EDUCATION AND CAREER GUIDANCE LETS HELP THE STUDENTS CHOOSE A RIGHT CAREER!
Reference No: 13-PR-04-DJ-RO,TR
A project co-financed by the European Commission
Lifelong Learning Programme - Comenius Regio Partnerships

_______________________________________________________________________________________
or equal to the measuring step/ statistical interval. If the extracted number is 4, then the sampling
will contain the following numbers: 4, 14, 24, 34, ...
The quota sampling assumes establishing the sampling criteria and including the persons
or social units in proportion to the survey universe structure within the sample, following the
mentioned sampling criteria.
In the case of the questionnaire survey, the quota sampling will be used in order to select
the education units, and the aleatory sampling when selecting the students.
Education units sample:
No
crt

Name of the
education unit

Urban
big*
1.

2.

3.
4.
5.
6.

7.

8.

9.
10.

coala Gimnazial
Filiai
(structura
Blta)
Liceul Tehnologic
de
Transporturi
Auto Craiova
Liceul
Traian
Vuia Craiova
coala Gimnazial
Traian Craiova
coala Gimnazial
Segarcea
Liceul Tehnologic
"Constantin
Ianculescu"
Crcea
Colegiul Naional
Elena
Cuza
Craiova
Colegiul
Tehnic
de Arte i Meserii
C-tin
Brncui
Craiova
coala Gimnazial
Coofenii din Fa
coala Gimnazial
Sf.
Dumitru
Craiova

ROMANIA

Social background
Urban
small*

Geographical location

Rural

central

peripherical

Number of classes and questionnaires


Cls.
No

Level

Quest.No

3,4,5,6,7,8

30

10

3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12

50

8,9,10,11,12

50

3,4,5,6,7,8

50

3,4,5,6,7,8

40

10

3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12

30

10

3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12

50

9, 10, 11, 12

40

3,4,5,6,7,8

30

3,4,5,6,7,8

30

x
x

x
x

Education units sample:


No
crt

Name of the education


unit

Urban
big
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

24 Kasm lkokulu
avulu lkokulu
Deirmenay lkokulu
Pirireis Ortaokulu
Alsancak
Lions
Ortaokulu
Tarsus
Dedeler
Ortaokulu
Dr.
Kamil
Tarhan
Ortaokulu
Yahya Akel Fen Lisesi
Nihal Erdem Ticaret
Meslek Lisesi
Gzne Lisesi

TURKEY

Social background
Urban
small

Geographical location

Rural

central

peripherical

5,6,7,8

42

5,6,7,8

41

x
x

4
4

9,10,11,12
9,10,11,12

52
61

9,10,11,12

53

x
x

Quest.No
30
32
21
40
42

x
x

Level
3,4
3,4
3,4
5,6,7,8
5,6,7,8

x
x

x
x

Cls.
No
2
2
2
4
4

x
x

Number of classes and questionnaires

EDUCATION AND CAREER GUIDANCE LETS HELP THE STUDENTS CHOOSE A RIGHT CAREER!
Reference No: 13-PR-04-DJ-RO,TR
A project co-financed by the European Commission
Lifelong Learning Programme - Comenius Regio Partnerships

_______________________________________________________________________________________
*in the present study, we take into account Craiova as a big urban local community, and the other towns in the Dolj
County are considered small urban local communities.

2.3.1. Students sample


400/ 414 students selected from the above mentioned school units (400 students from Dolj
County - Romania and 414 students from Mersin Province - Turkey).
The number of the questionned students is different from one school unit to another, in
relation to the whole number of the students that the school unit has, and the education level too.
Sampling procedure at the level of a school unit: the number of the questionnaires
assigned to a school is divided to the number of the classes that the school unit counts on (grades
3rd 12th are taken into account); the result is aproximated and, thus, a sample per class will be
obtained. The students selection in a class will be done by following a statistical interval/
measuring step of 7, starting with student no.3 in the students` register.
E.g.: a school unit can be assigned 30 questionnaires and it has got 15 classes. By
dividing 30 questionnaires to 15 classes, the result is of 2 questionned students per class. In each
class student no. 3 and no. 10 will be selected from the students register.
ROMANIA
TURCIA
Distribution of students:
Distribution of students:
Distribution of students according to the gender variable Gen:
Masculine 44%
Feminine 57%

Masculine 52%
Feminine 48%

Distribution of students according to the class variable

Class:

Percentage

Grade

III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
XI
XII

10%
10%
10%
10%
11%
13%
10%
9%
10%
9%

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Number of
students
41
42
40
43
41
41
41
40
42
43

Percentage
10%
10%
10%
10%
10%
10%
10%
10%
10%
10%

EDUCATION AND CAREER GUIDANCE LETS HELP THE STUDENTS CHOOSE A RIGHT CAREER!
Reference No: 13-PR-04-DJ-RO,TR
A project co-financed by the European Commission
Lifelong Learning Programme - Comenius Regio Partnerships

_______________________________________________________________________________________

Distribution of students according to the school origin variable:


urban - 83%
rural -17 %

urban - 51%
rural - 49 %

Distribution of students according to the student origin variable:


urban - 71%
rural - 29%

urban - 41%
rural - 59 %

2.3.2. Education institutions representatives Sample

5-8 education institution representatives selected in relation to the following criteria:


they must belong to 5- 8 different education institutions;
they must not take part in this project if the school managers have one of the following
relationships: husband- wife/ relatives/ friends;
they must come from schools located in different areas (ideally: they should come from as
many various areas as possible such as: cities, towns, villages or small villages; and, if this
is not possible, they should come from both central and neighbouring/ peripherical zones of
the same city);
if possible, there should be included 1-2 school managers within whose schools there is a
Pedagogical Advisory Cabinet;
9

EDUCATION AND CAREER GUIDANCE LETS HELP THE STUDENTS CHOOSE A RIGHT CAREER!
Reference No: 13-PR-04-DJ-RO,TR
A project co-financed by the European Commission
Lifelong Learning Programme - Comenius Regio Partnerships

_______________________________________________________________________________________

there must also be at least 2 universitarian representatives;


they must have different experiences as managers, i.e. beginners and experienced;
they must come from schools having a different level of educational performance.
2.3.3. Parents Sample

5-8 parents selected in relation to the following criteria:


their children must come from 5-8 different schools;
they must not take part in the project if they have one of the following relationships:
husband- wife/ relatives/ friends;
their children must be students coming from schools located in different areas (ideally: they
should come from as many various areas as possible such as: cities, towns, villages or
small villages; and, if this is not possible, they should come from both central and
neighbouring zones of the same city);
their children must come from schools having a different level of educational performance.
2.3.4.Teachers Sample

5-8 teachers selected in relation to the following criteria:


they must come from 5-8 different schools;
they must not take part in the project if they have one of the following relationships:
husband- wife/ relatives/ friends;
they must come from schools located in different areas (ideally: they should come from as
many various areas as possible such as: cities, towns, villages or small villages; and, if this
is not possible, they should come from both central and neighbouring zones of the same
city);
they must teach in schools having a different level of educational performance.
2.3.5.Local community representatives Sample

they must be representatives of different institutions;


they must not take part in the project if they have one of the following relationships:
husband- wife/relatives/friends;
they must represent the public sector/ private sector for profit/ non-profit.
2.4.Establishing the research methods and techniques
2.4.1.The sociological questionnaire survey

This is one of the most complex methods of sociological research. It represents a research
method of the social reality, based on techniques of data production, obtained through the
questiones asked by the researchers and the answers given by the subjects.
Mainly, there are two techniques used within the sociological survey: the interview and the
questionnaire.
The sociological questionnaire, regarded as a research technique (i.e. questioning people
in print) and a research instrument ( the sheet of paper on which the questions are written), is the
most common modality used in the sociological researches.
The sociological questionnaire represents a set of questions, probably images too, ordered
logically and psychologically, which determines answers immediately registered in print, in order to
solve a scientific problem. It doesn`t represent a simple list of quetsions, but it has a logical order(
all questions succeed themselves from the most general to the particular ones), as well as a
10

EDUCATION AND CAREER GUIDANCE LETS HELP THE STUDENTS CHOOSE A RIGHT CAREER!
Reference No: 13-PR-04-DJ-RO,TR
A project co-financed by the European Commission
Lifelong Learning Programme - Comenius Regio Partnerships

_______________________________________________________________________________________
psychological order ( beginning with the ''ice-breaking'' questions, meant to make the subjects
answer the important questions about the topic research).
Questions of a questionnaire cand refer to four types of information:
State-of-facts, i.e. the personal situation of the questionned individuals (age, sex, profession,
income), their background (living place, working conditions) or objective behaviours (leisure
activities, relationships with neighbours/ relatives, their vote option at the last ellections, etc).
Opinions, namely judjements and appreciations that the individuals make in relation to their
interests and problems. Their motivations, intentions and expectations fall into this
category.
Attitudes (permanent mental structures that sustain one`s opinions). They are measured
by an attitudes scale, with numerical values or qualitative intervals.
Knowlegde, i.e. the degree of knowing the problems or situations the questionned person
interferes with.
2.4.2.The focus-group
This is a technique applied especially in the practical qualitative sociological research,
particularly developped after the WWII, in order to evaluate the audience`s answer regarding the
radio programmes. It is defined as an interactive group of individuals, who have some common
interests and characteristics, a group gathered by the moderator and used by its interactions in
order to obtain the necessary information about a certain problem. It can also be considered as a
variant of the structured of half-structured group interview. In this case, the target-group is
associated to the observation, and in relation to the survey, it is logically and temporaly used within
the pre-survey, co-survey and post-survey.
2.5.Projecting and shaping the necessary instruments
Projecting and shaping the necessary instruments was conduct in November 2013.
a students questionnaire;
a target group- teachers/ school counsellors guideline;
a target group- parents guideline;
a target group- local community representatives guideline ( public authorities, private
background, the citizenry);
a target group- representatives of different level education institutions guideline (secondary
schools, highschools, universities).
The questionnaire has got 10 questions reflecting the following dimensions:
importance of the vocational counseling and career guidance services offered to students in
schools, in order to succeed in life;
participation in counseling and career guidance activities;
relationship between the vocational counseling and career guidance activity and the school
objects taught in schools;
suitable persons who should carry the vocational couseling and career guidane activity in
school;
impact of the vocational counseling and career guidance activities;
students` needs to counseling and career guidance activities in schools.
The guideline destinned to the school managers as well as the university representatives
has got 5 questions reflecting the following dimensions:
importance of the vocational counseling and career guidance services offered to students in
schools, in order to succeed in life;
suitable persons who should carry the vocational couseling and career guidane activity in
11

EDUCATION AND CAREER GUIDANCE LETS HELP THE STUDENTS CHOOSE A RIGHT CAREER!
Reference No: 13-PR-04-DJ-RO,TR
A project co-financed by the European Commission
Lifelong Learning Programme - Comenius Regio Partnerships

_______________________________________________________________________________________

school;
relationship between the vocational counseling and career guidance activity and the school
objects taught in schools;
types of activities which could facilitate students connection to a higher level of education;
students` needs to counseling and career guidance activities in schools.

The parents guideline comprises 5 questions reflecting the following dimensions:


importance of the vocational counseling and career guidance services offered to students in
schools, in order to succeed in life;
relationship between the vocational counseling and career guidance activity and the school
objects taught in schools;
suitable persons who should carry the vocational couseling and career guidane activity in
school;
suggestions regarding the well-functioning of the vocational counseling and career
guidance services within schools;
needs in relations to students` counseling and career guidance activities in schools.
The teachers and school counsellors guideline contains 5 questions reffering to the
following aspects:
importance of the vocational counseling and career guidance services offered to students in
schools, in order to succeed in life;
relationship between the vocational counseling and career guidance activity and the school
objects taught in schools;
suitable persons who should carry the vocational couseling and career guidane activity in
school;
needs for enriching the students vocational couseling and career guidane activity in school.
The local community representatives guideline has got 6 questions reffering to the following
aspects:
importance of the vocational counseling and career guidance services offered to students in
schools, in order to succeed in life;
the employers contribution to the enrichment of the vocational couseling and career
guidane activity in school;
modalities of involvement/ familiarization of the students in relation to the working field;
facilitating the students access to real information regarding the local/regional market offer
and evolution;
yougsters involvement in the local decisions;
experience of the institution that you represent in the vocational counseling and career
guidance services offered to students.
2.6.Collecting the information
Collecting the information done during the period December 2013- January 2014
It is recommended that before starting the research itself, a pilot survey should be carried,
where the validity of the used research instruments is tested. This because the social life is
permanently changing, and the instrument with which we collect the information is destined every
time to distinct populations, having their own problems, interests, opinions, motivations,
expectations etc, and capacity of understanding the meaning of the questions in the
questionnaires, interviews or tests.
In the case of the questionnaire suvey, collecting the information is done by giving
students quetsionnaires (distribution, instruction, filling-in).
In the case of the target-group method, collecting the information will be done by:
12

EDUCATION AND CAREER GUIDANCE LETS HELP THE STUDENTS CHOOSE A RIGHT CAREER!
Reference No: 13-PR-04-DJ-RO,TR
A project co-financed by the European Commission
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organising and taking-place target-group with teachers and school counsellors;


writing a report on target-group with teachers and school counsellors;
organising and taking-place target-group with parents;
writing a report on target-group with teachers and school counsellors;

organising and taking-place target-group with local community representatives (public


authorities, private background, the citizenry);
writing a report on target-group with local community representatives;
organising and taking-place target-group with representatives from different levels
education institutions (secondary schools, highschools, universities);
writing a report on target-group with representatives from different levels education
institutions.

2.7.The results analysis


2.7.5. Report on the results of the survey based on a questionnaire - Students
ROMANIA
TURCIA
1. In general, do you consider that activities on vocational counseling and profesional
guidance should be held in schools?
a. Yes 96%
a. Yes 68%
b. No 2%
b. No 17%
c. Don`t know/ No answer - 2%
c. Don`t know/ No answer - 15%

Most students who participated in the


survey, 96%, believe that it is necessary to
carry out counseling and career guidance in
schools.
2% of students felt that these activities are
not required, and 2% of students did not
answer this question.

Most students who participated in the


survey, 68%, believe that it is necessary to
carry out counseling and career guidance in
schools.
17% of students felt that these
activities are not required, and 2% of students
did not answer this question.

2. Which of the following sentences best describes your point of view on vocational
counseling and profesionnal guidance activities within schools?
a. Vocational counseling is necessary only for a Vocational counseling is necessary only for
the 8th and 12th grades 14%
the 8th and 12th grades 27%
b. Vocational counseling is necessary during
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all the school years. 85%
all the school years. 60%
c. Vocational counseling is not necessary c. Vocational counseling is not necessary
1%
13%

Most students who participated in the


survey that is 27% believe that the counseling
and guidance activities should be conducted
during all school years. Only 60% think that
such activities are appropriate only in the final
years, and 13% think that career counseling is
not necessary.

Most students who participated in the


survey, that is 85% believe that the counseling
and guidance activities should be conducted
during all school years. Only 14% think that
such activities are appropriate only in the final
years, and 1% think that career counseling is
not necessary.
3. To which extent do you consider that vocational counseling and profesionnal
guidance activities, offered to students within schools, are important?
a. To a very small extent 1%
b. To a small extent 1%
c. To a certain extent 26%
d. To a large extent 36%
e. To a very large extent 35%
f. Don`t know/ No answer 2%

Regarding the importance of the


counseling and guidance activities provided in
school for the purpose of a successful career
and life, 36% of students considered that they
are highly important, 35% felt that they are
important to a great extent, 26% to some
extent. And there is also a 1% who believes
that these activities are important to a small
extent, and also to a very small extent.
14

a. To a very small extent

49

12%

b. To a small extent

62

15%

c. To a certain extent

76

18%

d. To a large extent

95

23%

e. To a very large extent

113

27%

f. Don`t know/ No answer

19

5%

Regarding the importance of the


counseling and guidance activities provided in
school for the purpose of a successful career
and life, 27% of students considered that they
are highly important, 23% felt that they are
important to a great extent, 18% to some
extent. And there is also a 12% who believes
that these activities are important to a small
extent, and also to a very small extent.

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4. In your vision, what connetion is there between vocational counseling and
profesionnal career education activity and all the school objects taught in schools?
a. There is no connection between them 8%
b. School objects are more important,
vocational counseling is just a support to them
56%
c. Vocational counseling is more important,
school objects supporting the latter 37%

a. There is no connection between them


19%
b. School objects are more important,
vocational counseling is just a support to them
53%
c. Vocational counseling is more important,
school objects supporting the latter 28 %

Regarding the relationship between the


counseling and career education and school
subjects, more than half of the students that is
56% answered that school subjects are
important, the career counseling supports
them, while 37% of students said that, on the
contrary, counseling is more important and the
school subjects support it.
To note that a school population segment of
8% believe that there is not any connection
between the two activities.

Regarding the relationship between


the counseling and career education and
school subjects, more than half of the
students that are 53% answered that school
subjects are important, the career counseling
supports them, while 28% of students said
that, on the contrary, counseling is more
important and the school subjects support it.
To note that a school population segment of
19% believe that there is not any connection
between the two activities.

5. Who do you think should offer the vocational counseling and profesional guidance
activity within a school?
a. Only the primary teacher/ form-teacher
12%
b. Only the school counsellor (school
psychologist) 34%
c. Only the teachers who teach different
school objects 5%
d. All categories of teachers above
mentionned 49%
e. None of the above mentionned
categories 1%

a. Only the primary


teacher/ form-teacher

36

9%

b. Only the school


counsellor (school
psychologist)

93

22%

c. Only the teachers who


teach different school
objects

73

18%

175

42%

d. All categories of
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teachers above
mentionned
e. None of the above
mentionned categories

Almost half of the students surveyed,


that is 49%, believes that every teacher is able
to conduct counseling and guidance activities.
In second place with a share of 34%, lies the
view that only the school counselor teacher
may perform such activities, and 12% of the
students reserve this responsibility for the form
teacher. Only 5% of students attribute this
responsability to different school subject
teachers and 1% of the students consider that
teachers do not have the task of carrying out
vocational training and guidance activities in
schools.

37

9%

42%, of the students believe that every


teacher is able to conduct counseling and
guidance activities. In second place with a
share of 22%, lies the view that only the
school counselor teacher may perform such
activities, and 9% of the students reserve this
responsibility for the form teacher. Only 18%
of students attribute this responsability to
different school subject teachers and 9% of
the students consider that teachers do not
have the task of carrying out vocational
training and guidance activities in schools.

6. In which of the following situations do you consider you need vocational counseling
and professional guidance? Put them in order of your importance.
- To get to know myself better (tests of interest,
tests of skills, tests of personality)
Most important - 55%,
Important - 17%,
Less important -12%,
The less important - 17%

The need for self-awareness is


considered to be the most important by 55% of
students, important by 17%; it is also
considered to be less important by an equal
percent, 17%, and the least important, 12%.
16

- To get to know myself better (tests of


interest, tests of skills, tests of personality)
Most important
166
- 40%,
Important
106
- 26%,
Less important
69
- 17%,
The least important 73
- 18%

The need for self-awareness is


considered to be the most important by 40%
of students, important by 26%; it is also
considered to be less important by an equal
percent, 17%, and the least important, 18%.

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- Information about highschools, faculties,
professions
Most important - 14%,
Important - 31%,
Less important -37%,
The less important - 19%

- Information about highschools, faculties,


professions
Most important
135
- 33%,
Important
131
- 32%,
Less important
60
- 14%,
The less important
88
- 21%

The need of information on the school


offer and the labour market is considered less
important by 37% of the students, important by
31%, the least important by 19% and most
important by 14%.

The need of information on the school


offer and the labour market is considered less
important by 33% of the students, important
by 32%, the least important by 14% and most
important by 21%.

- Support when writing a covering letter, a CV


or preparing for an interview
Most important - 6%,
Important - 12%,
Less important - 32%,
The less important - 50%

- Support when writing a covering letter, a CV


or preparing for an interview
Most important
136 33%,
Important
133 32%,
Less important
86 21%,
The least important
59 14%

The need to develop personal


promotion skills is seen by half of the students
surveyed as being the least important, least
important by 32% of them, important by 12%
and most important only by 6%.

The need to develop personal


promotion skills is seen by 14% of the
students surveyed as being the least
important, less important by 21% of them,
important by 32% and most important only by
33%.

- Support when making a decision


regarding your future highschool/ faculty/
profession
Most important - 25%,
Important - 41%
Less important -20%,
The less puin important - 14%

- Support when making a decision regarding


your future highschool/ faculty/ profession
Most important
Important
Less important
The least important

17

141- 34%,
110 - 27%
58 - 14%,
105 - 25%

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The need of assistance in making the


choice on the school / college / profession is
rated as important by 41% of the students, the
most important by 25%, a little important by
20% less important and least important by
14%.
So, in terms of the expressed needs of
the students on counseling and guidance, it
appears that the most important is the need for
self-knowledge, appreciated by 55% of
students, followed by the need of support in
making a decision concerning the choice of
school / college / profession (25%), the need
of information about the school offers the
labour market (14%) and the development of
skills for personal promotion-6%.

The ranking
of
guidance and
counseling needs considered important: the
need to have support in making a decision
concerning the choice of school / college /
profession (41%), the need for information on
school offers and the labour market (31%), the
need for self-knowledge (17%) and the need
to develop the skills for personal promotion
(12%).
The ranking
of
guidance and
counseling needs considered less important:
the need for information on school offers the
labor market (37%), the need to develop
personal promotion skills (32%), the need to
have support in making a decision concerning
the choice of school / college / profession
(20%) and the need for self-knowledge (12%).

The ranking
of
guidance and
counseling needs considered the least
important: the need to develop personal
promotion skills (50%), the need for
information on school offers and the labor
market (19%), the need for self-knowledge
18

The need of assistance in making the


choice on the school / college / profession is
rated as important by 27% of the students, the
most important by 34%, a less important by
14% less important and least important by
25%.

So, in terms of the expressed needs of


the students on counseling and guidance, it
appears that the most important is the need
for self-knowledge, appreciated by 40% of
students, followed by the need of support in
making a decision concerning the choice of
school / college / profession (34%), the need
of information about the school offers the
labour market (33%) and the development of
skills for personal promotion-33%.
The ranking of guidance and
counseling needs considered important: the
need for information on school offers and the
labour market (32%), the need to develop the
skills for personal promotion (32%), the need
to have support in making a decision
concerning the choice of school / college /
profession (27%) and the need for selfknowledge and (26%).
The ranking of guidance and
counseling needs considered less important:
the need to develop personal promotion skills
(21%), the need for self-knowledge (17%), the
need to have support in making a decision
concerning the choice of school / college /
profession (14%) and the need for information
on school offers the labor market (14%).
The ranking of guidance and
counseling needs considered the least
important: the need to have support in
making a decision concerning the choice of
school / college / profession (25%), the need
for information on school offers and the labor
market (21%), the need for self-knowledge
(18%) and the need to develop personal

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(17%) and the need to have support in making promotion skills (14%).
a decision concerning the choice of school /
college / profession (14%).
In conclusion, the students understand
that the need for self-knowledge is the most
In conclusion, the studentsunderstand important followed by the need to have
that the need for self-knowledge is the most support on career decision making, and the
important, followed by the need to have need for information on school offers the labor
support on career decision making, and the market and the need to develop the skills for
need for information on school offers the labor personal promotion.
market and the need to develop the skills for
personal promotion.
7. What kind of vocational counseling and professional guidance activities were offered
in your school?
a. Debates on professions during the a. Debates on professions during the
formroom classes or other school objects- formroom classes or other school objects57%
130 - 11%
b. Meetings with experts from different b. Meetings with experts from different
domains of activity 8%
domains of activity 187 16%
c. Testing professional skills and interests in c. Testing professional skills and interests in
Pedagogical Advisory Cabinet of your school Pedagogical Advisory Cabinet of your school
practice tests 2%
practice tests 210 18%
d. Support to making a decision concerning d. Support to making a decision concerning
your future highschool/ faculty- 7%
your future highschool/ faculty167 - 14%
e. Study/ Vocational counseling visits to e. Study/ Vocational counseling visits to
differrent highschools/ faculties/ companies differrent highschools/ faculties/ companies
1%
105 9%
f. Counseling meetings within the Pedagogical f.
Counseling
meetings
within
the
Advisory Cabinet of your school 3%
Pedagogical Advisory Cabinet of your school
g. Voluntary activities 5%
154 13%
h. Training practice internships within a g. Voluntary activities 151 13%
company or institution 2%
h. Training practice internships within a
i. Other activities (which ones?) 1%
company or institution 50 4%
i. Other activities (which ones?) 15 1%

We note that most educational and


vocational guidance activities consist in fact in
discussions about professions during
counseling classes and other disciplines - 57
%.
This percentage goes down significantly
to 8% for meetings with experts from different
fields, followed by a support in decision
making regarding the high school/ faculty
choice -7% .

We note that most educational and


vocational guidance activities consist in the
testing professional skills and interests in
Pedagogical Advisory Cabinet of your school
practice tests 18%.
This percentage goes down to 16% for
meetings with experts from different domains
of activity followed by a support in decision
making regarding the high school/ faculty
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A 5% is allocated to voluntary activities ,
3% for counseling sessions at CSAP , 2% for
psychological testing to CSAP , 2% for
practical training sessions at a company or
institution , and only 1 % for study visits /
guidance to schools / colleges / companies.
Note that most of the guidance and
counseling activities are conducted in schools ,
in the classroom and the real contact of
students with the labor market is very low.

choice - 14% .
A 13% is allocated to voluntary activities
and Counseling meetings within the
Pedagogical Advisory Cabinet of your school,
11% for debates on professions during the
formroom classes or other school objects, 9%
for Study/ Vocational counseling visits to
differrent highschools/ faculties/ companies,
4% for training practice internships within a
company or institution and only 1 % for other
activities.

Relating to students' responses to the


previous question , there is a major gap
between the expressed needs of pupils on
educational and vocational orientation and the
range of activities offered by the school.
8. Have you participated in vocational counseling and profesional guidance activities in
your school?
a. Yes - 83%
a. Yes 285 - 69%
b. No - 17%
b. No 129 - 31%

Most students surveyed said they had


Most students surveyed said they had
participated in counseling and guidance participated in counseling and guidance
activities during schooling; 17% gave a activities during schooling; 31% gave a
negative answer to this question.
negative answer to this question.
9. In both personal and professional terms, can you specify what kind of impact have the
vocational counseling activities had upon you?
a.
A positive impact - 92%
a. A positive impact 268 - 65%
b.
A negative impact - 3%
a. A negative impact 85 - 20%
c. NS/NR - 5%
b. NS/NR 61- 15%

Most students who participated in the


activities of educational vocational guidance
and counseling that is 92% felt a positive
impact; only 3% said they had a negative
impact on them, and 5% did not answer this
20

Most students who participated in the


activities of educational vocational guidance
and counseling that is 65% felt a positive
impact; 20% said they had a negative impact
on them, and 15% did not answer this

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question.
question.
10. Who offererd the vocational counseling and profesional guidance activities you took
part in?
a. Only the form-teacher/ other teachers of the a. Only the form-teacher/ other teachers of
class 39%
the class 69 16%
b. Only the school counsellor (school
b. Only the school counsellor (school
psychologist) from the Pedagogical Advisory
psychologist) from the Pedagogical Advisory
Cabinet of your school 20%
Cabinet of your school 164 40%
c. Both categories of teachers mentionned
c. Both categories of teachers mentionned
above 35%
above 143 35%
d. None of the categories of teachers above
d. None of the categories of teachers above
mentionned - 6%
mentionned 38 - 9%

39% of students said that counseling


and guidance activities they had attended
were organized by their form teacher /
classroom
teachers,
35%
through
collaboration between form teachers and
counselors, and 20% of the teachers
counselors.
To note that students came from both schools
where there was a CSAP, but also from
schools where there wasn not a CSAP.

40% of students said that counseling and


guidance activities they had attended were
organized by their form teacher / classroom
teachers, 16% through collaboration between
form teachers and counselors, and 35% of the
teachers- counselors.

2.8.Drawing the conclusions and writing the research report


Drawing the conclusions and writing the research report was conducted during FebruaryMarch 2014. Upon completion of this study we confirmed the hypothesis that guidance and
counseling
services
are
seen
as
important
by
most
educational
factors.
Regarding the assumption that the concern for school and professional orientation of students is a
priority only during the final grades for both students, parents and teachers, it appears that the
majority of students stated that counseling and guidance activities are required throughout the
school years, but the focus group analysis, it appears that they are carried out sporadically,
possibly some more in the final years of high scool.

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3.CONCLUSION
The importance of vocational counseling and professional guidance activities for a
successful life
Counseling and guidance activities are regarded as very important by all participants in the
survey, students, parents, teachers, representatives of educational institutions and the local
community. Equally important are the services for the reorientation of high school students in
career
and
parents
guidance
about
their
children's
educational
choices.
The importance of these activities has meaning for students, their parents, and in the long term, for
the entire social community; thus it was expressed the idea that it is necessary to counsel decisionmakers in the socio-educational field since the effectiveness of the professional guidance is
conditioned by the socio-economic context.
Specialists who should conduct the vocational counseling and professional
guidance activities in schools
The vocational counseling and guidance should be conducted by competent specialists
with a solid pedagogical training, as they can conduct various activities including the testing of
students skills, interests and personality (the psychological profile). The specialists must
constantly work with teachers and the students families. Teachers may also carry out this activity
if we consider desirable skills. Teachers can discover their pupils abilities regarding the subject
they teach and can guide them or, where appropriate, refocus students for a different career. It
was produced an ideea referring to the fact that it should no longer be put pressure on the form
teacher, who shpould only be a coolaborator of the trained professionals.
The students perception on this issue is that there should be a close collaboration between all
teachers involved in the educational process
The connection between the vocational counseling and professional guidance and
school subjects
They are related. Teachers must identify the students skills, knowledge, availability to be
capitalized. Each school subject has its own role in forming certain specific capabilities and skills.
Teachers should have a close communication with the professionals.
The opinions of the surveyed students are divided as follows: some believe that school subjects
are important and career counseling support them, while others consider that, on the contrary,
counseling is important andschool subjects support it.
Necesitatea funcionrii Cabinetelor colare de Asisten Psihopedagogic The
need to have functional School Offices for Pedagogical Assistance
All the representatives of the educational institutions consider it appropriate to have
functional School Offices for Pedagogical Assistance in each school unit as they provide
specialized services that can not be filled by the teachers who carriy on teaching activities.
Activities which would connect students to a higher level of education:
- visits organized in high schools/universities so that the students could get aquainted to the
profiles and specializations of the high school / college;
- Flexible partnerships between schools and businesses facilitationg visits to employers,
observation of practical activities, activities such as job shadowing, work experience or part-time
employment;
- Events such "Open Days";
- Presentations conducted by successful professionals in front of children;
- Volunteering;
- documentary films about various fields of activity for the Ministry of Education to be watched
during classes;
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- Educational projects with EU funds;
- Digital information, online educational activities in valuing IT specialists;
- Focus on non-formal education;
Vocational counseling and professional guidance activities conducted in schools:
-We note that most educational and vocational guidance activities consist in fact in discussions
about professions during the counseling classes or other disciplines;
- The percentage diminushes significantly if we refer to meetings with experts from different fields,
followed by a support in making a decision on choosing the high school / college;
- A small percentage is alloted to volunteering, self-knowledge, practical training, internship at a
company or institution and study visits / guidance activities at schools / colleges / companies.
- to note is that most of the guidance and counseling activities are conducted in schools, in the
classroom and the actual contact with the labor market is very low.
The participation to vocational counseling and vocational training activities and their
impact on the students
Most students surveyed said they had participated in counseling and guidance activities
during schooling, and this had a positive impact on them.
Ways of employers involvement in the students counseling and career guidance:
- Firstly, a basic problem is that the number of employers is incresingly diminishing;
- Paid internships;
- Mobility for internships in other countries organized in projects with European funding;
- Projects and partnerships;
- Contracts of employment during schooling. Students have often, unrealistic expectations:
although they are poorly trained, they demand high wages;
- Part-time jobs for students;
- Inviting specialists into the classroom;
- Organized visits to different employers;
- Providing information about the labor market from Romania and other countries
Modaliti de familiarizare a elevilor cu domeniul muncii:
-Using systems of reward - punishment in children's education;
- Using a diverse range of rewards, verbal, emotional, financial, material;
- Volunteering;
- Though non-formal education activities are more attractive, they cannot replace the formal
education; it remains most important for educational and vocational guidance to students;
- Any occupation requires at least a minimum level of general education;
The facilitation of the students access to information regarding the local /regional
labor marketThe involvement of young sters:
-AJFOM-ISJ partnership that would promote job opportunities / statistics about the labor market in
the school environment;
- sites surfing;
Implicarea tinerilor n deciziile locale The involvement of youngsters in local
decisions:
- Educating youth in the spirit of accepting the consequences of their decisions, develop selfconfidence, acceptance of social hierarchies, self-determination;
- Young people need to learn that the possibility of involvement in community decisions clearly
depends on the level of training;

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The needs of school representatives concerning the students vocational counseling
and professional guidance:
- The presence of a professional counselor;
- The training of the teaching staff;
- Rethinking the school curricula;
- More practical training.
Parents needs concerning the students vocational counseling and professional
guidance:
parents lectures on the topic of vocational counseling for their children
The needs of the teaching staff and the school counselor for improving the
vocational counseling and profesional guidance services offered to students within
schools:
-Changing the legal framework so as to allow time for form teachers for administrative issues ,
more counseling classes, thus avoiding the overloading of teacher responsabilities ;
- during university years, future teachers to pay more attention to the psychological and
pedagogical studies ;
- Funding for career counseling, for non -formal education activities, generally the advertisement
for financing activities ;
- Partnerships and projects of social organizations regarding the education field, which to
financially support students' participation in non-formal education activities ;
- Attracting European funds and the existence of more European experts within these projects ;
they should not necessarily be teachers because that can lead to the overloading of teachers
responsabilities ;
- Reducing the number of students in class because school classes overcrowding affects the
quality of education and thus the career guidance activities ;
- Teachers need counseling, in their turn, this requires more counselors and advisers.
- it is needed more negotiation and flexibility in the Romanian education system
The students needs concerning their vocational counseling and professional
guidance:
The students understand that the need for self-knowledge is the most important, followed
by the need to support career decision making, and the need for information on school offers, the
labor market and the need to develop the personal promotion skills.

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4. RECOMMENDATIONS
ROMANIA

TURCIA

The great importance of counseling and


vocational guidance is given by the fact that it
brings multiple educational and social benefits,
that is increases educational motivation,
reduces absenteeism and dropout, increases
academic performance, the results of the
national exams, increases school adjustment
and socio-professional integration and improves
the citizens' satisfaction with life in general.
Starting from the idea that education is
the social system interface, we expect more
support from society in general and the
following recommendations are required:
The support to standardize pedagogical
practices in as many schools as possible;
- Equipping school guidance offices with CSAP
tests ;
- Amending the legislative framework on the
number of students that a school counselor
should work with;
- Thematic meetings with students included in
their curricula ;
- Teachers working with specialists in career
guidance activities;
- Rethinking school curricula for various
subjects so as to enable the prioritization of
training / skills development in relation to the
assimilation of knowledge and career guidance ;
time budget allocation in each subject , material,
educational
and
vocational
guidance
programmes ;
- Rethinking counseling syllabus - excluding
topics that can not be addressed by form
teachers ;
- Provision in educational departments of
classes of formal and non-formal education
respectively optional programs conducted with
groups of 10 students. These options could be
real opportunities for students to choose
subjects / areas they want to study ;
- Organizing lectures with parents about career
counseling for their own children;
- Early onset of counseling and career guidance
activities , since the first years of school and its
intensification iat the secondary level . The
systematic pursuit of these activities is
necessary .
- The development of the children citizenship

General Overview:
- The guidance and psychological counseling
services in Turkish education system
integrates educational,
Vocational and personal/social guidance
services. Vocational guidance services at
schools are thus mainly provided by the
schools
guidance
and
psychological
counseling service. Provincial Guidance and
Research Cetre in cities undertake
coordination responsibilities with respect to
guidance services, including vocational
guidance
services.
The
Provincial
Directorate for National Education Special
Education and Guidance Services Branch,
the Provincial Directorate for National
Education, are the structures that ensure
provision of these services.
As a summary ,Guidance and psychological
counseling services in non-formal education
cover: orientation to a job or career;
preparation for working life; and support for
individual and social development.

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Specific Comments and proposals:


- Ministry of Education employs guidance
teachers as school counselors and defines
their basic role and function as helping the
students to choose a major and job which fit
for them. However, the number of the school
counselors are not enough yet.
-There are considerable new trends/changes
in the perception of career counseling that
must
be
internalise
by
all
schools/responsible teachers such as
Building of career path and planning the
career for person is an old perception but
Creating own career narrative and a
Holistic
life-construction
is
a
new
trend.Making a career construction is on the
agenda now instead of choosing a vocation .
-More and effective school visits can be
organized for schools,workshops and
laboratories can be shown allowing quite
enough time for the students,seminars,

EDUCATION AND CAREER GUIDANCE LETS HELP THE STUDENTS CHOOSE A RIGHT CAREER!
Reference No: 13-PR-04-DJ-RO,TR
A project co-financed by the European Commission
Lifelong Learning Programme - Comenius Regio Partnerships

_______________________________________________________________________________________
and career orientation is important , because
they actually choose what they offer ;
- Assuming the role of education, the parents
together with the state . Parents stressed and
tired negatively influence academic motivation
and therefore career guidance to students.
Counselling parents is as important as advising
students regarding career guidance;
- The media overwhelmingly affects students
and their professional orientation by promoting
excessive artistic professions. Therefore, it
should be established a working partnership
between the Ministry of National Education and
the National Council of Audio -Visual .
- Measures to reduce the gap between urban
and rural areas;
- Activities of educational and professional work
environment, not only at school;
- Avoid overloading the role of the teacher;
- Reducing the number of pupils in classrooms;
- As the teacher training is concerned, we
recommend carrying out personal development
programs for teachers;
- Ensuring consistent funding for the education
system ;
- Teachers and Romanian counselor teachers,
both young and those who are approaching
retirement have great ideas , but they are not
considered or are not implemented in reality.
For each school it is suggested to establish an
initiative group .
- Increasing the motivation of school students in
connection to an increased professional
motivation of teachers which is an essential
condition to achieve a suitable educational and
vocational guidance programme.

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conferences and symposiums can be


organized to explain the relationship of
vocational and technical education to the
workforce
and to employment,visits to vocational and
technical education fairs can be arranged,
the career fields can be introduced with
child/youngster frindly posters, pamphlets
and audio-visual educational tools, that
questionaires can be applied to discover the
vocational tendencies of students.
- Some targeted projects /partnerships on
either vocational counseling and profesional
guidance services or on training,work
placements or short/long term mobilities can
be implemented
byinstitutional/local/regional/national/internati
onal level by making use of Erasmus+ and
smilar programmes.
- All information resources should be made
directly available to individuals on an openaccess, self-service basis in schools or other
institutions related to vocational counseling
and profesional guidance services.
- More meetings with parents should be
arranged by the class teacher and the school
counsellors aiming at enabling parents to
adopt more conscious approaches in helping
their children in career choices.

EDUCATION AND CAREER GUIDANCE LETS HELP THE STUDENTS CHOOSE A RIGHT CAREER!
Reference No: 13-PR-04-DJ-RO,TR
A project co-financed by the European Commission
Lifelong Learning Programme - Comenius Regio Partnerships

_______________________________________________________________________________________

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Agrabian, Mircea, Sociologie general, Ed. Institutul European, Iai, 2003;
Agrabian, M., Millea,V., Parteneriate coal-familie-societate, Ed. Institutul European,
Iai, 2005;
Boudon, R., Besnard, P., Cherkaoui, M., Lecuyer, B.P., Dicionar de Sociologie
Larousse, Ed. Univers enciclopedic, Bucureti 1996;
Cauc, I., Manu, B., Prlea, D., Goran, L., Metodologia cercatrii sociologice, Editura
Fundaiei Romnia de Mine, Bucureti, 2007;
Chelcea, Septimiu, Iniiere n cercetarea sociologic, Ed. Comunicare.ro, Bucureti,
2004;
Culic, Irina, Metode avansate n cercetarea sociologic,Ed. Polirom, Iai, 2004;
Hatos, A., Sociologia educaiei, Ed. Polirom, Iai, 2006;
Ilu , P., Valori, atitudini i comportamente sociale, Ed. Polirom, Iai, 2004;
Krueger, R.A., Casey, M.A.,trad. Popa, C., Metoda focus-grup. Ghid practic pentru
cercetarea aplicat, Ed. Polirom, Iai, 2005;
Marshall, Gordon, Dicionar de Sociologie Oxford, Ed. Univers enciclopedic, Bucureti
2003;
Mihaileascu, I., Sociologie general. Concepte fundamentale i studii de caz, Ed.
Polirom, Iai, 2003;
Popovici, D., Sociologia educaiei, Ed. Institutul European, Iai, 2003;
Usaci, D., Imunodeficiena psihoafectivn i comportamental n raport cu HIV/SIDA,Ed.
Polirom, Iai, 2003;
A Study on the identification of the needs and perceptions of the students attending final
years at school regarding the vocational counseling and vocational guidance services conducted
within the PODRU project CONSEL Students counseling for an easy transition to the labor
market, conducted by SCLMMCO A reserch society in Leadership, Management, Marketing and
organizational culture

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EDUCATION AND CAREER GUIDANCE LETS HELP THE STUDENTS CHOOSE A RIGHT CAREER!
Reference No: 13-PR-04-DJ-RO,TR
A project co-financed by the European Commission
Lifelong Learning Programme - Comenius Regio Partnerships

_______________________________________________________________________________________

APPENDIX 1. INTERVIEW GUIDLINES FOR FOCUS GROUPS


Interview guideline for school managers
1. To which extent do you consider that vocational counseling and profesional guidance
services, offered to pupils within schools, are important for their future success?
2. Who do you think should offer the vocational counseling and profesional guidance
activity within a school?
3. In your vision, what connetion is there between vocational counseling and profesionnal
career education activity and all the school objects taught in schools?
4. In your opinion, what kind of activities could facilitate students` connection to a superior
level of education?
5. As representatives of education institutions, what are your personal needs towards
students` vocational counseling and profesional guidance?
Interview guideline for parents
1. To which extent do you consider that vocational counseling and profesional guidance
services, offered to pupils within schools, are important for their future success?
2. Who do you think should offer the vocational counseling and profesional guidance
activity within a school?
3. In your vision, what connetion is there between vocational counseling and profesionnal
career education activity and all the school objects taught in schools?
4. Please enumerate few suggestions concerning the well-functioning of the vocational
counseling and profesional guidance services offered to students within schools.
5. As a parent, what are your personal needs regarding students` vocational counseling
and profesional guidance offered within schools?
Interview guideline for teachers
1. To which extent do you consider that vocational counseling and profesional guidance
services, offered to pupils within schools, are important for their future success?
2. Who do you think should offer the vocational counseling and profesional guidance
activity within a school?
3. In your vision, what connetion is there between vocational counseling and profesionnal
career education activity and all the school objects taught in schools?
4. In your opinion, what kind of activities could facilitate students` connection to a superior
level of education?
5. As a teacher/ school counsellor what are your personal needs for improving the
vocational counseling and profesional guidance services offered to students within schools?
Inteview guideline for the local community representatives
1. To which extent do you consider that vocational counseling and profesional guidance
services, offered to pupils within schools, are important for their future success?
2. In your opinion, how could the employers contribute to the improvement of the vocational
training and professional guidance activity?
3. What kind of experience does the institution you represent have regarding the vocational
counseling and profesional guidance activity for students?
4. Which ones do you think should be the modalities of involving in/ familiarizing students
to the working field?
5. How do you consider that the students` access to the information regarding the local/
regional labour market could be facilitated?
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EDUCATION AND CAREER GUIDANCE LETS HELP THE STUDENTS CHOOSE A RIGHT CAREER!
Reference No: 13-PR-04-DJ-RO,TR
A project co-financed by the European Commission
Lifelong Learning Programme - Comenius Regio Partnerships

_______________________________________________________________________________________
6. How do you consider that the youngsters could be involved within the local decisions?

APPENDIX 2. STUDENTS QUESTIONNAIRE


Would you please answer the following questions regarding your personal opinion on vocational
counseling and profesionnal guidance services. This questionnaire stays anonimous, and all your
answers will definetely be interpreted in a general context, not individually.
1. In general, do you consider that activities on vocational counseling and profesional guidance
should be held in schools? (only one answer)
a. Yes
b. No
c. Don`t know/ No answer
2. Which of the following sentences best describes your point of view on vocational counseling and
profesionnal guidance activities within schools? (only one answer)
a. Vocational counseling is necessary only for the 8th and 12th grades.
b. Vocational counseling is necessary during all the school years.
c. Vocational counseling is not necessary.
3. To which extent do you consider that vocational counseling and profesionnal guidance activities,
offered to students within schools, are important? (only one answer)
a. To a very small extent
b. To a small extent
c. To a certain extent
d. To a large extent
e. To a very large extent
f. Don`t know/ No answer
4. In your vision, what connetion is there between vocational counseling and profesionnal career
education activity and all the school objects taught in schools? (only one answer)
a. There is no connection between them.
b. School objects are more important, vocational counseling is just a support to them.
c. Vocational counseling is more important, school objects supporting the latter.
5. Who do you think should offer the vocational counseling and profesional guidance activity within
a school? (only one answer)
a. Only the primary teacher/ form-teacher
b. Only the school counsellor (school psychologist)
c. Only the teachers who teach different school objects
d. All categories of teachers above mentionned
e. None of the above mentionned categories
6. In which of the following situations do you consider you need vocational counseling and
professional guidance? Put them in order of your importance. (use 1-4: 1= maximus, 4=minimus)
- To get to know myself better (tests of interest, tests of skills, tests of personality)
- Information about highschools, faculties, professions
- Support when writing a covering letter, a CV or preparing for an interview
- Support when making a decision regarding your future highschool/ faculty/ profession
7. What kind of vocational counseling and professional guidance activities were offered in your
school? (you can choose more than one answer)
a. Debates on professions during the formroom classes or other school objects
b. Meetings with experts from different domains of activity
29

EDUCATION AND CAREER GUIDANCE LETS HELP THE STUDENTS CHOOSE A RIGHT CAREER!
Reference No: 13-PR-04-DJ-RO,TR
A project co-financed by the European Commission
Lifelong Learning Programme - Comenius Regio Partnerships

_______________________________________________________________________________________
c. Testing professional skills and interests in Pedagogical Advisory Cabinet of your school
practice tests
d. Support to making a decision concerning your future highschool/ faculty
e. Study/ Vocational counseling visits to differrent highschools/ faculties/ companies
f. Counseling meetings within the Pedagogical Advisory Cabinet of your school
g. Voluntary activities
h. Training practice internships within a company or institution
i. Other activities (which ones?) ....
8. Have you participated in vocational counseling and profesional guidance activities in your
school? (only one answer)
a. Yes
b. No
9. In both personal and professional terms, can you specify what kind of impact have the
vocational counseling activities had upon you? (only one answer)
a. A postivie impact
b. A negative impact
10. Who offererd the vocational counseling and profesional guidance activities you took part in?
(only one answer)
a. Only the form-teacher/ other teachers of the class
b. Only the school counsellor (school psychologist) from the Pedagogical Advisory Cabinet of
your school
c. Both categories of teachers mentionned above
d. None of the categories of teachers above mentionned
Gender: a. masculine
b. feminine
Class: ............
Social background of the school: a. urban
b. rural
Student`s social background:
a.urban
b. rural

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